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Boosting Reading Achievement through Effective Instruction in Comprehension

April 24, 2006 PaTTAN Consultants

Agenda

Research Assessment Progress Monitoring Text Structure

Narrative Expository

Instructional Strategies

Prereading During Reading Postreading

Session Objectives
Participants will Be able to understand the research related to reading comprehension Be able to implement appropriate assessment techniques to inform instruction. Be able to determine when to apply narrative and expository text frames to reading material used for instruction. Be able to identify and use appropriate instructional strategies based on student needs.

What Is Reading
Comprehension?

Process of constructing meaning from

written texts, based on a complex coordination of a number of interrelated sources of information

In mechanistic studies, this form of equation appears whenever the rate-controlling step of a reaction is viewed to involve the association of reactant with some quantity that is present in limited but fixed amounts; for example, the association of reactant with enzyme to form a complex, or the association of gaseous reactant with an active site on the catalyst surface.

Snowballing Consequences of
Early Reading Failure

Comprehension Motivation to Read

Vocabulary Letter-Sounds Phonemic Awareness Word Recognition

Exposure to W ords

Proficient Comprehension

3 primary grade comprehension skills literal comprehension sequencing summarizing 3 intermediate comprehension skills making inferences based on relationships comprehending sentences with complicated syntactic structures critically reading passages

Children Who Comprehend Text


Monitor their understanding. Apply strategies to figure out confusing or

conflicting information. Make intertextual or personal connections.

Factors that Influence Comprehension


1. Word Recognition/Reading Fluency 90 words per minute in grade level text No more than 1 error every 10 words 2. Vocabulary 3. Failure to Use Text Structure to Facilitate

Comprehension 4. Failure to Monitor Comprehension


Do I understand what I just read? Teach fix up strategies: reread, read ahead, adjust pace

Research Evidence

Instruction of comprehension strategies

improves reading comprehension of children with a wide range of abilities


(National Reading Panel, 2000)

Many children require explicit word

recognition instruction integrated with rapid processing of words, spelling skills, and strategies to improve comprehension
(Fletcher & Lyon, 1998)

Reading
is

Adapted from Ehren, n.d.

q Re

s ire

Constructing meaning from print

Pri ogic l Phonolnessa ocabulary Aware nt V nes are Aw e s Knowledg icity Ph t on ma o i cs A ut y en c Flu

Comprehension
Requ ires

Is supported by

Req uires

eq R ui s re

Background Knowledge

Text Structure

Strategies

Assessment / Progress Monitoring

Measures of Text Comprehension


Gates-MacGinitie (2002)
Strong Narrative Assessment Procedure

(Strong, 1988)
Woodcock Reading Mastery Test (WRMT-R) Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test (SDRT-4) Woodcock Diagnostic Reading Battery (WDRB) Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy

Skills (DIBELS) Retell Fluency

Curriculum-Based Measurement Oral and Written Retells


Oral retells are appropriate for narrative

passages
Written retells are appropriate for narrative

and expository passages


Oral and written retells are scored

subjectively or objectively

Oral Retells
Select a narrative text at the student's

approximate instructional reading level


Select passages of approximately 200-250

words from the beginning of a chapter or where a major change of time or setting has just occurred within a chapter

Administering Oral Retells


1. Give the student the following directions I want you to read a story for me. When you are finished, I will ask you to tell me everything you can remember about the story, so please read it carefully 2. When the student is finished reading, say: Take a moment to think about what you just read (Pause for 3-5 seconds). Now tell me everything you remember about the story

Administering Oral Retells (contd)


3. When the student has indicated that he/she

cannot remember anything more about the story, you may give a natural prompt Is there anything more you can remember."

Story Retelling Analysis


General Directions: Place a 1 next to each element if the child includes it in his or her presentation. Credit gist as well as obvious recall. Sense of Story Structure Setting a. Begins story with introduction b. Names main character c. Number of other characters, Name d. Actual number of other characters e. Score for other characters (C/D) f. Includes statement about time and place Theme Refers to main character's primary goal or Problem to be solved Plot Episodes a. Number of episodes recalled b. Number of episodes in story c. Score for plot episodes Resolution a. Names problem solution/goal attainment b. Ends Story Sequence Retells story in structured order: Setting Theme, plot, episodes, resolution (score 2 for proper, 1 for partial, 0 for no sequence evident) Highest Possible Score 10 Child's Score

Quantification of Retelling for Narrative Text


Student's name Book/Pages Date:

Directions: Place a 1 next to each item the student includes in his/her retelling. Credit the gist as well as the obvious recall. Place an * if you ask the child questions to aid his/her recall. A Story Sense Theme: Problem: Goal: Title: Setting When and where the story occurs Characters Name the main characters Events/Episodes Initiating event Major events (climax) Sequence Resolution Name problem solution for the goal End story (.5)
(.5)
(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) Main idea or moral of story Difficulty to overcome What the character wants to happen Name of the story (if possible) (1) (1) (1) (1) B Level C D

Story Retelling Analysis


General Directions: Place a 1 next to each element if the child includes it in his or her presentation. Credit gist as well as obvious recall. Sense of Story Structure Setting a. Begins story with introduction b. Names main character c. Number of other characters, Name d. Actual number of other characters e. Score for other characters (C/D) f. Includes statement about time and place Theme Refers to main character's primary goal or Problem to be solved Plot Episodes Number of episodes recalled Number of episodes in story Score for plot episodes Resolution a. Names problem solution/goal attainment b. Ends Story Sequence Retells story in structured order: Setting Theme, plot, episodes, resolution (score 2 for proper, 1 for partial, 0 for no sequence evident) Highest Possible Score 12 Child's Score

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Quantification of Retelling Childs Name: Age: Grade:


Book and Page: Date:
Directions: Place a "1" next to each item the student includes his/her retelling. Credit the
gist as well as the obvious recall. You may ask the child questions to aid their recall.
Narrative Story Retelling Evaluation Comments:
Story Sense:
Theme: The main idea or moral of the story. (1)
Problem: What the difficulty is that needs to overcome. (1)
Goals: What the character wants to happen. (1) Title: The name of the story. (1) Setting: When and where the story occurs. (1) Character: Name the main characters. (1) Events/Episodes: Initiating Event (1) Major events (climax) (1) Sequence: retails in structural order. (1) Resolution: Names problem's solution of goals. (.5) Ends story. (.5) Total Highest Possible Score (10) Evaluative Comments:

Administering Written Retells

Tell students to carefully read the selection Tell students that they will be asked to retell as much information as they can when they finish reading Tell students how their responses will be scored

statement of the problem summary of major points details attention to coherence completeness comprehensibility

Score responses through subjective rating or objective counts

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Maze
Probe Development Select a passage of approximately 250 words Leave the first and last complete sentence intact Delete every seventh word, starting with the second sentence Provide 3 alternate word choices for each blank Make sure one answer is clearly correct List the choices

aligned with the blank below the blank

Maze Selection
What are volcanoes? The word volcano comes from Vulcan. This/Many/Tiny was the name of a Roman bat/god/met. Centuries ago, people believed that Vulcan can/say/was the blacksmith of the gods. A simply/volcano/remain was the chimney of his forge.

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Maze
Administration Procedures Tell students to read the passage Tell students to circle the correct word from among the options Time the student for one minute if elementary or three minutes for secondary

Maze
Scoring Procedures Stop scoring after 3 consecutive incorrect choices Count the number of correct choices

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Scoring Activity

Maze Benchmarks

Grade 4 5 6 Benchmark (end of year) 20 correct replacements per 2.5 minutes 25 correct replacements per 2.5 minutes 30 correct replacements per 2.5 minutes

Fuchs and Fuchs, n.d.

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Instructional Grouping Using Maze


Place students into instructional groups

using the following performance level criteria

90% accuracy or above represents independent or mastery level 60%-70% accuracy represents instructional level below 60% represents the frustration level.

Standard Progress Monitoring Maze Passages


AIMSweb/Edformation

6420 Flying Cloud Drive, Suite 204 Eden Prairie, MN 55344 888-944-1882 http://www.aimsweb.com http://www.edformation.com 30 graded and equivalent passages prepared in maze format for grades 2-8 23 graded and equivalent passages prepared in maze format for grade 1 23 graded and equivalent passages prepared in maze format for pre-primer level 256 total passages

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Standard Progress Monitoring Maze Passages


Edcheckup

WebEdCo 7701 York Avenue South Suite 250 Edina, MN 55435 952-229-1440 http://www.edcheckup.com

138 Maze reading passages for grades 1-6

Standard Progress Monitoring Maze Passages


Vanderbilt University

Diana Phillips Peabody #328 230 Appleton Place Nashville, TN 37203-5721 615-343-4782

30 Maze reading passages for grades 1-8 240 total passages

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Text Structure

Text Structure
. . .students who are knowledgeable about and/or

follow the authors structure in their attempts to recall a text remember more than those who do not. Second, more good than poor readers follow the authors text structure in their attempt to recall a text (Pearson & Fielding, 1991, p. 827).

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Text Structure

Make the structures and processes visible to

students Knowing the patterns provides students with shared understandings (Englert & Mariage, 1991) At youngest levels, narrative comes first, then expository (Gleason, 1995) Apply text structures and self-instructional training to any text structures

Text Genre
Can be classified in many ways, such as Fiction Non-fiction Fairy Tales Fables Plays

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Two Kinds of Organizational Text Structure


Narrative
Expository

Narrative Text Structure Critical Features


Tells about one event Tells a story in chronological order Uses linking words to show passage of time Includes elements of story grammar

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Components of Story Grammar


Setting Character/s Problem Resolution of Conflict

Basic Story Reading Comprehension Strategy


Facilitative Questioning Who is the story about? What is he/she trying to do? What happens when he/she tries to do it? What happens in the end?

Carnine, Silbert, Kameenui, 1997

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Simple Story Grammar Prompt Card


1. When and where does the story take place? 2. Who is the main character or characters? 3. What problem or problems does the main

character have?
4. How did the problem get solved?

Narrative Story Frame


Characters:

Setting Time: Place:

Problem:

Response:

The Outcome:

The Conclusion:

Figure 1. Story grammar map. Note. From Cognitive Strategy Instruction in Writing Project, C.S. Englert, T.E. Raphael, and L.M. Anderson, 1989, East Lansing, MI: Institute for Research on Teaching. Reprinted by permission.

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Advanced Story Reading Comprehension Strategy


Expansion of Facilitative Questioning

Strategy to Categories

Character Information
Conflict or Problem
Attempts/Resolution/Twist
Reactions and Theme

Carnine, Silbert, Kameenui, 1997

Advanced Story Reading Comprehension Strategy


Teaching Procedure Use of note sheet Use of think aloud procedure

Model with transparency Questioning of students at designated points in story Completion of note sheet by teacher and students based on student responses Monitoring of student responses by teacher Correction of responses on note sheet
Carnine, Silbert, Kameenui, 1997

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Notesheet for Advanced Story Reading Comprehension Strategy Student Notesheet Name Story 1. Name the problems or conflict. Date

2. Identify the main characters and tell about them.

3. Tell how the characters try to solve the problem.

4. Tell how the problem is or is not solved.

5. Is there an added twist or complication at the end of the story?

6. What is the theme or the story? What is the author trying to say?

Douglas W. Carnine, Jerry Silbert, Edward J. Kameenui, 1997

Expository/Informational Text Critical Features


Tells about one topic. Begins with a topic sentence. Tells more about the topic with factual

details. Includes information related to the topic in every sentence.

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Common Expository Text Structures


Descriptive Enumerative Cause/Effect Compare/Contrast Problem/Solution Reaction

Organizational Frames

Represent key ideas in expository text

visually Used to review and reinforce specific content area material Involve students in writing about content area material

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Organizational Frame Descriptive


Most common frame Uses main idea and supporting detail

pattern

Rooney, 1998

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Clouds are ______________________________. Sometimes I see ____________________ when I Look at clouds. I like clouds because _________ _______________________________________.

Loch Ness Monster


The Loch Ness Monster may be the most famous sea serpent in the world. It is described as being 40 to 60 feet long with a head about the size of a horses head. Its thin neck is about six feet long and is attached to a fat body with an eight foot long tail. The description is similar to a dinosaur known as the plesiosaurus. Scientists think that Nessie is a plesiosaurus who has survived since prehistoric times.
Rooney, 1998

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Loch Ness

Rooney, 1998

Head the size of a horses head

Sea serpent 40 60 feet long

Fat body

Loch Ness Monster

Thin neck

Plesiosaurus

8 foot tail

Rooney, 1998

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Organizational Frame Enumerative


Uses signal words first second third next last finally

Seidenberg, 1989

Many things must be done before a plane can take off from an airport. First, the mechanics check each plane. Next, passengers board the plane. Then the pilot checks the planes instruments and the people in the control tower make sure the runways are clear. Finally, its time to takeoff.

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Since early times people have sent messages and packages to one another. Today things are mailed at a post office. First, __________________________ _______________________________. Next, ____________________________________. Finally,______________________________ ___________________________. After this, ___________________________________.

Chocolate is made from cacao tree beans. After the beans are unloaded at the factory,____________________________________ ____.Then,_________________________________ _______________________.Next,______________ _____________________________. Finally,______ __________________________________________ After this, _________________________________ _________________________________________.

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Bats are unusual animals for several reasons, First,_____________________________________ Second,__________________________________ Third,____________________________________ Finally,___________________________________ As you can see, bats are unique in the animal word.
Illustrate with a picture of what you consider to be the most unusual thing about the bat.
Cudd & Roberts, 1999

(Based on the passage about how cloth is made.)


Making cloth is an interesting process.
The first part of the process is

The next step in the process is


The third step of the process is

It is interesting to learn how cloth is made.

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Organizational Frame Cause/Effect


Uses signal words so so that because of as a result of since in order to

Determining Text Frame for Cause and Effect


Certain things result from certain conditions What is it that happened? What causes it to happen? What are the important elements or factors that cause this effect? How do these factors or elements interrelate? Will this result always happen from these causes? Why or why not? How will the result change if the elements or factors are different?
Buehl, 2001

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Cause

Effects

Pause here and read the passage on Volcanoes in your Activities Packet.

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Volcanoes
When volcanoes erupt they usually cause a great deal of damage to the land around them. Often the damage has a great impact on people, animals, and buildings. The ash from a volcano can suffocate animals and people in moments. When the ash falls on streams it can clog their flow and kill all the fish. The ash also can pile so high and be so heavy that it collapses buildings. However, volcanoes also cause good along with the damage. The volcanic ash enriches the soil and acts as a fertilizer when it is plowed into the earth. Volcanic eruptions help rebuild and replenish the earth that weather and erosion wear away. So in spite of their hazards, volcanoes are beneficial and leave a positive impact on the earth.
(Stephens, 2004)

Cause

Effects
ash suffocates animals and people ash clogs streams

Volcanoes

ash kills fish ash makes buildings collapse ash enriches the soil ash rebuilds the earth

(Stephens, 2004)

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Organizational Frame Compare/Contrast


Uses signal words different from same as, alike similar to resembles compared to unlike

Determining Text Frame for Compare and Contrast


Certain things are similar or different What is being compared or contrasted? What categories of characteristics or attributes are used to compare and contrast these things? How are the things alike and different? How are the things not alike or different? What are the most important qualities or attributes that make them similar or different? What can we conclude about these things?
Buehl, 2001

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Differences

Sea Turtles Size Habitat Food Appearance Habits Other

Land Turtles

Cudd and Roberts, 1989

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Organizational Frame Problem/Solution


Uses signal words a problem is a solution is the problem is solved by

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Determining Text Frame for Problem/Solution

A problem needs solving


What is the problem? Who has the problem? What is causing the problem? What are the effects of the problem? Who is trying to solve the problem? What solutions are recommended or attempted? What results from these solutions? Is the problem solved? Do any new problems develop because of the solutions?
Buehl, 2001

PROBLEM/SOLUTION

Questions
What is the problem?

Answers

What are the effects?

What are the causes?

What are the solutions?

Raymond C. Jones rjones@readingquest.org

Reading Quest http://www.readingquest.org

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History Change Frame

Who? (Groups of people)


c fe ef ts on
ta ke ac ti o n

Problems?
What problems did
they face?

ca us

Solutions? (What did they do about problem?)

Changes? (How were things changing?)

Adapted from Buehl, 1995

Organizational Frame Reaction


Allows students to react to what they have

learned about a particular topic Uses signal words:

before learning about I learned that a fascinating thing was I would like to learn more about

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Reaction Frame

What Do You
Know you know? Think you know? Think you will learn? Know you learned?

Adapted from Palincsar et al., 1986

Text Comprehension Instruction


Text comprehension can be improved by

instruction that helps readers use specific comprehension strategies.


Effective comprehension strategy

instruction is explicit, or direct.

Put Reading First, pp. 49, 53

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Helping Students Develop Effective Reading Strategies


Evaluate the curriculum Teach prereading strategies Teach active reading strategies Teach posttreading strategies

Planning for Instruction

Determine whether the reading level of

selected material is appropriate Use material that is well structured and has appropriate, understandable language Begin strategy instruction with small segments of text Decide which student will need specific instruction in specific strategies

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Pre-Reading Strategies

Activating Prior Knowledge

Preview the text Ask the following questions What is this text about? What do I know about this topic? Make predictions What is this going to tell me that I dont already know?

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Student Worksheet for Previewing Chapter


Directions: As you warm up with your partner, fill in the blanks. Step 1: Read the title of the chapter and the introduction What is the title of this chapter?
Does this chapter have an introduction?
Based on the title and the introduction, what is this chapter about?

Step 2: Read the headings and subheadings. List the headings and subheadings you found in this chapter.

Step 3: Read the chapter summary. Does this chapter have a summary?
Based on the summary, what are two things that you will learn in this chapter?

Step 4: Read the questions at the end of the chapter. Does this chapter have questions at the end?

Based on the questions, what are the two things that you will learn in this chapter?

Step 5: Tell yourself. "This chapter will talk about" Read this sentence. This chapter will talk about

Carnine, Silbert, Kameenui, 1995

Activating Prior Knowledge


Use an advance organizer or anticipation

guide

Have students respond to statements that challenge or support their prior knowledge about key concepts in the content material Evaluate responses after reading content material Correct errors

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ANTICIPATION GUIDE FOR SCIENCE Acid Rain


Directions: Read the following statements concerning problems associated with acid rain. Put a check next to each statement with which you agree. Be prepared to support your views about each statement by thinking about what you know about acid rain and its effects. You will be sharing this information with other members of your group when you discuss the following six statements. _____1. Acid rain kills fish. _____2. The major cause of acid rain is fuel emissions from automobiles. _____3. Stopping acid rain will cause some people to lose their jobs. _____4. Acid rain problems are not yet serious in our region of the United States. _____5. Acid rain is made up of sulfur oxides. _____6. If acid rain is not controlled, we will experience a major environmental disaster.
Buehl, 1995

ANTICIPATION GUIDE FOR LITERATURE


Call Of The Wild
Directions: Read the following statements about the book Call of the Wild. Compare your opinions about these statements with those of the author, Jack London. Check the column labeled You for those statements with which you agree. Be prepared to support your opinions with examples. Check the column labeled Jack London for those statements with which you feel he would agree. Jack You London _____ _____ 1. Only the strong survive in this world. _____ _____ 2. People must live in harmony with their environment. _____ _____ 3. Greed makes people cruel. _____ _____ 4. The primitive instinct exists in all people. _____ _____ 5. Much of what happens to people is the result of fate. _____ _____ 6. People will adapt to their surroundings and survive.
(Developed by Sarah Conroy, 1993, Madison East High School, Madison, WI, USA.)

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KWL
What do you What do you think you What did you

Know?

Will learn?

Learn?

Reading Quest http://www.readingquest.org

2000-2001

Raymond C. Jones rjones@readingquest.org

Big Blue Whale K-W-L Chart

Know
Whales are mammals. Whales live in the sea. Whales can swim. Whales are the biggest mammals in the ocean. Whales can make strange sounds that are scary. Whales move their tails in the water and make a big splash.

Want to learn
How much do whales weigh?
How do whales breathe?
What do whales eat?
Where do whales live?
Do whales lay eggs?
Do whales eat people?
How do whales talk to each
other?

Learned
Blue whales are the biggest creatures on earth. Whales can weight 150 tons. Whales breathe air through blow-holes on top of their heads. Blue whales eat krill with help from their baleen plates. Whales have mouth with baleen plates for eating. Whales have springy, slippery skin that is smooth to touch. Whales have eyes and ears. Whales live at the North and South Poles and the Equator.

Author unknown

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A - B- C Brainstorming
Topic

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M

A - B- C Brainstorming
Topic World War II

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M

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A - B- C Brainstorming
Topic World War II

A B C D E F G H I J K L M

Axis, Allies, Aircraft, A-Bomb Belgium Churchill, Concentration Camps D-Day Encampments France, Anne Frank Germany, Goebels Hitler, Holocaust Invasion of Normandy Japan

Warm Up Strategy

Beginning (title and introduction)

Based on the title, this chapter will be about_____. Turn headings and subheadings into questions Based on the summary and questions, what are two things you will learn about in this chapter?

Middle (headings and subheadings)

End (summary and questions)

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Effective Reading Strategies

Goal Setting What will I be asked to do with the

information in this reading? Use answer to write a goal statement

To _____the _____.
(verb) (noun)

Translate goal into action statement While I read, I need to pay attention to the_____so that I can_____.
(noun) (verb)

Goal Setting Practice

What will I be asked to do with the

information in this reading? Use answer to write a goal statement

To write the names of the planets from largest to smallest.

Translate goal into action statement While I read, I need to pay attention to the size of the planets so that I can write them from largest to smallest .

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Goal Setting Activity


Assignment:
Read pages 35 to 48 in your science book.
Write a list of the characteristics of fish.
Now:
Complete the goal setting process by writing a goal statement (To___the___) Translate goal into action statement (While I read, I need to pay attention to the___so that I can ___.)

Goal Setting Activity

Goal Statement list the characteristics of fish . To Action Statement While I read, I need to pay attention to the characteristics of fish so that I can remember them.

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Getting Ready to Read: Prompt Card


Why am I reading this text? How should my purpose affect the way I read the text? What does this text appear to be about? What are some of the major topics covered in the text? How is the text organized? What do I already know or think I know about this topic? I think this text is going to be about
Neufeld, 2005

Vocabulary

One of the most critical pre-reading activities Limited to words that are crucial to understanding of the text Words should be taught through a direct instruction format

Model Guided practice, guided practice, guided practice Independent practice

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During Reading Strategies

During Reading Strategies


Strategic Readers: Monitor reading Use fix-up strategies Summarize Distinguish main idea from supporting details Distinguish supporting details from the text from less significant information
Draw inferences
Ask questions
Reflect on the text

Based upon research from Michael Pressley

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During Reading Strategy Instruction


How to Teach Students to Use Strategies Pick 4-5 strategies that will impact on students comprehension (Pikulski, 1998) Teach strategies explicitly and systematically Allow students multiple opportunities for practice Provide immediate feedback to students when using the strategies

Woodruff, 2004

Regulating Comprehension

Reader makes sure he is sticking to his plan

to reach his reading goal Reader monitors to see if he understands text Reader checks to see if he is making progress toward his reading goal

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Read Cover Recite Check Strategy


R Read C Cover R Recite C - Check

Visualization Strategy
Read the text Picture the information in your mind Plan how to draw it on paper Draw and label the picture on paper

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Visualization Activity
Read the selection about the granods Draw and label a picture showing what it

looks like Use the paper provided

Draw and Label Picture

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Peer Assisted Learning Strategy


Paragraph Shrinking Name the who or what Tell the most important details about the who or what Say the main idea in 10 words or less

Fuchs, Mathes, Fuchs, n.d.

Peer Assisted Learning Strategy


Procedure Students are assigned to pairs Teacher sets timer for five minutes First student reads aloud for five minutes, summarizing each paragraph by

Naming the most important who or what Telling the most important details about the who or what Saying the main idea in 10 words or less

Fuchs, Mathes, Fuchs, n.d

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Peer Assisted Learning Strategy


Procedure (contd) Teacher tells student to switch roles Teacher sets timer for five minutes Second student reads aloud for five minutes, summarizing each paragraph by

Naming the most important who or what Telling the most important details about the who or what Saying the main idea in 10 words or less

Fuchs, Mathes, Fuchs, n.d.

Peer Assisted Learning Strategy


Point Procedure for Paragraph Shrinking One point for figuring out most important who or what One point for figuring out most important thing about who or what One point for telling main idea in 10 words or less

Fuchs, Mathes, Fuchs, n.d.

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Peer Assisted Learning Strategy


Prediction Relay Predict

What do you predict will happen next? Student reads half a page Did the prediction come true?

Read

Check

Fuchs, Mathes, Fuchs, n.d.

Peer Assisted Learning Strategy


Procedure for Prediction Relay Teacher sets timer for five minutes First student reads half a page Second student asks him to predict what will happen in the next half page First student makes a prediction First student reads the next half page First student checks his prediction

Fuchs, Mathes, Fuchs, n.d.

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Peer Assisted Learning Strategy


Procedure for Prediction Relay (contd)

Second student asks him to predict what will happen in the next half page First student continues the process until timer goes off Teacher says, Time to switch roles. Teacher sets timer for five minutes Second student becomes reader and continues the process until the timer goes off
Fuchs, Mathes, Fuchs

Peer Assisted Learning Strategy


Point Procedure for Prediction Relay

Students earn points each time they correctly


Make a predictionone point Reads half a pageone point Checks predictionone point

Fuchs, Mathes, Fuchs

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Click and Clunk


Click:

When you understand what you read, everything clicks along smoothly.

Clunk:

When you dont understand what you read, clunk, you stop. When you get a clunk, must use the fix-up strategies to try to figure out what the word means.

Click and Clunk


Fix-Up Strategies

Reread the sentence with the clunk and look for key ideas to help you understand the word. Think about what makes sense. Reread the sentences before and after the clunk, looking for clues. Look for a prefix or suffix in the word that might help. Break apart the word and look for smaller words that you know.

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POSSE Strategy
Using a strategic processing graphic

organizer in combination with the following set of strategies


Ppredicting ideas Oorganizing predicted ideas and background knowledge Ssearching for the text structure Ssummarizing the main ideas Eevaluating comprehension

Questioning Strategies
Asking Questions Circle of Questions SQ3R Question/Answer/ Relationships (QAR) Generating Questions

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Asking Questions
Guidelines for asking questions

Avoid low level single correct answer questions Ask lots of speculative and predictive questions Wait 3-5 seconds after asking a question, allowing students to process the question and formulate a response

Conley, 1987

Circle of Questions

Students read narrative or expository text Students work in small groups Teacher identifies topic Students brainstorm questions about the topic

for three minutes Teacher draws a circle on chalkboard/chart paper/transparency and writes the topic in the circle Students share their questions and teacher records them on spokes around the circle
Sampson, Sampson, & Linek, 1994

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Circle of Questions (contd)

Questions are examined by the whole class

and placed in categories Groups select categories in which to become expert Students use the questions that are in their category and use the text to answer them Answers are recorded by students Groups share their answers

Sampson, Sampson, & Linek, 1994

Pennsylvania

Rooney, 1998

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W re hat so ar ur e ce th s? e n at ur al

How large is our sta

te?

Pennsylvania
W

ho

is

s ti ha

e th

s? m ? ea t ike ts kl or oo sp gl e th fla e the ar at es h o W td ha W

th e

e tat rS s ou ive al are ntat ? ion ho ese ate at W pr N en e Re the s th re s? of t a rk ha dma W n La

What is the popula ho of tion? th ar e e Ho ou us r S e ta of te Re Re pr pr es es en en ta ta tiv tiv es es ? Rooney, 1998

Categories

go ve rn or ?

W n he did ec it b

w Ho y an m te sta s? rk pa

h ap gr po to

y?

e om a ? te sta

What states bo rder it?

the are s? at citie Wh gest lar

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Categories
Geography Government Recreation Economy History

Categories

Geography Government
What is the topography? What states border it? What are the largest cities? Who is the Governor? Who are the State representatives to the Senate? Who are the State representatives to the House of Representatives?

Recreation

Economy History
When did it become a state? What are the National landmarks?

How many state What are the parks? natural resources? What are the sports teams? What is the population?

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SQ3R
S- Survey Q- Question R- Read R- Recite R- Review

Question/Answer/Relationships (QAR)

Question Answering Strategies:

Right There answer is in the text; answer is usually within a single sentence Think and Search answer is in the text, but answer may be found in more than one sentence or paragraph On My Own answer is not in the text, and answer is generated from background knowledge Writer and Me- answer is not in the text, but reader requires the information provided in text to answer the question

Raphael, 1984

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QAR Teaching Procedure


Teacher provides the questions and the answers to the

questions. Students provide the QAR label and the reason why the label is appropriate
Teacher provides the questions. Students provide the

answers, the QAR label, and the reason why the label is appropriate
Students develop and ask the questions, answer the

questions, supply the QAR label, and the reason why the label is appropriate

Dimino, 2000

QAR Teaching Procedure (contd)


Teacher provides the questions, the answers to the

questions, the QAR label and the reason why the label is appropriate
Teacher provides the questions, the answers to the

questions, the QAR label and the students give the reason why the label is appropriate

Dimino, 2000

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QAR Prompt Sheet


Types of QAR: Right there Think and search Author and you On your own
QAR Question

QAR Activity
Types of QAR: Right there Think and search Author and you On your own
QAR Question Do you know someone who sets out to solve his problems like Mike? Explain yes or no. What grade was Mike starting in the Fall? Who were all the people who helped Mike get his bike? Whats a problem youve had to solve?

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QAR Activity
Types of QAR: Right there Think and search Author and you On your own
QAR Question

Author and you Right there

Do you know someone who sets out to solve his problems like Mike? Explain yes or no. What grade was Mike starting in the Fall?

Think and Search Who were all the people who helped Mike get his bike? On your own Whats a problem youve had to solve?

Generating Questions
Strategies for Teaching Students the

Cognitive Strategy of Asking Questions


Procedural Prompts List of Question Stems Think Alouds Anticipate Potential Difficulties Regulate the Difficulty of Material

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Reciprocal Teaching Strategy


Clarifying Generating questions Predicting Summarizing

Reciprocal Teaching Strategy


Stages of Reciprocal Teaching Teacher Demonstration Guided Practice with Corrective Feedback Teacher Student Groups Student Groups Student Self Regulation with Corrective Feedback

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During and After Reading Strategy


Consider text organization Summarize text Check understanding Use fix-up strategies

Neufeld, 2005

Post-Reading Strategies

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Features of Post-Reading Strategies

Check purpose, goals, and predictions Return to text selectively Connect ideas to previous knowledge Summarize meaning Extend reading through discussion and

writing

Purpose of Summarization
To understand the main idea To understand the supporting details To condense information for remembering

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Summarization Strategy

Delete trivial information Delete redundant information Use single category label to replace list of

smaller items/actions Summarize paragraphsselect topic sentences or, if there are none, invent them
Stewart & Tei, 1983; Tei & Stewart, 1985

Summarization Strategy

Read the text material Create a semantic map Turn the map into a formal outline Use the major headings of the outline to

write a summary

Marshall, 1988

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Summarization Checklist
Used by students to judge qualities of

summaries Used by teachers to monitor student progress

3-2-1 Strategy

Allows students to summarize key ideas in

text Allows students to provide information on interesting ideas in text Allows students to ask question that they have about the text

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3-2-1 Strategy
3 things you learned 2 interesting things you discovered 1 question that you still have

Paraphrasing Strategy: RAP

Read a paragraph Ask yourself, What were the main ideas

and details of this paragraph? Put the main idea and details in your ow words.

Schumaker, Denton, and Deshler, 1984

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Paraphrasing Strategy: RAP


Rules for finding main idea Look for it in the first sentence of the paragraph Look for repetitions of the same word or words in the whole paragraph

Paraphrasing Strategy: RAP


Criteria for generating paraphrase Must contain a complete thought and have a subject and verb Must be accurate Must make sense Must contain useful information Must be in your own words Only one general statement per paragraph is allowed

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Conclusions

Well presented physical text facilitates

reading comprehension Text structure and student awareness of text structure are highly related to reading comprehension Explicit instruction in the physical presentation of text facilitates reading comprehension Explicit instruction of text structure facilitates reading comprehension

Resources
Fuchs, D., Mathes, P. G., & Fuchs, L. S. (n.d.). Peer-

Assisted Learning Strategies: Reading Methods for Grades 2-6. Washington, DC: Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
Rooney, K. (1998). Independent Strategies for Efficient

Study. Richmond, VA: Educational Enterprises, Inc.


Rosenshine, B. (1996). Advances in research on

instruction. In J. W. Lloyd, E. J. Kameanui, & D. Chard (Eds.), Issues in educating students with disabilities (pp. 197-221). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. [Online]. Available: http://epaa.asu.edu/barak.barak.html.

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Resources
Buehl, D. ((2001). Classroom Strategies for Interactive

Learning (2nd ed.). International Reading Association, Inc.


Carnine, D. W., Silbert, J., & Kameenui, E. J. (1997).

Direct instruction reading (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Websites
www.interventioncentral.org www.nationalreadingpanel.org www.pattan.k12.pa.us www.readingquest.org

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