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Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

Nopdanai Ajavakom (NAV)

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV 1

Course Topics

Introduction to Vibration

What is vibration?

Basic concepts of vibration

Modeling

Linearization

Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems

Free Vibration

Undamped

Damped

Measurement and Design Considerations

Course Topics

Forced vibration

Harmonic

Applications

Rotating Unbalance

Base Excitation

Measurement Devices

Forced vibration (more)

Periodic

Impact

Arbitrary

Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Systems

Vibration Isolation and Suppression What is Vibration?

Vibration is the study of repetitive motion of relative to the reference position or frame. Examples: Swinging pendulum

Spring mass system  Where to find vibration?

Car Where to find vibration?

Machine  Where to find vibration?

Structure

The collapse of Tacoma Bridge 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

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Where to find vibration?

Structure

Earthquake  Elementary parts of vibrating systems

A vibrating system is a model consisting of

1. Elastic components

2. Inertia (mass) components

3. Damping components

Elementary parts of vibrating systems

1. Elastic components

store or release potential energy as its displacement increases or decreases.

e.g. linear spring, helical spring, thin rod, elastic torsion bar, cantilever beam etc.   Elementary parts of vibrating systems

1. Elastic components   Elementary parts of vibrating systems

1. Elastic components

Thin rod Torsion bar Elementary parts of vibrating systems

1. Elastic components

Cantilever beam Elementary parts of vibrating systems

1. Elastic components

Combination of springs Parallel

Series    Elementary parts of vibrating systems

1. Elastic components

Proofs

Elementary parts of vibrating systems

2. Inertia components

store or release kinetic energy as velocities

increase or decrease.

e.g., mass (translation), mass moment of inertia (rotation)   Elementary parts of vibrating systems

3. Damping components

Dissipate energy out of system into heat or sound

e.g. shock absorber, damper, material strain  Elementary parts of vibrating systems

3. Damping components

Viscous damper  No damping

With damping Elementary parts of vibrating systems

Summary Linear

Rotational   Elementary parts of vibrating systems

Exercises

Find the equivalent single stiffness representation of

the five-spring system shown in the figure. Modeling of Vibration Systems 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Modeling of Vibration Systems 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Modeling of Vibration Systems 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Modeling of Vibration Systems Wing flutters due to excitation e.g. from wind Simplify the model of the wing as a beam  Continuous system with structural stiffness and damping   Physical model turns into a math model with a governing partial differential equation  Simplify more and make the mass “lumped” together

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

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Modeling of Vibration Systems

A reciprocating engine is mounted on a foundation as shown. The unbalanced forces developed in the engine are transmitted to the frame and the foundation. An elastic pad is placed between the

engine and the foundation block to reduce the transmission of

vibration. Develop the physical model. 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Degree of Freedom (DOF)

Degree of freedom (DOF): The minimum number of independent coordinates required to determine all positions of all parts of a system at any time.

Single degree of freedom systems    2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Degree of Freedom (DOF)

Two degrees of freedom systems  Three degrees of freedom systems   2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Degree of Freedom (DOF)

Infinite degree of freedom systems (continuous systems, distributed systems) By increasing number of degrees of freedom

• More accurate result

• More complexity

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Mathematical Model

Equation of Motion (EOM)

Math modeling to find the equation that describe the motion of our system. In our class, it is a linear second

order differential equations…called “Equation of Motion,”

EOM Procedures (1) Define coordinates and their positive directions Note the degrees of freedom (DOF) Write geometric constraints (2) Write necessary kinematic relations

(3) Draw free-body diagram

(4) Apply Newton’s 2 nd law on the free body (5) Combine all relations

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Mathematical Model

Equation of Motion (EOM)

Example 1: Spring mass system Find the EOM of the mass attached to a spring as shown. 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Equation of Motion (EOM)

Example 2: Hanging mass Find EOM of the system 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Equation of Motion (EOM)

Example 3: Pendulum Find EOM of the system 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Equation of Motion (EOM)

Example 4: 2-DOF system 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Equation of Motion (EOM)

Example 4: 2-DOF system

Ans 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Equation of Motion (EOM)

Example 5: Pulley and mass system 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Linearization

Consider the EOM of a simple pendulum It is non-linear, which is difficult to solve by hand for the exact solution. To make it simpler to solve, we linearize it into this form. where How to linearize?

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Linearization 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Linearization 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Linearization

Example 6: Accelerator 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Linearization

Example 7: Pendulum Mechanism 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV