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# Signals

- Periodic and Aperiodic - Power and Energy - dBW and dBm - Fourier Series and Fourier Transform - Important Properties and Transform pairs (Table G.5 & G.6) - Amplitude and Phase spectra - Energy spectral density and Power spectral density - Autocorrelation

Periodic and Aperiodic signals Question : Which of the following signal(s) is / are periodic ? e.g. x (t ) = cos(10t ) + 4 sin( 20t )

Question : What are the fundamental period and frequency ? e.g. x (t ) = cos

2 4

2 t + sin 3

2t (t n) 10 n =

e.g.

e.g. e.g.
1

## x(t ) = cos(t ) cos(2t )

x(t ) = e

u (t )
2 3

Power and Energy Question : What is the power, energy and dc for the following signals ? e.g.

Cn = 1 X(f ) T0

## Power in dBW = 10 log10 ( Power in W )

Power in dBm = 10 log10 ( Power in mW ) = 30 + 10 log10 ( Power in W )
Power in dBm = 30 dB + Power in dBW

## x(t ) = 2 cos(150t ) 4 sin( 200t )

e.g.

f = n f0

x(t)

X ( f ) = A sinc ( f)
x(t ) = x(t + T0 ) for all t
Cn = A sinc (nf 0 ) T0

e.g.

x(t ) = (t / 10)
e.g. Power = 10 W
= 10 log10 (10) = 10 dBW

## = 10 4 mW = 10 log10 (10 4 ) = 40 dBm

n = 0, 1, 2, ...

e.g.

x(t ) = (t / 10) *

n=

(t 20)
Question : What is dB ?
5

x(t)

2
0

T0

T0 2

T0 2

T0

t
6

2
F.T.

## Question : Which of the following signal(s) has/have F.S. ? e.g. x(t )

X ( f ) = 4 ( f 4) + 4 ( f + 4) X ( f ) = cos(2f )

1 1

0 t
F.T.

1
1 2

## e.g. x(t ) e.g. x(t ) e.g. x(t )

T0 = 2

3 2

1 2

1 2

3 2

Time domain
y (t ) = x(t ) *
n=

Frequency domain

X ( f ) = e j 2 f
X ( f ) = ( f / 10)

y(t)

2
F.T.

(t nT )

Y( f ) = X ( f ) = 1 T0

1 T0

3 2 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 3 2 2

n=

n f T0 n n X0 f T T0 0
n=

n=

( f 2 n )

T0 = 2

scalar

Time domain

Frequency domain

X(f)
1 0.5

X(f)

## e.g. Calculate the power for x (t ) = 4 cos 100 t

Method 1 : By time-domain integration

e.g.

X ( f ) = sin (2f )

-0.5

-1 -2

## Method 2 : By Parsevals theorem

-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

f (Hz)

f (Hz)

10

11

## Question : Any other methods ?

12

e.g. Given

2
2 0 2

x(t) t

R () =

x (t ) x (t + ) dt

2
2 0 2

x(t) t

R () =

x (t ) x (t + ) dt

2
2 0 2

x(t) t

R () =

x (t ) x (t + ) dt

=4 x(t+4)
6 4 2

=2 x(t+2)

2
2 0

=0 x(t)

2
1 1

t Area = 0
R (4) = 0

t Area = 8
R (2) = 8

t Area = 16
R ( 0 ) = 16

t
2

t
4

13

14

15

2
2 0 2

x(t) t

R () =

x (t ) x (t + ) dt

2
2 0 2

x(t) t

R () =

x (t ) x (t + ) dt

2
2 0 2

x(t) t

R () =

x (t ) x (t + ) dt

= 1 x(t1)
1 1 3

= 3 x(t3)

2
1 3 5

=4 x(t 4)

2
2 4 6

t Area = 12
R ( 1 ) = 12
4

t
R ( 3) = 4

t
R (4) = 0

Area = 4

Area = 0

t
3 1

16

17

18

2
2 0 2

x(t) t (time)

e.g. Given

10 8 6 4

2
2 0

x(t)

2 4 6 8 10

e.g. Given

2
8 6 4 2 0

x(t)

2 4 6 8 10

t T=6

10

R()
16 12 8 4
4 2 0 2 4

T=8

R()
2

R()
8/3 2

4/3 2/3

(time)
12 8 4 0 4 8 12

12

12

## Question : How about power signals ?

19

20

21

Method 4 : By Autocorrelation
F.T.

Systems
R ( 0) =

Bandwidth

## e.g. Find the baseband bandwidth for the following signals.

R ( )

S( f )

R ( ) =

S ( f ) e j 2 f df

S ( f ) df

## - LTI - Bandwidth - Filter - Hilbert transform

x1 (t ) = cos(100t ) + sin(500t )

Given : R()

A 2
2

|X2(f)|

In general,

A cos(t + ) or

A sin( t + )

Power =

f (Hz)
22 23 24

## Question : Difference between ideal and non-ideal filters ? e.g.

Hilbert Transform
j H ( f ) = j sgn( f ) = 0 j f >0 f =0 f <0

f
0

f e.g.

(Hilbert filter)

X(f)
1 2 1 2

H(f)
j 2

Y(f)

## fo fo 0 fo Inverse F.T. fo Inverse F.T. 0

j 2

t
25

cos o t
Question : Application of Hilbert filter ?

sin o t
26