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Psych = mind/mental Pathology = study o illness :: study of mental illness::


reflection in speech disorder o thinking can be recognized by : speech writing action behavior
form -association o idea -amount o idea

Thinking :


disorder o thinking

stream - amount & speed overvalued ideas content -nature o idea obsessive & compulsive sympt intrusive thought

Disorder o form o thought Thoughts accompanying spoken words move quickly from 1 topic to another Understandable links still present but x always in logical forms Link through : Rhyme Puns Distraction Mania Loosening o Loss o norm struc thinking association Conversation : Incoherent Wooly Difficult to understand Irrelevant to main theme Form : Word salad (xtreme form) Verbigeration Senseless repeating word/phrase Knight move/derailment Transition topic-topic w/out logical connection Schizo Perseveration Persistent & inappropriate repetition o same sequence o thought either in speech/action Disorder o stream o thought Pressure o Unsually rapid, abundant, varied thought thought Px > talkative Mania & schizo Poverty o Unsually slow, few, unvaried thought thought Severe depressive disorder & schizo Thought Experience in which mind blocking suddenly(abrupt & complete) empty o thoughts Schizo Flight o ideas Over valued ideas : Isolated, preoccupying, & strongly held belief that dominates a persons life & may affect his/her action but which (unlike a delusion) has been derived through normal mental process In btwn normal idea & delusional idea
normal idea delusion

over valued idea

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Delusion False belief based on incorrect inference about xternal reality that is firmly sustained despite what constitute incontrovertible & obvious proof o evidence to d contrary

possesion o thought

delusion o thought insertion

delusion o thought withdrawal

delusion o thought broadcasting

some o px thought hv been inserted by outside agency 20

some o their thought hv been taken away


some o their thought r known to other ppl through telepathy, radio, or some other unsual way

occur suddenly w/out any other abnorm mental event leadint to it

arise from some prev abnorm idea/xperience : -hallucination -mood -another delusion
ideas that ppl/org. try to inflict harm on px, damage his reputatuion or make him insane -schizo, organic state, severe dprssive idea that object/events/action o other ppl hv special significant on px -schizo beliefs of exaggerated self importance -schizo, mania beliefs that person hv done something sinful & shmaeful -severe dprssve disorder belief that person's career finished that he is about to die or has x money or that world is doomed severe depressive disorder false belief about disease -elderly, schizo, depressive disorder lead to dangerously aggresive behaviour towards person who is believed to b unfaithful beliefs that personal actions, impulses, thoughts r controlled by an outside agency -schizo in schizo px

Obsession Recurrent & persistent thought, impulses, images that enter mind despite efforts to exclude them

type ~ symptoms


~ rumination repeated sequencs o such thoughts

~ doubt recurrent uncertainties about prev action

~ thought

~ impulse

~ phobia obssesional thought w fearful content or to obssesional impulse that arouse anxiety


repeated, itrusive words/phrase & thought about distressing occurences

theme - dirt & contamination -aggresive action -orderliness - dz - sex - religion

grandiose & expansive

urge to carry out action that r usually aggresive, dangerous, or socially dangerous px recognize its irrational & x wish to carry it out

guilt & worthlessns


Compulsions Repeated, stereotyped & seemingly purposeful actions that person feels compelled to carry out but resists, recognizing that they r irrational
checking ritual cleaning ritual theme o compulsion counting ritual dressing ritual





possesion o thought

Obsessive with or w/out compulsion : 1. OCD 2. Depression 3. Schizophrenia 4. Organic disorder Intrusive thought Appear spontaneously May provoke anxiety, depression, anger or sexual arousal Important features : Post-traumatic stress disorder Anxiety Depressive disorder Disorders o sexual preferences

thought o broadcasting

in schizo px delusion that person hv some physical defect or general meds cond delusions that another person usually higher status is in love w individual



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Perception Process o becoming aware of what is presented through sense o organs Imagery Experience originating w/in d mind that usually lack o sense o reality that is part o perception

intensity o ~ level o sensory stimulation quality o ~ abnorm o perception illusions misperception o xternal stimulus hallucinations there is state o intense emotion attention is x focused on sensory modality level o consciousns

Hallucination Perception experienced in absence o external stimulus to corresponding sense organ Hv 2 qualities (must hv both) : 1. Experienced as true perception 2. Seems to come from outside o head If only hv 1 qualities = pseudohallucinations : Hypnagogic hallucinations when falling asleep Hypnopompic hallucinations when waking from sleep
2nd person hallucination auditory -experienced as voices, noises, music 3rd person hallucination in schizo px thought echo visual experienced as flashes o light or complex image


in organic mental disorder, severe mood disorder, schizo

smell & taste

schizo px experienced as superficial sensation o being touched, pricked or strangled or just sensation skin experienced as feelings o viscera being pulled or distended or as sexual stimulation


deep sensation

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