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INDUSTRIAL INTERNSHIP PROGRAM 2010 LIST OF FIGURES Figure No

1.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.1.7 2.1.8 2.1.9 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.4.1 2.5.1 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4

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Title
Sections in Production Department (SPD) Good Well Test Result 1 Good Well Test Result 2 Bad Well Test Result 1 Bad Well Test Result 2 PCSB Overall Production Coding Structure Idle Well Management Screenshot of RTIS Screenshot of PIMS Screenshot of ODC Gas Balancing Illustration Crude Oil Density in 2009 Composition of C6+ in the Oil for the Year 2009 Composition of C1 in the Gas for the Year 2009 Shutdown Timeline for Samarang Total Shutdown 2010 Example of Part of the Scorecard Timeline of STPF Generation Gas Export Layout to Labuan Gas Terminal (LGAST) Example of Daily Operation Highlight for Oil Production Red- iron oxide on the pipe Fungal growth on the surface of pipeline Pressure and Temperature on stream8, stream7, and stream9 Amount of Heat Required to Heat the Gas Back to Ambient Temperature

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LIST OF TABLES Table No


2.2.1 2.2.2 2.3.1 2.6.1

Title
RF for SMP-A, SMP-B and SMP-C RF for Samarang Objectives of TARA, TAScO, and IPOP Comparison of Electric Steam Boiler and Pipe Coating

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1.0

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INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview of PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd Sabah Operation


PETRONAS is a business entity and petroleum is its core business. Its vision is to be A leading Oil and Gas Multinational of Choice. PETRONAS Carigali sdn. Bhd. (PCSB) is wholly owned subsidiary of PETRONAS. It was exploration and the production operating arm of the PETRONAS. PCSB incorporated on 11 May, 1978, Carigali was formed to augment the exploration and development activities of the foreign oil companies and through its participation, to enhance the pace of development of the upstream sector in the country. Nowadays, PCSB has grown to become a full-fledged filed operator and is one of several companies currently involved in crude oil and gas production in Malaysia, by having a place alongside with multinationals in the countrys petroleum sector, Carigali is expanding beyond the shores of Malaysia toward attaining vision to be A Multinational Exploration and Production (E&P) Company of Choice Creating Value through Continuous Improvement and Growth. Since the first venture was establish in 1990, Carigali has expanded to 25 countries. In Malaysia, Carigali operates in three regions, namely Peninsular Malaysia Operation (PMO), Sarawak Operation (SKO) and Sabah Operations (SBO). SBO is one of the three divisions in Carigali formed to operate oil and gas fields in the coast of Sabah. The base of operation is located at Menara PETRONAS, Kota Kinabalu. In line with Carigalis vision, SBO is one of the pillars that support the vision and responsible to maximize venture profitable and reserves recovery while observing good oils fields, business, and HSE practices. SBO contributes towards Carigalis business objectives, simultaneously helps to

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develop Carigali into a fully competent oil and gas company. Nevertheless, as a national oil and gas company, nation and social obligations will always be Carigalis priority. SBO started in early 1987, where for the first time SBO rented small office space at Kompleks Karamunsing, Kota Kinabalu as the base for its operation in Sabah water. Eventually due to the rapid expansion occurred in the operating starting from 1992, it urged the company to rent larger office at Center Point, Kota Kinabalu. Finally, SBO was poised for growth and sustenance from 1997 with its own office in Menara PETRONAS, Kota Kinabalu. However in March 2009, due to the increase of manpower and rapid expansion of the operation, Menara PETRONAS Kota Kinabalu no longer fitted, urging the company to move two departments to Kompleks Karamunsing Office level 12 which are Maintenance Engineering (SME) department and Well Integrity Engineering (SWE) department. SBO started to grow with a sequence of operatorship handover of three existing oil and gas fields and one gas terminal; namely Tembungo from ESSO Production Malaysia Incorporated (EPMI) in 1986, Samarang, Erb West and Labuan Gas Terminal from Sabah Shell Petroleum Companies (SSPC) in 1995, 1996, and 1995 respectively. Dynamic expansion in SBO continued with the commissioning of two new gas production platforms, which were Samarang Kechil in 2002 and Kinarut in 2003. Another new gas terminal, Sabah Gas Terminal was built in 1996 and produced its first gas in 1997. Please refer to Appendix A for the fields layout in SBO. There are a total of eleven departments currently exist in SBO which are as follows: a) Human Resource (SHR) b) Administration (SAM) c) Operation Performance Improvement (SPI) d) Safety, Health and Environment (SSE) e) Finance and Accounting (SFA) f) Supply Chain Management (SSCM) g) Reliability and Integrity Engineering (SRE) h) Production (SPD)
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i) Regional Planning (SRP) j) Maintenance Engineering (SME) k) Well Integrity Engineering (SWE)

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1.2 Department Profile


Production Department (SPD) in PCSB-SBO is basically responsible for production and operation which covers both offshore and onshore operation management. Production department can be divided further into five distinctive sections as shown below: a) SPD Southern This sections role is to manage operation in southern sector of PETRONAS operation in Sabah which covers the following fields: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Samarang Sumandak Samarang Kechil Labuan Gas Terminal (LGAST) Asam Paya

b) SPD Northern This sections role is to manage operation in northern sector of PETRONAS operation in Sabah which covers the following fields: i) ii) iii)
iv)

Tembungo Erb West Kinarut Sabah Gas Terminal (SBGAST)

c) SPD Planning This section is responsible for planning and forecasting gas and oil production. Apart from that, this section also plays important role in planning field development and serves

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as the first line troubleshooter. There are five more sub-units in planning section which are as follows:
i)

Production Analysis (PA) Hydrocarbon Accounting and Allocation (HAA) Field Planning (FP) Integrated Gas Planning (IGP) Integrated Operation Planning (IOP)

ii)
iii) iv) v)

d) SPD Logistic This section is responsible in managing and driving the logistics and operation service activities to achieve production targets and HSE performance to maximize value returns and meeting customers expectation. e) SPD Operational Readiness and Strategy Assurance This section is responsible in managing the upcoming projects in Sabah namely Sabah Oil and Gas Terminal (SOGT), Kinabalu Non Associated Gas (NAG), and Sabah Sarawak Gas Pipeline (SSGP). This section is also responsible in exploring and studying deepwater operation.

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Figure 1.1: Sections in Production Department (SPD)

1.3 Objectives of Industrial Internship Program (IPP)


The primary objective of Industrial Internship Program (IIP) is to gain through practical experience, a sound appreciation and understanding of the theoretical principles learned as an undergraduate at the university. IIP is oriented towards developing the skills, knowledge and attitudes that are needed to make an effective start as a member of the engineering profession. The main purposes of IIP are to expose the trainee to the working world, and to develop the ability to relate theoretical knowledge with industrial application. It is expected that student will be able to polish the skills in work ethics, communication, and management. In compliance with these purposes, the objectives that need to be achieved are as follows:

To apply theoretical knowledge in industrial application. To acquire skills in communication, management, and teamwork.
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To practice ethical and professional work culture. To implement Health Safety and Environment (HSE) practices at workplace.

1.4 Scope of Work, Tasks, and Main Activities


Thirty two weeks of attachment with planning section of production department was very informative, insightful and engaging. Even tough most of the activities did not involve much application of technical concepts and theories that were taught in university, the experience of doing the jobs was valuable to give an insight on the real nature of engineering work which required us to be flexible to accept and learn new things. The knowledge was obtained literally from experienced engineers including some literature researches. Throughout the internship period, trainee had the opportunity to be attached and learn from five different sub-units in planning section as follows:
a) Production Analysis -

Learned on how to analyze well tests, idle well management, deferment analysis, and planning tools.

b) Hydrocarbon Accounting and Allocation Learned on gas balancing, sample and composition analysis, Current Production Level (CPL), and Reconciliation Factor (RF).
c) Field Planning

Learned on shutdown coordination, scorecard preparation, short term production forecast, and generation of Monthly Target Letter (MTL).

d) Integrated Gas Planning (IGP)

Learned on gas billing generation and gas metering.

e) Integrated Operation Planning (IOP)

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-

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Learned on Capacity Review Proposal, daily operation highlight, and tanker lifting scheduling.

Apart from that, trainee was also exposed to abundance of administrative works, event management activities, and toastmaster training meetings which shape the student to be more well rounded not only exceptional in technical skills but also competent in soft skills. The trainee also embarked on a personal project which was a feasibility study on pre-heater installation at Sabah Gas Terminal (SBGAST) with the objective to eliminate pipe sweating problem. Further discussion on this project is available in the next section.

2.0 MAIN ACTIVITIES 2.1 Attachment to Production Analyst


The purpose of production analyst (PA) is to perform well surveillance and programming from the production technical availability and execution of well operation in a manner that is consistent with PETRONAS policies and objectives. Production analyst is also responsible to control production operation to ensure optimal production of hydrocarbon in ensuring business sustainability and value in order to achieve the agreed production targets. Some of the principal accountabilities of production analyst are as follows:

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a) Validate well data and analyze well performance involving well head pressure and temperature data, base sediment and water (BS&W), and gas-oil-ratio (GOR).
b) Prepare well production optimization plan to maximize well potential through gas-lift

optimization, gas production optimization, and well first-line troubleshooting and intervention. c) Consolidate and prepare proposal for production enhancement activities covering the scope of Production department and synergize with Well Integrity Engineerings (WIE) scope and plan. d) Perform daily data integrity and quality check of Operation Data Capture (ODC) data input from site location both offshore fields and onshore terminal or plants. e) Prepare monthly well surveillance report for integration into field planning report.

Throughout the brief attachment with production analyst, trainee was fortunate to learn new skills and knowledge pertaining to production analysis. The knowledge gained is as follows:

Well test analysis. Deferment analysis.

Idle well management. Planning tools.

2.1.1 Well Test Analysis Well test is important to measure well potential (how much we can produce from that well). From the test, the rate of the string can be calculated based on the liquid rate, gas rate and water cut percentage. Other than that, well test is also essential to monitor the well performance/behavior and predict reservoir performance/condition by noting the flowing tubing head pressure (FTHP), casing head pressure (CHP), flowline pressure (FLP), and separator pressure by monthly basis. Good quality well test is vital to enable:

Efficient gaslift optimizations.


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Better forecast and technical potential listing. Better reserves estimation. Detection of irregular behavior of well & reservoir. More accurate hydrocarbon accounting / allocation.

NOTE: Gaslift is the amount of gas that is re-injected into the well to aerate the fluid and reduce its density to force the fluid out of the wellbore in case there is insufficient reservoir pressure. Well test is conducted by involving many sides of operation including the offshore personal, operation supervisor, and production analyst. Following are the guidelines of performing well test: 1) Raw Data Interpretation (Offshore Personnel) i) Ensure zero check of the chart was done prior to well test. ii) The acceptable range of the plots is between 30 to 70. Last practice was 20 to 80. iii) Translation into day rates based on the duration of the test. iv) Test duration needs to be at least 4 hours; 6, 12, 24 hours for unstable/ gas lifted wells v) Following data must be recorded and reported: a) Gross liquid (PD liquid meter reading and/or strip chart) b) Gas out (chart with orifice size and pressure gauge) c) Lift gas in for gaslifted wells (gas lift rates, GLR) d) Pressures: FTHP, CHP, FLP e) Choke size vi) Do quick comparison with previous month result, identify great abnormality in well test result, identify the issue & constraints (facility) and seek opportunity to do retesting. 2) Data Validation (Offshore Personnel & Operation Supervisor) i) Determine the well test results; Gross, Net, GOR, GLR, Gas Utilization Factor (GUF)
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ii) Are the results feasible (GOR, liftgas orifice)? iii) Check well performance trend (no major deviation).

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iv) Ensure the testing conditions are representative and all data required in ODC are filled. iv) Enter data into ODC & PUR or reject test. NOTE: GOR = volume of gas (scf) / volume of oil (bbl). It is a parameter used to validate current well test results against previous test 3) Data Verification & Evaluation (Production Analyst) i) PA first to check the data by reviewing the following: Chart readings in 30-70% flow range and zero reading is at zero on chart. Gas chart is correctly interpreted (correct orifice factors used). Lift gas input and well production is stable. MPFM (multi phase flow meter) reading: check based densities for oil and water, gross figure and BS&W (base sediment and water) in the correct order of magnitude. Followed by a check on possible reporting error and any operational change during the test was conducted. ii) If data is missing (eg. lift gas not measured, bean size not provided) or reporting errors are detected, operations should be contacted or the test will be rejected. A new well test is then required. iii) The complete data is then compared with the expected well performance. In general well test results are accepted within the range of +10% of the historical performance trend. Please refer to appendix B for well test process flow.

Example of Good Trending of Well Test Result

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Figure 2.1.1: Good Well Test Result 1

Good well test trending reveals a smooth graph (for an idle case scenario, depending on the well characteristics)

Figure 2.1.2: Good Well Test Result 2

Example of Bad and Doubtful Trending of Well Test Results

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Figure 2.1.3: Bad well test result 1

Example of bad well test data - inconsistent trending; does not follow the normal trend

Figure 2.1.4: Bad well test result 2

Criteria of Bad Well Test Next, we also need to know whether the well result is feasible or not. Generally, well test is not accepted IF: a) GOR is out of range, whether it is too high or too low. b) Data is not completed in PUR (need to be re-entered). c) No gaslift injection rate is given. d) Inconsistent trending (does not follow normal trend). Refer to Appendix C for the example of well test result in Erb West and Samarang.
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Calculation of oil rate

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One of the main purposes of well test is to measure the well potential. Shown below are the calculation steps to calculate net (amount of oil produced): From the well test, we will measure the gross (liquid rate) from test separator. Let say: Gross (liquid rate) = 1000 bbl/d Watercut Percentage = 40% Therefore, net (oil rate) = 60% x 1000 = 600bbl/d water produced = 40% x 1000 = 400bbl/d

2.1.2 Deferment Analysis Deferment in oil and gas industry is defined as deviation of production flow from technical potential due to planned or unplanned interruption. In other words, deferment occurs if the wells are not able to produce oil and/or gas due to interruptions. Planned deferment is deferment that occurs as a result of activities that are planned in Monthly Target Letter (MTL) namely revamp, planned shutdown, and etcetera. Unplanned deferment on the other hand is caused by any unexpected interruption such as malfunction of compressor and other equipments. If a shutdown is planned for 5 days, but it took 7 days in real case, the excess 2 days of deferment is also accounted as unplanned deferment. Deferment plays an important role in oil and gas business. Frequent unplanned deferment will result in less production of oil and/or gas which is something we would like to avoid. Percentage of unplanned deferment can be predicted based on the historical data. Let say the percentage of unplanned deferment of a field for January and February are 4%, unplanned deferment for March can be predicted as 4% with tolerance of 1%. Deferment is calculated as follows:

Deferment = Downtime x Technical Potential (TP)

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Example of Deferment Calculation Let say a well is down for 5 days, with monthly TP of 1500bbl/d, Deferment = 5 x 1500 = 7500bbl (deferment for 5 days)

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However, this deferment will be converted to daily basis by dividing the deferment with the number of days for that month. Let say we want to calculate monthly deferment for December based on the same data as the above deferment, Monthly deferment = 7500bbl/31d = 242bbl/d Let say the monthly TP for the field is 10000bbl/d Percentage of deferment = 242/10000 * 100% = 2.42% Coding of Deferment The purposes of this coding system are to: 1) provide comprehensive guidelines for all code user to utilize the codes effectively and to provide a tool for all personnel involved in the operations to fully utilize the codes for planning, monitoring, analysis and improve production performance. 2) minimize differences in production status categorization between all operating region. As of current practice, all interruptions are coded differently based on the types of interruption. Following are the categories of interruption: a) Process process related such as circuit faulty, winding failure, etc. b) Operation operation related such as vessel inspection, control venting, etc. c) Well well related such as Xmas tree leaks, tubing leaks, etc.
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d) External does not belong to any other category such as weather, riots/war, etc. e) Rotating related to rotating equipment such as cooling system, turbine section, etc. Example of Coding: IUPGB Interruption Unplanned Code of incident

Process Related

Figure 2.1.5: PCSB overall production coding structure Refer to Appendix D for the coding table. 2.1.3 Idle Well Management Basically, all wells can be categorized into three, active, idle, and depleted. Active well can be divided more into either flowing or closed in. Some of the reasons why a well is closed are due to sand production, high GOR, insufficient FTHP, and many more. If the active well is closed

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for more than 90 days, it will be categorized as idle well. Idle wells can be classified into two which are effective and non effective. Effective idle wells are wells that will result in immediate net incremental production at field if it is restored. Study would normally be done by maintenance department (SME) and reliability engineering department (SRE) for the activation plan. If the problem involves reservoir, it would be passed to Petroleum Engineering Division (PED) for further action. Non effective idle wells on the other hand are idle wells that will not result in near-term production gain at field if it is restored. We normally leave the non effective idle wells until there is a technology for reactivation (in case it is shut down due to facilities constraint). Shown below is the summary of well category and its management:

Figure 2.1.6: Idle Well Management 2.1.4 Planning Tools Some of the examples of planning tools used in SBO are Production Information Management System (PIMS), Operation Data Capture (ODC), and Real Time Integrated Solution (RTIS). The objective of all these planning tools is to provide a medium for information sharing so that
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everyone involved in the operation is able to obtain the necessary data in an efficient manner. This also improves the efficiency of operation data management indirectly. ODC serves as a front line planning tool for both offshore and onshore personnel to update their daily operation data for others perusal. PIMS generally provides information for most of operation related data ranging from well test result, gas balancing, hydrocarbon allocation, interruptions, forecast TP, and many more. Main components in PIMS that are important to production analysts (PA) are PUR and IAP. PA normally looks for PUR to get operation interruptions, well test, and well activities while IAP to get forecast TP. RTIS is a newly introduced planning tool currently used for daily deferment management and to generate Plant Operational Performance (POP) scorecard. On the bottom line, these planning tools have been a great help for everyone involved in operation be it from offshore, onshore or office based. Below are some of the figures for each planning tool available in SBO.

Figure 2.1.7: Screenshot of RTIS

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Figure 2.1.8: Screenshot of PIMS

Figure 2.1.9: Screenshot of ODC

2.2 Attachment to Hydrocarbon Accountant


The job purpose of hydrocarbon accountant (HA) is to perform production allocation and accounting work to capture oil and gas revenue for further consolidation and reporting by Production Sharing Contract (PSC) accounting in a manner consistent with PETRONAS policies and objectives. It is vital for the management and control of production to ensure optimal revenue from hydrocarbon operation in ensuring continuous business sustainability and value in

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order to achieve the agreed revenue target. Some of the major accountabilities of hydrocarbon accountant are as follows: a) Verify and validate daily production level to ensure data integrity and accuracy of report through meter ticket validation and production reconciliation. b) Generate and provide daily production data for endorsement. c) Propose field production Base Sediment and Water (BS&W) and gas-liquid composition for endorsement. d) Perform production reconciliation and field allocation to ensuire proper tracking and assignment to respective PSCs. e) Analyze the effectiveness of Measurement, Testing, Allocation and Balancing (MTAB) procedure to ensure favorable outcome to regional operations. Throughout brief attachment with hydrocarbon accountant, trainee had the opportunity to learn new knowledge relating to hydrocarbon allocation and accounting as shown below:

Gas balancing. Sample and composition analysis.

Current Production Level (CPL) and Reconciliation Factor (RF).

2.2.1 Gas Balancing The main principle for gas balancing is actually gas produced equals to gas utilized. The gas produced will be used for many purposes not only for sales, but also as fuel to other utilities in the platform such as compressor and scrubber. Other than sales and fuel, the gas is also vented or flared in some occasions because it is not economical to be commercialized. In Tembungo field for example, since it is an old platform, it does not have the facilities to commercialize the gas. As the result, the gas produced in the platform is flared instead because the modal required to build the export pipe exceeds the gas value. Back to Tembungo, it does not have the meter to measure the volume of gas produced. So, we calculate the total gas utilized to predict the total gas produced based on the principle: gas produced = gas utilized
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The same principle applies to Erb West. However in Erb West, meter does not exist in the flare system. So very often we encounter that total gas produced does not equal to gas used because of uncertainty in total gas flared. Data for Tembungo field is obtained through Operation Data Capture (ODC) while for Erb West, we seized the data from Daily Operation Report (DOR).

Figure 2.2.1: Gas Balancing Illustration Refer to Appendix E for the example of spreadsheet for gas balancing in Tembungo field. 2.2.2 Sample and Composition Analysis One of the tasks the trainee involved was doing analysis on the density and composition of crude oil and gas at Erb West and Samarang. It is discovered that the main components in the crude oil are heavy hydrocarbons (hydrocarbon that has more than 5 carbons in its chain) which contribute to 99% of the total oil. In gas composition however, it consist of light carbons with around 80% of methane (the gas also contains ethane, propane and very little of butane and pentane).

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Figure 2.2.2: Crude Oil Density in 2009

Figure 2.2.3: Composition of C6+ in the Oil for the Year 2009

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Figure 2.2.4: Composition of C1 in the Gas for the Year 2009 Based on figure 2.2.2, 2.2.3 and 2.2.4, we could see that the density and composition of the oil and gas at Erb West fluctuate over time. This might be due to:
a) slight change in temperature and pressure (outside disturbance). b) human error in taking the reading and measurement. c) imperfect mixing (the concentration of fluid is different at every point inside the

sample).

2.2.3 Current Production Level (CPL) and Reconciliation Factor (RF) Trainee was also involved in CPL and RF calculation for the field of Samarang. There were a few jargons learned while doing the task which are gross and net. After the fluid (consists of gas,water, and oil) goes out from well, it will first enter a test separator where here it would be separated into gas and liquid. The amount of liquid separated is the gross while the amount of oil in that liquid is net. In Samarang field, there are a number of wells namely A,B,C,D,E,F,G and Alab. CPL is normally generated to predict the amount of oil production after well test is conducted.
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RF is actually the ratio of actual production measured by meter over CPL. RF normally values between 0 1 with reading equals to or more than 1 considered as good production. To calculate RF in Samarang, we must first calculate the metered production of the respective platform which are SMP-A (well A,E and G), SMP-B (well B and Alab), and SMP-C (well C,D and F). The total metered production of Samarang is equal to the sum of SMP-A, SMP-B, and SMP-C. CPL data is obtained from daily CPL data uploaded to the database by production analyst. RF is calculated by simply dividing metered production (measured) with CPL (planned). Following is the table that shows RF calculation:

A Meter CPL Dec-08 545674.13 780689.44 0 Jan-09 551202.38 805721.60 0 Feb-09 516741.59 678497.56 0 Overall Mar-09 577648.13 Meter 824907.86 0 Apr-09 Dec-08 1402700.03 170 529047.36 790552.63 0 May-09 535641.56 718085.68160 Jan-09 1389831.80 0 Jun-09 Feb-09 1318222.50 150 527519.70 700534.60 0 Jul-09 Mar-09 1397798.49 167 449374.81 670514.17 0
Table 2.2.1: RF for SMP-A, SMP-B and SMP-C Table 2.2.2: RF for Samarang
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2.3 Attachment to Field Planner

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The job purpose of field planner (FP) is to develop specific field production plan for the execution of production activities after taking into consideration other activities as determined by Integrated Planning section to ensure meeting of oil and gas production target for respective fields. Some of the principal accountabilities of field planner are as follows:
a) Prepare field production plan with consideration of maintenance and wireline activities to

ensure maximum production throughput while ensuring prudent and safe operating practice is executable. b) Prepare production optimisation proposal by analyzing field interruptions and prepare swing production plan to compensate shortfall for target production level while ensuring prudent operating and reservoir management practice. c) Prepare field monthly target letter for execution by respective Field Superintendant. d) Prepare database for field technical availability by analysing field technical potential and Integrated Operation Plans thus field throughput and capacity ullage is maximized. e) Implement and propose improvement to the planning procedures to ensure continuous improvement and enhancement of work process by superior to support and facilitate efficiency and productivity. During the short attachment with field planner, trainee was able to grasp new knowledge and information with regard to field planning as shown below: Shutdown/Turnaround coordination. Scorecard. Short Term Production Forecast (STPF). Monthly Target Letter (MTL).
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2.3.1 Shutdown/Turnaround Coordination Planned total shutdown is conducted every year where the facilities at certain field will be out of operation for maintenance purpose for a number of days. During this shutdown period, there will be no production from that field. Shown below is the example of shutdown timeline for Samarang total shutdown 2010:

Figure 2.3.1 : Shutdown Timeline for Samarang Total Shutdown 2010 Referring to the above figure, the preparation stage took roughly 150 days before the commencement of the shutdown. It started with a kick off meeting, committee formation, and proposal presentation to the higher management for approval. Four coordination meetings were
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conducted before the pre-mob briefing. Work pack submission from contract holders, vendors, and engineers were required for TARA (Turnaround Risk Assessment), TAScO (Turnaround Scope Optimization) and IPOP (Integrated Plan on Paper). As refered to the previous shutdown timeline, we notice that TARA, TAScO and IPOP played important roles in the shutdown activities. Objectives of TARA, TAScO, and IPOP are as follows:
Activities Objectives

TARA (Turnaround Risk Assessment)

1. To identify risk facing the turnaround. 2. To assess potential risks. 3. To develop and implement mitigation options for all identified risks. 1. Reduce turnaround duration. 2. Reduce turnaround cost. 3. Reduce HSE risk to as low as reasonably practicable.

TAScO (Turnaround Scope Optimization

IPOP

(Integrated

1. To commonly agree to plan in such a way that the shutdown is

Plan on Paper)

optimised, on time and within budget.


2. Identify potential clashes, show stoppers & issues (in term of

HSE, materials delivery, etc).


3. Identify opportunities for optimization / acceleration of

activities and improvements (e.g can the activity be done outside shutdown window).
4. Address organisational / resource interfaces to determine

responsibilities and key focal points.


5. Identify logistical issues such as accommodation, transport,

food etc. 6. Identify contingency options.

Table 2.3.1: Objectives of TARA, TAScO, and IPOP


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2.3.2 Scorecard Scorecard is meant to monitor the performance of the operation mainly in these areas; production, HSE, finance, and deferment. Scorecard is prepared on monthly basis. Some of the important jargons are year end projection (YEP) and year to date (YTD). Below are the calculations for YEP and YTP: For example, scorecard calculation for February 2010: YEP = (actual data summation from April 09 until Feb 10) + (forecast data in March 10) YTD = actual data summation from April 09 until Feb 10 NOTE: Calculation refers to the financial year date which is from April 2009 March 2010

Shown below is the is the example of part of the scorecard:

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Figure 2.3.2: Example of Part of the Scorecard Please refer to Appendix F for the example of complete scorecard.

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Base is the minimum performance required to get green while stretch 1 and 2 are the extension of the base value towards a better performance. FP would normally be assigned to each area as mentioned previously (production, HSE, finance, and deferment). They will then seek information and data from the necessary personnel related to each area they are assigned to. For instance if an FP is assigned to deferment, he or she will deal a lot with production analyst. If assigned to HSE, they will liaise with executives from HSE department. Below are the important terms of evaluation in the scorecard for each area:

HSE TRCF (total recordable case frequency): (Number of incident / total man-hours ) x 1000000 FIF (fire incident frequency): (Number of fire incident / total man-hours) x 1000000 OSI (oil spill index): (Number of oil spill incident / total man-hours) x 1000000 UA/UC: Amount of UA/UC reports. Finance CAPEX (capital expenditure): Expenditure for projects. OPEX (operational expenditure): Expenditure for operation and maintenance. G&A: Expenditure for general and administration ie. training and travelling cost. Production Existing oil: The amount of existing oil that we produce. New oil: Oil produced from new project, example Oils from Sumandak bravo and charlie. Enhancement oil: Oil produced from enhancement project such as zone change. Total production (with new oil): Existing + Enhancement + New. Gas Capacity / Gas Demand: Ratio of the available gas supply over the amount of gas customers require. Gas Sales Amount of gas sold to customer.
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Deferment PD: Planned Deferment. UPD: Unplanned Deferment. OEE: Overall Equipment Efficiency.

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2.3.3 Short Term Production Forecast (STPF) Fundamentally, STPF is generated to estimate the production of oil and gas for the coming three months and is done every month for further revision. Shown below is the illustration for timeline of STPF generation:

Figure 2.3.3: Timeline of STPF Generation The function of STPF is not only to estimate our production, but also at the same time to make us committed to achieve the actual production in line with the production forecast of that particular time. The production forecast is actually generated from Technical Potential of wells provided by production analyst (PA). Let say for example, the TP of a well in January is 20 mstb/d. FP will then seek information from various departments such as SWE, SME, and SRE on their planned activities and calculate planned deferment (PD) based on these planned activities. Unplanned deferment (UPD) will be estimated based on historical data. Let say the total PD is 5 mstb/d and UPD is 5% of TP which is 1 mstb/d. Availability is calculated as follows:
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Availability = TP PD UPD Availability = 20 5 1 = 14 mstb/d

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The data of 14 mstb/d will appear as the forecast availability for that particular month. However this applies only to oil production. Calculation for gas availability will require reinjection, gas lift utilization, fuel, and flaring to be considered in the calculation. 2.3.4 Monthly Target Letter (MTL) MTL as a document that is generated every month, which covers the planned activities for all fields including its respective revised technical potential (TP) and deferment. Activities that are not registered in MTL must first acquire approval from the higher management before being carried out. Any deferment that is caused by these activities is considered unplanned deferment (UD). Shown below are the contents of MTL for SBO: 1. 2. Summary a) Daily Plan Oil b)Daily Plan Gas 3. a) SBO Integrated Activity Planning Master Schedule (SIAP MS) b) Integrated Barge Schedule (IBS) 4. 5. Well Service Access Plan (WAP) Outlook a) TP Summary for Northern and Southern Operations b) Well TP and Ranking for All Fields c) Reservoir Management Plan (RMP) for Water and Gas Injection 6. Activities planned for: a) Samarang b) Sumandak c) Tembungo d) Erb West 7. Sampling Plan for Northern and Southern Operations
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Further information on the contents of MTL for SBO will be discussed in the next page

Summary This section covers: Daily Plan Oil This section shows the oil production plan for all fields (Samarang, Sumandak, Asam Paya, Alab, Erb West, Tembungo) on daily basis for that particular month. Daily Plan Gas This section shows: Gas customer demand Gas supply from all fields Production and venting/flaring target Water and gas injection target Major activities for each field Planned and unplanned deferment

SBO Integrated Activity Planning Master Schedule This section covers the planned activities for the whole year which includes: Field Platform Activity Owner Activity duration
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Shutdown duration Shutdown type Month Actual Date

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Integrated Barge Schedule This section shows the Gantt Chart of the activities. The activities are separated into: Pipeline hook up and commissioning Pipeline replacement Top side Top side maintenance Inspection Drilling sequence Workover

Well Service Access Plan (WAP) Outlook This section shows the deferment of the affected string due to the planned activities for the next coming three months. TP Summary for Northern and Southern Operations This section shows the TP for every field in southern and northern operations. Well TP and Ranking This section covers the TP for each string and ranked accordingly based on its field. Water Injection This section shows the RMP requirement and monthly target of the injection rate (stb/d) for the wells in Sumandak. Gas Injection This section covers the monthly target for: ratio of gas injected/gas produced (gi/gp)
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injection rate (mmscf/d) Applicable only to wells in Erb West. Activities

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This section shows the activities planned by each department for each field in that particular month. Sampling Plan This section covers the sampling plan and schedule for that particular month both in northern and southern operations.

2.4 Attachment to Integrated Gas Planner


The job purpose of integrated gas planner (IGP) is to develop integrated production plan and execute its work processes for short and medium-term regional gas production and planning processes consistent with PETONAS policies and objectives for the management and control of production operations. This is to ensure optimal production of hydrocarbon, optimizing UPC, meeting customer needs, and continuous business sustainability and value in order to achieve the agreed production targets and objectives in the safest and most cost effective manner. Following are some of the major accountabilities of integrated gas planner: a) Develop gas sales nomination (entitlement and allocation) for daily sales, quarterly, and annual plan. b) Integrate gas production, reinjection, and exporting activities of associated and nonassociated formation gas to ensure optimum evacuation of gas meeting reservoir management plan. c) Analyze and ensure gas accounting data integrity for invoicing purposes to maximize gas sales revenue.
d) Develop implementation plan of gas evacuation in line with Gas Sales Agreement and

Supply Priority Guideline.

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e) Develop gas operation plan in line with regional gas management strategy and plan to support gas resource management aspiration. During the brief attachment with integrated gas planner, trainee was able to obtain task and knowledge as shown below: Gas billing. Gas metering.

2.4.1 Gas Billing Attachment with Integrated Gas Planner (IGP) had allowed the trainee to assist in preparing a gas bill on gas export to PETRONAS Methanol Labuan 2 (PML-2) as requested by finance department (SFA) for billing purpose. Consequently, he had the opportunity to learn more on the gas export structure. Following is the layout of the gas export to PML-2:

Figure 2.4.1: Gas Export Layout to Labuan Gas Terminal (LGAST) * GRT stands from gas receiving terminal. * Fuel gas from GRT-1 to PML-2 is used for internal utilities at PML-2. * Jumper line functions to direct gas from Kikeh to LGAST-1 and onwards in case PML-2 is shutdowned.
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The task was to calculate the amount of gas in jumper line and check if there is any irregularity (negative value). Gas at jumper line is calculated from the following formula: Jumper line = LGAST2 GRT2 (feed) LGAST2 fuel gas LGAST2 flaring Data for LGAST2 allocation meter, GRT-2 (feed), and LGAST-2 utilites (fuel gas + flaring) were obtained from LGAST2 and GRT-2(feed) figures in the database. However, we will not be able get a perfect balance of the equation since the reading from the meter itself is not accurate (has tolerance depending on the type of meter). There are times when reading at the jumperline is higher than LGAST-2 allocation meter, which is theoretically impossible. To rectify the problem, it is agreed by IGP and all gas customers that we apply correction factor of 0.95 of LGAST2 allocation to the problematic readings. Other than preparing meter ticket, trainee was also assigned to do daily analysis of irregularity in gas billing figures. 2.4.2 Gas Metering Basically, there are three types of meter normally used which are: a) Operational Meter (tolerance 10%) Normally used at offshore operation b) Allocation Meter (tolerance 5%) Normally used at onshore terminal namely LGAST c) Custody Meter (tolerance 1%) The most accurate meter, used in GRT-2 for billing purpose. Since custody meter is expensive, it is used only at GRT for billing purpose. At offshore, they only use operational meter (the cheapest) because the pressure and temperature of the flow are already different the moment it reaches the terminal compared to offshore, thus flow readings at offshore and terminal are most likely unequal. We only use allocation meter when the flow is already nearing the customers (i.e. terminal) for more accurate readings.

2.5 Attachment to Integrated Operation Planner


The job purpose of Integrated Operation Planner (IOP) is to analyze and formulate integrated production planning for short and medium-term regional oil and gas production operations
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activities and planning processes consistent with PETRONAS policies and objectives for the management and control of production operations. This is to ensure optimal production of hydrocarbon, optimizing UPC, meeting customer needs and continuous business sustainability and value in order to achieve the agreed production targets and objectives in the safest and most cost effective manner. Shown below are some of the principal accountabilities of integrated operation planner: a) Prepare regional monthly, weekly, and daily integrated plans and ensure seamless communication of these plan so as to ensure feedback communication on agreed finalized plans for implementation by respective departments. b) Prepare input for management review session to ensure timely management intervention and direction setting to achieve top level performance. c) Prepare monthly summary report for FPSO and oil terminal operations. d) Prepare overall monthly production report for submission to external parties involving partners and relevant authorities in compliance to regulations and requirements. e) Prepare input for management review session to ensure timely management intervention and direction setting to achieve top level performance. Throughout the short attachment with integrated operation planner, trainee was able to learn and gain information regarding some of IOP routine activities and tasks which are shown below: Daily Operation Highlight (DOH). Capacity Review Proposal (CRP).

2.5.1 Daily Operation Highlight(DOH)

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Daily Operation Highlight (DOH) is generated on daily basis normally issued before 11am every day. DOH is issued to the higher management and all individuals that are involved in production, planning, and maintenance. It comprises of the following: a) Field Activities b) Oil Production c) Gas flaring d) Gas sales and export e) Status of gas injection in Erb West and water injection in Sumandak

The actual data will be compared to the planned figures to see whether it is above or below the plan and marked red (below plan), yellow (approximately similar to plan), or green (above plan) depending on the performance. Shown in the next page is the example of DOH for the oil production:

Figure 2.5.1: Example of Daily Operation Highlight for Oil Production 2.5.2 Capacity Review Proposal CRP is basically generated quarterly every year. The objective is to seek Petroleum Management Unit (PMU) approval for the production proposal. It normally comprises of the review of
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previous quarter, performance of the current quarter, and production proposal of the next quarter. Shown below are the standard contents of CRP: 1) 2) Updates of the previous quarters performance with justification on variances. Current quater projection with justification on variances (as compared to current quarters approved target). 3) Previous quarters breakdown of planned and unplanned deferment by categories; Process (P), Operations (O), Well Related (W), External (E) and Rotating (R) in pie chart form. 4) 5) 6) Next quarters production allowable proposal with basic and assumptions. Integrated shutdown activities. Production enhancement activities.

2.6: Self Project on Heater Installation at Sabah Gas Terminal


2.6.1 Background Sabah Gas Terminal (SBGAST) was built in 1996 and started to operate in 1997. It functions as a gas terminal to stabilize and reduce the gas pressure from Erb West before being exported to the customers namely Ranhill Powertron, Sabah Electricity Sdn Bhd (SESB), and etcetera. Refer to Appendix G for the Process Flow Diagram (PFD) of SBGAST. 2.6.2 Problem Statement Trainee visited SBGAST with a field engineer and noticed sweating problem at the pipe right after PCV manifold. Since there is a sudden pressure drop at the manifold, there is also a sudden temperature drop due to Joule-Thompson Effect. Because the flow is very cold after the manifold, the surface temperature of the pipe drops down below dew point allowing air to condensate on the surface of the pipe causing sweating. Sweating is very bad for the pipe because it will encourage corrosion to the pipe such as rusting. To make the situation worse,
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continuous wet surface, with a relative high humidity allow the fungal to grow and remain active on the pipeline coating surface. Corrosion maybe accelerated by this group of microbial organism under deposit acid attack, thus induced corrosion in a sour gas pipeline.

Figure 2.6.1: Red- iron oxide on the pipe 2.6.3 Objective

Figure 2.6.2: Fungal growth on the surface of pipeline

The objective of this project is to study heater installation that is located right after the manifold to stabilize back the flows temperature to ambient temperature in the intention to avoid sweating and compare it with the SBOs current project to re-coat the pipe with special coating that can resist fungal formation. 2.6.4 Summary of Procedures 1) The necessary data (gas pressure from Erb west, gas pressure before manifold, and gas pressure after manifold) are obtained from Daily Operation Report (DOR). 2) Composition of gas from Erb West is obtained from SGS sample result. 3) HYSYS simulation is done to predict the temperature of the pipeline after manifold since only pressure is measured on the site. 4) The simulation is continued to identify the amount of heat required to heat the pipeline to ambient temperature of 30 degree C. 2.6.5 Result

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Figure 2.6.3: Pressure and Temperature on stream8 (before manifold), stream7 (after manifold), and stream9 (after heater)

Power = 55.22

Figure 2.6.4: Amount of Heat Required to Heat the Gas Back to Ambient Temperature 2.6.6 Discussions to the Heater Installation Study Referring to the relative humidity of air in Sabah which is 80% and average temperature of 30 degree C, it is discovered that the dew point of the air is 26 degree C. Refer to Appendix H for the Climate Humidity Table. From the result, we noted that the temperature of the stream after manifold is 24.39 degree C (below dew point) which justifies the sweating problem. From the simulation, we found out that the amount of power required to heat the gas back to ambient temperature of 30 degree C is 55.22 kW. The next step is to decide the heating equipment which Electric Steam Boiler (ESB) comes into mind since SBGAST generates its own electricity. That means, no operating cost is

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required if we use ESB. Economic consideration and comparison is done to compare ESB with the pipe re-coating project which is summarized in the table below: Electric Stream Boiler Costs around RM980 000 No operating cost Needs regular maintenance Pipe Re-Coating Costs around RM 1 400 000 No operating cost Does not need maintenance, but can last up to 10 years

Table 2.6.1: Comparison of Electric Steam Boiler and Pipe Coating However after a lot of researches were done, it is discovered that ESB can only operate up to maximum operating pressure of 7 bar while the operating pressure is supposed to be 46.43 bar at maximum. This will render ESB out of choice and the only heating equipment that we can use is shell and tube heat exchanger (STHE). However, STHE is very expensive and requires a continuous supply of superheated steam for heating purpose which will increase the operating cost greatly therefore not economically feasible. 2.6.7 Conclusion of the Heater Installation Study Heater installation at SBGAST is not feasible considering that it is not economically viable as compared to pipe re-coating. SBO is on the right track to handle the pipe sweating problem at SBGAST.

3.0 LEASONS LEARNED & EXPERIENCED GAINED


Experiencing industrial internship program (IIP) in PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd (Sabah Operation) is a great opportunity to discover engineering working environment before entering the society as an engineer. Attachment with Planning Section of Production Department (SPD) in SBO for eight months period has really benefited the trainee in various skills and practical knowledge. Listed below are the elaborations of the lessons learned and the experience gained throughout IIP:

3.1 Leadership, Team Work and Individual Activities

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While assisting certain employees and engineers for a particular task, the trainee was exposed to the environment where employees and engineers from different disciplines worked together as a team. Responsibility, negotiation skill, tolerance, teamwork and proficiency mind-set were among the identified key factors towards the successful completion of a given task. During implementation of the task given, trainee is able to work with different background of employees and engineers. It is an honor to have been given the opportunity to work with a number of field engineers, planners, operators, and other employees throughout the internship period. Initially, the task is somehow difficult, especially since the other employees had a lot experiences and knowledge to be compared with the trainee. However, with proper guidance, trainee is able to join, work and assist them in order to achieve objectives of the task and assignment given. Alongside completion of the task, effective communication, management, and team work is developed in order to get the work done within a certain time frame. The most fascinating part of IIP is the opportunity given to the trainee to have hands-on experience on the tasks and assignments undertaken. The trainee was allowed to participate and contribute to the organization while at same time gaining new experience and knowledge. Apart from that, trainee also has the opportunity to demonstrate and develop leadership capabilities. For example, the trainee was involved actively in SBO Toastmaster Club where at many occasions he had the opportunity to lead a number of training meetings.

3.2 Business values, Ethics and Management Skills


In order to be a well rounded engineer in the future, basic knowledge about business values, ethics and management skills must be educated to the trainee. Thus, a lot of responsibility is entrusted to ensure the smooth implementation of various tasks within this area. Apart from that, trainee was able to prioritize the works to be done. Eventually, these kinds of soft skills can be developed towards achieving the aims of IIP especially for the trainee. For example, by participating in the organizing committee of SBO Recognition Night under Foods and Beverage

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(F&B) Unit, trainee had the opportunity to deal and negotiate with a number of professional hoteliers.

3.3 Safety Training and Practical Experiences


PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd maintains a strict and firm policy of strong safety awareness among its employees. Safety briefing about the workplace, signage, emergency assembly points and personal protective equipment (PPE) is essential every time a new trainee undergoes internship. Safety is very important to a working environment because it could affect a lot of concerns in a company directly or indirectly. Safety level in a company can affect the morale among the workers, and also the production of the company. To enter terminals or offshore, complete PPE (safety helmet, safety boots and coverall) is required for entrance. Even cell phone or any electronic device that emits electromagnetic wave is not allowed in the site. Ear plug is a must to enter any area that produces sound above 80 decibels. Online reporting of Unsafe Act/Unsafe Condition (UA/UC) is also implemented to grant employees easy reporting procedure if they encounter such situation in their workplace for rectification plan.

3.4 Problems and Challenges Faced


3.4.1 Adjusting to Working Lifestyle Adjusting to the working hours is not an easy task for a beginner especially for a new trainee. Initially, a beginner may get exhausted and drowsy throughout the day. However, this can be adjusted normally after two weeks or even one week after starting of the normal working routine. To be certain, this is only the first challenge, there are a lot more adventures and challenges for upcoming week until the end of IIP. Furthermore, the trainee was also required to stay back on numerous occasions, had to work on weekends and public holidays in order to complete the task given successfully. 3.4.2 Entrusted with Responsibility
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To be entrusted with a lot of responsibilities needs prudent skills that must be developed within the tough internship month. The trainee is expected to perform well and meet the expectations. Luckily, the trainee was privileged to have understanding, patient and experienced officemates and supervisor, who were encouraging and helpful to the trainee. However, with the guidance and support from the supervisor, trainee was able to handle the task well enough. 3.4.3 Problem Solving The most important part of IIP is to allow trainee to gain problem-solving skills in order to overcome the difficulties that come across during internship period. Most of these problems were unforeseen and unexpected which required quick and accurate decisions to solve them. The trainee encountered such situations frequently, especially during the implementation stage of the task. Initially, the decision-making process was slightly difficult because of the lack of exposure and confidence. However, as time passed where more knowledge and experience was gained, problem solving tasks became easier than before. 3.4.4 Handle Different Tasks & Assignments Simultaneously Trainees ability to perform many tasks over a short period of time was seriously tested where the trainee had to learn to work efficiently and swiftly to meet the various demands of manager, supervisor and other employees. Prioritizations of the assigned tasks are very important in dealing with the situation. However, all the challenges and difficulties could be solved by asking questions frequently, self-studies, learning from the senior engineers, contractors, and other employees in the company. .

4.0 DISCUSSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


The industrial internship training program (IIP) is an effective and useful medium to expose students to the working and operational environment. It helps and encourage student to understand and appreciate knowledge that they gained in UTP and apply those knowledge in the industry. IIP also provides student the ability to view things from a different perspective and also the capability to approach problems in a more systematic technique.
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IIP definitely gives a lot of great benefits and profit. Hence, to improve it even better than the current condition, a few recommendations need to be discussed for both the Host Company and Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP). As mentioned previously, students may able to understand the important issues in workplace and also to accept other peoples opinion and suggestions for improvement in order to achieve the aims and objectives of the given tasks and assignments. Therefore, below are the recommendations that are suitable to improve both parties functionality:

4.1 Recommendations to PCSB-SBO


4.1.1 Continue to Adopt Trainees from UTP and other Universities/Colleges PCSB-SBO should continue to adopt trainees from UTP and other university or colleges with respective background of studies (Chemical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electric and Electrical Engineering and also Civil Engineering) in order to optimize the internship period of student in the Host Company. This would enable the students to learn from the experienced engineers and apply their technical knowledge and skills to execute the tasks and projects properly, effectively and successfully. 4.1.2 Permission to go Offshore Students will be benefited more from the industrial training if they are allowed to go to offshore. Permission to go to offshore would enable them to go for site familiarization at the platform and gain better understanding on the operation routine. Not only that, they will also be able to participate in a lot of projects seeing that some of the projects require the engineer to go to offshore such as bean up program, capacity test, and many more.

4.2 Recommendations to Student Industrial Internship Unit (SIIU) of UTP


4.2.1 Monthly Report instead of Weekly Report Weekly report can be a burden to both of the trainee and the plant supervisor due to the hectic schedule at the office. Instead of weekly reports, monthly report should be sufficient and would be acceptable and appreciated by both parties. Sometimes, trainees were given the same routine
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tasks throughout a week and due to the requirement of weekly report submission, the trainee often ended up making a weekly report for the same activities over and over again. Besides that, the trainees were usually busy with the tasks and assignments given by the supervisor and colleagues that there is hardly a chance to work on the writing of weekly reports. Therefore, reduction of weekly report should be considered. 4.2.2 Invite Major Players in Oil and Gas Industry for Career Talk Industrial practitioners and professionals like the engineers at PETRONAS Carigali should be invited to give adjunct lectures or career talk at UTP. This could benefit students who are just about to leave for their internships and also the final year students who are graduating. This would not only give the students an opportunity to learn from these experienced individuals, but also at the same time learn the expectation of the company from the students when they go for internship or working.

5.0 CONCLUSION

PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd Sabah Operation (PCSB-SBO) is a brilliant place for students to undergo industrial internship program. PCSB-SBO provides many valuable and precious
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experiences which enhance their technical knowledge, management skills and allowing them to learn to integrate theory into real life practice. The experience and knowledge gained during the internship is valuable to get the overview of the nature of working environment in oil and gas company. Working on the self project had allowed the trainee to apply technical knowledge in a real life situation with the assistance from other comrades. New knowledge and experiences were obtained throughout the attachment with production planning section which is very precious for his future life career especially in the area of operation and production. By participating in some events such as Deepwater Operation & Maintenance Forum and SBO Recognition Night, trainee was able to develop and nurture his networking skills, communication skills, and management skills. All those activities required the trainee to communicate directly with professionals of other profession. SBO Toastsmaster Club had been instrumental in developing the trainee towards a better communicator and leader by allowing him to hold numerous roles during the training meeting such as humor master and toastmaster of the day. Trainee also learned on the importance of Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) and its implementation in the work place. PCSB-SBO in particular has always practiced good values of HSE at all times. In short, the internship journey was very enriching, insightful, and educational. It is safe to say that the industrial internship program had achieved its objectives successfully.

REFERENCES

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Wan Anas Mashudi and the Team, SBO Production Handbook 2009, retrieved on 15th December 2009. PETRONAS Carigali : Well Test Procedure & Guideline, retrieved on Feb 2010. SBO Field Reservoir and Management Review (FRMR) 2009, retrieved on Feb 2010. SGS Sample Analysis Result, Feb 2010, retrieved on March 2010. SBO Monthly Target Letter, March 2010, retrieved on April 2010. SBO Capacity Review Proposal Q4 2008, retrieved on June 2010 Jack Winnick, Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, 1997. Binay K. Dutta, Heat Transfer: Principles and Applications, 2006. William Sanborn Pfeiffer, Technical Communication: A Practical Approach (Sixth Edition), 2006. Climate Humidity Table, http://www.tis-gdv.de/tis_e/misc/klima.htm>, retrieved on Feb 2010

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APPENDIXES

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APPENDIX A: SBO FIELDS LAYOUT

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APPENDIX B: WELL TEST PROCESS FLOW

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APPENDIX C: WELL TEST RESULT

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APPENDIX D: DEFERMENT CODING TABLE

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APPENDIX E: SPREADSHEET FOR GAS BALANCING IN TEMBUNGO

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APPENDIX F: SCORECARD

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APPENDIX G: SABAH GAST TERMINAL (SBGAST) PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM (PFD)

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APPENDIX F: CLIMATE HUMIDITY TABLE

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