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2103433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration Nopdanai Ajavakom (NAV) 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV 1

2103433

Introduction to Mechanical

2103433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration Nopdanai Ajavakom (NAV) 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV 1

Vibration

Nopdanai Ajavakom (NAV)

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

2103433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration Nopdanai Ajavakom (NAV) 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV 1

1

Course Topics

Introduction to Vibration

What is vibration?

Basic concepts of vibration

Modeling

Linearization

Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems

Free Vibration

Undamped

Damped

Measurement and Design Considerations

Course Topics

Forced vibration

Harmonic

Applications

Rotating Unbalance

Base Excitation

Measurement Devices

Forced vibration (more)

Periodic

Impact

Arbitrary

Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Systems

Vibration Isolation and Suppression

Road Map

Road Map 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV 4

What is Vibration?

Vibration is the study of repetitive motion of relative to the reference position or frame. Examples:

to the reference position or frame. • Examples: • – Swinging pendulum – Spring mass system

Swinging pendulum

Spring mass system

or frame. • Examples: • – Swinging pendulum – Spring mass system 2103433 Intro to Mech
or frame. • Examples: • – Swinging pendulum – Spring mass system 2103433 Intro to Mech

Where to find vibration?

Car

Where to find vibration? • Car 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV 6

Where to find vibration?

Machine

Where to find vibration? • Machine 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV 7
Where to find vibration? • Machine 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV 7

Where to find vibration?

Structure

The collapse of Tacoma Bridge

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV
2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

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Where to find vibration?

Structure

Earthquake

Where to find vibration? • Structure – Earthquake 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV 9
Where to find vibration? • Structure – Earthquake 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV 9

Elementary parts of vibrating systems

A vibrating system is a model consisting of

1. Elastic components

2. Inertia (mass) components

3. Damping components

Elementary parts of vibrating systems

1. Elastic components

store or release potential energy as its displacement increases or decreases.

e.g. linear spring, helical spring, thin rod, elastic torsion bar, cantilever beam etc.

spring, helical spring, thin rod, elastic torsion bar, cantilever beam etc. 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration,
spring, helical spring, thin rod, elastic torsion bar, cantilever beam etc. 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration,
spring, helical spring, thin rod, elastic torsion bar, cantilever beam etc. 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration,

Elementary parts of vibrating systems

1. Elastic components

Elementary parts of vibrating systems • 1. Elastic components 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV 12
Elementary parts of vibrating systems • 1. Elastic components 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV 12
Elementary parts of vibrating systems • 1. Elastic components 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV 12

Elementary parts of vibrating systems

1. Elastic components

Thin rod

of vibrating systems • 1. Elastic components – Thin rod – Torsion bar 2103433 Intro to

Torsion bar

of vibrating systems • 1. Elastic components – Thin rod – Torsion bar 2103433 Intro to

Elementary parts of vibrating systems

1. Elastic components

Cantilever beam

parts of vibrating systems • 1. Elastic components – Cantilever beam 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration,

Elementary parts of vibrating systems

1. Elastic components

Combination of springs Parallel

Series

systems • 1. Elastic components – Combination of springs Parallel Series 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration,
systems • 1. Elastic components – Combination of springs Parallel Series 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration,
systems • 1. Elastic components – Combination of springs Parallel Series 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration,
systems • 1. Elastic components – Combination of springs Parallel Series 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration,

Elementary parts of vibrating systems

1. Elastic components

Proofs

Elementary parts of vibrating systems

2. Inertia components

store or release kinetic energy as velocities

increase or decrease.

e.g., mass (translation), mass moment of inertia (rotation)

or decrease. – e.g., mass (translation), mass moment of inertia (rotation) 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration,
or decrease. – e.g., mass (translation), mass moment of inertia (rotation) 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration,
or decrease. – e.g., mass (translation), mass moment of inertia (rotation) 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration,

Elementary parts of vibrating systems

3. Damping components

Dissipate energy out of system into heat or sound

e.g. shock absorber, damper, material strain

of system into heat or sound – e.g. shock absorber, damper, material strain 2103433 Intro to
of system into heat or sound – e.g. shock absorber, damper, material strain 2103433 Intro to

Elementary parts of vibrating systems

3. Damping components

Viscous damper

systems • 3. Damping components – Viscous damper • No damping • With damping 2103433 Intro
systems • 3. Damping components – Viscous damper • No damping • With damping 2103433 Intro

No damping

With damping

• 3. Damping components – Viscous damper • No damping • With damping 2103433 Intro to

Elementary parts of vibrating systems

Summary Linear

Rotational

Elementary parts of vibrating systems • Summary Linear Rotational 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV 20
Elementary parts of vibrating systems • Summary Linear Rotational 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV 20
Elementary parts of vibrating systems • Summary Linear Rotational 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV 20

Elementary parts of vibrating systems

Exercises

Find the equivalent single stiffness representation of

the five-spring system shown in the figure.

single stiffness representation of the five-spring system shown in the figure. 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration,

Modeling of Vibration Systems

Modeling of Vibration Systems 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Modeling of Vibration Systems

Modeling of Vibration Systems 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Modeling of Vibration Systems

Modeling of Vibration Systems 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Modeling of Vibration Systems

Modeling of Vibration Systems Wing flutters due to excitation e.g. from wind Simplify the model of

Wing flutters due to excitation e.g. from wind

Systems Wing flutters due to excitation e.g. from wind Simplify the model of the wing as

Simplify the model of the wing as a beamSystems Wing flutters due to excitation e.g. from wind Continuous system with structural stiffness and damping

e.g. from wind Simplify the model of the wing as a beam Continuous system with structural

Continuous system with structural stiffness and damping

beam Continuous system with structural stiffness and damping Physical model turns into a math model with
beam Continuous system with structural stiffness and damping Physical model turns into a math model with
beam Continuous system with structural stiffness and damping Physical model turns into a math model with

Physical model turns into a math model with a governing partial differential equation

a math model with a governing partial differential equation Simplify more and make the mass “lumped”
a math model with a governing partial differential equation Simplify more and make the mass “lumped”

Simplify more and make the mass “lumped” together

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

25

Modeling of Vibration Systems

A reciprocating engine is mounted on a foundation as shown. The unbalanced forces developed in the engine are transmitted to the frame and the foundation. An elastic pad is placed between the

engine and the foundation block to reduce the transmission of

vibration. Develop the physical model.

foundation block to reduce the transmission of vibration. Develop the physical model. 2103433 Intro to Mech

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Degree of Freedom (DOF)

Degree of freedom (DOF): The minimum number of independent coordinates required to determine all positions of all parts of a system at any time.

Single degree of freedom systems

positions of all parts of a system at any time. • Single degree of freedom systems
positions of all parts of a system at any time. • Single degree of freedom systems
positions of all parts of a system at any time. • Single degree of freedom systems
positions of all parts of a system at any time. • Single degree of freedom systems

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Degree of Freedom (DOF)

Two degrees of freedom systems

Degree of Freedom (DOF) • Two degrees of freedom systems • Three degrees of freedom systems
Degree of Freedom (DOF) • Two degrees of freedom systems • Three degrees of freedom systems

Three degrees of freedom systems

(DOF) • Two degrees of freedom systems • Three degrees of freedom systems 2103433 Intro to
(DOF) • Two degrees of freedom systems • Three degrees of freedom systems 2103433 Intro to
(DOF) • Two degrees of freedom systems • Three degrees of freedom systems 2103433 Intro to

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Degree of Freedom (DOF)

Infinite degree of freedom systems (continuous systems, distributed systems)

of freedom systems (continuous systems, distributed systems) By increasing number of degrees of freedom • More

By increasing number of degrees of freedom

• More accurate result

• More complexity

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Mathematical Model

Equation of Motion (EOM)

Math modeling to find the equation that describe the motion of our system. In our class, it is a linear second

order differential equations…called “Equation of Motion,”

EOM Procedures (1) Define coordinates and their positive directions Note the degrees of freedom (DOF) Write geometric constraints (2) Write necessary kinematic relations

(3) Draw free-body diagram

(4) Apply Newton’s 2 nd law on the free body (5) Combine all relations

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Mathematical Model

Equation of Motion (EOM)

Example 1: Spring mass system Find the EOM of the mass attached to a spring as shown.

Example 1: Spring mass system Find the EOM of the mass attached to a spring as

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Equation of Motion (EOM)

Example 2: Hanging mass Find EOM of the system

Equation of Motion (EOM) • Example 2: Hanging mass Find EOM of the system 2103433 Intro

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Equation of Motion (EOM)

Example 3: Pendulum Find EOM of the system

Equation of Motion (EOM) • Example 3: Pendulum Find EOM of the system 2103433 Intro to

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Equation of Motion (EOM)

Example 4: 2-DOF system

Equation of Motion (EOM) • Example 4: 2-DOF system 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Equation of Motion (EOM)

Example 4: 2-DOF system

Ans

Equation of Motion (EOM) • Example 4: 2-DOF system Ans 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Equation of Motion (EOM)

Example 5: Pulley and mass system

Equation of Motion (EOM) • Example 5: Pulley and mass system 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration,

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Linearization

Consider the EOM of a simple pendulum

Linearization Consider the EOM of a simple pendulum It is non-linear, which is difficult to solve

It is non-linear, which is difficult to solve by hand for the exact solution. To make it simpler to solve, we linearize it into this form.

To make it simpler to solve, we linearize it into this form. where How to linearize?

where

To make it simpler to solve, we linearize it into this form. where How to linearize?

How to linearize?

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Linearization

Linearization 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Linearization

Linearization 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Linearization

Example 6: Accelerator

Linearization • Example 6: Accelerator 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

Linearization

Example 7: Pendulum Mechanism

Linearization • Example 7: Pendulum Mechanism 2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV

2103433 Intro to Mech Vibration, NAV