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Experiment :

Calibration of the frequency dial of a given oscillator and calibrationof the time base of a given oscilloscope at a few arbitrary positions using the line frequency as a standard.

Theory :
The number of oscillation done by a simple harmonic oscillator in one second is called the frequency of the oscillator. If two simulteneous simple harmonic motions of frequencies fx and fy are commensurable, the gure is closed and strictly periodic; it is a true Lissajous Figure, stationary on the screen and, if the persistence is sucient, visible continuously as a complete pattern. It is a two dimensional gure shown in Figure 1.1 and depends on : 1. the ratio between fx and fy 2. their relative phases 3. the ratio between their amplitude It can be shown that for two oscillating motions, ny fx = fy nx Where, fx =Frequency of the signal along x axis, fy =Frequency of the signal along y axis, nx =number of loops touching a line parallel to x axis, and ny =number of loops touching a line parallel to y axis (1)

Figure 1.1 : Typical Lissajous gure for nx =2 and ny =1 or fx /fy = 1/2. If fx is known then fy can be found by counting the loops and using equation (1). In this experiment fx =50 Hz is used from the power line, fy is fed from a signal generator , and the exact value of fy is determined by obtaining a stationary lissajous gure.

Time base TB of an oscilloscope is the time taken for the cathode ray to sweep through unit division on the screen. Once the frequency dial of an oscillator is known, the time base of a given oscilloscope can be can be calibrated by feeding a signal known frequency f into the vertical input of the oscilloscope and measuring the number of divisions (including fractions) between two consecutive peaks , ie, for a full sine wave displayed on the screen we can measure the time base : time taken to show a complete cycle TB = (2) no.of division (d) on the screen showing a complete cycle Then the time base becomes timeperiod 1 1 TB = = = d f requency d fd

(3)

Apparatus :
An oscilloscope. signal generator and a suitable arrangement for feeding line frequency to the horizontal plate of the oscilloscope.

Figure 1.2

Figure 1.3 2

Table -1 Observation
number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

fx
(Hz) 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

Dial Frequency nx fd (Hz)


26 52 102 155 208 260 312 360 415 462 515 565 610 660 715 770 815 860 910 960 1000 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

ny
2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

True Frequency fy (Hz)


25 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 600 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000

Table -2
Positions of the time base selector Time base as shown on the apparatus mili sec /div. 5 Dial Freq -uency fd (Hz) 52 102 155 155 208 260 52 102 155 52 102 155 52 102 155 True Freq -uency fy (Hz) 50 100 150 150 200 250 50 100 150 50 100 150 50 100 150 no. of div. for n complete cycle div. 8.25 8 8.1 6.7 7.4 8 8.25 8 8.1 8.25 8 8.1 8.25 8 8.1 no. of cycles taken n no. of div. for a complete cycles (div.) 4.125 2 1.35 3.35 2.46 2 4.125 2 1.35 4.125 2 1.35 4.125 2 1.35 Time Base TB mili s /div. 4.85 5.00 4.94 1.99 2.03 2.00 4.85 5.00 4.94 4.85 5.00 4.94 4.85 5.00 4.94 4.93 4.93 4.93 2.00 Mean

obs no.

TB mili s /div. 4.93

1 1 2 3 1 2 2 2 3 1 3 1 2 3 1 4 .5 2 3 1 5 .2 2 3

2 4 6 2 3 4 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6

Calculation of the Frequency Dial : Formula :


fx ny = fy nx 1. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (1/2) 50 = 25 Hz 2. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (1/1) 50 = 50 Hz (4)

3. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (2/1) 50 = 100 Hz 4. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (3/1) 50 = 150 Hz 5. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (4/1) 50 = 200 Hz 6. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (5/1) 50 = 250 Hz 7. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (6/1) 50 = 300 Hz 8. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (7/1) 50 = 350 Hz 9. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (8/1) 50 = 400 Hz 10. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (9/1) 50 = 450 Hz 11. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (10/1) 50 = 500 Hz 12. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (11/1) 50 = 550 Hz 13. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (12/1) 50 = 600 Hz 14. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (13/1) 50 = 650 Hz 15. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (14/1) 50 = 700 Hz

16. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (15/1) 50 = 750 Hz 17. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (16/1) 50 = 800 Hz 18. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (17/1) 50 = 850 Hz 19. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (18/1) 50 = 900 Hz 20. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (19/1) 50 = 950 Hz 21. Input frequency, fx = 50 Hz True frequency, fy = (ny /nx )fx = (20/1) 50 = 1000 Hz

Calculation for the Calibration of Time Base of Given Oscilloscope : Time Base :
TB = 1 1 = = (f d)1 f requency d fd (5)

1. Here frequency

f = 50 Hz, d = 4.12,

f = 100 Hz, d =2

and and

f = 150 Hz, d = 1.35

TB = (50 4.12)1 =4.85 ms/div =4.85 103 sec/div TB = (100 2)1 =5.00 ms/div =5.00 103 sec/div TB = (150 1.35)1 =4.94 ms/div =4.94 103 sec/div

Mean TB =(4.85 + 5.00 + 4.94)/3 ms/div = 4.93103 sec/div

2. Here frequency

f = 150 Hz, d = 3.35,

f = 200 Hz, d = 2.47

and and

f = 250 Hz, d = 2.00

TB = (150 3.35)1 =1.99 ms/div =1 103 sec/div TB = (200 2.47)1 =2.03 ms/div =2.03 103 sec/div TB = (250 2.00)1 =2.00 ms/div =2.00 103 sec/div

Mean TB =(1.99 + 2.03 + 2.00)/3 ms/div = 1.98103 sec/div 3. Here frequency


f = 350 Hz, d = 4.00, f = 250 Hz, d = 2.93 and and f = 400 Hz, d = 2.50

TB = (250 4.00)1 =1.00 ms/div =1.00 103 sec/div TB = (350 2.93)1 =.97 ms/div =.97 103 sec/div TB = (400 2.50)1 =1.00 ms/div =1.00 103 sec/div

Mean TB =(1.00 + 0.97 + 1.00)/3 ms/div = 0.99103 sec/div 4. Here frequency


f = 400 Hz, d = 5.00, f = 500 Hz, d = 4.05 and and f = 550 Hz, d = 3.65

TB = (400 5.00)1 =0.50 ms/div =0.50 103 sec/div TB = (500 4.05)1 =0.49 ms/div =0.49 103 sec/div TB = (550 3.65)1 =0.49 ms/div =0.49 103 sec/div

Mean TB =(5.00 + 0.49 + 0.49)/3 ms/div = 0.49103 sec/div 5. Here frequency


f = 700 Hz, d = 7.30, f = 750 Hz, d = 6.70 and and f = 800 Hz, d = 6.50

TB = (700 7.30)1 =0.19 ms/div =4.85 103 sec/div TB = (750 6.70)1 =0.19 ms/div =0.19 103 sec/div TB = (800 6.50)1 =0.19 ms/div =0.19 103 sec/div

Mean TB =(0.19 + 0.19 + 0.19)/3 ms/div = 0.19103 sec/div

Result :
From the graph of Dial frequency vs True frequency we get the slope is 0.987. Here the true frequency is lower than the dial frequency but very close to the dial frequency. Also the time base shown in the apparatus and calculated value of time base are almost same.

Discussion :