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THE CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIOUR OF EFFECTIVE AND

INEFFECTIVE MANAGERS
by
PETER CAMMOCK
-;;:::-
NOVEMBER 1991
Submitted to the University of canterbury for the degree of
PhD.
c. '\-
Dedicated to Liz, Mike, Lucy, Mackenzie and Alice
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTERS
Abstract
1. Overview
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
Introduction
Why study managerial effectiveness?
Finding a research setting
Research approach
Conclusion
2. Literature Review
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
Introduction
What is a Manager?
What constitutes effective versus ineffective management?
How do the characteristics and behaviours of effective managers
vary across different levels?
Conclusion
3. Repertory Grid Technique
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
Introduction
Background to the repertory grid
Personal construct theory
Application of the repertory .grid technique
Conclusion
4. Data Gathering
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Organisation setting and participants
4.3 Sample definition
4.4 Generalizability of findings
4.5 Interview study
4.6 Questionnaire study
4.7 Measuring effectiveness
4.8 Conclusion and overview of data analysis
Page
1
2
2
5
6
12
13
16
28
46
50
52
54
57
61
70
71
72
74
76
80
89
95
100
5. Defining the Characteristics and Behaviours of Most and Least Effective
Managers
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
Introduction .
Data analysis
Results and discussion
Conclusion
6. Factor Analysis of the Nineteen Characteristic and Behavioural Categories
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
Introduction
Factor analysis
Results and discussion
Conclusion
102
103
109
131
133
134
139
149
7. Exploring Variations in Effectiveness Dimensions Between Management Levels
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
Introduction
Hypotheses
Interview data analysis
Questionnaire data analysis
Results and discussion
Conclusion
151
152
154
161
162
175
8. Review of Key Findings and their Implications for Management Development at
the MBA Level .
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
Introduction
Review of findings and their relationship to past research
Implications for managerial teaching and development
Conclusion and recommendations for further research
Acknowledgements
Bibliography
178
179
190
201
206
208
Appendices
1. An example of a repertory grid interview transcript
2. Management effectiveness questionnaire
3. The characteristics and behaviours of most and least effective managers
4. Pearson's correlation analysis for the nineteen scale variables
Tables
4.1 Interview and questionnaire respondent sample
4.2 Interview respondents by office, level and sex
4.3 Interview elements
4.4 Level of focus requested of interview respondents
4.5 Questionnaire versions
4.6 Questionnaire response rates by office
4.7 Questionnaire respondents by office, work area, managerial level
and sex
5.1 Effectiveness scale categories (characteristics and behaviours)
5.2 Effectiveness scale mean scores, rankings and standard deviations
5.3 Significance of scale mean score differences for most effective manager ratings
5.4 Significance of scale mean score differences for least effective manager ratings
5.5 Most and least effective scale correlation coefficients
6.1 Matrix of S-Index values for two factor solution (North Island/mail survey and South
Island responses)
6.2 Matrix of S-Index values for two factor solution (most effective and least effective
responses)
6.3 Matrix of S-Index values for three factor solution (North Island/mail survey and South
Island responses)
6.4 Factor loadings most/least effective manager ratings
6.5 . A three factor model of managerial effectiveness
6.6 The two sub-categories of fador one (conceptual ability)
6.7 U nrotated factor matrices for most and least effective manager ratings (two factor
solution)
7.1 Average rank of scales and factors across respondent levels (interview responses)
7.2 Scale and factor mean scores for most effective ratees across respondent levels
7.3 Scale and factor mean scores for least effective ratees across respondent levels
. Figures
2.1 A model of managerial effectiveness
3.1 A completed repertory grid
7.1 Average rank of factors across respondent levels (interview responses)
7.2 Factor mean scores for most effective ratees across respondent levels
7.3 Factor mean scores for least effective ratees across respondent levels
ABSTRACT
Recent reviews of the management literature have expressed
concern over the lack of attention to the issue of
effectiveness, This study addresses this deficiency by
describing the characteristics and behaviours of effective
versus ineffective managers in a large New Zealand public
sector organisation (the Department of Social Welfare) .
Repertory Grid interviews were conducted with 89 respondents
.
in four offices of the organisation. A panel of judges
sorted the constructs into a questionnaire which was
administered to a further 365 respondents, Analysis of the
questionnaire data redu6ed the 170 items into 20 scales
descriptive of the characteristics and behaviour of most and
least effective managers in the Department. Factor analysis
of the scales revealed a three factor structure, suggesting
that effective managers require ability in the conceptual,
interpersonal and technical areas, Both the scales and the
factors demonstrated a high degree of interaction, lending
support to previous research findings that emphasize the
holistic, and interactive nature of managerial work.
Significant variations in emphasis on the scales and factors
were apparent between lower and more senior level
respondents. The thesis concludes by considering the
implications of these findings for management education and
development and recommending avenues for further research.
1
CHAPTER ONE
OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION
This chapter provides an overview of the thesis. It
outlines why it was undertaken, describes the key steps in
the research and overviews the thesis structure. It is
hoped it will clarify the broad purposes of the thesis and
provide a guide to subsequent reading.
WHY STUDY MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS?
The institution of management has become one of the most
influential social forces of the twentieth century. Most of
the goods and services we consume and the jobs we perform,
fall under the direction of managers. As a consequence,
managers have a crucial impact on our happiness and
wellbeing as individuals, families and societies. New
Zealand, in the 1980's, has witnessed an extraordinary rise
in the power and veneration of managers. This is evident,
for example, in the numerical increase in the numbers of
managerial positions, in the rise of what Jonathan Boston
(1991, p.9) calls, "the managerialist revolution", in the
size of Chief Executive remuneration packages (Loomis 1982,
2
verespej 1989), in the rise and influence of bodies such as
the Business Round Table, and in the growth of Masters of
Business Administration programmes. Through the 1980"s, New
Zealand has also witnessed a substantial increase in
concentrations of power and ownership in a small number of
large New Zealand organisations led by business managers
(Hamilton 1991). Clearly this is an institution worthy of
serious academic study and inquiry.
Curiously, the growth of management as a social institution,
has not been accompanied by a similar growth in our
understanding of managerial work. This is most apparent in
the dearth of research on managerial effectiveness. While
there is a huge research literature on the what and how of
what managers do, there is very little written on what
effective managers do. Most of the reported research makes
no attempt to measure the performance of the managers being
studied, or to test the effectiveness of their activities,
in terms of desired outcomes. Three recent major reviews of
the management literature (Martinko and Gardner 1985, Hales
1986, stewart 1989), express concern about this this
deficiency. All three emphasise the need for more research
specifically on the characteristics and behaviours of
effective managers.
The lack of understanding of managerial effectiveness has
not impeded the growth of the management development
3
industry. The training and development of managers has
become a billion dollar international industry. In New
Zealand demand for consultancy services in this field,
escalated through the 1980's, particularly in the rapidly
changing public sector. In the universities, this same
growth has been echoed 'in the development and growth of the
Master of Business Administration degree (MBA). It is
perhaps symptomatic of our lack of understanding of
effective management, that the MBA has come under intense
criticism over the last twenty years. critics of the MBA,
such as Livingston (1971), Hayes and Abernathy (1980),
Leavitt (1983) and laterly Mintzberg (1989) argue rather
persuasively, that MBA programmes are actually reducing,
rather than augmenting, the effectiveness of u.s managers.
Some of these critics go so far as to suggest, that the MBA
process in the U.S.A, with its strong emphasis on rational
quantitative approaches, is undermining the organisational
competitiveness of that nation. Our New Zealand
universities cannot claim exemption from such criticisms, as
our MBA offerings in many cases replicate those of overseas
programmes.
These issues provided the context of this research. While
the criticisms of the MBA process are the subject of debate,
they created sufficient unease to warrant a response on our
part. In a decade which witnessed a great increase in
demand for management development and education, we did not
Use of the term lweI does not imply mUltiple authorship
4
want to be in a position of offering irrelevant or incorrect
material. As management educators, our concern was to learn
about specifically effective and ineffective management in a
changing New Zealand society. The hope was that we could
then translate that understanding into a more meaningful
teaching offering.
FINDING A RESEARCH SETTING
5
In 1984 the new Labour Government precipitated a pertod of
substantial change for New Zealand organisations. New
Zealand society since that time, has experienced a level of
change perhaps unprecedented in its history. This change
impacted heavily on public sector organisations. These
organisations were shaken from the quiet, secure,
bureaucratised mode of operation, which had characterised
their activity for decades, into an era of restructuring,
redundancy, accountability and performance. It is not
surprising therefore, that we were asked in late 1985, to
assist the Department of Social Welfare in the development
of its managers. This project required a substantial
training needs analysis and provided an ideal opportunity to
pursue our research interest in management effectiveness.
The Department of Social Welfare is a large public sector
organisation which, in 1985, employed around 6000 staff.
The Department has offices allover the country, working in
three main service areas, namely Benefits and Pensions,
social Work and Administration. Our brief, was to explore
the training needs of managers at supervisory, middle and
senior management levels.
RESEARCH APPROACH
Literature Review
The study commenced with a thorough review of the
. literature. Our purpose here was to learn what was already
known about management effectiveness and find a point of
departure for the study. As we have mentioned above, we
found that very little work had actually been done in this
area. This finding confirmed the need for further research.
The literature review is presented in chapter two of this
thesis. out of the literature review, we developed the
following research question as a focus of the study; uWhat
are the characteristics and behaviours of effective versus
ineffective managers and how do these characteristics and
behaviours vary between different management levels?UU
Repertory Grid Technique
In conducting the interviews we used an approach called the
Repertory Grid Technique. This technique provided an
important foundation for the research. We adopted the
technique mainly for its capacity to minimise observer bias.
6
It proved to be an exceptionally powerful interview
technique which revealed a wealth of interesting data. The
Repertory Grid is described in detail in chapter
three.
Data Gathering
We commenced our data gathering with a series of interviews,
with managerial and non-managerial staff, in the Manukau,
Hamilton, Nelson and Christchurch offices of the Department.
The spread of offices was designed to produce a sample which
would be as representative as possible of the total
Department. Most of the interviews were conducted by the
author and took one to two hours to complete. In all, we
conducted 89 interviews, 88 of which proved usable. The
interview respondents were asked to differentiate between
effective and ineffective managers in the Department. Their
responses were recorded in the form of bi-polar constructs,
which differentiated the effective and ineffective managers,
in the interview comparison. The following is an example of
one of these constructs;
Visible; walks the floor
and spends time with
staff.
Seen infrequently
by staff; less
visible.
7
Over three hundred of these constructs were generated in the
interviews. The constructs provided an important data
source in themselves. In addition they were used to form a
questionnaire, which was used to gather additional data from
a larger sample of the Department's staff. A group of six
judges sorted the interview constructs into twenty-one
initial logical categories, which were used in the
questionnaire development process. A final sorting process,
produced a questionnaire with 170 items all comprised of
constructs generated in the Repertory Grid interview
process. The was presented to respondents in
two identical sections, each with. 170 items. On one section
they were requested to rate the least effective manager they
knew at a designated level and on the next, the most
effective manager.
The questionnaires were administered by the author, to staff
in the same four offices in which the interviews had been
conducted. By visiting the offices to distribute the
questionnaires and personally following up on the
respondents, we were able to get a very high level of
response (greater than 80%) from the staff in those offices.
The sample was strenghtened by a mail survey to a further 60
respondents. These respondents were followed up by
telephone, yielding a mail survey response rate of 63%. In
all, usable responses were recieved from 365 staff in both
managerial and non-managerial levels. These responses
8
returned a total of 730 questionnaires, half describing most
effective managers at various levels and half describing
least effective managers. The data gathering phase was
exhaustive and exhausting. It took place over two years
during 1986 and 1987. The data gathering phase of the
r e s e a r c ~ is detailed in chapter foura
Describing the Characteristics and Behaviours of Most and
Least Effective Managers
It was clearly not feasible to separately analyse the
responses to each of the 170 questionnaire items. Some form
of item reduction was therefore necessary. Beginning with
the categories developed previously by the six judges, the
170 questionnaire items were assembled into twenty logical
categories. Using correlation analyses and measures of
inter-item correlation, we reduced. the 170 questionnaire
items into twenty robust scales. These scales provided an
excellent description of the characteristics and behaviours
of both effective and ineffective managers in the
Department. They covered areas such as team building,
consultation, overview, and innovation. Examples of each of
the characteristic and behavioural categories were obtained
from the interview data, to round out the picture. The
scales and the procedure used in developing them are
described in chapter five.
9
Factor Analysis
We used factor analysis to further reduce and model the
twenty scale categories. We identified a three factor
structure which described three broad abilities required to
manage effectively in the Department. These were conceptual
ability, interpersonal ability and technical ability. The
conceptual ability factor fell into two logical sub-
categories, namely intuitive and analytical ability. The
factors and the procedure used in identifying them are
described in chapter six.
Exploring variations Between Management Levels
The scales and the factors were then used to explore
differences in the way effective and ineffective management
was construed by respondents at the non-managerial,
supervisory, middle and senior management levels. Firstly,
we used the interview data, which was content analysed using
the twenty scale descriptors. A count was made of the
number of times each of the scales had been referenced by
non-managerial, supervisory, middle and senior management
respondents. We used this information to compare the
relative emphasis on the scales by interview respondents at
each of the management levels. For the questionnaire data,
we calculated the mean scores given to each of the scales
10
and factors by non-managerial, supervisory, middle and
senior management respondents. This-enabled us to explore
the patterns and significance of variations in emphasis
between the four levels. The procedures used and the
results of this part of the study are detailed in chapter
seven.
T.he Implications of Our Findings for Management Development
The research described in the first seven chapters indicates
that managerial effectiveness (in addition to analytical and
technical ability) is heavily reliant on interpersonal and
intuitive ability. Overall, the findings highlight the
deficiencies of processes that over-emphasize
(as claimed by critics of the MBA) rational, analytic
approaches to management. What emerges is a model of
managerial effectiveness based on interpersonal ability but
requiring an additional balance of intuitive, analytical and
technical abilities. This finding suggests the need for an
MBA process that provides for the development of the
individual's interpersonal and intuitive skills and
insights, as well as catering to more conventional technical
and analytic development. Chapter eight reviews the main
findings of the study and details their implications for
management development at the MBA level.
11
CONCLUSION
Overall, we feel that the study is successful in addressing
the research question, in that it provides a lucid
description of the characteristics and behaviours of
effective versus ineffective managers. It has also been
successful in describing variations in emphasis on those
characteristics and behaviours between management levels.
Its findings have spurred us into ongoing research in the
area and have made a significant contribution to our efforts
as management development professionals. We hope that the
thesis will prove of interest to the reader and that its
findings will make a worthy contribution to an area of
understanding that has been, until recently, largely
neglected by academic researchers.
12
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
INTRODUCTION
The growth of management as a social institution is one of
the more notable phenomena of the twentieth century (Burnham
1941, Chandler 1977, Kanter 1977, Kotter 1982, Meyer and
Zucker 1989). In the West individual hero-managers have
come to assume an almost totemistic quality (Meindl, Ehrlich
and Dukerich 1985). In New Zealand, as in most Western
nations, managers are ascribed responsibility (with its
commensurate payment packages) for the material destiny of
large sectors of our society. Chandler's (1977, p.4)
observation that "rarely in the history of the world has an
institution grown to be so important in so short a time",
seems fully justified.
In the face of the growing veneration of the management
institution there is evidence that the influence of
individual managers has been overstated (Gamson and Scotch
1964, Eitzen and Yetman 1972, Lieberson and O'Connor 1972,
Pfeffer 1977, Salancik and Pfeffer 1977, Pfeffer and
Salancik 1978, Meindl et al 1985, Williams, Chapman, Findlay
and Tuggle 1990). A related tendency has been to abstract
managers from the social, environmental and institutional
13
constraints that limit their influence and impact on their
behaviour (Willmott 1984, stewart 1982, Barnes and Kriger
1986, Hosking and Fineman 1990, Martinko and Gardner 1990).
While there are clear constraints on the potential
contributions of managers there is evidence that management
does matter, and that it accounts for a significant amount
of the variance in organisation outcomes (House and Baetz
1979, Weiner and Mahoney 1981, Smith, Carson and Alexander
1984, High and Achilles 1986). These findings are supported
by most of the studies that attempt to ground managerial
behaviour in empirically determined measures of performance
(see for example Burgoyne and Stuart 1976, Kotter 1982,
Luthans, Rosenkrantz and Hennessey 1985).
These studies indicate "that managerial behaviour is related
to effective org.anizational performance" (Martinko and
Gardner 1990, p.331). Consequently some individual managers
will have a more positive impact on their organisations than
others. From this we may advance the proposition, outlined
by Martinko and Gardner (1990, p.331) that "there are
differences in the behaviours of highly effective and less
effective managers". This is a common sense proposition
that underpins most management theory (Lewin and Minton
1986) .
14
Surprisingly, the managerial research literature provides
little understanding of the behaviours and/or
characteristics of specifically effective or ineffective
managers. We have a very sUbstantial literature on
managerial practise but very little that attempts to
distinguish between effective and ineffective practise. The
definition of specifically effective versus ineffective
management is one of the most important and most neglected
areas of managerial research (smith et al 1984, Martinko and
Gardner 1985, Hales 1986, stewart 1989).
This thesis seeks to make a contribution in this area. It
addresses the following research "What are the
characteristics and behaviours of effective versus
ineffective managers and how do these characteristics and
behaviours vary between different managerial levels.
UU
The term characteristics refers to the personal qualities
and traits of the manager. These include intelligence,
aptitudes, knowledge, values, temperament and personality
characteristics. The term behaviour refers to the way
managers conduct themselves in their observed actions
towards others and in their responses to various job
situations. The inclusion of managerial characteristics in
the research question acknowledges the fact that there is
more to managerial work than just observable managerial
behaviour (Hales 1986).
15
The issues explored in this chapter relate to the research
question. We first address the question "What is a
manager?" by defining the term manager and describing the
defining characteristics of managerial work. Secondly we
ask the question "What constitutes effective versus
ineffective management?" We discuss current literature in
this area and then look at more specific definitional and
measurement issues. Finally we address the question "How do
the characteristics and behaviours of effective managers
vary across different managerial levels?"
WHAT IS A MANAGER?
of the Term "Manager"
The Oxford English Dictionary (1989, p.294) defines a
manager as "one who manages ... a person, or one of a bodY,of
persons, responsible for the general working of a public
institution". This definition acknowledges the specific
responsibility held by the manager "for the operation of a
discrete organisational unit" (Hales 1986, p.109). It
implies that the manager will be vested with formal
authority to run the unit and will in turn be held
accountable to some higher level authority.
These concepts are embodied in the definition of Stewart
(1976, p.4) that a manager is "anyone above a certain level,
16
roughly above foreman whether ... in control of staff or not".
Such a nominalist definition provides a realistic starting
point for research and has been w ~ d e l y adopted by management
researchers (Hales 1986). It has obvious limitations
however, given the "diversity in the composition of
managerial work" (Hales 1986, p.l07).
The most serious limitation of this definition is its
failure to recognise the manager's need to achieve "results
through other people" (Heller 1972, in stewart 1986, p.ll).
As implied in the dictionary definition the manager has
responsibility, authority and accountability to do some
things him/herself. The manager is further distinguished in
that "being assigned more work than he can do, [he] is
authorized to get some of that work done by others for whose
work he is in turn accountable" (Jaques 1976, p.64).
In summary we may define a manager as a person, usually
titled manager, who has responsibility, authority and
accountability for a discrete group of people charged with
achieving a specific set of tasks and objectives. This
embodies distinct responsibilities which the manager has to
fulfil directly. It also implies authority and the need to
get other people to do things for which the manager remains
finally accountable. As noted by Hales (1986, p.ll0) this
implies "a crucial distinction, within the generic term
Imanagerial work', between what managers themselves do and
17
what managers have to ensure others do". Both are essential
components of any definition of the term manager.
"What Do Managers Do?18 Features of the content and Process
of Managerial Work
Further definition can be given to the term manager by
examining what managers do in fulfilling their
responsibilities. The work of the manager appears to have
specific content and process features by which it may be
distinguished from other social functions. We will employ
Whitley's (1985, p.344,345) definition, which describes
content as lithe common behaviours managers engage in as they
carry out their job ... responsibilities" and process as the
"characteristics (e.g., such as duration of activity, mode
of communications, mode of contacts) found among managerial
jobs". For example, planning, budgeting and selling are
content features. The hours worked and the patterns of
communication used in pursuing those activities are process
features.
There is only "moderate agreement" between findings on work
content (Whitely 1985, p.344). Hales (1986, p.93) in a
major review of the literature refers to a level of
"discontinuity, even inconsistency" in these findings. The
research findings on work process are more consistent, with
the core findings remaining constant across "studies
18
conducted in different countries and at different time
periods" (Whitely 1985, p.345). The following features are
representative of the key findings in this area (see Hales
1986 and stewart 1989 for recent reviews) .
Content Features
1. The content (and process) of managerial work varies
across management levels, job types, organisations,
environments and cultures (Burns 1957, Dubin and Spray 1964,
Horne and 1965, Nath 1968, Child and Ellis 1973,
Mintzberg 1973, Boyatzis 1982, Stewart 1982, 1988, Pavett
and Lau 1983). Work content and process can also vary
significantly between different managers performing
jobs (Stewart 1976,1988, Stewart, smith, Blake and
Wingate 1980).
2. There is substantial choice available to the manager in
both what is done and how (Stewart 1976, 1982, 1988, Stewart
et al 1980). The observational studies of Dalton (1959) and
Sayles (1964) for example, both report attempts by managers
to enhance their jobs by altering their content. In many
instances the level of choice is such that a key part of the
manager's work lies in defining the meaning of their
particular job (Gowler and Legge 1983).
19 .
3. Managerial jobs require technical/specialist and more
general managerial skills (Hales 1986). Managers need both
technical understanding and the ability to balance
technical/specialist with more generalist managerial roles
(Kotter 1982, Dakin and Hamilton 1986).
4. Despite criticism (Braybrooke 1964, Mintzberg 1990) the
classical functions (see Gulick 1937, Fayol 1949) still have
validity in terms of the tasks they describe. More recent
research tends to confirm that managers do plan, organise,
command, coordinate and control (see Carroll and Gillen 1987
for a review of this issue). The classical writers however,
imply a work p r o c e s ~ which is unrealistic. Managers in
practise plan, organise, command, coordinate and control in
ways vastly different to those implied by the classical
writers (Kotter 1982).
A number of the later content listings can be seen as a more
dynamic conceptualisation of the classical functions. As
noted by Hales (1986, p.95) Kotter's task listing, along
with those of Sayles (1964) Mintzberg (1973) and Stewart
(1976, 1986, 1988) "all provide fresh insights and
subtleties to the tasks of 'planning', I co-ordinating , and
lcommanding'".
5. Managerial work has a strong informal and political
dimension not accounted for by the classical writers (Dalton
20
1959, Fletcher 1973, stewart 1983, Luthans et al 1985, Hales
1986, Hosking and Fineman 1990). Managers spend a
sUbstantial amount of their time "accounting for and
explaining what they do" in informal and political
interactions (Hales 1986, p.104).
6. More recent research places a greater emphasis on the
development of external contacts, than was the case with the
classical prescriptions (see for example Hemphill 1959,
Mahoney, Jerdee and Carroll 1965, Tornow and Pinto 1976,
Dakin, Hamilton, Cammock and Gimpl 1984).
7. The last fifteen years has seen an increasing emphasis
on change and innovation. The literature is a
good example of this developing emphasis (see for example
Zaleznik 1977, 1989, Adair 1983, Bennis and Nanus 1985, Bass
1985, 1988, Kouzes and Posner 1987, Kotter 1988, 1990,
Bennis 1989).
8. The key tasks of the manager seem to be most
generalizable in the form suggested by Kotter (1982, 1988).
That is that the manager leads the organisation by
generating and expressing an idea of where the organisation
needs to be going (agenda building). He/she liaises with
networks of people and influences them to help in
implementing those ideas (networking). Finally, the manager
ensures that the agenda items are implemented through a
21
variety of control, influence and disturbance handling
tactics (execution).
Process Features
1. Managers, particularly at chief executive levels, work
long hours. Carlson (1951) found that the directors in his
study worked between 8.5 and 11.5 hours a day. The general
managers in Kotter's study worked an average of nearly 60
hours per week. The work of chief executives extends beyond
the office into home and social environments (Elliot 1959)
and dominates their thinking, even when they are not
physically working (Mintzberg 1973, Carroll and Gillen
1987) .
Managers at lower levels work shorter but still sUbstantial
hours (Burns 1957, Horne and Lupton 1965). The middle
managers in Horne and Lupton's (1965) study, for example,
worked around 44 hours per week. The hours of work vary
between different organisations, work types and countries
(stewart 1988).
2. Managers deal with large amounts of work comprised of
diverse work demands. The work process is brief, intense,
fragmented and highly demanding (Carlson 1951, Guest 1956,
Dubin and Spray 1964, Mintzberg 1973, Kotter 1982, Cox and
Cooper 1988, Stewart 1988). Most managerial time is taken
22
up with day-to-day crises, interruptions and ad-hoc problem
solving (Hales 1986, Martinko and Gardner 1990). Guest's
(1956) study of foremen, for example, found that they were
involved in between 237 and 1073 separate incidents daily.
The pressure of work is such that even very senior managers
are unable to spend much time on formal planning (Hales
1986, stewart 1989). As a consequence managers emerge as
"intuitive responders rather than strategic planners"
(stewart 1982, p.90).
3. Manag,;rial work is very much a social process (Hosking
and Fineman 1990). Verbal interaction occupies between "two
thirds and four fifths" (Hales 1986, p.98) of the manager's
time (Burns 1954, 1957, Guest 1956, Horne and Lupton 1965,
Mintzberg 1973, 1989, 1990, stewart 1976, 1988, Fry,
Srivstva and Jonas 1987, Jonas 1987). The exact proportion,
pattern and difficulty of verbal contacts varies between
jobs (Dubin and Spray 1964, Kelly 1964, Mintzberg 1973,
Stewart 1976, Hales 1986). A.I though the manager's
interactions may range across hundreds or even thousands of
contacts (Kotter 1982) the majority of interactions are
lateral (Burns 1957, Dubin and Spray 1964, Horne and Lupton
1965, Mintzberg 1973, Stewart 1976, Hales 1986).
Much of this interaction involves the manager in attempts to
influence other people to do things, through brief face to
23
face conversations (Hales 1986). The manager has less
direct pow43r, in these relationships, than is commonly
supposed (Sayles 1979, Kotter 1982).
written communication, even in the form of hard information
such as reports and computer print-outs, receives less
attention 'than verbal communication (Mintzberg 1973, 1975,
1989, Daft, Sormunen and Parks 1988). By contrast managers
pay close attention to soft verbal information, such as
gossip and hearsay (Neustadt 1960, Mintzberg 1973, 1989).
The neglect of written material however, may not be as
complete as is implied by this research. There is evidence
that managers may use their t:ime out of working hours to
address more formal written materials '(Brewer and Tomlinson
1964).
4. Although largely ignored by managerial texts, feelings
and emotions play an important role in managerial work.
Managers exhibit the same range, "richness and poverty of
emotions" (Hosking and Finema.n 1990, p.595) as other human
beings. These feelings and emotions have a powerful impact
on their work behaviour and personal experience (Herzog
1980, Terkel 1985, Hosking and Fineman 1990). An ability to
access and respond to personal feeling states and emotions
is an important aspect of thc3 intui ti ve responses required
in managerial work (stewart 1982, Bennis 1989, Mintzberg
1989) .
24
5. The verbal, ad-hoc nature of managerial work can be
highly efficient, both in terms of a fragmented and highly
pressured internal environment and a strategic environment
which is discontinuous (i.e. variously interrupted, delayed
and speeded-up) and dynamic in nature (Mintzberg 1989). The
near constant interaction with people provides the manager
with the opportunity to form, test and modify agendas whilst
simultaneously developing the networks needed to implement
them (Brewer and Tomlinson 1964, Kotter 1982, Hales 1986,
Mintzberg 1990). The following quote from Kotter (1982,
p.166) is illustrative; allow the general managers
to react in an opportunistic (and highly efficient) way to
the broad flow of events around them, yet knowing that they
are doing so within some broader and more rational
framework. The networks allow terse (and very efficient)
conversations to happen; without them, such short yet
meaningful conversations would be impossible."
In the sense of developing agendas managers are guided by a
plan. However, it is not the formal plan outlined by the
classical writers but a looser mentally held grouping of
"flexible but often specific, intentions [formed] in the
context of daily actions" (Mintzberg 1990, p.165).
6. Efficient use of managerial agendas demands that the
manager's task performance be simultaneous, interactive and
holistic in nature (Mintzberg 1973, 1976,1989, Kotter 1982,
25
26
Weick 1983, Hales 1986). Managerial tasks are not performed
in a sequential, linear fashion but form an interactive
gestalt (Mintzberg 1990). Hales (1986, ,p.102) notes that
"managerial work is not the sequential execution of separate
activities but is often an artful, simultaneous synthesis of
inter-dependent activities ... There is both rapid commuting
between activities ... and the simultaneous execution of
discrete and separable activities, with the one activity
providing the context, even the opportunity, for carrying
out others".
An interactive view of managerial work is reflected in an
emerging European research focus (see for example Bouwen and
steyaert 1990, Brown 1990, Hosking and Fineman 1990). In
this work the management process is characterised as having
"a feel, a processual weave, a sense of actions, passions
and politicality which [give] it an interconnectedness and
texture (Fineman and Hosking 1990, p.573). Reference to the
connectedness, complexity, texture and context of the
organising process are typical of this work (see Hosking and
Fineman 1990).
7. Managerial work presents competing 'demands and
pressures. Much of the manager's work involves coping with
and reconciling the conflict, ambiguity, and cross-pressures
inherent in the job (Hales 1986, stewart 1989). The ongoing
r
interaction of conflict and compromise produces a work
process which is inherently political in nature (Brown 1990,
Hosking and Fineman 1990, see also content feature five
above) .
What are the Boundaries of Managerial Work?
The findings outlined above imply that managers can be
defined in terms of content and process characteristics that
form a distinct and exclusive part of the managerial
function. Unfortunately there has been no research which
has attempted to compare the work of managers with those of
non-managers (Hales 1986, stewart 1989). "In short, the
studies have not demonstrated that there is a bounded and
separable set of activities which may be called -
\managerial work' - and not merely activities which managers
have been shown to dOll (Hales 1986, p.109).
There is a sUbstantial sociological literature which asserts
that the characteristics associated with managerial work are
widely disseminated through other non-managerial occupations
(see Braverman 1974, Marglin 1976, Nichols and Beynon 1977
and storey 1980). The implication is that the managerial
function, rather than making a distinct and identifiable
contribution, acts as an ideologically linked status
justifying the inequitable distribution of organisational
benefits (Anthony 1977).
27
The absence of empirical evidence makes it difficult to
respond directly to such arguments, or to clearly specify
the parameters of exclusively managerial work. Nevertheless
it is possible to define the term manager in ways that
differentiate it from other social functions. Neither does
it seem unreasonable to assert that the features of
managerial work, while perhaps not exclusively managerial,
have sufficient specificity to bring further definition to
the managerial function.
WHAT CONSTITUTES EFFECTIVE VERSUS INEFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT?
In the previous section we looked generally at the
managerial function and attempted to define it semantically
and in terms of identifiable characteristics. In this
section we look at research and current research issues
relating to the characteristics and behaviours of
specifically effective versus ineffective managers
Previous Research
There has been little research to date on the differences
between effective and ineffective managers. Attempts to
link observed behaviour with effectiveness were strengths of
some of the critical incident studies of the 1950's (see
Flanagan 1951, 1952, Kay 1959). Effectiveness was also a
focus in the early studies of foremen (Guest 1956, Jasinski
28
1956, Roach 1956, Kay 1959). It is not until comparatively
recently however, that the issue of effectiveness has again
received serious attention (Morse and Wagner 1978, Luthans,
Rosenkrantz and Hennessey 1985, Martinko and Gardner 1990).
The later studies provide valuable insights into the
behaviours associated with positive performance outcomes.
They indicate that effective behaviour varies between
organisations and management levels (Morse and Wagner 1978,
Luthans et al 1985). They also highlight the impact of the
environment on managerial behaviour (Martinko and Gardner.
1990). These studies however, are but a small beginning in
an area which has been substantially neglected.
For the most part o u ~ knowledge of managerial work is not
grounded in any concept of effectiveness. While we have a
very sUbstantial literature on managerial practise we have
very little literature which attempts to distinguish between
effective and ineffective managerial practise. stewart
(1982) for example, does an outstanding job of highlighting
the diversity of managerial work and the choices available
to the manager in defining that work. She provides no
information however, as to the efficacy of the choices made,
in terms of outcomes, or of the belief systems that' actuate
those choices.
29
Most of the management literature, including studies that
claim to describe effective management (see for example
Sayles 1979) do not even define the term effectiveness, far
less attempt to operationalise the concept. This
definitional inadequacy reflects the lack of integrating
theory, in both the management literature (Martinko and
Gardner 1985, Hales 1986, Stewart 1989) and in the related
organisational effectiveness literature (Goodman, Atkin and
Schoorman 1983, Lewin and Minton 1986). It also reflects a
failure in the management literature to develop consistent
terms and cat.egories (Hales 1986).
The lack of attention to effectiveness is a serious flaw in
the literature which has been highlighted in all of t h ~
recent reviews (Martinko and Gardner 1985, Hales' 1986,
Stewart 1989). As indicated by Luthans et al 1985, p.257)
there is a need "to go beyond asking what managers really
do" and ask instead "what do successful managers really do?"
This is one of the most important requirements of future
management research.
Defining Managerial Effectiveness
Figure 2:1 outlines a person-process-product model of
managerial effectiveness drawn from Campbell, Dunnette,
Lawler and Weick (1970). The model indicates that
managerial effectiveness can be defined in terms of
30
FIGURE 2:1
A MODEL OF MANAGERIAL EFFECTIVENESS
Individual Characteristics Individual outcomes
.......
v-
.....
II""
(Aptitudes, Values, Preferences etc) Behaviour (Profit, Survival
(Intelligence)
6
(Productivity etc)
/
Internal/External Organisation Environment
Person Process Product
31
individual characteristics, individual behaviour and
organisational outcomes. The term characteristics refers to
the personal qualities and traits that are required for
managerial success. Such characteristics have been
exhaustively documented in the trait research (see for
example Ghiselli 1971, Stogdill 1974, Bowen and Attaran
1987). They include intelligence, aptitudes, knowledge,
temperament and personality. The term behaviour refers to
the way managers conduct themselves, in their observed
actions towards others and in response to various work
situations.
This is an interactive model in that it assumes that the
person, process, product dimensions will influence each
other, with the primary concern being the impact of
.
managerial characteristics and behaviours on organisational
outcomes (e.g. level of profit, productivity, efficiency).
As indicated by this model and recent research, the pattern
of individual characteristics and behaviours that lead to
desired outcomes is contingent on the internal
organisational environment (e.g. its tasks, functions,
policies, procedures, conditions, resources) and the
external environment (e.g. uncertainty, market
characteristics). Individual characteristics and patterns
of behaviour that are effective in one context may not be so
in another (Morse and Wagner 1978, Luthans et al 1985). The
of the manager is determined by the "degree of
fit" (Hales 1986, p.111) between the characteristics and
behaviours of the manager and the demands of the particular
job situation.
The model implies that a definition of managerial
effectiveness should fulfil at least two requirements.
First, it must link the characteristics and behaviours of
the individual with desired organisational outcomes. Second
it must acknowledge that the pattern of effective behaviour
wi-II vary across different jobs, bosses, organisations and
environments and in response to the characteristics of the
individual manager (Campbell et al 1970, Fiedler 1974, Morse
and Wagner 1978, Hales 1986).
32
Hales (1986, p.88) notes a recognition of contingency in a
number of effectiveness definitions (see for example
Campbell et al 1970, Morse and Wagner 1978, Boyatzis 1982)
in that they all denote "the extent to which what managers
actually do matches what they are supposed to do". Hales
later notes (p.111) that what managers are supposed to do
will depend on the expectations, "tasks and functions"
surrounding a particular management job.
with the constraints outlined above in mind and drawing from
existing definitions we may define the effective manager as;
One who optimises the long term functioning of the
organisation by engaging in the behaviours best fitted to
the particular internal and external environment in which
they manage and to their own characteristics and
preferences.
The term optimises is used rather than maximises in
deference to the Seashore and Yuchtman (1967) argument that
maximisation of outcomes such as profit or growth would
generate imbalances which could be dysfunctional. The term
functioning derives from Campbell et al's (1970) definition.
It acknowledges a concern, both with performance ,outcomes,
for example, survival, profit and productivity and with
outcomes related to the internal characteristics of the
organisation, for example level of participation,
readiness and morale (Mahoney 1967, Campbell
1977, Lewin and Minton 1986).
33
Measuring Managerial Effectiveness
The definition outlined above, implies that descriptions of
the characteristics and behaviours of effective managers
need to work at two levels. First, they must be linked to
some measure of the outcomes that optimise long term
organisation functioning. they must identify the
managerial characteristics and behaviours that are most
efficacious in obtaining those outcomei in the specific
environmental context of the manager, We will look first at
the issues surrounding outcome measurement. We then turn to
the development of categories against which the outcome
measures can be compared.
Objective versus Subjective Outcome Measures
The selection of criteria for use in outcome measurement has
a long and chequered history (Smith 1976, Nathan and
Alexander 1988). Outcome criteria range between hard
objective (for example production quantity) and soft
sUbjective (for example supervisory rankings) .
A variety of objective criteria have been employed. Morse
and Wagners' (1978, p.31) study, for example, used "economic
end result data such as return on investment and budgeted
versus actual costs". Martinko and Gardiner's (1990) study
of school principals used measures of student performance on
minimal competency and standardised achievement tests.
Other objective criteria include profit, sales, rates of
return, production quantity, production quality,
absenteeism, productivity, accidents, staff morale and
turnover (Campbell et al 1970, campbell 1977, Boyatzis 1982,
Lewin and Minton 1986).
Objective criteria are frequently deficient in that they
ignore important aspects of the job. Production output, for
example, is only one aspect of a first level supervisor's
34
job. Such objective performance criteria do not acknowledge
the impact of the manager's behaviour on internal
organisational or. unit characteristics, such as morale and
satisfaction (Mahoney 1967, Campbell et al 1970, Lewin and
Minton 1986).
Perhaps more significant, is the potential for objective
measures to be contaminated by factors beyond the manager's
control. As implied in Figure 2:1, the "human, financial,
and material resources" (Campbell et al 1970, p.10S)
available to the manager and the conditions of the external
environment can impact dramatically on their outcomes.
objective criteria do not account for the impact of such
uncontrollable factors on the perceived effectiveness of the
manager (Campbell et al 1970, Nathan and Alexander 1988).
The most widely used subjective outcome criteria are global
rankings and ratings, often conducted by the manager's
superior (see for example Mahoney, Jerdee and Nash 1960,
Morse and Wagner 1978, and Martinko and Gardiner 1990).
Such criteria are useful in that they provide an overall
indicator of a manager's effectiveness, in relation to their
contribution to organisational functioning. They can also
be expected to cover a range of managerial behaviours
performed over time and are less likely to suffer from
deficiency problems, than objective criteria. Observers
inside the organisation are likely to be aware of what the
35
individual manager has contributed, herice sUbjective
criteria are less likely to be contaminated by external
factors beyond the manager's control.
The major weakness of subjective criteria is the inability
of the researcher to discern the extent to which the
judgement of the observer is contaminated by observational
errors such as halo, central tendency, leniency, limited
observations and bias relating to factors such as age, sex,
education, appearance and race (Campbell et al 1970, Nathan
and Alexander 1988). A ~ e l a t e d weakness of superior only
rankings/ratings is that other members of the ratee
manager's constituency (for example, peers, subordinates,
clients) are not included. The perceptions of superiors may
not be shared by other equally perceptive members of the
manager's constituency.
A variation on ranking/rating methods are salary or
promotion indices corrected for age or length of job tenure
(Hall 1976, McCall and Segrist 1980, Luthans et al 1985). A
further variation on this approach is to define the manager
as effective or successful by virtue of the fact that they
have made it into a top management position (Luthans et al
1985, Cox and Cooper 1988). Such criteria retain the
advantages of global rankings and have the additional
benefit of representing the perspectives of a number of
superiors accumulated over the manager's time in the
36
organisation. These perspectives presumably reflect the
manager's capacity to consistently contribute to the
functioning of the organisation.
These criteria are reliant on the capacity of the promotion
system to accurately reflect the effectiveness of the
manager. It will always be difficult for the researcher to
know to what extent the process is contaminated, for example
by level of competition, extent of observation of the
managers behaviour and the kind of judges the manager has
had over his/her tenure in the organisation. Hence, while
the pooling of perspectives, implicit in the promotion
process, reduces the likelihood of observational error it
increases the potential of contamination from factors beyond
the control of the individual manager. The promotion
process is also weighted toward the perspective of superiors
rather than subordinates and other members of the manager's
constituency. In New Zealand some organisations
(particularly in the public sector) are informally known for
their capacity to systematically promote less effective
people. This s6rt of informal understanding casts doubt on
the use of promotion indices as output criteria in such
organisations.
There are no definitive answers as to the relative efficacy
of objective versus sUbjective output criteria. Nathan and
Alexander's (1988, p.531) research, for example, found no
37
support for the "assumption that 'objective' measures of
performance are more predictable than sUbjective
evaluation" .
Hales (1986 p.108) contends that subjective criteria may
actually be more appropriate in managerial settings than
"some absolute, objective, benchmark". Subjective criteria
are seen by Hales, as better adapted to the varied and
contingent nature of managerial work and effectiveness.
The uncertainty of current organi.sational and managerial
environments does lend support to the use of sUbjective
effectiveness criteria. The ability of subjective criteria
to focus over time, on specific managers, in specific
contexts and to limit contamination from external factors,
may give such criteria an advantage in studies of managerial
effectiveness. Furthermore, there is the concern that
objective measures, however well constructed, may be
meaningless if based on unreliable data.
There are indications that the distinction between objective
and subjective criteria is somewhat artificial. Both are
ultimately reliant on human judgement (in the case of
objective criteria in the choice of performance standard).
In this sense both are subjective in nature and it is
perhaps not surprising to find similarity in
predictabilities (Jaques 1976, smith 1976, Nathan and
Alexander 1988). Nathan and Alexander (1988, p.530) for
38
example, .found the overlap between "observed validity
distributions from ... subjective ratings and objective
production quantity ... of ~ u c h a magnitude that little
meaningful differentiation between the use of these criteria
could be determined".
Overall we may conclude with Nathan and Alexander (1988,
p.533) that the selection of objective versus subjective
output criteria is not "as serious a problem as has been
generally assumed". Ideally multiple criteria would be
employed (Goodman and Pennings 1977, Morse and Wagner 1978,
Heneman 1986, Martinko and Gardner 1990). Where objective
criteria are not available sUbjective criteria can be
expected to provide similar predictability and may, in fact,
be better adapted to' studies of managerial effectiveness.
Developing categories of Effective Managerial Behaviour and
Characteristics
Having established criteria against which managerial
characteristics and behaviours can be evaluated we now need
a method for identifying and categorising such
characteristics and behaviours. As we discussed above, one
of the key constraints in developing effectiveness criteria
lies in the varied and contingent nature of managerial work
and effectiveness. This same variety and contingency is
39
also a constraint in developing characteristic and
behavioural categories.
Given the diversity of managerial work it is desirable to
avoid the use of preconceived categories, frameworks and
perceptions. There is always the danger of imposing a
generality which is not relevant and/or missing some aspect
which is particular to a specific research situation. The
need is to rely on "the managers themselves rather than on
psychologists to choose the appropriate definitions,
wordings and format" that categorize their work (Campbell et
al 1970, p.479). Not surprisingly, (Hales 1986, p.93)
reports a recent "shift away from the measurement of
managerial jobs across pre-formed categories toward the
discovery of categories".
This shift is not in evidence in recent studies of
managerial effectiveness. Most of the recent studies of
managerial effectiveness make use of pre-formed frameworks
(see Morse and Wagner 1978, Luthans et al 1985, Martinko and
Gardiner 1990). This is fine in studies that are attempting
to compare existing behavioural frameworks (such as
Mintzberg's roles) with effectiveness measures taken across
diverse organisational settings. It is less useful in
studies which are attempting to discover effectiveness
characteristics and behaviours, particularly those that
relate to specific organisational settings.
40
The research question guiding this study and the paucity of
existing answers to that question implies a process of
discovery which is more exploratory and inductive in nature
than it is deductive. It is the earlier, rather than later
studies which evidence such an approach. Flanagan (1954)
developed the critical Incidents Method in which qualified
observers are asked to report examples of particularly
effective or ineffective behaviour. Once the incidents are
collected they can be mined for behavioural categories for
use on rating forms. This is a useful approach which
appeared frequently in the literature of the 1950's
(Flanagan 1 9 5 ~ , 1952, Kay 1959).
A slightly different method was adopted by Roach (1956). In
this study managers were asked to write "a brief essay
describing the behaviour of the best and poorest supervisor
they knew" (Roach 1956 p.488). These essays, seventy in
all, were then content analysed to produce a "checklist-type
questionnaire ... in which supervisors could be described by a
five point scale depending on the applicability of the
statement to the supervisor being described" (Roach 1956
p.488) .
Campbell et al (1970) describe a method for developing job
behaviour observation scales which involves five workshop
discussion sessions with experienced managers from target
organisations. These workshops are used to develop
41
behavioural dimensions and critical incidents which are
sorted into job behaviour scales. stewart and stewart
(1981a) developed the items for their performance
questionnaires by holding brainstorming sessions with
lipeople from the personnel department, outside experts,
behavioural scientists, interested line managers and so on"
(p.84,85). In all of these approaches, the researchers have
attempted to allow the managers to speak for themselves,
rather than imposing their own frameworks. These methods
are much more likely to capture the flavour of distinctive
research situations than are applications of pre-formed
categories. However, they are not without limitations.
In all of these methods the researcher collects a series of
written incidents, essay examples or group perspectives. In
some of these methods the process of collection proceeds
through the me.dium of a pre-formed interview question
format. The greater the reliance on such a pre-formed
format the greater the likelihood of observer bias entering
the research. Use of such formats also increases the
likelihood of respondents offering espoused theories as
opposed to identifying dimensions that are of real
significance to themselves (Ginsberg 1989). In this case
the respondent is cued by the perceived requirements of the
question framework or of the researcher.
42
Having gathered the data the researcher must ,give definition
to what is discovered and hence to the categories and models
that emerge. In the critical incident and essay studies of
Flanagan 1951, Roach 1956 and Kay 1959) the recorded
observations must be "evaluated, classified and recorded"
and finally "summarized and integrated" (Flanagan 1952,
p.384,385). with the approach suggested by Campbell et al
(1970), the effectiveness dimensions and categories that
emerge from the workshop process require definition and
structuring on. the part of the consultant or researcher.
This is also the case in the brain storming process outlined
by stewart and stewart (1981a) and invoked concern on the
part of the author's regarding the impact of observer bias.
The collection of raw data in the form of aggregated
incidents, essays or group perspectives can present the
researcher with a difficult task in the
definition/classification phase. There is frequently a need
for considerable interpretative input on the part of the
researcher, increasing the potential impact of observer
bias. Some of the insights expressed by respondents may
also be lost. In past research a high proportion of the
ideas identified by these methods have failed to
subsequently discriminate between managers identified as
effective and ineffective (stewart and Stewart 1981a,
1981b). As a consequence the methods outlined above, are
not particularly productive in terms of the usable
43
effectiveness items produced (stewart and stewart 1981a,
1981b) .
Concerns of this nature led to the adoption, for industrial
use, of a clinical procedure called the Repertory Grid
Technique. The Repertory Grid Technique is a semi-
structured interview process which can be used to explore
the ideas and frameworks used by individuals in categorising
managerial effectiveness. It has a number of advantages
over other qualitative methods.
Most important of these, for our purposes, is that it is a
technique largely free of observer bias. It elicits the
m ~ a n i n g s held by the respondents themselves rather than
imposing the frameworks and- cognitive construction systems
of the researcher (stewart and stewart 1981a, 1981b, Crow
1988, Ginsberg 1989). The data elicited in the RepertQry
Grid interviews falls out in a series of bi-polar
descriptors. These data have the advantage of being clearer
than most qualitative data bases and are therefore easier to
categorise and prepare for further analysis.
The Repertory Grid is a highly efficient technique,
generating much higher amounts of usable data than
comparable qualitative techniques (stewart and stewart
1981a, Dunn and Ginsberg 1986, Ginsberg 1989). stewart and
stewart (1981a) report a productivity increase (in terms of
44
usable categories) of around 500% when they replaced their
brainstorming techniques with Repertory Grid approaches.
Finally, it is a readily replicable technique producing data
which can be analysed and validated using computer driven
statistical analysis (Bell 1987).
These advantages are confirmed by applications of the
Repertory Grid Technique in a variety of organisational
settings. It has been used for example, in research on
management information systems (Stabell 1978), occupational
stress (Crump, Cooper and smith 1981) managerial performance
(Stewart and Stewart 1981a, 1981b), organisation structure
(Wacker 1981), organisation innovation (Dunn and Ginsberg
1986) and competitor and portfolio analysis '(Walton 1986,
Ginsberg 1989). These studies indicate that the Repertory
G ~ i d Technique is an ideal method for developing
characteristic and behavioural categories of the sort
required in this study. The Repertory Grid Technique
provides one of the best exploratory research methods
currently available and hence has been adopted for this
study. The method and its application to this study are
discussed fully in chapter three.
45
HOW DO THE CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIOURS OF EFFECTIVE
MANAGERS VARY ACROSS DIFFERENT MANAGERIAL LEVELS?
The literature indicates that organisational level does
influence the characteristic and skill requirements of
managerial work (see fqr example Hemphill 1959, Dubin and
Spray 1964, Mahoney, Jerdee and Carroll 1965, Child and
Ellis 1965, Horne and Lupton 1965, Thornton and Byham 1982,
Pavett and Lau 1983, Luthans et al 1985). By the term level
we mean a grouping of staff of roughly equal status and
. responsibility. There is reasonable agreement within this
literature concerning patterns of variation between
management levels.
Katz (1974) argued that effective management rests on three
central skills. These are conceptual skills, technical
skills and human skills. In conformity with K a t z ~ s (1974)
reasoning most studies report an increased emphasis on
longer range conceptual tasks and skills with movement up
the managerial hierarchy (Hemphill 1959, Mahoney et al 1965,
Haas, Porat, and Vaughan 1969, Tornow and Pinto 1976, Pavett
and Lau 1983, Dakin, Hamilton, Cammock and Gimpl 1984,
Luthans et al 1985, McLennan, Inkson, Dakin, Dewe, and Elkin
1987) .
Conceptual skills, as defined in these studies, involve two
primary dimensions. The first relates "to the sensing of
46
the organization as a whole and the total situation relevant
to it" (Barnard 1938, p.235). The second, related
dimension, involves "systematic long range thinking and
planning" (Hemphill 1959, p.59). The increase in emphasis
shown in these studies is supportive of the proposition that
"events become more spontaneous and unplanned as jobs move
down the managerial hierarchy" (Martinko and Gardiner 1990,
p.347 see also Mintzberg 1973).
Jaques (1976) offers a more sophisticated typology' of the
distinctive types of conceptual thinking required at
different organisational levels. Jaques (1976, p.153) uses
the concept of the "level of abstraction" required in the
thinking of the manager. These range from concrete thinking
"carried out in direct physical contact with the output" for
by a first level supervisor (Jaques 1976, p.144),
through to highly abstract processes based on "unconscious
intuition, with a complex of apparently unrelated facts and
figures" (Jaques 1976, p.151). These much higher levels of
abstraction are characteristic of high level managerial jobs
and decisions with a very long time horizon.
Most, but not all (see Ramos 1980, Pavett and Lau 1983),
commentators report a decreasing emphasis on
specialist/technical knowledge and skills with movement up
the managerial hierarchy (Fayol 1949, Barnard 1938, Hemphill
1959, Thornton and Byham 1982, Dakin et al 1984, McLennan
47
al 1987). Corresponding with this shift is the need to
leave behind more specialist, technical roles and adopt a
more generalist approach at senior managerial levels
(Mahoney et al 1965, Dakin and Hamilton 1986).
Some distinction needs to be made between the various
definitions of technical knowledge and skills. The Katz
(1974, p.91) definition is based around "an understanding
of, and proficiency in, a specific kind of activity
particularly one involving methods, processes, procedures or
techniques". Involvement in specialist activity of this
kind would seem likely to decrease with movement up the
managerial
Kotter (1982, p.134) provides a broader definition of
knowledge as based on a "detailed knowledge of the
business and organization and good solid relationships with
the large number of people upon whom the job makes him
dependant". Kotter's definition involves broad industry
experience, knowledge and networks. The need for a
technical grounding of this nature limits the organisational
transferability of top managers (Kotter 1982, Dakin et al
1984, Whitely 1989). Technical knowledge of this sort is
undoubtedly important, even at very senior management levels
(Kotter 1982, 1988). We may add a third definition of
technical knowledge, based on the need for the managerial
technical skills that are offered in courses such as the
48
Masters of Business Administration (MBA). These include for
example, financial analysis, marketing, computing and human
resource m a n a g e m e n ~ . One of the key purposes of the MBA
process is to provide potential general managers with a
generalist grasp of these skill areas. We may assume that
such a generalist understanding becomes more important as
the manager advances up the managerial hierarchy.
The human skills dimension is important at all managerial
levels (Katz 1974, Pavett and Lau 1984, Dakin et al 1984,
Bonama and Lawler 1989). The need for human skills however,
appears to become "proportionally, although probably not
absolutely, less" (relative to other skills) as the manager
advances up the hierarchy (Katz 1974, p.95, see also Pavett
and Lau 1983).
49
The nature of the required people interactions also changes
between managerial levels. At lower levels managers are
primarily involved in internally orientated supervisory
tasks such as directing, leading and developing subordinates
(Hemphill 1959, Mahoney et al 1965). At more senior levels
the people contacts become more complex and externally
oriented (Hemphill 1959, Mintzberg 1973, Alexander 1979,
Paolillo 1981, Pavett and Lau 1983, Luthans et al 1985).
A related area concerns managerial skill and activity in
organisational politics (Dalton 1959, Fletcher 1973). There
has been little research on variations in the between level
emphasis on this area. Pavett and Lau (1983) found no
significant difference in the perceived requirement for
political skills between management levels. Luthans et al
(1985) by contrast, found that first line and middie
managers engaged in significantly more political
than did the top managers in their sample.
The existence and patterns of variation in the between level
characteristics and skill requirements of managerial work
are well illustrated by the literature. The primary
deficiency of this literature, as with that related to more
general descriptions of managerial work, is its failure to
describe level by level differences between specifically
effective and or ineffective managers. The literature
offers no explicit guidance about the ways in which the
skills and characteristics needed to be effective in
management vary across organisational levels. This is
obviously a useful area for research and is therefore one
aspect of this study.
CONCLUSION
In this review we have acknowledged the influence (and the
constraints on that influence) of managers on key
organisational and societal outcomes. We have also, along
with Martinko and Gardner (1985), Hales (1986) and stewart
50
(1989), noted the paucity of research examining
effectiveness in management. Few studies have attempted to
discover the characteristics and behaviours that distinguish
effective from ineffective managers. Furthermore, there is
an almost complete absence of published research exploring
the nature of managerial effectiveness across organisational
levels.
with these issues in mind we have proposed the following
research question; "What are the characteristics and
behaviours of effective versus ineffective managers and how
do these characteristics and behaviours vary between
different managerial levels." The methods used in
addressing this question along with the results and their
implic.ations are discussed in subsequent chapters.
Chapter three describes the Grid Technique in more
detail. Chapter four discusses data gathering and sampling
approaches. Chapters five and six define the major scale
and factor categories relating to the characteristics and
behaviours of most and least effective managers in this
study. Chapter seven tests hypotheses relating to variation
in the characteristics and behaviours of most and least
effective managers at different managerial levels. Chapter
eight summarises the major findings and discusses their
implications for managerial practise, teaching and research.
51
CHAPTER THREE
REPERTORY GRID TECHNIQUE
INTRODUCTION
In chapter one we outlined our research question as; "What
are the characteristics and behaviours of effective versus
ineffective managers and how do these characteristics and
behaviours vary between different managerial levels."
Addressing this question presents two central
First it requires a means of identifying behaviours and
characteristics which are representative of effective and
iheffective managers. Second it requires effectiveness
criteria against which the the validity and relative
importance of the behaviours and characteristics can be
established. In this chapter we focus on the identification
of behaviours and characteristics and the role of the
Repertory Grid Technique in this process. The effectiveness
criteria used in this study are discussed in chapter four.
52
In chapter two we noted the varied and contingent nature of
managerial work. We found that the process and content of
managerial work can vary significantly across different
levels, job types, organisations, environments, cultures and
even between different managers performing similar jobs.
This variat.ion demands researc:h methods that allow
individuals;, not researchers, to define the characteristics
and behavieturs which relate to 'managerial effectiveness in
their particular situation.
This has nett been the case in recent research on effective
and ineffective managers (see for example Luthans et al
1985, Martinko and Gardiner 1990). As we saw in chapter
two, most clf these studies have used frameworks and
instruments developed in othe::::- research settings. The
danger of such research approaches is that they bring a
.definition and structure to the research setting which may
be inappropriate. ~ t is difficult to know in such an
approach hClw much the finding::; reflect the perspectives of
the respondents and how much they reflect those contained in
the method or the researcher. This same difficulty was also
present in the earlier more qualitative studies of
managerial effectiveness (see for example Flanagan 1951,
Roach 1956, Kay 1959, stewart 1981a, 1981b), with their
heavy reliance on researcher -evaluation and classification.
The desire in this study was to allow individuals to speak
for themselves, within the context of their particular
circumstances, without the distorting influence of
instrument or researcher pre-conceptions. The Repertory
Grid Technique addresses this need well. Its use allows
53
respondents to describe their own managerial worlds, with
their attendant categories, with minimal interference from
the researcher. The Repertory Grid is to
this study. In this chapter we describe the technique and
the principles that underly it.
BACKGROUND TO THE REPERTORY GRID
The Repertory Grid Technique (R.G.T.) was developed by
George Kelly for use in clinical practise (Kelly 1955).
Kelly's development of the R.G.T was motivated by two
primary concerns. The first related to the impact of
observer bias on the diagnosis of clinical patients. Kelly
sought an approach which would allow the perspectives of the
patient to 'emerge without the distorting influence of the
clinician's training and perspectives. At the therapeutic
level the need was for an approach which would allow the
therapist to explore with the client rather than impose
externally derived perspectives.
The second concern related to the then current obsession, in
the field of psychology, with statistically based studies of
large masses of people. Kelly felt that individual
differences were being neglected in this research and sought
a clinical approach that would allow individual clients to
speak for themselves, rather than being categorised on the
basis of large sample norms.
54
Kelly's emphasis on idiographic research approaches draws
from quite radical assumptions regarding human nature.
These assumptions parallel emerging views of managerial work
(see chapter two) as simultaneous, interactive and holistic
in nature. The theory (known as Personal construct Theory)
underlying the R.G.T. refutes the notion of a static and
therefore predictable and controllable human nature. People
are seen as "a form of motion" (Bannister and Fransella
1986, p.63) continually experimenting, evolving, and
reconstructing within their life experience.
The attempt, implicit in orthodox psychology, to "fathom the
nature of humanity" is meaningless when placed in the
context of construct theory. It is the individual, not the
scientist who explores, defines and continually redefines
the issues of life and humanity. In this sense individuals
are scientists and experimenters, continually seeking to
"understand their own nature and the nature of the world and
to test that understanding in terms of how it guides them
and enables them to see into the immediate and long term
future" (Bannister and Fransella 1986, p.8). People will
vary from each other in the way they construe life and life
events. As a consequence "each of us lives in what is
ultimately a unique world, because it is uniquely
interpreted and thereby uniquely experienced" (Bannister and
Fransella 1986, p.10). Construct theory argues for an
55
approach that accompanies the individual in their unique
construction of meaning, rather than imposing externally
derived models and frameworks that reflect the perspectives
of some other person or body of understanding.
Kelly's concerns echoed our own need to establish
effectiveness categories that reflect the perspectives of
specific individuals and research settings. Similar
concerns, albeit more narrowly focused, have been expressed
by others who have adopted the R.G.T. stewart and stewart
(1981a, 1981b) use the R.G.T to tailor-make management
development around the needs of individual organisations,
rather than assuming that the training needs of managers are
the same in all organisations. Crump, Cooper and smith
(1980,1981) adopted the R.G.T in preference to widely used
pre-designed health and behavioural questionnaires. The
R.G.T was seen as more effective than pre-designed
instruments, in involving respondents and developing a
representative data base.
Because the Repertory Grid interview process works with
elements rather than a schedule of interview questions, its
reliance upon researcher input and interpretation is
minimal. It is perhaps not surprising that researchers
active in the use of the R.G.T claim that the problems of
observer bias and Hawthorne effects, inherent in so many
other research approaches are almost completely absent with
56
the R.G.T (see Bannister and Mair 1968, Crow 1988, Ginsberg
1989) .
PERSONAL CONSTRUCT THEORY
The R.G.T is based on Kelly's Personal Construct Theory (see
Kelly 1955). Implicit in this theory is the idea that
people need to make sense of their environment and life
experience. The world of the infant, to paraphase William
James, is one of "buzzing, blooming, confusion". This
confusion is reduced by the maturing person through the
development of what Kelly calls personal construct systems.
The individual's personal systems the
ways in which they construe the people, objects and ev
7
nts
they encounter in their life experience. The individual's
psychological processes are in turn "channelled by the ways
in which he or she successively construes events" (Bannister
and Fransella 1986, p.63). It is the personal construct
system that guides the individual in their search for
meaning and in their attempts to anticipate and understand
future life events.
57
The individual's construct system is made up of a series of
dicotomous constructs. Kelly (1955, p.61) defines a
construct as "a way in which at least two elements are
similar and contrast with a third". Constructs are bi-polar
in nature, for example; light versus dark, happy versus sad,
strong versus weak. The individual's personal construct
system allows a series of bi-polar comparisons to be made,
through which they understand their environment by
simultaneously noting similarities and differences and by
searching for commonalities within diverse events (Easterby-
smith 1980). Individual constructs form part of a
hierarchical system in which constructs are linked in
subordinate and superordinate relationships. For example,
for some individuals, the construct sports car versus saloon
car might be subordinate to the construct good car versus
bad car. Both constructs might in turn fall under the
mobile side of the mobile versus immobile construct.
An individual's construct system may contain thousands of
such groupings, each with hundreds of constructs. The
construct employment (versus work), for example, might have
hundreds of types of paid activity grouped under it. This
allows the individual to handle a whole range of
constructions around the theme of employment. The linking
of these construct groupings provides the individual with a
complete system for understanding and dealing with the
people, objects, and events that confront them.
The accuracy of an individual's personal constructs are
constantly being assessed on the basis of their past
predictions relative to actual current outcomes (i.e. their
success in anticipating events). Personal constructs are
58
thus involved in an ongong validation and modification
process on the basis of current feedback. For example, a
manager who his/her efectiveness as based around
maintaining a distance from staff and emphasizing formal
authority will face a major challenge should the culture of
their organisation emphasize personal contact and team based
approaches. The failure of such a construction to produce
the anticipated success will challenge the validity of
his/her construct system and may lead to a change in the way
managerial effectiveness is construed. The concept that
emerges from this process is of an individual in a state of
near constant change, never quite the same from one moment
to the next. It is also in this process that we see the
individual as the scientist and the inquirer, constructing
hypotheses and modifying them in response to the results the
experiments have generated.
59
The people, objects and events that provide the focus of an
individual's personal constructs are called elements. The
constructs are ways of understanding the elements that
appear in the individual's life experience. constructs are
not passive labels but are an active means of evaluating and
discriminating between the elements that enter the
individual's life experience (Fransella and Bannister 1977,
Bannister and Fransella 1986).
60
Just as individuals are unique, so will personal construct
systems be unique in many ways. The researcher must seek to
understand the respondent's unique perspective on both poles
of their constructs. "Each construct is seen as a dichotomy
and the two opposing poles are individual and personal to
the construer. For example and could be
opposites for many people, but for some people might
be the opposite of (Crow 1988, p.l).
The constructs of different individuals will also have "many
similarities in content and structure due to a common
sensory and cognitive system, and a pool of common knowledge
that has been accumulating for thousands of years" (Lim
1984, p.28, see also Slater 1977). The R.G.T offers the
dual potentiality of pooling information held collectiveli,
while at the same time revealing distinctive individual
characteristics. In the case of this research, for example,
it provides a means of tapping and pooling the collective
views of a large number of respondents on management
effectiveness. At the same time it acknowledges and
explores the unique insights of specific individuals and
situations.
APPLICATION OF THE REPERTORY GRID TECHNIQUE
A variey of procedures are available for eliciting
respondent constructs. All of the procedures involve a
comparison of elements in terms of the respondent's personal
constructs. In this research we used the method of triads.
This method proceeds as follows;
i. Element Elicitation
The researcher or clinician will select a set of elements,
sometimes in conjunction with the respondent (or client).
An element is an event, person or object in the domain under
consideration. The elements are chosen to represent the
specific domain that the researcher and will
explore. For example, if the field of study was personal
relationships the elements might be; my wife, my best
friend, a person I dislike. It is in the choice of element
that the researcher has the greatest influence in the
interview process. Care needs to be taken to ensure that
the element set is representative of the domain under
consideration.
Elements are usually presented in groups of three (triads).
There is nothing sacred about the use of triads however and
dyadic presentations appear equally successful. The element
61
sets often include both positive and negative elements so
that both poles of the respondent's construct system are
explored. In the example given above, the elements my wife
and my best friend would act as positive elements with a
person I dislike acting as the negative. This allows both
poles of the respondent's construct system to be explored.
Having established an element set representative of the
domain of interest, the R.G.T commences with a preliminary
outline of the purpose of the interview and an assurance
that the responses will be held in complete confidence. The
respondent is then given a number of blank cards on which
they write the elements around which the interview will
revolve.
stewart and stewart (1981a, p.87) provide the following
example of a list of elements designed to explore the way
managers construe their own work activity.
1. An event where you feel you have performed well.
2. An event where you feel you failed to live up to your own
expectations.
3. An event which was important but which came as a bit of a
surprise.
4. A routine event that you enjoy.
5. A routine event that you dislike.
6. An important event requiring mainly managerial skills.
62
7. An important event requiring mainly technical/managerial
skills.
8. Another event where you feel that you performed w e l l ~
9. Any other event that is an important part of your work.
At the start of the interview respondents are asked to think
about each element in turn and to write on cards a specific
example of each of the elements. For example, in responding
to element one "an event where you performed well" the
respondent might write "the sales presentation I gave at
last months conference".
ii. Construct Elicitation
The cards are numbered to correspond with the element they
represent and in the triad method, the elements are
presented to the respondent one set at a time. The
interviewer commences by requesting the respondent to
consider the elements described on cards one, two, and three
and asks "I would like you to tell me one way in which any
two of these events are similar but different from the
third". In the case of the stewart and stewart (1981a,
p.87) example the respondent replied "Well, Planning and
Travelling are both solitary activities, but Selection
Interviewing involves other people". The interviewer then
recorded; Solitary ----- Done with others. Thus the first
construct emerged.
63
In the process of the interviews the interviewer will draw
comparisons between triads involving all or a number of the
elements. These comparisons will produce a series of bi-
polar constructs providing a full picture of the way in
which the respondent construes the subject being researched.
Appendix One provides an example of the constructs elicited
by an interview conducted as part of this research on
effective and ineffective managers. In eliciting constructs
the type of element is important. Our experience indicates
that the use of people or objects as elements proves easier
in construct elicitation than events. Respondents have more
difficulty generating constructs when abstract events are
used, rather than more con'crete elements such as people or
objects.
iii. Laddering Up and Down
As mentioned above, individual constructs exist in a
construct hierarchy. Construct relationships can be further
explored using Hinkle's (1965, 1970) laddering technique.
To ladder-up the construct hierarchy the interviewer asks
questions such as "Why is that important?" To ladder-down
the interview asks questions like "Why is that?", "What are
the implications of that?", "Tell me more about that?" As
an example, lets imagine the respondent was presented with
the following three elements.
64
1. The car I would most like to own.
2, The car I would least like to own.
3. Another car I would really like to own.
The respondent may record Lamborgini Diablo as element one,
with Lada 1300 and Porsche 911SC, as elements two and three
respectively. In response to the request "I would like you
to tell me one way in which two of these cars are similar,
but different from the third", the respondent may reply
"Well two of these are sports cars while the other one is a
saloon."
Laddering up to superordinate constructs in the hierarchy
involves the question "You mentioned that two of these cars
are sports cars and one is a saloon; why is that important?"
The respondent might then say "Well sports cars are exciting
saloon cars are boring". Exciting---boring becomes a
superordinate construct in the car construct system. To
ladder down to subordinate constructs the interviewer could
say "You mentioned that two of these cars are sports cars
and one is a saloon; tell me more about that?" The
respondent may reply "Well elements one and three are highly
streamlined while number two is shaped like a brick."
Streamlined---brick shaped becomes a subordinate construct
in the car construct system.
65
Using these sorts of questions the initial construct becomes
a basis from which other constructs are generated. Each new
construct casts more light on the way the respondent
construes the subject being researched and provides
additional background information and examples. Laddering
up the construct hierarchy tends to generate constructs more
personal and more related to the respondent's philosophy of
life. Laddering down generates more detailed and technical
details about the elements themselves.
At the end of the interview the interviewer will have
recorded a large number of polar constructs (usually between
ten and sixty) all of which provide insights on the subject
matter. A series of interviews with, for example, twenty
managers will typically yield between three and four hundred
constructs, although not all will be unique. These
constructs comprise, in themselves, a rich source of data.
iVa Data Analysis
The process can be terminated at this point, with the
respondent having benefited simplY by having their
constructs elicited and clarified. The interview
transcripts can also be content analysed if further
information is needed by the researcher. Alternatively the
respondent may be asked to rate the elements by their
constructs in terms of their unique grid or matrix. The
66
grid lists the elements used along the top and the
constructs elicited from the respondent down the side. The
respondent is invited to rate the extent to which each
construct applies to to each element. The grid can then be
used to explore the relationships between elements more
fully and can be analysed using one of a number of computer
packages that have been developed (for example Bell 1987).
An example (from Easterby-smith 1980) of a grid matrix is
shown in Figure 3:1. As can be seen in this example, the
elements are people with whom the respondent has a
relationship. The constructs are those that have been
obtained in an interview process similar to that outlined
above. The ticks and crosses mark the pole of the construct
most of the person used as the element. The
grid provides the respondent with a simple but useful
picture of similarities and differences in the people they
interact with. More sophisticated grids require responses
to rating scales rather than the simple binary approach
shown in Figure 3:1. This later approach permits more
sophisticated forms of statistical analysis.
67
FIGURE 3:1
ELEMENTS
1 2 3
( /) "Myself IIBoss" "Wife"
.
A Driving
-/
./
-I
B Mobile ~ X
v'
C Rigid X :; X
.
D Intelectual /
./
/
E critical X X X
4
"Best
Friend
ll
.
/
.
/
X
X
\/
5
Ii Person
Disliked)
X
X
.
-/
X
/
(X)
Easy-going
static
Open
Non-
intellectual
Accepting
(A dot (.) in the top left hand corner of a square indicates that the element above was one of the
'Itriad
il
that produced the construct for that row).
v. Comparing Construct Systems
Eliciting constructs from individuals through interviews
(with or without the extension to the grid) is a time
consuming process that may not be feasible in dealing with
large numbers of sUbjects. This was an issue in this
research as we wanted to use the R.G.T on a group large
enough to permit some generalizability in the findings. We
also wanted to compare our results across respondents,
particularly those at different organisational levels. An
individually formed and completed grid like that shown in
Figure 3:1 cannot by its nature, be compared with the grid
of another person. To make comparisons across respondents
requires a common grid which is completed by all
respondents.
One way of approaching this issue was to take a sample of
subjects and elicit a consensus of constructs from them as a
group. These constructs can in turn be used in a
standardised grid which is administered to larger numbers of
subjects (Crump et al 1981, Eden, Jones and simms 1983,
stewart and stewart 1981a, Ginsberg 1989) .. The interviews
generated a very large number of constructs, as the
respondents thought about managerial work. We felt that
reducing such a large number of constructs to the fifteen or
so constructs that might be included on a common grid was
making too great an imposition on the data. There were also
68
practical in arranging group sessions to
generate the original constructs. For these reasons this
process was not adopted.
Consequently we adopted the stewart and stewart
(1981a,1981b) approach of eliciting constructs from a
representative sample of a larger subject group and using
them as the basis for a questionnaire. The questionnaire
can then be administered to the larger group. The
questionnaire operates as a large grid, in this case with
many constructs (170 in the present study) and only two
elements. The respondents in the questionnaire survey rated
the two elements (most effective manager and least effective
manager) separately on each of the 170 constructs.
The questionnaire is comprised of categories generated by,
and in the language -of, the subjects themselves. The large
number of constructs used ensures that the full range of
constructs generated in the interviews are represented on
the questionnaire. It therefore retains the observer
neutralising characteristics of the interviews. As long as
it presents a representative range of constructs the
questionnaire can simultaneously tap the unique insights of
individuals and provide more generalizable findings. This
is the process used in this study. The interview approach,
the questionnaire formation process and the questionnaire
structure are explained in detail in chapter four.
69
CONCLUSION
The Repertory Grid Technique provides a means of eliciting
constructs of managerial effectiveness that reflect the
realities of individual and organisation settings, rather
than those of the researcher or research method. Both as a
technique and in its underlying assumptions, it is well
suited to the varied, complex and interactive nature of
managerial work. It proved to be a highly effective tool in
addressing the research question guiding this study. Its
application in this study is detailed in chapter four.
Subsequent chapters outline the results of this application
and their implications.
70
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA GATHERING
INTRODUCTION
Chapter two highlighted the lack of research on
effectiveness in management. The literature reviewed in
chapter two also indicated that there is very little
research eXRloring variations in managerial effectiveness
(in terms of characteristics and behaviour) between
different managerial levels. with these issues in mind we
developed the following research question; "What are the
characteristics and behaviours of effective versus
ineffective managers and how do these characteristics -and
behaviours vary between different managerial levels
lD

This question is the central focus of this study. In
addressing the research question, the data gathering process
proceeded through two phases. First, repertory grid
interviews (eighty-nine in total) were conducted with
managers and non-managers in a large public sector
organisation. These interviews were designed to elicit
constructs differentiating effective from ineffective
managers in the organisation. Second, a questionnaire study
was designed, in which the interview constructs were
introduced to a l a r g ~ r sample of managers and non-managers
71
in the organisation. As suggested in chapter three, the
questionnaire was developed from the constructs elicited in
the ipterviews. Three hundred and sixty-five questionnaire
responses were obtained.
In both the interview and questionnaire phases of the study,
criteria of managerial effectiveness were used as a base for
the generation of effectiveness categories and for
subsequent analysis. In this chapter we outline the data
gathering methods and the effectiveness criteria employed.
Issues relating to sampling and the generalizability of
results are also discussed. Specific modes of data analysis
are outlined in the chapters to which they are related. An
overview of the data analysis process is also provided at
the end of this chapter, as a guide to the reading of
subsequent chapters.
ORGANISATIONAL SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS
The study was conducted in the Department of Social Welfare,
with the data being collected during 1986 and 1987. This is
a large New Zealand public sector organisation which, at the
time of data gathering, employed slightly less than six
thousand staff (5943). The Department of Social Welfare was
at the time, undergoing a transformation from a stable
bureaucracy to a more innovative and accountable public
sector organisation. This study provided an opportunity to
72
assist the Department's managers in this transition and
concurrently gather data from which the research question
could be addressed.
73
Both the interview and questionnaire phases of the study
were conducted in four offices of the Department located in
Manukau, Hamilton, Nelson and Christchurch. Two of these
offices (Manukau and Christchurch) were large by Department
standards with 108 and 138 employees respectively. The
other two (Hamilton and Nelson) were medium in size with 65
and 69 staff respectively. An additional sixty
questionnaires were sent by mail to offices ina wide
variety of locations throughout New Zealand. In order to
ensure a good cross-sectional sample, a number of these mail
surveys went to small offices located in rural towns.
Both managerial and non-managerial respondents were sampled
in the study. The respondents were divided into four
management levels. Those below the supervisory Divisional
Officer level (104 grade level) were referred to as non-
managerial. The 104 grade Divisional Officer respondents
were classified as supervisory management. These managers
form the first line of supervisory management. Management
positions between the Divisional Officers and up to and
including the Assistant Directors, were classified as middle
management. District and Regional Directors were classified
as senior managers. The non-managerial, supervisory, middle
and senior management titles are used hereafter. The
management level criteria used to categorize the respondents
are in harmony with the literature in this area. The
literature and the classification of respondents into
management levels are discussed further in chapter seven.
All of the major, work areas were represented. These
included Benefits and Pensions, Administration, Social Work,
National Superannuation, Typing and District/Regional
Directors. A full outline of the interview and
questionnaire respondents is provided below.
SAMPLE DEFINITION
In chapter two we defined the manager as a person, usually
titled. manager who has responsibility, authority and
accountability for a discrete organisational unit and who
has authority and accountability for getting some of the
unit's work done through other people. This implies that
studies of managers should address themselves to people so
titled, who hold clear unit and staff management
responsibilities
In this study our concern was to explore the characteristics
and behaviours of individuals who met the above definition
of the term manager, particularly in terms of staff
management responsibility. To this end the specifically
technical, non-managerial sections of the organisation were
74
avoided (e.g. legal, planning etc). The focus was on units
characterised by staff/manager reporting relationships. As
we shall see below, the interview respondents recorded the
names of the managers they were comparing in the interview
study. A review of the names of these managers indicates
that all of them had staff management responsibility.
The questionnaire survey was more difficult to monitor, in
that the names of ratee managers were not indicated. The
respondents were asked however, to record the mapagement
level and title of the ratees on the questionnaire. A
review of the ratee managers identified in the questionnaire
study indicated that seventy-eight percent of the ratees
were either 104 level supervisors or Regional/District
Directors. All of these positions involve staff management.
The remaining ratees were senior Divisional Officers, Senior
Executive Officers, Assistant Directors and Area Welfare
Officers. These positions also involve staff management.
It appears that the great majority, if not all, of our
respondents would have identified the characteristics and
behaviours of managers who conformed to the management
definition outlined above. To this extent we can be
confident that the characteristics and behaviours reported
in this study are representative of managers in the
Department rather than of senior staff without managerial
responsibilities.
GENERALIZABILITY OF FINDINGS
The primary aim of this study was to e x p l ~ r e and model the
characteristics and behaviours of effective versus
ineffective managers. Because the study was undertaken in a
specific organisational setting it is important to consider
the extent to which the results can be generalized to
managers in the Department of Social Welfare as a whole and
to organisations beyond the Department.
As is discussed below, the sample percentages and response
rates are such that we may be confident that the
questionnaire results are representative of the Manukau,
Hamilton, Nelson and Christchurch offices (eighty-three
percent of the staff in these four offices were sampled in
the questionnaire study). There are also indications that
the findings may be generalizable to management in the
Department as a whole and to organisations outside of the
Department.
The size of the Department and the geographic dispersal of
its staff and offices prevented the development of a simple
random sample (Tull and Hawkins 1976, p.159). As an
alternative, a representative judgment sample (Tull and
Hawkins 1976, p.161) was developed. This sample was deemed
representative of the organisation, by management
representatives and external consultants who had an intimate
76
and long term association with the Department. As is
outlined above, th,e sample included a variety of offices,
(large, medium and small in urban and rural settings) work
types, management levels and both sexes. The sample
appeared to be at least as representative of the total
organisation as a strictly random sample would have been.
Total employee numbers, together with the interview and
questionnaire responses at each management level, are shown
in Table 4:1. These figures allow us to make an estimation
of the representativeness of the interview and questionnaire
data. Application of standard formulae (Tull and Hawkins
1976, Gimpl 1990) for determining appropriate sample size
(for random samples) indicates that the 365 (6.14 percent of
total staff) questionnaire responses would be representative
(at the 95% confidence level) of the total Department
between +/-3 to 4%, depending on the amount of agreement in
responses to a given question. Use of the same formulae
indicates lower levels of error in the responses of the
managerial population of which 11.87 percent were sampled
(see Table 4:1). As discussed above, the sample appears to
be at least as representative as a strictly random sample.
Given this assumption, the sample size estimates that
emerged in applying standard formulae for random samples,
provide reasonable confidence that the questionnaire
responses are representative of the Department as a whole.
77
TABLE 4': 1
RESPONDENT SAMPLE
Emgloyees Interview Samgle Questionnaire
Samgle
No. Percent No. Percent
Senior Management 83 8 (9.64) 28 (33.73)
Middle Management 662 41 (6.19) 75 (11.33)
Supervisory 999 15 (1. 5) 104 (10.41)
Management
Total Managers (3.67) (11.87)
Non-Management 4199 25 (.0. 59 ) 158 (3.76)
Total Employees (1.50) (6.14)
The smaller sample size (with the exception of the middle
and senior management groups) of the interview study places
greater limitations on its generalizability to the
Department as a whole. As is discussed below, the more
important issue is the extent to which the constructs
elicited in the interviews presented questionnaire
respondents with a range of constructs or ideas
representative of their work experience; that is, the extent
to which the questionnaire was content valid. This aim
appears to have been accomplished.
78
There are strong indications that the findings of this study
can be generalized to organisations beyond the Department of
Social Welfare. Two pieces of evidence support this
conclusion. The first relates to other studies of
managerial effectiveness conducted (by the author and
colleagues) in New Zealand ( L ~ m 1984, Dakin and Cammock
1985). One of these "studies was conducted in the private
sector with two further studies being conducted in
additional public sector organisations. All of these
studies used the Repertory Grid Technique. Both the
constructs and construct categories that emerged from these
studies show a remarkable similarity, both to each other and
to those generated in this study. Given the premise of
diversity underlying this study and the capacity of the
Repertory Grid Technique to tap into such diversity we found
the similarity in these findings of great interest.
The second piece of evidence relates to the similarity
between the results of this study and studies of managerial
work conducted overseas. In chapter six we outline the
results of a factor analysis of the questionnaire data,
conducted as part of this study. It is of interest that the
factor structure emerging from this study is in direct
conformity with the agenda building and networking
categories reported by Kotter (1982, 1988). The parallels
are striking given the variations in both research settings
and methods, between this and Kotter's work. The factor
model also echoes the widely recognised skill typology of
Katz (1974). These similarities indicate that the findings
of this research may well have a generalizability beyond
this particular research setting. They support the limited
generalizations which are drawn from the results described
in later chapters. They also lend support to the
possibility of generic models of effective managing which
have applicability (although with quantitative variations in
emphasis) across different management settings. This
conclusion and the need for further research in exploration
of this issue is discussed further in chapter eight.
79
INTERVIEW :STUDY
Interview iBample
Having established a research setting we next had to define
the perceived characteristics and behaviours of effective
and ineffective managers in t.he organisation. As discussed
in chapters two and three, the Repertory Grid Technique
(R.G.T) was used to elicit constructs about managerial
effectiveness from respondents representative of the
Department of Social Welfare.
Eighty-nine'Repertory Grid interviews were conducted in the
Christchurch, Hamilton, and Manakau offices of the
Department. Eighty-eight of the interviews provided usable
responses. In keeping with t:he method described in chapter
three, the constructs generat:ed in the interviews were to be
used to develop a questionnaire for distribution to a larger
sample of Department Clearly the questionnaire
itself had to be representative of the work experience of
this wider sample. As a consequence the representativeness
of the interview sample was a critical issue.
This iSSUE! was addressed by !selecting (with the assistance
of the management and consultancy group mentioned above) an
interview sample which was as representative as possible (in
terms of, geographical area, organisational level, and
80
81
respondent sex) of the Department. The interview sample is
shown in Table 4.2. The Manukau and Christchurch offices
are representative of larger urban areas, while Hamilton and
Nelson represent smaller urban/rural populations. Some
sampling compromises were made, dictated by the
practicalities of interview time, travel cost and
accessibility of respondents. Ideally, the sample would
have contained more female respondents, more respondents
from the Nelson office and relatively fewer middle managers.
However, the larger numbers of middle management respondents
ensured a good representation of senior, middle and
supervisory management ratees.
Overall, there is good reason to believe that the interview
constructs are representative of the total organisation. On
reviewing the interview transcripts it is clear ~ h a t there
is a great deal ~ f overlap in the constructs generated by
different respondents. All of the constructs were mentioned
by at least two respondents, with the great majority being
mentioned by a large number of respondents. Because of this
overlap a smaller number of respondents would probably have
generated a very similar construct sample. The larger
numbers of interviews however, adds somewhat to the
diversity of constructs and provides a guide to the emphasis
placed on different categories. Additional interviews were
also beneficial in reflecting the different perspectives of
TABLE 4:2
INTERVIEW RESPONDENTS BY OFFICE, LEVEL AND SEX
Respondent Office Respondent Level Respondent Sex
Manukua 14 Senior 7 Male 46
Hamilton = 28 Middle 43 Female 40
Nelson = 3 Supervisory 13 Unknown 2
Christchurch
!.l
Non-Management 25
88 88 88
respondents at different organisational levels (see chapter
seven) .
Interview Format
The interview study was designed to elicit constructs
differentiating effective from ineffective managers in the
Department. The interviews were conducted by the writer and
(on a few occassions) two trained graduate assistants. They
followed the format outlined in chapter three. As we saw in
chapter three, the choice of elements being used is dictated
by the nature of the domain being studied. In the case of
the present research, because we were interested in
manageri?l effectiveness, we invited respondents to -think
about most and least effective managers as the element set.
The element set used in the interviews is shown in Table
4:3.
other types of elements could have been used. stewart and
stewart (1981a, 1981b) for example, report the use of work
events as elements. stewart and stewart (1981b) observed
that the use of people as elements also promotes effective
construct elicitation. Our pre-testing confirmed stewart
and stewart's (1981b) observation. Pre-testing showed the
use of other people (i.e. other managers) as elements to be
more successful than the use of managerial events. The
manager element set shown in Table 4:3 worked extremely
82
TABLE 4: 3
INTERVIEW ELEMENTS
1. Your most effective peer manager.
2. Yourself.
3. Your least effective peer manager.
4.. Your most effective subordinate manager.
5. Your least effective subordinate manager.
6. Another subordinate manager who is highly effective.
7. Your boss at the next level.
8. Apart from (7) the least effective manager you know at that level.
9. Apart from (7) the most effective manager you know at that level.
well, generating high levels of interest, involvement and
candour on the part of the
Because of our interest in hierarchical differences in
perceptions of effectiveness and to reflect the varied
perspectives of peers, superiors and subordinates (see
Perry and Mahoney 1956, Gordon and Medland 1965,
Schwartz, Stark and Schiffman 1970) respondents were asked
to think about managers at their own level and at the levels
immediately above and below them. However, non-supervisors
(who had no peer or subordinate managers) considered only
the level above them (i.e. supervisors). First line
supervisors considered only their own level and the level
immediately above them. The level of focus requested of the
interview respondents is shown in Table 4:4.
Interview Process
After a brief outline of the purpose of the interview and an
assurance of confidentiality, the respondents were given
three blank cards. On these cards they wrote the names of
the three managers selected as elements one, two and three.
On card one they wrote the name of the most effective
manager they knew at their own level. On card two they
wrote their own name and on card three they wrote the name
of the least effective manager they knew at their own level.
Three new cards were given as each new element set was
83
..-l
QJ
:::-
QJ
H
QJ
QJ
+J
rd
0:::
Subordinate
Managers
(Elements
4, 5, 6)
Peer Managers
(Elements
1, 2, 3)
Superior
Managers
(Elements
7, 8, 9)
TABLE 4:4
LEVEL OF FOCUS REQUESTED OF INTERVIEW RESPONDENTS
Non-Management
Respondents
/
Respondent Level
Supervisory
Respondents
vi
~
Middle
Management
Respondents
vi
\/
/
Senior
Management
Respondents
\/
/
V
\/
introduced. The nine elements were presented to the
respondents in three triad sets. The following pattern was
used.
Triad Set Combination
1 1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6
3 7, 8, 9
This grouping ensured that comparisons were always made
between managers at the same level, thus avoiding any cross-
level confounding. It should be noted that, in comparing
managers, no attempts were made to get respondents to make
comparisons across managerial levels. Cross-level
comparisons were avoided in order that the constructs
elicited could be uniquely cross-referenced to particular
managerial levels.
with the element names recorded on the cards the respondents
were asked "Can you tell me one way in which any two of
these managers are similar but different from the third?"
This question would elicit an initial construct. Once the
initial construct was elicited construct relationships were
further explored using Hinkle's (1965, 1970) laddering
84
technique. The question "Why is that important?" was used
to ladder-up the construct hierarchy. The questions "Why is
that?" "What are the implications of that?" and "Can you
tell me more about that?" were used to ladder-down the
construct hierarchy.
As an example of the interview process, we will look at part
of an interview conducted with a Regional Director (senior
manager). The interview had progressed through the first
three elements and was now approaching the second triad
(elements four, five and six). We pick up the process as
the interviewer is introducing elements four, five and six.
The interviewer commences "I would like you to now consider
three more managers, this time at the level below you.
First on this card, (number four) I would like you to write
the name of your most effective subordinate manager." The
respondent wrote the name Jill Todd (all of the names are
disguised). "On this next card I would like you to write
the name of your least effective subordinate manager." The
respondent wrote the name Joy Mullens. "Finally I would
like you to write the name of another subordinate manager
who is highly effective." The respondent wrote the name
Roger Bright.
85
At the end of this process the respondent had three separate
cards in front of him, with the names of three different
managers who formed elements four, five and six. The
respondent was asked to lay the cards out in front of him
and think about the named individuals, as managers. After a
suitable period for reflection he was asked "Can you tell
me one way in which two of these managers are similar but
different from the third?" The manager replied. "Yes, four
and six use consultation, whereas number five is very
secretive and unable to share information."
The interviewer then wrote down the construct; Uses
Consultation-------- Very secretive, unable to share
information. To further explore this construct the
respondent was asked the laddering question "Why is that?"
The following r ~ s p o n s e emerged which provided a subordinate
construct and further illuminated the consultation issue.
"Well, four and six are more secure in their position, they
don't feel like they have to defend their right to be in
charge. By contrast, number five is less secure and as a
result she's always defending her right to be in charge".
This response was recorded as the construct; Secure in the
position and don't feel they have to defend their right to
be in charge-------- Less secure in the position, is always
defending her right to be in charge.
To explore the issue further the question "Why is that?" was
again asked. The respondent replied "Four and six have an
acknowledged level of technical expertise and they feel
secure in that knowledge. Five has less technical knowledge
86
and consequently is less secure in her role". The
interviewer recorded the construct; Acknowledged level of
technical expertise-------Less technical knowledge. ~ h r o u g h
the interview process two subordinate constructs were
developed from the original.
At the start of this part of the interview the respondent
distinguished ratee managers by the level of consultation
used in their managerial approaches. Through the laddering
approach the interview explored the underlying reasons for
the use or non-use of consultation. We discovered that the
use of consultation relates to the manager's level of
confidence and security in the position, which in turn is
related to levels of technical knowledge.
When the initial construct was fully developed the
respondent was then asked "Can you tell me any other way in
which two of these managers are similar, but different from
the third?'! This question was repeated until the range of
differences was fully explored. The process was then
repeated with the elements seven, eight and nine. This
process was repeated to the point where no new constructs
emerged and the interview was concluded.
87
In all cases, managers labelled as effective were contrasted
with those labelled ineffective. As a result the interview
responses emerged as as series of bi-polar descriptions
(constructs) of the characteristics and behaviours of most
versus least effective managers. One side was descriptive
of the characteristics and behaviours of managers perceived
as most effective the other of managers perceived as least
effective. As mentioned in previous chapters, Appendix One
shows a page of recorded interview responses.
As outlined above, respondents were asked to record the
names of the managers identified (elements) on the cards.
These cards were retained at the end of the interview to
ensure that the constructs were aligned with the correct
management level in the analysis. They were also used as a
check on the reliability of respondent assessments of
managerial effectiveness, and to ensure that the ratee
managers held staff management responsibilities (see above) .
88
The interviews took between one and two hours to complete
and almost invariably generated a high level of respondent
interest and involvement. A number of more senior
respondents found the process useful in considering their
own approach to management and in reviewing the activity of
their subordinates. Each interview generated a number of
constructs which described the perceived differences between
',effective and effective managers in the Department. The
interviews also provided a wealth of examples and anecdotes
which expanded and explained the constructs. The
constructs developed in the interviews, were used in two
ways. First, they were content analysed to identify
differences in the frequencies with which constructs were
used by managers at different organisational levels.
Second, they provided the items used in the subsequent
questionnaire study.
QUESTIONNAIRE STUDY
Questionnaire Rationale
Repertory Grid interviews provide a tremendous depth of
understanding of individual perspectives. The interviews
share the limitations of observation studies however, in
that the time involved makes it difficult to apply the
technique to large respondent samples. In chapter three we
discussed various alternatives that can be pursued to extend
the teChnique to larger samples of respondents. The
approach employed in this study followed the prescription of
Stewart and Stewart (1981a, 1981b) in that it used the
interview constructs to form a questionnaire, which was then
applied to a larger subject group.
Questionnaire Development
The following procedure was used in developing the
questionnaire;
89
1. The interview constructs were transcribed from the
interview protocols onto index cards. Respondents
frequently used the same, or very similar constructs. Only
unique constructs were recorded in the transcription
process. The total number of unique constructs transcribed
was around three hundred.
2. The constructs were sorted into conceptually similar
categories using a modified Q-Sort technique (Guilford 1954,
Tull and Hawkins 1976). six judges worked independently to
sort the constructs into conceptually similar categories.
The judges then met and were able to agree on a core of
twenty-one logical categories, without difficulty.
3. The categories were then used as a guide to the
inclusion of in the questionnaire. The judges
agreed on a core of 170 constructs which were used as items
in the finalised questionnaire. The remaining constructs
were dropped because of their similarity to those retained.
For example the constructs: Separates his work and private
life -----Mixes his work and private life, and Does not
allow his work and private life to interfere with one
another ----- Allows his work and private life to interfere
with one another, clearly address the same issues. Only the
latter construct was retained in the questionnaire. The
finalised questionnaire is shown as Appendix Two.
90
It may seem that the use of judges to classify constructs is
antithetical to the spirit of Personal Construct Theory,
which seeks to explore the unique worlds of individual
respondents. However, as we have noted above, the study
also seeks generality, and as such needed to use a standard
grid across a number of respondents. Further, although
there is some danger of losing unique perspectives in such
an editing process, the task of the judges proved to be
quite easy. Constructs which were similar were quite easy
to spot and it was a straightforward task to eliminate
constructs which were redundant. Constructs which were'
clearly unique were also relatively easy to identify and
include.
Overall, we were satisfied that the final questionnaire was
representative of the range of perspectives held by
individuals in the Department. It was therefore felt
unlikely to suffer from the sort of deficiency problems
outlined in chapter two. The questionnaire, of course, was
not as specifically tailored to individual perspectives as
365 repertory interviews might have been. Nevertheless, it
represented a useful compromise that permitted a greater
sample size and still allowed individual respondents to
express themselves along relevant dimensions.
As discussed below, respondents were asked to complete the
questionnaire twice, on one occasion rating the most
91
effective manager they knew and then rating the least
effective manager they knew. In this way it was possible to
explore the perceived differences between managers believed
to be effective and ineffective. By presenting constructs
representative of those used by the respondents, the
questionnaire retained the benefits of the Repertory Grid
Technique while providing more generalizable data.
Questionnaire Administration
The questionnaires contained two identical sections, each
with 170 items (see Appendix Two). On one section the
respondents were requested to rate a most effective manager.
On the other they were requested to rate a least effective
manager. As can be seen from Appendix Two the questionnaire
items are bi-polar (for example, Poor Listener: discourages
discussion ----- Listens well: encourages discussion). The
respondents were requested to place a tick on a five point
scale indicating the extent to which the item descriptors
were descriptive of the ratee. To avoid response sets the
item polarity was reversed every five items.
The order in which respondents answered the questionnaire
was randomly decided. Approximately half the sample rated a
most effective manager first, followed by a least effective
manager. The other half of the sample received
questionnaires which reversed the order. Respondents were
92
asked to leave at least a few hours and if possible a full
day between the most and least effective ratings. The
reversal of items and the gap b e t w ~ e n most and least
effective manager ratings appears to have limited the impact
of halo effects in the responses (see chapters five and
six) .
93
Because the questionnaire was to be administered at
different hierarchical levels, and to control for the level
of the managers being rated, three versions of the
questionnaire were produced. Version one requested
respondents to rate 104 level supervisory managers.
Version two requested respondents to rate peer managers.
Version three requested respondents to rate superior
managers. Version four requested respondents to rate
subordinate managers. Non-managerial respondents rated only
their immediate supervisors and used version one.
Supervisors rated peers and their immediate superiors and
used versions two and three. Middle and senior management
respondents rated either subordinate, peer or superior
managers and used versions two, three and four. Table 4:5
shows the pattern of questionnaire distribution.
The ratee category (and questionnaire version) administered
to the respondents, was randomly determined. The exception
to this was the mail survey in which the administration was
manipulated to ensure that the respondents rated only
TABLE 4:5
QUESTIONNAIRES
Version One Version Two Version Three Version Four
(Rating (Rating Peers) (Rating Superiors) (Rating
Supervisors) Subordinates)
Respondents
/
Non-Managerial
V
----- ----- -----
Supervisors -----
\/ \/
-----
Middle-Managers -----
\/ \/ \/
Senior Managers -----
\/ "\/ \/
District or Regional Directors. This approach was used to
increase the number of ratees at the senior level.
Respondents were requested to write the grade and job title
(but not the name) of the person they were rating to ensure
the questionnaire analysis was correctly focused.
Questionnaire Sample
The questionnaires were distributed directly to staff, in
the Department of Social Welfare, in the Christchurch,
Nelson, Hamilton and Manakau offices. At each of these
offices an explanatory meeting was held, prior to the
distribution of the questionnaires. At this meeting
questions and concerns were addressed. The instructions on
the front of questionnaires were and any areas
of confusion clarified. As discussed above, a mail survey
was also conducted covering an additional 60 respondents.
An explanatory letter was included with the mail survey
questionnaires.
The office respondents were visited individually on two
further occasions. First to answer any queries and second
to pick up the completed questionnaires. with the exception
of the Hamilton office an attempt was made to survey all of
the staff at each office. The work commitments of the
Hamilton office were such that not all of the staff were
able to take part. In this office all of the available
94
senior staff and fifty percent of the remaining staff were
sampled. A follow-up phone call was made to mail survey
respondents who failed to respond within four weeks. The
close follow-up yielded a high response rate from both
office and mail survey respondents. The response rates for
the office and mail survey respondents are shown in table
95
4:6.
Usable questionnaire responses were received from 365
respondents. The questionnaire response patterns for the
mail survey and each office, work area, management level and
respondent sex are shown in Table 4:7. As can be seen from
Table 4:7, the questionnaire respondents represent a range
of offices, work areas, management levels and both sexes.
As is discussed above, the size and diversity of the sample
gave reasonable confidence that the questionnaire results
were representative of the organisation as a whole.
MEASURING EFFECTIVENESS
Effectiveness criteria
Having developed methods for eliciting managerial
characteristics and behaviours the next requirement was to
ground these characteristics and behaviours against measures
of effectiveness. As we saw in chapter two, a variety of
measurement approaches have been employed in past research.
TABLE 4:6
RESPONSE RATES BY OFFICE
Office No. of Emgloyees Usable Resgonses Resgonse
Percentage
Manukau 108 104 96%
Hamilton 65 35 54%
Nelson 69 53 77%
Christchurch 138 135 98%
Mail 60 38 63%
Total 440 365 83%
TABLE 4:7
QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONDENTS BY OFFICE, WORK AREA, MANAGEMENT LEVEL, SEX
Office Work Area Manaqement Level Sex
Manukau 104 Benefits & Pensions 172 Senior Management 28 Male 110
Hamilton 35 Administration 70 Middle Management 75 Female 191
Nelson 53 Social Work 42 Supervisory Management 104 Unknown 64
Christchurch 135 National 39 Non-Management 158
Superannuation
Mail 38 Typing 14
District/Regional 28
Directors
365 365 365 365
While the preference in this study was to employ multiple
effectiveness criteria, practical limitations meant that
this was not possible in the Department of Social Welfare.
As a welfare organisation, the Department employed none of
the economic outcome measures often used in effectiveness
studies (for example profitability and return on
investment). other objective effectiveness criteria which
might have proved useful, such as budgeted versus actual
costs, efficiency of resource usage and staff morale, were
not sufficiently developed to be useful in this study.
The performance appraisal and promotion systems were highly
formalised and documentation existed in this area on all of
the managers in the organisation. This information however,
was regarded as too sensitive to be made available for use
in the study. Apart from this, both the appraisal and
promotional systems were seen by many staff as inadequate
and inequitable. At the time of the study, a major review
of both systems was in progress. Failure to get access to
promotional and appraisal information and problems within
these systems ruled out their use in this study. It was not
possible therefore, to employ the sort of effectiveness
indexes and global rankings described in chapter two (see
Morse and Wagner 1978, Luthans et al 1985, Martinko and
Gardiner 1990)
96
97
In chapter two we discussed the preference expressed by
Hales (1986) for more contingent effectiveness measures.
Hales (1986, p.l08) writes "one such contingent standard
with which to compare actual managerial practice might be
what others expect or require managers to do. Good or bad
performance may then be conceived in terms of the extent to
which managers' performance matches others' expectations".
The effectiveness measure employed in this study followed
Hale's prescription. In the interview study the elements
referred to most effective and lea-st effective managers.
The questionnaire study followed the same approach, inviting
respondents to rate a most effective and a least effective
manager. This classification was reinforced, at the end of
each questionnaire section, by a five point global
. .
effectiveness rating (see questionnaire Appendix Two) .
Respondents were invited to rate each ratee manager on this
five point scale (ranging from Below Average/Bottom 10% to
Superior/Top 10%). As discussed in chapter two, previous
research indicates that a single broad subjective measure
(such as the most effective/least effective designation used
here) is probably as useful in measuring effectiveness as
are "objective" criteria or a battery of subjective ratings
(Jaques 1976, smith 1976, Hiles 1986, Barker, Tjosvold and
Andrews 1988, Nathan and Alexander 1988). While we would
have liked to have employed multiple effectiveness criteria
the evidence suggests that little has been lost with the
broad subjective criteria used in the study.
98
The sUbjective criteria used in this study echoed the
approach employed by Flanagan (1951, 1952) and that of Roach
(1956). More recently Barker et al (1988) used the same
criteria in a study of the conflict approaches of project
managers. Respondents in the Barker et al (1988) study were
requested to describe the behaviour of the most effective
and the least effective project managers they had ever
worked with. The conflict resolution approaches of most and
least effective managers were then compared. The study of
Barker et al (1988) also employed a more comprehensive
battery of subjective effectiveness criteria. For example,
the impact of project managers behaviour on the job
satisfaction and commitment of staff. These additional
criteria produced results identical to the broad most and
least effective designation.
In the present study, several of the analyses were run
including only most effective managers with global ratings
of four and five (very good and superior) and least
effective managers with global ratings of one and two (below
average and average). In all cases no significant
difference was found between questionnaire analyses using
the high and low global effectiveness ratings and those
using the broad, most effective/least effective designation.
The analysis presented in subsequent chapters therefore,
employs only the broad most effective/least effective
criterion.
The Reliability of the Effectiveness criteria
During the interview phase of the study, respondents were
asked to nominate managers who they saw as most and least
effective. Sixty-eight names were nominated by the
interview respondents, some classified as most effective,
others as least effective. All of the sixty-eight nominees
were identified by more than one respondent. In fifty-one
of the sixty-eight cases there was 100% agreement between
respondents about whether a person was effective or
ineffective. That is; fifty-one of the sixty-eight
nominated managers were designated either most or least
effective by all of the respondents who identified them.
There was minor disagreement over the remaining seventeen
nominees, but overall, agreement in assigning people to most
and least effective manager categories was 90.6%. This
indicates a high level of reliability in the judgements of
the respondents and indicates a correspondingly high level
of reliability in the effectiveness criteria employed in
this study.
99
CONCLUSION AND OVERVIEW OF DATA ANALYSIS
In this chi:tpter we have outlined the methods used in
developing characteristic and behavioural categories
descriptivl:! of most and least effective management in the
Department of Social Welfare. We have also discussed the
criteria u:3ed in defining effective and ineffective
managers. These criteria provided the grounding against
which the I::haracteristic and behavioural categories were
developed. Issues relating to sampling and the
generalizability of the research "findings have also been
discussed.
The data gathering phase of the research produced a wealth
of data. 'rhe specific techniques used in analysing this
data are d,etailed in subsequent chapters. The following
overview of the data analysis is provided as a guide to
further re,:lding.
With the field work completed. the first step was to analyse
the questi'onnaire results. F'rom this initial analysis
dependent variables were identified which formed the
backbone of subsequent questi.onnaire and interview analyses.
The questionnaire responses were used to cluster the 170
questionnaire items into twenty categories (hereafter
referred to as scales) of tWCI to twelve items. The scales
described the characteristics; and behaviours of the most and
100
least effective ratee managers. The scales and the
clustering technique are described in chapter five.
The scales were in turn factor analysed to a two factor
solution. In addition to the two factors, the scale
technical knowledge emerged as a distinct third dimension.
The factor analysis, the resultant factor structure and the
implications of the structure are discussed in chapter six.
The scale and factor categories were used as dependent
variables in testing hypotheses relating to variations in
the characteristics and behaviours of most/least effective
managers between managerial levels. The interview content
analysis, hypotheses, the procedures used in hypotheses
testing, the results and their implications are discussed in
chapter seven.
Chapter eight concludes this thesis. It highlights the
conclusions that emerge from the study as a whole and
discusses their implications for managerial research,
teaching arid development.
101
CHAPTER FIVE
DEFINING THE CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIOURS OF MOST AND
LEAST EFFECTIVE MANAGERS
INTRODUCTION
As we have seen in previous chapters, the p r i n c i p ~ l
objective of this study has been to describe the
characteristics and behaviours of effective versus
ineffective managers. In chapter four we described the
questionnaire development process, which generated a
questionnaire with 170 items. The number of questionnaire
items was much too large to provide a succinct
characteristic or behavioural description. The need was to
reduce the 170 questionnaire items to a smaller number-of
categories. In this chapter we describe the reduction
process, which was achieved by forming the items into
logical categories (using six judges) and then using
Pearson's Correlation Coefficients and Cronbach's Alpha to
test and finalise the categories. This process generated
twenty scales descriptive of the characteristics and
behaviours of most and least effective managers in the
Department of Social Welfare. In this chapter we use these
scales to describe effective and ineffective management in
102
the Department. We explore differences in emphasis on the
scales, between ratings of most and least effective
managers, and compare them with previous research findings.
We also look at the issue of interaction and overlap between
the scales. The methods used, the findings and their
implications are discussed in this chapter. The results
outlined in this chapter have important implications for
managerial development. These implications are touched on
in this chapter and are discussed in greater depth in
chapter eight.
DATA ANALYSIS
Developing Characteristic and Behavioural categories
Item Reduction
As mentioned above, the principle objective of this study
was to define the characteristics and behaviours of
effective versus ineffective managers. Following the
interview study, 170 descriptions of managerial behaviour
and characteristics had been edited into a questionnaire
(see Chapter Four). Responses to the questionnaire were
used to reduce the items into a smaller set of scale
categories.
103
The ratio of subjects to variables (approximately 2 to 1)
precluded the use of data reduction by factor analysis or
similar clustering procedures. The recommended ratio for
reliable use of factor analysis is 10-20:1. Given the size
of the questionnaire (170 items), a sample of 2500 would
have been needed for the reliable use of factor analysis. A
sample of this magnitude would have exceeded both the number
of managers in the Department and the resources of this
study.
The item reduction process proceeded as follows;
104
step One
Only items which discriminated significantly between most
and least effective managers were included in the analysis.
That is, we were concerned to include in the analysis only
items which represented true differences in effectiveness.
T-tests (related samples) were conducted between all pairs
of items on alternative forms of the questionnaire (most
versus least effective). All of the items discriminated
between most and least effective managers at or above the
.0001 level. Item 19 discriminated in reverse of the
expected direction and was dropped from the analysis.
This result is consistent with the stewart's (1981a) finding
that use of the Repertory Grid Technique yields a high
proportion of constructs which discriminate in terms of
effectiveness. However, the very ,high proportion of
discriminating items (100%) a concern over the
influence of halo error. It is possible that
questionnaire respondents may have felt that most effective
managers should be rated high across all the items and the
least effective managers should be rated low. This could
account for the large and consistent differences between
most and least effective ratings. As noted in chapter four,
the polarity of the questionnaire items was reversed every
five items. The respondents were also requested to rate
specific individuals and to leave a time gap between most
and least effective ratings. These steps were taken
specifically to limit the impact of halo effects in the
questionnaire responses. There is strong evidence that this
approach' was successful and that halo error is not a
significant issue in the results of this This
evidence is discussed further below and in chapter six.
step Two
The process used to reduce the 170 questionnaire items
proceeded as follows;
105
1. Formation of Logical Scales
In outlining the questionnaire development process in
chapter four, we noted that six judges worked to sort the
interview constructs into twenty-one logical categories. In
this process approximately three-hundred constructs from the
Repertory Grid interviews were transcribed onto cards. The
six judges worked independently with the same construct set.
Their instructions were to sort the constructs into distinct
logical categories. The judges groupings showed-a strong
consensus. They then met to discuss their groupings and
remove redundant constructs. The judges arrived at an
agreed set of twenty-one construct groups (with 170
constructs) without difficulty. These construct groups were
used as the initial logical scale categories.
2. Checking Internal Scale consistency
Using the scales defined by the six judges, each scale (for
both most and least effective manager ratings) was examined
for internal consistency using Cronbach's Alpha. The SPSSx
Reliability programme was employed. Cronbach's Alpha is
defined as follows (see Norusis, 1988, p.207).
106
kr
1+(k-1) r
k is the number of items in the scale and r is the average
correlation between items in the scale. Hence alpha can
range in value from 0 to 1. Alpha increases in size, for a
constant r, as the number of scale items increases.
3. Reassignment of Items and Scale Finalisation
Item loadings on each scale were computed using Pearson's
Correlation Coefficients for all 170 items. Pearson's
Correlation Coefficients were used as g u i d ~ in reassigning
items that detracteq from the alpha scores of the scales
they were originally assigned to. These items were
reassigned to scales with which they had a significant
correlation and the reliability analysis re-conducted. In
almost all cases the items ended up in the scale with which
they were most highly correlated. On some occassions items
were assigned to a scale with which they did not have the
highest correlation but with which they appeared to be
logically related. In no case were items assigned to scales
with which they were not strongly correlated.
Thirteen items (9, 22, 30, 41, 46, 55, 56, 69, 83, 93, 119,
126, and 131) were dropped from the analysis at this point,
107
as they detracted from the alpha scores of all the scales
and did not form any separate and cohesive scales within
themselves. Along with item nineteen this took the total
number of items dropped from the analysis to fourteen. The
scales delegation and training were combined into one, as
their items correlated strongly with both scale categories.
At the end of the reliability analyses we had twenty scale
categories. All of the scales, with the exception of the
external networking scale, are robust in that their alphas
exceed the .50 level recommended as adequate for research
purposes (Nunally 1967). The external networking scale was
of concern as its internal consistency falls below the .50
alpha level. As a consequence it was not included in the
analyses described below, nor in the factor analysis
described in chapter six. It has been included however, in
the analysis of variance described in_chapter seven.
Exploring Patterns of Emphasis on the Scale categories
The twenty scales serve to define the characteristics and
behaviours of most and least effective managers in the
Department of Social Welfare. The next task was to explore
differences in the patterns of emphasis on these scales
between ratings of most and least effective managers. To
explore this issue scale mean scores and rankings were
calculated for both most and least effective questionnaire
responses. Multiple t-tests were used (for most and least
108
effective manager ratings) to test for significance in
differences between the mean scores and rankings of the
scale categories. Pearson's correlation coefficients were
used to further explore variation between most and least
effective manager ratings. Ratings of most and least
effective managers on each of the scale categories were
correlated.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Describing The Characteristics and Behaviours of Most and
Least Managers
Using the reliability analysis discussed above, we have been
able to define twenty scales descriptive of
characteristics and behaviours of effective and ineffective
managers in the Department of Social Welfare. The finalised
scales, their items and reliability coefficients, are shown
in Table 5:1. As shown in Table 5:1, each characteristic
and behavioural category is comprised of two to thirteen
questionnaire items. It will be noted from this table, that
the reliability coefficients (alphas) are larger in all
cases but one (scale seventeen) for the least effective
manager scales.
109
TABLE S: 1
SCALE CATEGORIES (CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIOURS)
Scale category Items Reliability Coefficients
CONCEPTUAL ABILITY (Most Effective) (Least Effective)
Managers Managers
I. Goal Setting 87,134,145 .7086 .7687
2. Innovation 5,10,67,88,106,108, .7688 .8688
110,114,116
3. Future Orientation 72,75,89,105 .6714 .7618
4. overview 51,65,68,73,74,78, .8116 .8471
91,127,142,154
5. Managing/operating 60,80,136,153 .6124 .6175
6. Stress Management 16,130 .5664 .748]
7. Hork Capacity 1,13,15,62,63,102, .7894 .8480
121,125,128,149,165
8. Assertiveness 3,7,33,49,70,85,95, .8443 .87]2
97,101,122,150,158,
9. Priori tis ing 71,76,104,107,111, .7917 .8187
112,115,124
10. Problem Solving 4,12,79,81,82,84,90, .8756 .8919

II. Personal 2,54,58,66,86,96,103 .7484 .8249
Organisation
INTERPERSONAL ABILITY
12. Delegation/ 26,27,34,38,40,44, .7766 .7909
Training 117,132,143,
13. Consultation 6,8,11,14,29,45,77, .8187 .8816
123,133,146,151,168
14. Feedback 18,28,31,118,120, .8439 .8788
138,139,152,156,167
15. Team Building 17,20,21,43,48,140, .879] .898]
157,160,164,169,170
16. Concern for Others 2],24,25,]2,52, .7910 .8671
129,141,144,161
17. Personality 35,37,50,53,59, .8096 .808]
92,94,100,162
18. Integrity 36,39,42,47,64,98, .7724 .8490
155,163
OTHERS
19. Technical Knowledge 57,61 .5480 .5878
20. External Networking 159, 166 .4800 .5522
A fuller description of the scale categories is provided in
Appendix Three. The descriptions provided in Appendix Three
are developed by bringing together the questionnaire items
included in each category. The most effective managers are
described first, followed by the least effective managers.
Each description presents an extreme picture, with most
managers lying somewhere between the two poles. Interview
quotations which are illustrative of the characteristics and
behaviours are outlined below each description.
As a pre-cursor to chapter six, the scales (both in Table
5:1 and Appendix Three) are grouped under three categories
labelled Conceptual ability, Interpersonal ability and
Others. The conceptual and interpersonal ability categories
emerged from the factor analysis (detailed in chapter six)
and are consistent with previous taxonomies, such as that of
Katz (1974) and Kotter (1982). Each of the twenty scales
are descriptive of specific aspects of managerial
effectiveness. Overall, the scales provide a direct
reflection of the realities of managerial effectiveness and
ineffectiveness in the Department of Social Welfare. They
have already provided a useful guide to management
development efforts in the Department and as discussed in
chapter four, may have relevance in other private and public
sector organisations. For the purposes of this study, we do
not wish to detail the specific developmental needs
suggested by each scale. It is of interest however, to
110
consider the broader themes underlying the twenty scales and
their implications for managerial development. These themes
and their implications are discussed in chapter eight.
Scale Interaction
While noting the high levels of internal consistency within
the scale categories it is important to acknowledge the
overlap that exists between them. As mentioned at the
commencement of this chapter, Pearsons Correlation
Coefficients were used to correlate each of the
questionnaire items with the initial twenty-one scale
categories. In this analysis, a number of questionnaire
items were found to load strongly and positively on more
than one of the scale categories. To further explore the
existence of interaction between the scales an additional
Pearson's Correlation analysis was conducted between the
nineteen scales (for both most and least effective
responses). The resulting correlation matrices are shown in
Appendix Four. They show clear evidence of high levels of
inter-correlation between the scales. Appendix Four
demonstrates clearly the tendency of the 170 questionnaire
items to load significantly on more than scale.
The interaction between items and scale categories,
demonstrated by the Pearson's Correlation Coefficients was
also in evidence when examining the interview data. As
111
outlined in chapters three and four, the Repertory Grid
Technique (using Hinkle's (1965) laddering approach)
facilitated the exploration of respondent construct
hierarchies. Use of the laddering questions revealed a
series of relationships between constructs in different
scale categories. Respondents frequently related managerial
strengths/weaknesses in one scale category with
strengths/weaknesses in others. No formal statistical
analysis was conducted on relationships between scales in
the interview data. However, a careful reading of the
interview transcripts provides numerous examples of scale
inter-relationships. For example, the manager's level of
technical knowledge had an impact on their confiqence and
ability to front up to decisions (i.e. they didn't have the
technical knowledge to decide quickly). Managers with low
levels of technical,knowledge were also seen as more
stressed and less able to spend time with staff. Failure to
manage stress was in turn linked with failure across a
number of other managerial dimensions. The interview data
also suggests a relationship between stress and problems
with overview, prioritisation and delegation/training.
The interview data also highlights the role of the
individual's organisational and out of work experiences, in
moulding their managerial characteristics and behaviour.
Levels of family support and related personal problems
appeared to impact on the work performance of the managers'
112
in the Department. At work, issues of being locked in to
jobs no longer enjoyed, lack of support from supervisors and
past knockbacks all contributed to lowered work capacity and
motivation. The level of support from the boss, for
example, was cited as an ingredient in managerial ability to
cope with stress. stress induced burnout in turn had an
effect on the work capacity of previously productive staff.
One respondent claimed that managers in the Social Work
Division lasted around four years before burnout became an
issue.
Both interview and questionnaire results provide clear
evidence of interaction between scale categories. This
interaction suggests that proficiency on one scale may not
only h ~ v e a short term instrumentality but may be a
prerequisite to proficiency on other scales. The patterns
of scale interaction and interdependency have not been
formally explored as part of this study. They appear to be
complex and cross all of the scale categories. The scales
in the interpersonal category seem to be of special
importance. All of the twenty categories described in
Appendix Three (with the exception of personal organisation
and technical knowledge), are arguably related to abilities
described by one or more of the interpersonal scales.
Interpersonal ability for example, underpins and serves as a
pre-requisite to effectiveness in almost all of the scales
in the conceptual ability area. Effective innovation,
113
future orientation, problem solving and overview for
example, are crucially dependent on the manager's ability to
draw on staff ideas and input, t ~ r o u g h consultation.
Interpersonal ability is, in our view, the heart and
lubricant of the interactive process. As we saw in chapter
two (process feature five) interpersonal interaction
provides an opportunity to simultaneously build and
implement managerial agendas. It is in the manager's
interaction with other people that the conceptual,
interpersonal and technical dimensions of the job come
together. High levels of interpersonal ability help the
manager to build efficiencies into a highly changeable,
fragmented and discontinuous working environment (Brewer and
Tomlinson 1964, Kotter 1982, Hales 1986, Mintzberg 1990).
If the manager is interpersonally inept such avenues of
efficiency are closed to them. Consequently, we would argue
that of all the scales described in this chapter it is those
falling in the interpersonal category that are the most
important.
The complex, interactive and interpersonal picture of
managerial effectiveness described above, conforms directly
with the interactive work process described in chapter two.
It also has profound implications for managerial
development. At one level it raises doubts about the
relevance of many of the simple two dimensional models
114
offered by management teachers (for example the contingency
model of Hersey and Blanchard, 1982). More broadly, it
provides support for those that criticise the overly
rational, analytical and simplistic thrust of much
university management education (Livingston 1971, Hayes and
Abernathy 1980, Leavitt 1983, Mintzberg 1989). These issues
are discussed further in chapter eight.
Comparing the Scale categories with Previous Research
Comparison with the content and Process Features Outlined in
Chapter Two
Chapters two and three highlighted the benefits of the
Repertory Grid Technique as a research approach. In
particular we emphasised its capacity to discover and
describe the construct systems of specific individuals and
research settings. The scale categories described in
Appendix Three reflect the advantages of the research
approach employed in this study. They comprise one of the
very few typologies descriptive of the characteristics and
behaviours of effective and ineffective managers. This
provides a sharp contrast with previous managerial research,
the great majority of which makes no attempt at all to
relate the managerial activity being described to any
measure of effectiveness. The broader literature on
managerial work, despite its limited reference to
115
effectiveness measures, provides a useful sounding board
against which the efficacy of the scale categories presented
here can be assessed. In reviewing this literature in
chapter two, we described eight content and seven process
features of managerial work. These features encompass much
of what is known about managerial work. It is of interest
that the twenty scale categories presented in this chapter,
despite being specifically descriptive of managerial
effectiveness (as opposed to managerial work) have much in
common with the features of managerial work described in
chapter two.
The issue of choice and definition of meaning in managerial
jobs (content feature two) is reflected in the overview,
goal setting, innovation,
managing/operating, prioritisation and delegation/training
scales. These categories reference different perspectives
from which the manager can view the job and different
behavioural approaches through which they can define their
activity. The technical/specialist versus generalist
manager distinction (content feature three) is reflected in
the manager/operator scale. This scale bears directly on
the establishment of an appropriate balance between
technical and managerial aspects of the job.
The informal/political nature of managerial work (content
feature five) is reflected in a number of the scale
116
categories. Political concerns emerge in the assertion,
team building and concern for others scales. For example,
the issue of fronting or not fronting up to management on
behalf of staff or clients is essentially a political
decision. The maintenance of informal, quasi-political
contacts emerges in the circulation/networking dimension of
team building and in the maintenance of peer contacts and
whole organisation focus in overview. The external
networking issue (content feature six) is reflected directly
in the external networking scale.
The innovation scale directly reflects the emerging concern
with change and leadership outlined in content feature
seven. The need for change and innovation is a key theme of
the leadership, literature. The direction setting aspects of
goal setting, future orientation, and overview and the
inspirational aspects of the team building scale all echo
dimensions of leadership defined in recent writing (Kotter
1988, 1990, Bennis 1989). The strong emphasis on
interpersonal contact and ability and the coupling of
intuition and analysis which characterises the scales in the
conceptual category are also evocative of the leadership
literature. Overall the scales developed in this study are
highly compatible with the dimensions described by recent
leadership studies. This is perhaps surprising, given the
public sector context of the study. It does however,
reflect the turbulence and change impacting on this and most
117
other New Zealand public sector organisations throughout the
1980s.
The social and affective nature of managerial work,
described in process features three and four, is directly
reflected in the scales in the interpersonal ability
category. Overall, the scales (both in themselves and in
their patterns of interaction) provide a good coverage of
key dimensions relating to interpersonal interaction and
people management and emphasize the critical importance of
interpersonal ability in management. As discussed above,
the findings of this study strongly affirm the importance of
interpersonal ability as a crucial pre-condition to
effective management.
The scales goal setting, future orientation, prioritising,
problem solving and overview touch on the intuitive skills
required to manage effectively in a complex, fragmented,
simultaneous and interactive managerial environment (see
process features five and six). As mentioned above, the
emphasis on intuition in these scales gives them a strong
affinity with the leadership literature. The high levels of
interaction between all of the scales also echoes the
interactive work environment described in process features
five and six. Aspects of the scales assertiveness,
consultation, overview and prioritisation touch on the
characteristics and behaviours needed to confront and
118
reconcile the competing demands and cross-pressures of the
managerial job (see process feature seven). Finally, as
r ~ v e a l e d in chapter six, the scales form into factor
categories which conform closely with the work of Kotter
(1982, 1988) and that of Katz (1974).
Overall, the features of managerial work detailed in chapter
two, are reflected in the characteristics and behaviours
that have emerged in this research. To this extent the
characteristics and behaviours identified in this research
are in harmony with previous research. It is also
encouraging to observe the compatibility between the
findings of this study and some of the more recent research
trends emphasizing the intuitive, inter'active and
interpersonal nature of managerial work. Despite its
quantitative emphasis we believe the study makes a
contribution to the primarily qualitative work in these
areas (see for example Bennis 1989, Mintzberg 1989, Hosking
and Fineman 1990).
comparison with Previous studies of Managerial Effectiveness
To further assess the contribution of the scale categories
presented here we can look again at the small body of
research which focuses specifically on managerial
effectiveness. Some similarity is in evidence between the
categories outlined here and those developed in earlier
119
effectiveness studies. They fit closely with the factors
developed by Roach (1956) and are compatible with the
categories d e v ~ l o p e d by Flanagan (1951) and Kay (1959). In
comparison with the categories generated in these studies
however, they have greater range and present richer
descriptions with greater detail specificity. They provide
more insight, in particular, on the nature of conceptual
ability.
Morse and Wagner (1978) present six factors which they show
to have a significant relationship with individual and
organisational effectiveness. From the limited description
provided in their paper it is difficult to accurately
compare the categories presented here with those outlined by
Morse and Wagner. All of the broad factor categories
presented by Morse and Wagner (1978) are represented in the
scale categories presented in Appendix Three. However, the
scales additionally describe a number of characteristics and
behaviours apparently not identified by Morse and Wagner,
among them personality, integrity and managing/operating.
As with the previous effectiveness research each of the
scale categories presents a richer and more detailed
description than is in evidence in the Morse and Wagner
paper.
The efficiency of the Repertory Grid approach is clearly
evidenced when compared with more recent effectiveness
120
research. Luthans et al (1985, p.259) offer very limited
descriptions of twelve managerial activities and behaviours.
These have neither the range nor .specificity of the scale
descriptions offered in Appendix Three. Only two of these
activities were found to be significantly related to
managerial success. Martinko and Gardner (1990, p.339)
provide a wide ranging classification system which includes
Mintzberg's ten roles. Only minimal descriptions are
provided of these roles and none of them were found to
relate to the performance measures employed in their study.
The number of categories that discriminate in terms of
effectiveness is clearly much lower than is the case with
this study. This provides further support for stewart and
stewart's (1981a) claim that the Repertory Grid Technique is
a highly efficient means of developing valid effectiveness
dimensions.
Overall, the scale categories outlined in Table 5:1 and
Appendix Three, demonstrate clear advantages over previous
descriptions of managerial effectiveness. They offer a
richer, more detailed description of the characteristics and
behaviours of effective and ineffective managers than has
previously been provided. Unlike previous studies, all of
the characteristic and behavioural categories discriminate
significantly between effective and ineffective managers.
Additionally, the scale categories unlike for example, many
of the leadership trait descriptions can be broken down into
121
individual items and used as performance criteria in their
own right. Consequently they are not limited to descriptive
use but have a functional utility which has been proven in
subsequent research by the author.
variations Between the Characteristics and Behaviours of
Most and Least Effective Managers
As outlined above, an additional objective of this part of
the study was to explore differences in the way respondents
perceived most and least effective in the
Department. This was approached by developing scale mean
scores and rankings for each data set and testing for
significance in mean score differences using t-tests.
Pearson's correlation were also conducted between
most and least effective ratings on each scale. We will
look at the results and implications of this analysis in
sequence.
Scale Mean Scores, Rankings and T-Tests
Scale means (ranked in order of magnitude) and standard
deviations, are presented in Table 5:2. Table 5:2 shows
that the standard deviations are substantially higher for
the least effective manager ratings than for the most
effective. Respondents range more widely over the five
point questionnaire scale when rating least effective
122
TABLE 5:2
SCALE MEAN SCORES, RANKINGS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS
Most Effective Managers Least Effective Manaqers
Rank Scale Mean SD Rank Scale Mean SD
1. Goal Setting 4.55 .537 1. Team Building 2.40 .786
2. Assertiveness 4.49 .447 2. Innovation 2.48 .794
3. Work capacity 4.46 . 515 3 Stress Management 2.55 1. 019
4. Integrity 4.41 .478 4. Delegation/Training 2.56 .695
5. Future Orientation 4.40 .513 5. Concern for others 2.57 .825
6. Personal Organisation 4.38 . 511 6 Managing/Operating 2.61 .777
7. Technical Knowledge 4.37 .702 7. Feedback 2.62 .810
8. Team Building 4.366 .553 8. Problem Solving 2.63 .744
9. Problem Solving 4.363 ~ 5 5 3 9. Personality 2.64 .750
10. Stress Management 4.359 .687 10. Future Orientation 2.65 .843
11. Prioritising 4.358 .491 11. Goal Setting 2.66 .930
12. Overview 4.34 .513 12. Overview 2.67 .741
13. Concern for others 4.33 493 13 Consultation 2.68 .813
14. Consultation 4.31 .496 14. Prioritising 2.71 .730
15. Feedback 4.309 .559 15. Assertiveness 2.76 .785
16. Personality 4.30 .516 16. Technical Knowledge 2.82 1.111
17. Delegation/Training 4.29 .515 17. Integrity 2.85 .856
18. Innovation 4.27 .542 18. Personal Organisation 2.93 .852
19. Managing/Operating 4.15 .591 19. Work Capacity 3.00 .779
managers than when rating most effective managers. There
are a couple of possible explanations for this result. The
first explanation is that the least effective m a n a ~ e r s
varied in character and effectiveness to a greater extent
than did the most effective manager sample. The global
rating responses (recorded at the end of the questionnaire)
indicate that this is not the case. The most effective
ratees actually have a greater spread in their global
ratings (306 out of 365 of the most effective ratees receive
global ratings of four and five) than do the least effective
ratees (338 out of 365 of the least effective ratees receive
global ratings of one and two). Simply stated, the least
effective ratees are a more uniform group (in terms of
perceived effectiveness) than the most effective ratees.
The most plausible explanation for the higher variances is
.
that it is possible to be an ineffective manager in a
greater variety of ways than are available to those who want
to be effective managers. Most effective managers appear to
have a tighter and more homogeneous range of distinctive
characteristics and behaviours and hence a narrower and more
defined path of travel than do least effective managers.
This is an interesting finding as it indicates a qualitative
difference in the nature of most and least effective
management.
Mean scores for most effective managers (shown on Table 5:2)
are ranked from highest to lowest. The means for the least
123
effective managers are ranked in the opposite direction,
from lowest to highest means. The higher the score (and
ranking) the more proficient the group, is perceived to be
on a given scale. Lower scores (and rankings) indicate a
lower level of perceived proficiency on a given scale. In
both cases it is assumed that the more extreme the scale
mean the greater the significance of that scale in
describing either most or least effective managers. For
example, team building, (with a least effective manager
rank of one and a scale value of 2.4) is assumed to be of
greater significance in describing least effective managers,
than it is in describing. most effective managers, where it
has a rank of eight. Conversely goal setting is seen as
highly significant in describing most effective managers,
but of lesser significance (rank eleven) in describing least
effective managers.
A scan of Table 5:2 indicates clear differences in the
patterns of scale emphasis between most and least effective
manager ratings. In almost all cases, the ranks of the
scale categories differ between most and least effective
manager ratings. As discussed above, t-tests were used to
explore points of significant difference in the scale mean
scores and rankings. The t-test results are presented using
Duncan's (1955) New Multiple Range format in Tables 5:3 and
5:4. Tables 5:3 and 5:4 indicate that the between scale
differences are highly significant. Some broad themes can
124
be distinguished through close examination of the two
tables.
A look at the top five rated categories on Table 5:3
indicates a high level of perceived proficiency (for the
most effective manager group) on scales falling in the
conceptual category. Four of the five top ranked scales
fall into this category. Overall, it is proficiency on
scales in the conceptual category which characterise the
most effective manager group. This is reflected in an
average mean score for scales in the conceptual ability
category of 4.40 compared to 4.31 for scales in the
interpersonal ability category. While this difference is
not significant, it does highlight the stronger overall
emphasis on the conceptually orientated scales. The lower
overall mean score on scales in the interpersonal ability
category (see discussion above and in chapter six) is
reflected in the rankings shown on Table 5:3. Three of the
five lowest ranked scales are from the interpersonal ability
category. Of the bottom seven scale rankings (see Table
5:3) five fall in the interpersonal ability category. It is
in the interpersonal area that the most effective manager
group appear to be the weakest (although still significantly
ahead of the least effective manager group).
An interesting exception to these broad themes are the low
rankings of the managing-operating and innovation scales
125
'l'ULB 5:3
Or
DIFFERENCES, FOR MOST
A ax t-TESTS
(* Significance cut-off point set at the .05 level)
SCALES
V
9
1
18
I 17
16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 S 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
MEAN .15 .27 .29 .30 .31 .31 .33 .34 .36 .36 .36 .37 .37 .3S .41 .41 .46 .49 .55
----
19. MgOp 4.15 1.2 .14 .15 .16 .16 .18 .19 .21 .21 .21 .22 .22 .23 .26 .26 .31 .34 .40
18. Innv .27 .02 .03 .04 .04 .06 .07 .09 .09 .09 .10 .10 .11 .14 .14 .19 .22 .2S
17. Deltrn .29 .01 .02 .02 .04 .05 .07 .07 .07 .OS .08 .09 .12 .12 .17 .20 .26
16. Pers .30 .01 .01 .03 .04 .06 .06 .06 .07 .07 .08 .11 .11 .16 .19 .25
15. Fdbk .31 .00 .02 .03 .05 .05 .05 .06 .06 .07 .10 .10 .15 .1S .24
14. Cons .31 .02 .03 .05 .05 .05 .06 .06 .07 .10 .10 .15 .18 .24
13. Concn .33
.01 .03 .03 .03 .04- .04 .05 .08 .08 .12 .16 .22
12. O/V .34
.02 .02 .02 .03 .03 .04 .07 .07 .07 .15 .21
11. Prior .36
.00 .00 .01 .01 .02 .05 .05 .10 .13 .19
10. Stress .36
.00 .01 .01 .02 .05 .05 .10 .13 .19
9. Prob .36
.00 .01 .02 .05 .05 .10 .13 .19
8. Team .37
.00 .01 .04 .04 .09 .12 .1S
7. TechKn .37
.01 .04 .04 .09 .12 .18
6. PrsOrg .38
.03 .03 .08 .11 .17
5. Future .41
.00 .01 .08 .14
4. Integ .41
.01 .08 .14
3. Work .46
.03 .19
2. Assert .49
.06
1. Goal 4.55
1. Goal
2. Assert
3. Work
---r--
4. Integ -----1----
5. Future
6. PersOrg
7. TechKno\ol
8. Team
9. Prob
10. Stress
11. Prior
12. O/V
13 . Concern


____ J____ ___ _
____ J____ _ ___ j ___ _
----J---- ---- ----
----
14. Consult
15. Feedback
16. Personalty
17. Deltrain
18. Innov
19. Mng/Op
====l====Ji-=::J::::1i----

I
which both fall in the conceptual category. Table 5:3
highlights these scales as the areas in which the most
effective manager group are least proficient. As can be
seen from the scale descriptions provided in Appendix Three,
both of these scales are concerned with coping with change.
The manager-operator scale is concerned with the transition
from technical specialist to broad managerial roles. The
innovation scale is concerned with coping with and
contributing to broader organisational change. Given the
very substantial changes impacting on the Department at the
time of the study it is not surprising that such change
management issues should emerge as the area of greatest
difficulty for the most effective manager group.
Turning to the least effective managers, the five lowest
ranked scales on Table 5:4 (team-building, innovation,
stress management, delegation-training and concern for
others) are indicative of a generalized difficulty with
people management, on the part of the least effective
manager group. Three of the five lowest ranked scales fall
in the interpersonal ability category. The average mean
s c o ~ e of scales in the interpersonal ability category for
the least effective manager group is 2.62 compared with 2.70
for scales in the conceptual ability category. While the
differences in mean scores are not significant, they do
highlight the greater overall emphasis on scales in the
interpersonal ability category_ Overall the least effective
126
TABLE 5:4
SIGNIFICANCE OF SCALE MEAN SCORE DIFfERENCES FOR LEAST EFFECTIVE MANAGER EATINGS
SCALES
1. Team
2. Innv
1
MEAN 12.4
2.40
.48
3. Stress .55
4. Deltrn .56
5. Concn .57
6. MngOp .61
7. Fdbk .62
8. Prob .63
9. Pers .64
10. FUture .65
11. Goal .66
12. O/V .67.
13. Cons .68
14. Prior .71
15. Assert .76
16. TechKn .82
17. Integ .88
18. PrsOrg .93
19. Work 3.00
AS ESTABLISHED BY t-TESTS
cut-off point set at .05 level)
2 i J 1 4 i 5 i 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
:::_ .62
.63 .64 .65 .66 .67 .68 .71 .76
.08 .15 .16 .17 .21 .22 .23 .24 .25 .26 .27 .28 .31 .36
.07 .08 .09 .13 .14 .15 .16 .:17 .18 .19 .20 .23 .28
.01 .02 .06 .07 .08 .09 .10 .12 .13 .14 .15 .16
.01 .05 .06 .07 .08 .09 .10 .12 .13 .15 .20
.04 .05 .06 .07 .08 .09 .10 .12 .14 .19
.01 .02 .03 .04 .05 .06 .07 .10 .15
.01 .02 .03 .04 .05 .06 .09 .14
.01 .02 .03 .04 .05 .08 .13
.01 .02 .03 .04 .07 .12
.01 .02 .03 .06 .11
.01 .02 .05 .10
.01 .04 .09
.03 .08
.05
,--------------------------------------------------------------------------
19. Work
18. Persorg
17. Integ
16. Tech Know
15. Assert
14. Prior
13. Consult
12. O/V
11. Goal
10. Future
9. Personal it
8. Prob
7. Feedback
6. MngjOp
5. Concern
4. Deltrain
J. Stress
2. Innov
1. Team
-

' --J--- ---.. -


____ ____ _ ____ _"C ,---- ---- - -,---- ---- ---
____ j' ___ .. ___ _, ____ t J ___ .. ____ '1 -1----
____ i - --- 1 --- - I -1----
____ _ ____ ____ __ ---J---- I
--- .. - ---- --- --1----
---: 1----+---..;-:---;---- ---:1---- .
_____ ..:__ I --..,---- -
____ J J --1----...: I
____ -; ____ ...;____ J I
,--- l
===r--l - .
16 17 18
.82 .88 .93
.42 .48 .53
.34 .40 .45
.27 .33 .38
.26 .32 .37
.25 .31 .36
.21 .27' .32
.20 .26 .31
.19 .25 .30
.18 .24 .29
.17 .23 .28
.16 .22 .27
.15 .21 .26'
.14 .20 .25
.11 .17 .22
.06 .12 .17
.06 .11
.05
____ J ____
----J----
---- ----
I
19
3.00
.60
.52
.45
.44
.43
.39
.38
.37
.36
.35
.34
.33
.32
.29
.24
.18
.12
.07
management group are primarily distinguished by their lack
of ability in the management of people. In this they
parallel the most effective manager group who, as .we saw
above, also had relatively more difficulty with scales in
the people management area. Just as change management was
an area of relative difficulty with the most effective
manager group, so it was with the least effective manager
group. Table 5:4 indicates that innovation and (to a lesser
extent) manager-operator were amongst the lowest ranked
scales for this group.
While there are substantial differences in scale rankings
between most and least effective manager groups it is
possible to some common themes. Both groups had
relatively more. difficulty with scales in the interpersonal
ability and change management areas. Both groups were also
relatively more effective (with the exception of innovation
and manager-operator) on scales in the conceptual area.
This suggests that training in the areas of people and
change management would be of benefit to both groups.
Qualitative versus Quantitative Differences-Between Most and
Least Effective Management
While some common training needs can be identified for the
most and least effective manager groups, we must tread
cautiously in drawing parallels between them. As we saw
127
. above, there are indications of qualitative differences
between the two groups, in that the response variance within
the least. effective manager group is greater than that of
the most effective. Further evidence of qualitative
difference emerged from the Pearson's Correlation analysis.
As mentioned above, the differences in ratings of most and
least effective managers were further explored using
Pearson's Correlation analysis. It was initially expected
that the scale ratings would be strongly and negatively
correlated. Simply stated, it was anticipated that the most
effective managers would score highly on the'scales on which
least effective managers received low scores. This
anticipation reflected the premise, implicit in Stewart and
Stewarts' (1981b) methodology, that managerial effectiveness
varies across common dimensions. The results of the
correlation analysis are presented in Table 5:5.
Table 5:5 shows that, while several of the scales are
significantly correlated, the correlations are uniformly low
and may only reach significance because of the large sample
size. This result suggests that, in rating most and least
effective managers, different considerations come into play.
Most effective management is not simply a mirror image of
least effective management .. The two are viewed, by the
respondents in this study, as distinct and different
entities. The two groups appear to have qualitatively
different bases of effectiveness and ineffectiveness.
128
til
~
. ~
.j.J
cU
~
Q)
...-i
cU
U
til
Q)
:>
. ~
.j.J
u
Q)
4-1
4-1
Q)
.j.J
til
m
Q)
H
TABLE 5:5
MOST AND LEAST EFFECTIVE SCALE CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS
(Most effective Scale Ratings)
Wrk Prs Intg Deln Team Conc Cons Goal Porg Strs Prob Prior Fntup Inn Futr Fdbk MgOp Tkn Overview
Wrk NS(-.0363)
Pers **(-.1695)
Integrity NS(-.0718)
Del/train **(-J862)
Team **(-.2309)
Concern *(-.1302)
Consult NS(-.1204)
Goal NS(-.1132)
Pers Org NS(-.0610
Stress NS(-.1040)
Problem *(-.1384)
Prior NS(-.1133)
Front *(-.1367)
Innovation *(-.1625)
Future NS(-.0858)
Feedback **(-.1597)
Mg/Op *(-.1573)
Tech Know NS(-.0116)
Overview NS (-.0934)
NS = Not Significant
* Significant at the .01 level
** = Significant at the .001 level
content feature one (outlined in chapter two) makes much of
the differences in managerial (content and process)
that emerge across management job types,
organisations, environments and cultures. Rosemary stewart
in particular has emphasized the variation that exists in
managerial jobs (stewart 1976, 1982, 1988, stewart, Smith,
and Wingate 1980). We may add to this discussion the
finding that managerial work content and process also varies
between effective and ineffective managers. This is a
rather obvious contribution which, curiously, does not
appear to have been previously identified in this area of
the literature.
The existence of a qualitative difference between respondent
perceptions of most and least ef.fective management has
implications for management training and development. The
implication is that the training and development needs of
such diverse groups may need to be examined separately.
What may be required is a two-stage approach to management
development. Ineffective managers could be initially
developed around areas most specifically related to their
current deficiencies. If this first stage was successful,
development would then proceed along a separate set of
dimensions, aimed at lifting the manager to the most
effective level. Most management development approaches
make no attempt to differentiate their offerings on the
basis of the effectiveness of the managers involved.
129
These findings also have implications for management
training needs analysis, particularly the well known method
outlined by Andrew and Valerie stewart. The stewart's
(1981a, 1981b) training needs analysis uses a Repertory Grid
method similar to that outlined in chapter two but uses
difference scores as the basis for training. The difference
scores are computed by subtracting least effective scores
from most effective scores. Training is then targeted on
the areas with the highest difference scores. The use of
difference scores implies that the areas in which training
is most needed will receive consistently high ratings on the
most effective questionnaires against consistently low
ratings on the least effective questionnaires. The results
of the correlation analysis indicate that this may not be
the case. As we saw above, the respondents in this study
tended to emphasize different scales in their most/least
effective manager ratings. They do not appear to
differentiate between effective and ineffective managers
along the same dimensions. As a consequence, even the
strongest scale correlations (in Table 5:5) are low. It is
possible that the difference score approach may lead to the
provision of training on the basis of difference dimensions
which are essentially mythical. Our conclusion is that the
training needs of highly effective and ineffective
management groups may in many cases be quite different and
should be examined separately. Issues of management
130
training and development are discussed further in chapter
eight.
CONCLUSION
In this chapter we have defined the characteristics and
behaviours of the most and least effective managers in the
Department of Social Welfare. We have found that these
characteristics and behaviours are in harmony with previous
research both on managerial work and on managerial
effectiveness. They make a significant contribution to the
literature on managerial effectiveness, in that they offer
richer descriptive specificity and range than most previous
work in this area. They have an added advantage in that
they can be broken down into individual items and used as
performance criteria in their own right. The evidence
presented in this chapter indicates that effective and
ineffective management in the Department m ~ y be
qualitatively different. The twoare not seen as a matter
of ability levels along common scales but rather as distinct
and different dimensions. This implies the need for a two
stage approach to management development which addresses the
different needs of effective and ineffective managers.
The chapter also presents evidence which emphasizes the
complex interactive nature of managerial work and
effectiveness. This interactivity, along with the types of
characteristics and behaviours which are found to relate to
131
managerial effectiveness (see Appendix Three) have
significant implications for managerial teaching and
development. In particular they imply an over-reliance on
rational analytic models and techniques which may be
undermining the effectiveness of managerial development at
the MBA level. These implications are discussed more fully
in chapter eight.
132
CHAPTER SIX
FACTOR ANALYSIS OF THE NINETEEN CHARACTERISTIC AND
BEHAVIOURAL CATEGORIES
INTRODUCTION
In chapter five we defined the characteristics and
behaviours of effective and ineffective managers in the
Department in terms of twenty scale categories. In this
chapter factor analysis is used to explore the ways in which
these scales interact and to develop a model of managerial
abilities. As mentioned 'in chapter five, scale category
twenty external networking, iS,not included in this process.
Factor analysis of the nineteen scales provides evidence of
a two factor structure for both most and least effective
questionnaire responses. These two factors form distinct
conceptual and interpersonal ability dimensions and equate
to the conceptual and human relations skills postulated by
Katz (1974) and echoed by Kotter (1982, 1988). The scale
technical knowledge emerges as a distinct third dimension.
Both initial and confirmatory analyses highlight the
presence of a strong general factor. This chapter describes
the procedures used in developing the factor structure and
discusses its implications.
133
FACTOR ANALYSIS
Initial Factor Analysis
The nineteen scales were factor analysed using the SPSSx
statistical package. Initial factor analyses were run using
two, three, four, five and six factor p r i n c i p ~ l components
analysis with varimax rotations. Recent research (see
Walkey 1983, Walkey and McCormick 1985) has cast doubt on
commonly used methods for determining the number of factors
to be extracted (for example minimum eigenvalue greater than
one criteria and the scree-test advocated by Cattell 1965).
A multiple replication approach, as developed by Walkey and
McCormick (1983) was therefore used for the confirmatory
analysis.
Confirmatory Analysis
The multiple replication approach has been used extensively
in exploring the factor structures of questionnaire data
(see Walkey 1983, Walkey and McCormick 1985, Seigert,
McCormick, Taylor and Walkey 1987, Walkey, Siegert,
McCormick and Taylor 1987 and Green, Waikey, McCormick and
Taylor 1988). The procedure works on the principle that the
true factor structure of a given questionnaire will be
replicated across a variety of response sets. The FACTOREP
134
computer programme (see Walkey and McCormick 1983) compares
rotated factor matrices and uses the S-Index described by
Cattel, Bakar, Horn and Nesselroade (1969) to compare factor
structures across different groups. The values of the index
range from a maximum of one, representing perfect
replication of factor loadings through to negative one,
where again the factor replication is perfect but the signs
of the loadings are reversed. A zero value indicates that
there is no relationship between the two factor loadings.
The FACTOREP programme generates matrices in which the
similarity of the factor structures between respondent
groups is shown by the level of the S-Index values. It also
allows the researcher to specify different criteria for the
inclusion of items by varying the hyper-plane cut-off
levels. This allows for the examination of factor loadings
above defined levels, for example .40 or .60, and hence
reduces the influence of possible error loadings. The
number of factors being compared and the hyper-plane cut off
levels are progressively adjusted until the most replicable
factor structure is identified. In this study the
questionnaire responses were divided into four groups.
Rotated factor matrices for the North Island and mail survey
respondents were compared with those of the South Island
respondent group. Rotated factor matrices for the least
effective questionnaire responses were also compared with
those of the most effective questionnaire responses. Two,
135
three and four factor rotations were run on each sub-group.
As is discussed below, the initial factor analysis indicated
the existence of a very strong general factor. The
influence of this general factor was in evidence in the
rotated factor matrices, with a number of scales loading at
the .40 level or higher on more than one factor. In running
the FACTOREP programme the influence of the general factor
was reduced by setting the hyper-plane cutoff points at .55
and .60 respectively. The clearest results emerged at the
.60 level.
Tables 6:1 and 6:2 show matrices of S-Index values for a two
factor solution. The matrix in Table 6:1 provides an index
of similarity for N o r ~ h island/mail survey and South Island
responses. Table 6:2 compares the factor structures of
most and least effective questionnaire responses. The
results illustrated by t0ese tables are very clear. The
diagonal values" approach 1.00 on both matrices, indicating a
high level of replication (for the two factor solution)
between the groups. The .111 value recorded between factors
one and two in Table 6:1 is indicative of an underlying
general factor. The general factor is discussed further
below. Table 6:3 shows a matrix of S-Index values for a
three factor solution. The lower diagonal values indicate
that the three factor solution is less replicable than the
two. The confirmatory analysis indicates that the two
136
TABLE 6:1
MATRIX OF S-INDEX VALUES FOR TWO FACTOR SOLUTION.
NORTH ISLAND/MAIL SURVEY AND SOUTH ISLAND RESPONSES.
(.60 Hyper-plane cut-off point)
North Island/Mail Survey Responses
rJl
Factor One Factor Two
Q)
rJl
~
0
rJl
Q)
FI 1.000 0.0
0::
'"d
~
cU
,.....,
rJl
H
..c:
F2 .111 0.875 .jJ
::l
0
U)
TABLE 6:2
MATRIX OF S-INDEX VALUES FOR TWO FACTOR SOLUTION.
MOST EFFECTIVE AND LEAST EFFECTIVE RESPONSES.
(.60 Hyper-plane cut-off point)
Most Effective Responses
Ul
OJ
Factor One Factor Two
Ul
s:::
0
..
Ul
OJ
0::
OJ
Fl 1.000 0.0
:>
",...j
.j.J
u
OJ
~
~
Ji::J
.j.J
F2 0.0 0.933
Ul
rd
OJ
H
TABLE 6: 3
MATRIX OF S-INDEX VALUES FOR THREE FACTOR SOLUTION.
NORTH ISLAND/MAIL SURVEY AND SOUTH ISLAND RESPONSES.
(.55 Hyper-plane cut-off point)
North Island/Mail Survey Responses
Factor One Factor Two Factor Three
-00
F1 (lJ .857 0.0 0.0
00
s::
0
00
(lJ
0:::
'"d
F2
s::
.133 .824 0.0
cO
,...,
Ul
H
..c:
.j..J
::l
0
F3
Cf.l .143 .500 .667
factor solution is the most stable and replicable factor
structure for the questionnaire used in this study.
Two step Procedure
For a variety of reasons (for example unequal sub-scale
lengths) it is possible for items and scales to attach
themselves to other factors when they might actually form a
separate and robust additional factor. Walkey, Green and
McCormick (1986) noted this phenomenon in exploring the
factor structure of the Eysenck Personality Inventory
(Eysenck and Esenck, 1964). As a test for the existence of
such additional factors they applied a two-step factor
analytic procedure (Walkey et al 1986, Walkey et al 1988).
In exploring the factor structure o ~ the Department of
Social Welfare Questionnaire it was felt (in line with the
findings of Kotter 1982) that the scales work capacity,
personal organisation and technical knowledge could-
logically have formed a third factor which might be termed
execution or application. As a test of this possibility the
two-step procedure, as described by Walkey et al 1986, and
Walkey et al 1988) was applied. In this procedure the three
scales were withdrawn from an initial two factor principle
components analysis with varimax rotation. The rotated
factor matrices then revealed a factor structure similar to
those obtained previously. The three scales with the
highest loadings on the first and second factors
137
respectively, were then identified. These six scales, along
with the previously withdrawn scales, were rotated to a
three factor solution. To test for replicability the same
process was repeated for the most and least effective and
for the North Island/mail survey and South Island data sets.
In each case the scale technical knowledge loaded strongly
and positively on the third factor. The scales work
capacity and personal organisation loaded (as they did in
the original factor rotation) most strongly on factor one.
The results of this. procedure did not support the existence
of a third factor containing the scales work capacity,
personal organisation and technical knowledge. They clearly
indicated however, that the scale technical knowledge stands
apart from the two factors identified above. As a
consequence technical knowledge was dropped from the. two
factor structure and treated as a separate dimension. The
technical knowledge dimension, being only one scale, does
not constitute a factor in the pure sense. Future
references to it, as a factor are used advisedly and for
ease of explanation.
138
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Rotated Factor Structure
The rotated factor matrices for a two factor solution are
shown in Table 6:4. The rotated factor structures for both
most and least effective sets are shown. The loadings
of the scales work capacity, personal organisation and
technical knowledge on the third factor (used in the two
stage procedure) are also shown. The two factors account
for 70.7 percent of the variance in the least effective
manager responses and 70.6 in the most effective
manager responses. Table 6:4 indicates that the two factors
are by no means discrete entities. On the least effective
factor matrix, eight of the scales load at the .40 level on
both factors and four at the .50 level. On the most
effective factor matrix, ten of the scales load on both
factors at the .40 level and three at .50. These findings
indicate the existence of a strong underlying general
factor. This issue is discussed further below.
As can be seen in Table 6:4 the scales with the highest
factor loadings are virtually identical between the most and
least effective manager ratings. The exception is the scale
overview, which loads strongly on both factors and reverses
its highest loadings between the most and least effective
139
TABLE 6: 4
FACTOR LOADINGS MOST/LEAST EFFECTIVE MANAGER RATINGS
Most Effective Least Effective
Fl F2 F3 Fl F2 F3
1. Goal setting .78 .32 .86 .20
2. Personal Organisation .78 .19 .51 .82 .16 .56
3. Work Capacity .78 .25 .49 .76 .23 .49
4. Innovation .74 .36 .70 .45
5. Assertiveness .79 .47 .77 .31
6. Future Orientation .72 .31 .74 .41
7. Managing/Operating .54 .43 .44 .36
.8. Stress Management .53 .45 .51 .46
Prioritising
I
9. .73 .44 .69
.52,
I ,
10. Problem Solving .78 .50 I .74
.52,
I
,
II. Delegating/Training .65 .52, .64 .56
1
12. Overview .62 .60 .56' .68
,
13. Consultation .27 .87 .21 .90
14. Feedback .28 .85 .16 .90
15. Team Building .39 .83 .43 .79
16. Concern for Others .30 .79 .39 .78
17. Personality .40 .78 .37 .76
18. Integrity
.48 .67 .37 .71
19. Technical Knowledge .90 .89
manager data sets. To produce a factor structure that is
identical between the two data sets the overview scale is
assigned to factor one in both cases. The scale
delegation/training loads positively on both factors but
most strongly on factor one. However, this scale fits most
logically in factor two. For this reason
delegation/training is assigned to factor two in the final
model. The resulting factor structure is shown in Table
6.5. The factors comprise scale categories representing (as
we saw in chapter five) a range of managerial
characteristics and behaviours. In practise these
characteristics and behaviours translate into capacity or
ability in different areas of the managerial job. For this
reason the factors are labelled in terms of the broad
ability dimensions they represent.
Factor one is comprised of scales falling predominantly in
the area of conceptual ability. The term conceptual is
defined by The New Collins Concise English Dictionary (1986,
p.230) as "something formed in the mind". The term
conceptual ability as used here, refers to the managers'
ability to use their minds in addressing various aspects of
the job. All of the scales relate to the inner mental
processes of the managers' and conform with the conceptual
descriptor. The scales work capacity and assertiveness fit
least happily as they represent a disposition to front-up to
issues and to work hard, as much as conceptual abilities.
140
FACTOR ONE
(Conceptual Ability)
Goal setting
Innovation
Future Orientation
overview
Managing/Operating
stress Management
Work Capacity
Assertiveness
Prioritising
Problem Solving
Personal Organisation
TABLE 6:5
FACTOR TWO
(Interpersonal
Ability)
Delegation/
Training
Consultation
Feedback
Team Building
Concern for others
Personality
Integrity
FACTOR THREE
(Technical
Ability)
Technical
Knowledge
The conceptual factor arguably falls into two logical sub-
categories. These sub-categories are shown in Table 6:6.
The first includes the scales goal setting, innovation,
future orientation, managing/operating, overview and stress
management. These scales cover the conceptual ability
required in setting direction and seeing the job and the
organisation as a whole. The stress management scale is
included in this group on the basis of a relationship,
suggested in the interview data (and in numerous in-basket
exercises using this material), between stress management,
and overview. This sub-category conforms
more closely with the definitions of conceptual ability
discussed in chapter two (see Barnard 1938, Hemphill 1959,
Katz 1974) than does the broader conceptual factor. It is
used as separate vision category in chapter seven. The
Second logical sub-category of the.conceptual factor is
comprised of the scales work capacity, personal
organisation, assertiveness, prioritising and problem
solving. These scales are are shorter term in orientation.
They embody the managerial qualities required to cope with
day to day routine and complexity and see a job through to
completion. The first scale group, by constrast, relates
more to longer term direction setting and leadership (see
for example Zaleznik 1977, 1989, Adair 1983, Bennis and
Nanus 1985, Bass 1985,1988, Kouzes and Posner 1987, Kotter
1988,1990, Bennis 1989 for a review of key differences
between management and leadership).
141
TABLE 6:6
THE TWO SUB-CATEGORIES OF FACTOR ONE (CONCEPTUAL ABILITY)
Goal Setting
Innovation
FutUre Orientation
overview
Managing/Operating
Stress Management
Work capacity
Assertiveness
Prioritising
Problem Solving
Personal organisation
l
Setting Direction (Vision)
(Longer term "leadership"
orientation)
Processing the Work
(Shorter term "management"
orientation)
The existence of these two sub-categories suggests that
conceptual ability may not be the unitary dimension implied
by Katz (1974). Conceptual ability as it emerges in this
study, appears to contain longer and shorter term elements
which call for conceptual skills ranging from the concrete
and analytic to the abstract and intuitive. This finding
echoes the work of Jaques (1976) who (as we discussed in
chapter two) differentiated the different levels of
abstraction required within the broad mental/conceptual
ability dimension.
Factor two is comprised of scales relating to the manager's
interpersonal ability. T h e ~ e scales are clearly
interpersonal in nature, with all of them relating to the
manager's interactions with other people. This factor is
highly stable. During the course of this research dozens of
factor analyses were run, ranging from two to six factor
solutions with a variety of data configurations. In every
case the scales personality, integrity, team building,
consultation, concern for others and feedback loaded most
strongly on the same factor. Factor three is self
explanatory and refers to the technical knowledge and
related technical ability (in terms of policy, entitlements,
procedures, technical decision-making and paper work) of the
manager.
142
The factor structure that has emerged in this study conforms
closely to the work of Kotter (1982, 1988). As outlined in
chapter one, Kotter's (1988) theme is that l e a d e ~ s have two
central tasks. The first agenda setting, is to create a
vision and a strategy for its fulfilment. The second
network building, is to build and motivate a network of
people who can help in implementing that agenda. The two
factors identified in this research, neatly encapsulate the
conceptual and interpersonal requirements for success in
those two tasks. separating out the technical knowledge
scale generates a three part structure based on separable
conceptual, interpersonal and technical dimensions. This is
a typology which is in keeping with those described in
chapter two (see iri particular Katz 1974, Dakin et al 1984).
The two/three factor model presented in this chapter, gains
.
credibility in its consistency with previous research
findings. The model extends beyond previous research
however, in that it is based on managerial effectiveness
rather than managerial work, per-see The use of the
nineteen scales in the factor analysis leads to a richer
description of each factor than has been offered in previous
research. The scale composition also allows different.
aspects of the model to be examined separately. Overall,
the model provides a useful addition to previous work in
this area.
143
underlying General Factor
As discussed above, the rotated factor structure provides
evidence of a strong underlying general factor. The
unrotated principal components analysis provides further
evidence of a strong general factor. The factor matrices
for the unrotated two factor solutions, for most and least
effective manager ratings, are shown in Table 6:7. The
general factor is indicated by the scale loadings on factor
one. All of the scales load strongly and positively on t h ~ s
factor. The existence of such a strong general factor
requires us to view the two/three factor structure
identified above with caution. While it has been possible
to identify a clear, replicable,factor structure it is also
obvious that the respondents see a level of overlap between
all of the scales which limits the independence of the three
factors.
A possible explanation for such a strong general factor is
the influence of halo error resulting from the rating
process (see for example Roach 1956). It could be argued
that the respondents have given generalized high ratings to
most effective ratees and generalized low ratings to least
effective ratees. The result would be a merging of scale
ratings which would produce both a strong general factor
and the scale interaction discussed in chapter five. In
144
1.
2.
3 .
4 .
5.
6.
7 .
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
TABLE 6:1
UNROTATEDFACTOR MATRICES MOST AND LEAST
EFFECTIVE MANAGER RATINGS (TWO FACTOR SOLUTION)
Most Effective Least Effective
Fl F2 Fl F2
Goal setting .19 .31 .76 .45
Personal Organisation .70 .40 .69 .46
Work Capacity .74 .36 .71 .36
Innovation .78 .24 .82 .16
Assertiveness .84 .14 .77 .31
Future Orientation .74 .27 .82 .22
. Managing/Operating .69 .06 .57 .04
Stress Management .69 -.07 . 69 .03 .
Prioritising .83 .18 .86 .11
Problem Solving .91 .17 .89 .14
Delegation/Training .83 .07 .87 .04
Overview .86 -.03 .87 -.10
Consultation .80 -.45 .78 -.51
Feedback .79 -0.42 .74 -.54
Team Building .86 -.33 .86 -.27
Concern for Others .76 -.37 .82 -.29
Personality .83 -.29 .80 -.28
Integrity .81 -.15 .76 -.25
Technical Knowledge
chapter four we outlined some of the specific measures used
to minimise halo error in the respondent ratings. We noted
that the questionnaire item polarity was reversed every five
items to minimise automatic response patterns. The
respondents were also asked to leave at least a few hours
and ideally a full day, between most and least effective
manager ratings. It was stressed that we wanted respondents
to rate specific managers rather than some idealised
embodiment of most or least effective managing. While it
would be foolish to discount completely the possibility of
halo error, we feel confident that this strategy was largely
successful. The weight of the evidence supports this view.
Support for this view comes from the emergence of the three
factor structure identified above. While clearly subject to
the influence of the general factor, there is evidence of an
identifiable and replicable three factor structure. The
respondents appear to have rated both most and least
effective managers with sufficient discrimination to allow
this structure to emerge.
In chapter five we discussed the results of the Pearson's
Correlation analysis, which correlated most effective scale
ratings with those for least effective managers. The
correlation coefficients were low and in many cases not
significant. A strong halo effect should have produced
strong negative correlations between the scale ratings. In
chapter five we also noted consistent differences in the
145
,standard deviations of the scale mean scores for the most
and least effective ratings. The implication of these
findings was that the respondents in this study viewed and
rated most versus least effective managers, very
differently. Such differences would not have emerged so
clearly if the data was subject to very strong halo errors.
The indications are that most respondents were rating
individual managers rather than simply working down one or
other extreme of the rating scale. This view gains further
support from frequency counts of the number of respondents
rating most and least effective managers on the 1,2 3,4 and
5 dimensions of the five point item scales (on the
questionnaire). The frequency counts indicate that,
although most effective managers tended to be rated on'the
upper end of the scale and least effective on the lower, the
respondents used the full scale range in rating both most
and least effective managers.
As mentioned above, it would be unwise to rule out entirely
the influence of halo error and (more significantly)
restrictions in the range of questionnaire ratings. The
extent to which these might influence the level of scale and
factor interaction evidenced here and in chapter five, is
difficult to ascertain. Overall, the evidence suggests that
such influences are not the major contributor to the
interaction evidenced in this data. It is our belief that
the general factor reflects the same level of interaction
146
and interdependence between effectiveness characteristics
and behaviours that was discussed in chapter five. The
respondents in this study did not view management primarily
in terms of discrete scale or factor categories. Rather
than falling into discrete categories, the characteristics
and behaviours of most and least effective managers are seen
by the respondents as a complex interactive gestalt of
characteristics and behaviours. The tendency is to view all
the scale and factor categories as a single entity. While
discrete factors have emerged in this study, the general
factor is expressive of a strong overall view, both of
managerial effectiveness and ineffectiveness. This view
colours respondent perceptions and restricts efforts to
define discrete categories.
This finding confirms the existence of interaction and
interdependence in the characteristics and behaviours of
most versus least effective managers as outlined in chapter
five. It is in conformity with the simultaneous,
interactive and holistic nature of managerial work described
in chapter one and with the interactive factor structures
revealed in past effectiveness research (see Roach 1956,
Morse and Wagner 1978). There is absolutely no evidence in
this study indicating that people construe manager{al
effectiveness in terms of large numbers of discrete
factorial dimensions. The complexity and dynamism of
managerial work is such that simpler more general factor
147
models appear to be the most representative. In this the
findings differ from previous factor analytic models such
Hemphill's (1959) ten factors, Tornow and Pinto's (1976)
twelve factors and even Morse and Wagner's (1978) six
factors. The indications of this study are that managerial
work and effectiveness is too 'complex and interactive to
fall neatly into large numbers of discrete factors. The
simpler more interactive models, such as that offered by
Kotter (1982, 1988) would appear to be more realistic.
There is no evidence of confirmatory analysis being used in
the factor analyses of Hemphill (1959) and Tornow and Pinto
(1976). Morse and Wagner (1978) conducted factor
replication studies but each time used the eigenvalue
greater than 1.00 criterion to define the factor extraction
process. The'possibility of a replicated structure emerging
with fewer factors was apparently not considered. It seems
highly likely that a factor replication study using the
procedures employed in this study would fail to confirm the
factor structures that emerged in Hemphills (1959) and
Tornow and Pintos' (1976) research. Even the six factor
model of Morse and Wagner (1978) should be viewed with
caution. Morse and Wagner in fact noted a moderate
correlation (.27 to .44) between the six factors. This is
indicative of an underlying general factor or of a smaller
number of factors in the true factor structure. Useful as
these models are they claim a level of specificity and
discretion in the thinking of their respondents which is
unrealistic.
CONCLUSION
The objective of this chapter has been to explore the inter-
relationships between the nineteen scale categories. In so
doing we have used factor analytic techniques to identify a
simple three factor model of managerial effectiveness. The
application of factor analytic techniques has achieved this
objective by reducing the nineteen scales into a two/three
factor structure. The factor structure has a logical
consistency and confirms the findings of previous
researchers, particularly that of Kotter (1982, 1988) and
Katz ( 1 9 7 4 ) ~ It extends beyond previous research in its
provision of a rich and detailed description of each of the
factor categories. The factor model has clear utility for
illustrative and research purposes. The three factors,
along with the vision sub-category are used in hypothesis
testing in chapter seven.
Despite its apparent utility, the existence of a strong
underlying general factor necessitates a cautious view of
the factor structure. Its replicability and logical
consistency are encouraging but it still must be regarded as
tentative within the limitations of this study. The factor
149
structure presented in this chapter ,evidences the same
interactivity that was shown to exist between the scale
categories in chapter five. As mentioned in chapter,five,
thisinteractivity has significant implications for
management development. These implications are discussed in
chapter eight.
150
CHAPTER SEVEN
EXPLORIN4; VARIATIONS IN EFFECTIVENESS DIMENSIONS BETWEEN
LEVELS
INTRODUCTION
In chapter one we defined our research question as; IIWhat
are the chisracteristics and behaviours of effective versus
ineffectivil managers and how do these characteristics and
behaviours vary between different managerial levels". In
chapters five and six we addressed the first part of this
question by defining nineteen scales and three factors
describing most effective and least effective
In this ch.apter we address the second part of this question
by testing three hypotheses relating to the relative
importance of these scales and factors across supervisory,
middle and senior management levels. The hypotheses are
tested using both interview and questionnaire data. The
scale and factor categories serve as dependent variables,
with respondent level functioning as the independent
variable. Data analysis, the results of this analysis and
their implications are discussed below. Unlike previous
chapters, the external networking scale is included in this
analysis.
151
HYPOTHESES
In chapter one we noted that most studies report an
increased emphasis on longer range conceptual skills and
tasks (e.g. long range planning, seeing the enterprise as a
whole) with movement up the managerial hierarchy (see
Hemphill 1959, Mahoney et al 1965, Jaques 1976, Pavett and
Lau 1983, Luthans et al 1985, McLennan et al 1987). with
this research in mind, the following hypothesis is advanced.
For future reference we will call this hypothesis one.
Hypothesis One; It is hypothesized that respondents at the
senior management level will place significantly more
emphasis on conceptual ability (as represented by scales in
tbe conceptual factor) than respondents at non-managerial
and first line supervisory levels.
In contrast to conceptual ability, most empirical research
indicates that, in absolute terms, emphasis on interpersonal
ability is similar across all management levels (Pavett and
Lau 1983, Dakin et al 1984). with this research in mind the
following hypothesis is advanced. For future reference we
will call this hypothesis two.
Hypothesis Two; It is hypothesized that there will be no
significant difference in the emphasis placed on
152
interpersonal ability (as represented by scales in the
interpersonal factor) between .senior management respondents
and respondents at non-managerial and first line supervisory
levels.
Most of the research reviewed in chapter one indicates a
reduced need for specialist technical knowledge and skills
with movement up the hierarchy (Hemphill 1959, Thornton and
Byham 1982, Dakin et al 1984). Coupled with this shift, is
the need to adopt a more generalist managerial orientation,
particularly at very senior levels (Mahoney et al 1965,
Dakin and Hamilton 1984). with this research in mind the
following hypothesis is advanced. For future reference we
will call this hypothesis three.
Hypothesis Three; It is hypothesized that respondents at
senior management levels will place significantly less
emphasis on technical knowledge (as represented by the
technical knowledge factor) than respondents at non-
managerial and first line supervisory levels.
In order to test these hypotheses we worked through the
following steps.
1. Content analysis of the Repertory Grid interviews;
153
a. Constructs elicited in the interviews were classified
into the twenty scale categories defined in chapter five.
b. Response frequencies for each scale were calculated for
non-managers and for managers at supervisory, middle and
senior levels. Between level differences in response levels
were observed.
2. Use of scale and factor means from the questionnaire
data.
a. Scale and factor values were calculated for all
respondents.
b. Differences in scale and factor values were observed
across non-managerial and supervisory, middle and senior
management respondent levels for both most and least
effective management ratings.
INTERVIEW DATA ANALYSIS
content Analysis
The twenty scales identified in chapter five provided the
framework for the content analysis of the interview
transcripts. Interview constructs were allocated to scale
categories on the basis of their similarity to the scale
descriptors provided in Appendix Three. During the
interviews constructs were elicited as respondents compared
154
managers in the level above them, at their own level and in
the level below. Each construct was assigned to one of the
twenty scale categories. The frequency with which the
respondents referenced each scale for each comparison level
(i.e level above, below and own level) was recorded. For
example, one senior manager identified constructs fitting
the team building category twice in superior comparisons,
three times in peer comparisons and six times in subordinate
comparisons. In the analysis only the upwards (superior)
comparisons were used, as these were the only comparisons
made by managers at all levels.
content Analysis Reliability Check
A sample of eight interview transcripts were selected for a
reliability check of the content analysis. After a brief
orientation, three judges used the scale descriptions
employed in the initial content analysis to assign interview
constructs to the twenty scale categories. The judges
worked independently, taking an average of two and a half
hours to complete the assignment. The average level of
agreement between the judge's assignment and the original
analysis was 68.1 percent.
In an effort to determine the factors limiting agreement,
between the judges and the original content analysis, forty-
155
one constructs (on which agreement was 33 percent or less)
were examined more closely. A close examination the scale
descriptors revealed an error in the assertiveness scale
description not present in the descriptors used in the
initial content analysis. This may have led to the
incorrect classification (by the judges) of six of the
forty-one constructs. Five constructs clearly conformed to
scales other than those assigned by one or more of the
judges. The length of the checking exercise and the limited
training provided, may have contributed to such errors. An
additional four constructs were unclear (due to poor writing
and lack of definition) to the point of suggesting no
specific classification category.
The remaining twenty-six constructs contained multiple
meanings, suggesting that ~ h e y could equally belong in two
and some cases three, scale categories. The following
construct is an example; Gives people personal development
opportunities----doesn't provide staff with personal
development opportunities. At one level this construct
describes managerial approaches to delgation/training. At
another level it demonstrates the manager's level of concern
for others. Both scale categories were in fact nominated by
the judges. Both are appropriate nominations. Such
multiplicity of meaning was present elsewhere in the content
156
analysis. constructs in the consultation category, for
example, frequently emerged in the context of close contact
with a team of people (team building). Constructs in the
consultation category were also, at times, hard to
distinguish from those fitting in the innovation category.
The elements of listening and flexibility implicit in a
consultative style also created the ideas and responsiveness
necessary for innovation. The point is, that some
constructs interact so closely with two or more scale
categories that it is difficult to judge which category they
should be assigned to. This finding affirms (with chapters
five and six), that there is a high level of interaction and
interdependence between the characteristics and behaviours
associated with effective and ineffective management. This
interaction is as important a finding as the scales and
factors themselves. The issue of interaction is discussed
further in chapter eight.
The reliability check and the additional examination
discussed above, clearly highlight the limitations of the
content analysis. There are some obvious basic limitations
in this analysis that relate to the clarity of the data and
the possibility of some constructs falling into more than
one category. Evidence of the need for more training and
the existence of error on the part of the judges however,
suggests that the content analysis is more reliable than the
157
68.1 percent result indicates. A figure of around 75
percent is probably more accurate. This is a respectable
figure for field research of this type and compares
favourably with the 60 percent joint observation reliability
reported by Martinko and Gardner (1990). Overall, the
reliability of the content analysis, while indicating the
need for caution in the interpretation of results, was
considered adequate for the purposes of this study.
Designation of Management Level
As we discussed in chapter four, the respondents were
divided into four management levels. Those below the
supervisory Divisional Officer level were referred to as
non-managerial. The 104 grade Divisional Officer
respondents, were clas9ified as supervisory management.
These managers form the first line of supervisory
management. Management positions between the Divisional
Officers and up to and including the Assistant Directors,
were classified as middle management. District and Regional
Directors were classified as senior managers. The
supervisory and middle management classifications are in
harmony with generally accepted management classifications
(see for example Parsons 1960, Mescon, Albert and Khedouri
1981, Carlisle 1982, Griffin 1984). The senior management
158
classification is appropriate for the District and Regional
Directors who, while responsible for sUbstantial segments of
the organisation, lack the operating autonomy that is
generally associated with the chief executive top management
level. The senior management classification used here, is
also in line with broader classifications, such as Mahoney
et aI's (1965) higher levels category.
Analysis of Variance
The individual frequency scores were used to generate mean
numbers of references to each scale by respondents at each
of the four management levels. significant differences in
variances (as measured by the Bartlett-Box F-test for
homogeneity of variances) and respondent numbers at each
level, invalidated the use of parametric analysis of
variance techniques. This was particularly a problem with
the senior management group which, in the superior
comparisons reported here, had only four respondents. As an
alternative, the frequency scores were used to calculate
scale and factor rankings (over the eighty-eight interview
respondents) for each of the four respondent levels.
Between level variance in the scale and factor rankings was
explored using non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis one way
analysis of variance.
159
Analysis of variance was conducted using the twenty scales
identified in chapter five. The factor categories used were
those identified in chapter six, namely conceptual,
interpersonal and technical. In addition the scales, goal
setting, stress management, innovation, managing/operating,
future orientation and overview were combined to form an
additional vision sub-category which was included in a
separate analysis of variance. As discussed in chapter six,
the scales in the vision sub-category conform more closely
with generally used definitions of conceptual ability than
do the others in the conceptual factor. As a consequence,
between level variation in emphasis on the vision sub-
category was used as the primary test of hypothesis one.
The Kruskal-Wallis anova is less.sensitive than equivalent
parametric tests but makes fewer assumptions regarding
homogeneity of variance. It was felt to be sufficiently
conservative to overcome the difficulties of sample size and
variance anomalies in this data. The results are based on
interview respondent comparisons of managers in the level
above them. Unlike the peer and subordinate comparisons,
the superior comparisons were made by respondents at all
levels and provided the best base for testing the three
hypotheses.
160
QUESTIONNAIRE DATA ANALYSIS
Mean Score Calculations
Scale and factor mean scores, for most and least effective
manager ratings, were calculated for non-managerial,
supervisory, middle and senior management respondent groups.
The classification system used in assigning respondents to
managerial levels was the same as that used for the
"interview respondents. The scale categories were the same
twenty described in chapter five and used in the interview
content analysis. The factor categories were those
described in chapter six with the addition of the vision
sub-category outlined above. As with the interview data,
variation in emphasis on the vision category was used as the
primary test of hypothesis one.
Analysis of Variance
A series of one-way analyses of variance explored between
level differences for each scale. As with the interview
data, variations in sample size and standard deviations were
also a concern with this data. Heterogeneity of variance
was a problem with only two of the twenty scales (as
established by the Bartlett-Box F-test). Thus the
parametric one-way analysis of variance provides an adequate
161
test of the significance of shifts in emphasis on the scales
and factors between respondent levels.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
We will consider separately, the results of both the
interview and questionnaire data as they relate to scales in
the conceptual, interpersonal and technical knowledge
factors. External networking is also examined as a separate
category.
Conceptual Ability
Interview Results
The scale and factor rankings and Kruskall-Wallis anova
results are presented in Table 7:1 and Figure 7:1. As the
seniority of the respondents increases some of the
conceptual scales are referenced more frequently. As can be
seen from Table 7:1, the scales innovation,
managing/operating and overview in particular, are
emphasized more by senior managers than more junior
respondents. This pattern of emphasis is reflected in the
movement of the vision sub-category (see Figure 7:1) which
162
TABLE 7:1
INTERVIEW RESPONSES
AVERAGE RANK OF SCALES AND FACTORS IN DIFFERENTIATING
MOST FROM LEAST EFFECTIVE SUPERIORS (BY RESPONDENT LEVEL)
Non-Mng. Sup. Mid-Mngment Snr-Mngment
Respondents Respondents Respondents Respondents
(N= 25) (N=13) (N=38) (N=4)
SCALES
Conceptual Ability
Goal setting
Personal Org
Work Capacity
Innovation
Assertiveness
Future orientation
Managing/Operating
Stress Management
Prioritising
Problem Solving
overview
Interpersonal Ability
Delegation/Training
Consultation
Feedback
Team Building
Concern for Others
Personality
Integrity
Others
35.50
34.50
40.46
32.34
36.98
39.50
39.74
43.80
39.00
35.46
35.76
44.00
37.52
45.92
45.54
51. 60
47.98
39.90
Technical Knowledge 46.92
External Networking 38.50
Factors
Conceptual Ability 28.74
Vision sub-category 31.76
Interpersonal Ability50.86
Technical Ability 46.92
44.69
47.42
52.73
42.46
45.15
42.62
41. 03
47.42
42.15
50.88
41.12
40.46
44.15
31. 77
52.92
59.23
33.73
45.62
42.19
38.50
50.92
47.69
50.85
42.19
42.88
43.00
37.29
43.13
42.08
40.54
40.20
36.49
41. 08
40.13
42.00
39.95
42.72
41. 92
33.29
27.04
37.87
39.88
36.00
40.58
44.33
41. 99
31. 55
36.00
35.50
31. 50
31. 50
60.13
32.38
39.50
46.25
35.50
39.00
41. 75
53.88
24.00
26.13
21. 50
37.13
38.13
40.75
33.50
35.00
58.75
43.75
57.63
27.13
35.00
Significance
Level
.09
.06
.10
.02
.56
.53
.85
.03
.58
.05
.19
.35
.44
.07
.03
.000
.19
.50
.18
.000
.02
.05
.002
.18
FIGURE 7:1
AVERAGE RANK OF FACTOR CATEGORIES IN DIFFERENTIATING MOST FROM
LEAST EFFECTIVE SUPERIORS (BY RESPONDENT LEVEL)
Ranking
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
o
Non-Mng Supervisory Middle Senior
Respondent Level
Conceptual Factor
Vision Sub-Category
Interpersonal Factor
Technical Factor
- Shift significant at .02 level
- Shift significant at .05 level
- Shift significant at .0022 level
- Shift not significant
shows a significant increase in emphasis (with movement up
the respondent hierarchy) consistent with hypothesis one.
However, the scales personal organisation, stress management
and problem solving show a significant, or near significant,
trend in reverse of that anticipated by hypotheses one. The
trend of these three scales is paralleled by the scales work
capacity, goal setting and assertiveness, which show a
definite if not significant decline in emphasis, between
supervisery and senier management respondents.
The mevement ef these scales is reflected in the everall
cenceptual categery (see Figure 7:1) which decreases in
emphasis between supervisery and senier management levels.
The peint ef significant variatien in this categery hewever,
rather than falling between senier and'lO.wer respondent
levels occurs betweennen-supervisery and supervisery
respondents.
Questiennaire Results
i.Mest Effective Manager Ratings
Table 7:2 shews the mean sceres ef the scales and facters in
the questiennaire ratings ef most effective managers. A
higher scale er facter mean scere indicates a greater
emphasis (by respendents) en that scale er facter. The
results shewn in Table 7:2 are breadly similar to' these
163
TABLE 7:2
QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES
SCALE AND FACTOR MEAN SCORES OF MOST EFFECTIVE RATEES
BY MANAGEMENT LEVEL OF RESPONDENTS
Non-Mng supervisory Mid Mngment Snr Management
Respondents Respondents Respondents Respondents
(157) (103) (73) (28)
SCALES
Conceptual Ability
Goal Setting
Personal Org
Work capacity
Innovation
Assertiveness
Future orientation
Managing/Operating
Stress Management
Prioritising
Problem Solving
overview
Interpersonal Ability
Delegation/Training
Consultation
Feedback
Team Building
Concern for Others
Personality
Integrity
Other
4.52
4.40
4.41
4.19
4.46
4.33
4.06
4.35
4.39
4.34
4.27
4.30
4.31
4.34
4.38
4.3.0
4.32
4.37
Technical Knowledge 4.40
External Networking 3.40
Factors
Conceptual Factor 4.34
Vision Sub-Category 4.25
Interpersonal Ability4.33
Technical Ability 4.40
4.56
4.38
4.48
4.29
4.50
4.46
4.10
4.33
4.40
4.38
4.35
4.32
4.35
4.:}1
4.36
4.37
4.31
4.44
4.48
3.23
4.39
4.33
4.35
4.48
4.55
4.34
4.52
4.34
4.54
4.46
4.30
4.36
4.25
4.39
4.39
4.23
4.25
4.25
4.35
4.34
4.25
4.36
4.33
3.36
4.39
4.39
4.30
4.33
4.61
4.32
4.50
4.50
4.52
4.52
4.41
4.50
4.28
4.33
4.54
4.28
4.31
4.29
4.27
4.27
4.34
4.40
3.95
3.94
4.41
4.51
4.31
3.95
Significance
Level
.88
.83
.228
.02*
.62
.07*
.002
.71
.13
.83
.03
.73
.63
.68
.80
.67
.78
.68
.004
.002
.64
.0160
.89
.004
*Significant difference in between level variances (Bartlett Box Test)
164
derived from the interview data. In this case all of the
significant shifts are in keeping with the direction
suggested by hypothesis one. The scales innovation,
managing/operating and overview display a strong and
significant increase in emphasis between lower level and
senior management respondents. The pattern of emphasis on
the future orientation scale is similar but less
significant. Some caution is required in interpreting the
results of the shift in the i n ~ o v a t i o n and future
orientation as both scales record significant differences on
the Bartlett-Box F test for homogeneity of variance (.005
and .037 respectively). Most of the remaining conceptual
scales show a trend which is consistent with hypotheses one
but which fails to reach significance. The exceptions are
personal organisation and prioritisation which show a
definite, although not significant, decrease in emphasis
with movement up the respondent hierarchy. These scale
variations are reflected in the movement of the conceptual
and vision categories shown in Figure 7:2. The conceptual
factor shows a slight, although non-significant, increase in
emphasis between non-supervisory and senior management
respondents. The pattern is stronger with the vision sub-
category and in this case significant (at the .02 level).
FIGURE 7:2
FACTOR MEAN SCORES OF MOST EFFECTIVE RATEES BY MANAGEMENT LEVEL OF
RESPONDENTS
5.00
4.90
4.80
4.70
4.60
4.50
4.40
4.30
4.20
4.10
4.00
3.90
)( , '(
Non-Mng
Conceptual Factor
Vision category
Interpersonal Factor
Technical Factor
Supervisory Middle Senior
- shift not significant
- Shift significant at .0160 level
- Shift not significant
- Shift significant at .004 level
ii.Least Effective Manager Ratings
Table 7:3 shows the mean scores of the scale and factor
categories in ratings of least effective managers. In
contrast to the most effective manager ratings, it is
assumed that a lower scale or factor mean score implies a
greater emphasis on that scale or factor. with the
exception of work capacity, all of the scales in the
conceptual category conform with the pattern of emphasis
suggested by hypothesis one. None of the shifts however,
are significant. The movement of the scales is reflected in
the factor categories which show a non-significant trend
which is consistent with hypothesis one (see Figure 7:3).
Discussion
senior management interview respondents and senior
management questionnaire respondents rating most effective
managers, do place significantly more emphasis on some of
the scales in the conceptual category than do non-managerial
and supervisory respondents. In particular the scales
innovation, managing/operating and overview show an increase
in emphasis (across both interview and questionnaire data
sets) in the direction suggested by hypothesis one. The
pattern of emphasis on these scales (in the interview and
most effective manager ratings) results in a significant
165
TABLE 7:3
SCALE AND FACTOR MEAN SCORES OF LEAST EFFECTIVE RATEES
BY MANAGEMENT LEVEL OF RESPONDENTS
Non-Mng supervisory Mid Mngment Snr Management
Respondents Respondents Respondents Respondents
(158) (104") (75) (23)
SCALES
Conceptual Ability
Goal setting
Personal Organ
Work Capacity
Innovation
Assertiveness
Future Orientation
Managing/operating
Stress Management-
Prioritising
Problem Solving
overview
Interpersonal Ability
Delegation/Training
Consultation
Feedback
Team Building
Concern for others
Personality
Integrity
others
2.76
2.97
3.03
2.56
2.86
2.72
2.66
2.56
2.78
2.68
2.69
2.61
2.68
2.64
2.43
2.56
2.62
2.87
Technical Knowledge 2.87
External Networking 2.27
Factor Scores
Conceptual Ability 2.76
Vision Sub-Category 2.65
Interpersonal Ability2.61
Technical Ability 2.87
2.64
2.94
3.05
2.37
2.67
2.56
2.56
2.66
2.74
2.66
2.64
2.43
2.64
2.51-
2.26
2.36
2.59
2.81
2.80
2.27
2.66
2.55
2.51
2.80
2.57
2.89
3.22
2.48
2.76
2.65
2.61
2.52
2.65
2.59
2.71
2.62
2.76
2.71
2.47
2.79
2.76
2.91
2.74
2.68
2.71
2.60
2.71
2.74
2.52
2.77
3.36
2.46
2.54
2.54
2.43
2.50
2.45
2.37
2.54
2.57
2.65
2.70
2.52
2.80
2.61
2.75
2.91
2.88
2.58
2.50
2.61
2.91
Significance
Level
.37
.71
.40
.32
.12
.43
.54
.96
.15
.22
.75
.17
.22
.39
.22
.003
.89
.36
.82
.0005
.45
.56
.27
.82
FIGURE 7:3
FACTOR MEAN SCORES OF LEAST EFFECTIVE RATEES BY MANAGEMENT
LEVEL OF RESPONDENTS
3.10
3.00
2.90
2.80
2.70
2.60
2.50
2.40
2.30
2.20
2.10
X',' x
Non-Sup
Conceptual Factor
Vision Sub-Category
Interpersonal Factor
Technical Factor
...-
-.
/'
-
-./
Supervisory Middle Senior
- shift not significant
- Shift not significant
- Shift not significant
- Shift not significant
increase in emphasis on the vision sub-category between non-
supervisory and senior management respondents. A similar
(although not significant) trend is evidenced in the least
effective manager ratings. Overall, the results provide
support for hypotheses one.
It is of interest however, that several of the conceptual
scales falling outside of the vision sub-category
demonstrate a response pattern which is the opposite of that
suggested by hypothesis one. In chapter six we contrasted
the shorter term more managerial nature of these scales with
the longer term leadership orientation of the conceptual
scales in the vision sUb-category. The tendency of some of
these managerial scales to receive greater emphasis at lower
respondent levels is consistent with the differing character
of the conceptual scale categories.
The results reported here, are supportive of reasoning of
Katz (1974, p.96) who argued that "conceptual
skill ... becomes increasingly critical in more responsible
executive positions where its effects are maximised and
easily observed ... at the top level of administration this
conceptual skill becomes the most important ability of all".
They are also in line with the findings of previous research
discussed in chapter two (see for example Hemphill 1959,
Mahoney et al 1965, Haas, Porat,and Vaughan 1969, Tornow and
166
Pinto 1976, Pavett and Lau 1983, Dakin, Hamilton, Cammock
and Gimpl 1984, Luthans et al 1985 and McLennan, Inkson,
Dakin, D e w e ~ and Elkin 1987). However, the findings
demonstrate that conceptual ability is not a unitary
concept, but contains diverse elements which behave
differently at different managerial levels. The scales
contained in the vision sub-category call for a higher level
of abstraction and intuition than do the remaining
conceptual scales which imply the need for a more concrete
shorter term mental ability. As was predicited by Jaques
(1976), the more abstract scales receive most emphasis at
senior management levels while the rest are in some cases
most emphasised by more junior level respondents.
Interpersonal Ability
Interview Results
Table 7:1 indicates that emphasis on team-building and
concern for others declines significantly with movement up
the interview respondent hierarchy. Emphasis on the other
interpersonal scales also declines consistently (although
not significantly) with movement up the respondent
hierarchy. Overall, the decline in emphasis on the
interpersonal factor (see Figure 7:1) between lower level
and senior interview respondents is strong and significant.
167
In contrast the external networking scale (which seems
logically related to the interpersonal scales) shows a
strong and significant increase in emphasis, between lower
level and senior management respondents.
Questionnaire Results
i.Most Effective Manager Ratings
The movement of the people scales used in rating most
effective managers (see Table 7:2) is more ambiguous. The
team building and concern for others scales show a slight
(but not significant) downward trend. Overall, Table 7:2
indicates no significant variation in scale emphasis between
questionnaire respondent levels. This pattern of movement
is reflected in the movement of the interpersonal factor
which shows a only a very slight and not significant,
decrease in emphasis between higher and lower respondent
levels (see Figure 7:2). The external networking scale
demonstrates the same pattern of variation shown in the
interview data. Table 7:2 shows a strong and significant
increase in emphasis on this scale, between lower and more
senior level respondents. The mean score of this scale at
the senior manager respondent level is significantly greater
than that for other groups.
168
ii.Least Effective Manager Ratings
In the least effective manager ratings (see Table 7:3 and
Figure 7:3) emphasis on concern for others declines
consistently (and significantly) with movement up the
respondent hierarchy. Emphasis on the scales feedback and
team-building also declines, although not significantly.
with the exception of the concern for others scale however,
neither the scales in the interpersonal factor nor the
factor itself demonstrate significant variation between
respondent levels. Table 7:3 shows a clear and highly
significant variation in emphasis on external networking.
In this case however the scale receives the greatest
emphasis from the more junior respondents.
169
The movement of the external networking scale s h ~ w n in Table
6:3 needs to be placed in the context of the very low
emphasis placed on this scale by all the questionnaire
respondents. External networking is scale which, overall,
receives very little emphasis by the respondents. The very
low ratings ascribed to lower level least effective ratees,
may reflect the perceived irrelevance of external networking
at this level, rather than an emphasis on the need for
development in this area. The increased mean scores at
higher levels may, by contrast, reflect the increased
relevance of external networking at this level.
Discussion
At first glance the interview and questionnaire results seem
contradictory. In actuality, the results reflect the
different tasks presented to the respondents. Interview
respondents were asked to differentiate between most and
least effective managers at the various levels. The
interview results indicate that interpersonal ability was
less relevant for senior management respondents (in
most from least effective managers) than
conceptual ability. This suggests that interpersonal
ability was relatively less important in differentiating
most from least effective managers at the senior management
level. This does not necessarily reflect a decline in the
absolute importance of the interpersonal,ability category.
The questionnaire results in fact, indicate that
interpersonal ability is of similar importance at all
levels. They indicate that the apparent decline in the
importance of interpersonal ability is relative rather than
absolute.
In absolute terms interpersonal ability appears to be
important at all respondent levels with little variation in
emphasis being evidenced. In this sense the results are
supportive of hypothesis two. In relative terms
interpersonal ability shows a sharp variation between the
170
respondent levels. At the non-managerial and supervisory
levels it is ability in working with people that seems to
matter the most. At middle and senior management levels the
interpersonal category, while remaining important, is
displaced in relative terms by the conceptual and vision
categories. This finding conforms directly with the
reasoning of Katz (1974) which was supported empirically by
Pavett and Lau (1983) and Dakin et al (1984). Katz (1974,
p.9S) states that "human skill, the ability to work with
others, is essential to effective administration at every
level ... [but] as we go higher and higher in the
administrative echelons ... the need for human skill becomes
proportionately, although probably not absolutely less."
The results of the study support the finding of chapter two
that ability in working with people is a crucial requirement
at all management levels. Given the importance of verbal
interaction as a working medium it is not surprising that
interpersonal ability retains a high level of emphasis at
all levels.
The response patterns for the external networking scale
provide an interesting counterpoint to the interpersonal
scales. This is a scale which logically fits within the
interpersonal ability area but (with the exception of the
least effective manager responses) displays a distinctively
171
different shift pattern. The between level variation in the
external networking category indicates that the pattern of
emphasis on interpersonal ability may change as the manager
moves up the hierarchy. with the exception of the least
effective manager ratings, the results of this study support
Mintzberg's (1973) contention that interpersonal contacts
become more externally focused at more senior management
levels. This finding is also supportive of Pavett and Lau's
(1983) empirical study on this question.
Technical Knowledge
Interview Results
Emphasis on the technical knowledge scale, by interview
respondents, declines (although not significantly) in the
direction and pattern suggested by hypothesis three (see
Table 7:1 and Figure 7:1).
Questionnaire Results
i.Most Effective Manager Ratings
172
The same pa.ttern is repeated, for the most effective
questionnai.re ratings, with the shift being highly
significant: .(see Table 7:2, Figure 7:2).
ii.Least Effective Manager Ratings
The slight decline in emphasi:; on technical knowledge (see
Table 7:3, Figure 7:3) between non-supervisory/supervisory
and senior managers is not sil;Jnificant. The pattern of
emphasis differs slightly from that anticipated by
hypothesis three, particularly with regard to the emphasis
placed on 1::he scale by the middle management respondents.
Discussion
The interv:Lew results, and the response patterns of
respondents rating most effective managers, show a clear
decline in emphasis on technical ability as the seniority of
the respondents increases. The response patterns of
respondents rating least effective managers however, are
more and do not indicate a decline in emphasis on
technical ]{nowledge. Overall, the results (particularly
those relait.ing to ratings of most effective managers)
provide support for hypothesis three.
The sharp drop in emphasis on technical knowledge between
most effective middle a.nd senior management respondents
173
(shown in Table 7:2 and Figure 7:2), may reflect the nature
of the middle manager/senior manager (director) transition.
Up to the Director level, managers in the Department of
Social Welfare work primarily within one of three functional
areas (benefits and pensions, administration and social
work). At the Director level the manager is for the first
time responsible for all three. By the very nature of the
organisation's career path it is not possible to have a
detailed technical knowledge of all three areas. The
interview material indicates that some Directors try to
compensate for their unfamiliarity with their new areas of
responsibility by maintaining an inappropriate technical
involvement with their old area. By contrast, the most
effective senior managers leave behind their old specialist
technical interests and adopt a generalist orientation more
suited to their new role. It is at the Director level, as
predicted by Dakin and Hamilton (1984) that attaining an
appropriate balance between generalist manager and
specialist technical roles becomes extremely important. At
this level, the maintenance of a generalist/specialist
balance may be more important than having high levels of
specialist technical knowledge. This would account for the
low emphasis on technical knowledge by the senior management
respondents and the heightened emphasis on
managing/operating (see Table 7:2).
174
These findings are in keeping with much of the reasoning and
empirical work in this area (see for example Fayol 1949,
Barnard 1938, Hemphill 1959, Thornton and Byham 1982, Dakin
et al 1984, McLennan et al 1987). In chapter two, we drew a
distinction between technical knowledge in terms of broad
industry knowledge and connections (see Kotter 1982, 1988),
generalist managerial knowledge (for example of finance and
marketing) and specific technical knowledge and ability.
The definition of technical knowledge used here is very
specific and conforms with the Katz (1974, p.91) technical
skill definition as "an understanding of, and proficiency
in, a specific kind of activity, particularly one involving
methods, processes, procedures, or techniques". It is less
likely that these findings would be repeated if a broader
definition of technical knowledge, such as that proposed by
Kotter (1982, 1988) we+e adopted. As proposed by Katz
(1974), the size of the organisation may also reduce the
need for technical knowledge at senior management levels.
The numbers of available support staff and the depth of
technically competent operators at lower levels, may allow
senior managers to function with a level of technical
knowledge that would be unworkable in smaller organisations.
CONCLUSION
In chapter two we noted a deficiency in the literature, in
its description of specifically effective or ineffective
175
management. The same deficiency is evident in the
literature exploring between level variations in managerial
work. Little, if any, of this literature has dealt with
between level variations in specifically effective or
ineffective management. The findings presented here are
significant, in that they are grounded in comparisons and
ratings of specifically effective and ineffective managers
in the Department of Social Welfare. They make a small
contribution to an area of research which to date has been
largely "speculative in nature" (Pavett and Lau 1983,
p.171) .
The results of this study support the finding, outlined in
chapter two, that hierarchical level contributes to
variations in the importance of managerial characteristics
and behaviour. There is a need for caution however, in the
interpretation of some of the results of this study. The
interview study suffers from some deficiency in the
reliability of its content analysis and in the small sample
size at the senior management level. Furthermore, a few of
the scale variations reported for the questionnaire data may
have been influenced by differences in variance between the
respondent groups. Additionally not all of the findings are
totally consistent across interview and most/least effective
data sets. Overall however, the study presents a useful set
of findings which are supportive of the three hypotheses
outlined at the beginning of this chapter.
176
It is of particular interest to find that the bases of
respondent judgements of most and l e ~ s t effective managers
differ in a number of instances. The bases by which
respondents judge most effective managers tend to vary
across respondent levels. The bases by which respondents
judge least effective managers by constrast, show little
variation between respondent levels. This finding adds
further weight to the view forwarded in chapter five that
there are qualitative differences between most and least
effective management.
177
CHAPTER EIGHT
REVIEW OF KEY FINDINGS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT
DEVELOPMENT AT THE MBA LEVEL
INTRODUCTION
At the commencement of this study we set out to answer the
research question "What are the characteristics and
behaviours of effective versus ineffective managers and how
do these characteristics and behaviours vary between
different management levels". We addressed this question in
chapters five, six, and seven. In chapter five we described
twenty scale categories descriptive of the characteristics
and behaviours of effective and ineffective managers in the
Department of Social Welfare. In chapter six we reduced the
scale categories to a simple three factor model. In chapter
seven we used the scale and factor categories as dependent
variables to test three hypotheses relating to variations in
the characteristics and behaviours of effective/ineffective
managers between different managerial levels. These
chapters provide a useful response to the research question
and help to fill what has been a major deficiency in the
research literature. This chapter reviews some of the key
findings of the study and discusses their implications for
managerial development.
REVIEW OF FINDINGS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO PAST RESEARCH
Key Abilities Required in Effective Management and Their
Relationship to Past Research
In chapter six we presented a three factor model of
managerial effectiveness and suggested that the" factors
embraced three broad areas of ability, namely conceptual,
interpersonal and technical. These three areas of ability
underpin effective management in the Department of Social
Welfare. As mentioned in c h a p t e ~ five, there is reason to
believe that they also have relevance to effective
management outside the Department. In this section we look
at these areas of ability in greater detail.
conceptual Ability
In chapter six we suggested that the conceptual ability
factor could be devided into two logical sUb-categories.
Both sub-scales conform to the broad "something formed in
the mind" definition of conceptual ability provided in
chapter six. They are however suggestive of two distinct
areas of ability within the broad conceptual label. The
existence of distinct sUb-categories within the conceptual
category is supported by the divergence in behaviour (across
management levels) between a number of the conceptual
scales (see chapter seven). The first conceptual sub-
category is comprised of the scales; goal setting,
innovation, future orientation, managing versus operating,
stress management and overview. As we mentioned in chapter
six, these scales relate to the longer term issue of setting
direction for the manager's unit, hence the vision title
given to this sub-category in previous chapters. Effective
managers, as described by these scales can be seen as those
who remain calm and don't revert to a crisis operator role
when under pressure. Rather they are able to avoid getting
bogged down in technical/operational detail and maintain a
broad longer term,overview of their roles in t;he
organisation. From this overview, comes a heightened
capacity for innovation, creativity and for anticipating
future problems and opportunities. All of these things in
turn, contribute to the manager's ability to set clear goals
and establish a sense of purpose for themselves and their
staff.
The scales in this sub-category differ from the other
conceptual scales, in that they call primarily on the
manager's intui ti ve ability. The New Collins Concise English
Dictionary (1986, p.591) defines intuition as "knowledge or
perception not gained by reasoning and intelligence ... not
180
empirically 9r discursively ... instinctive knowledge or
insight." Most of the scales in the vision category
indicate a need for intuitive ability that extends beyond
objective reasoning into higher levels of abstraction of the
sort described by Jaques (1976) . In goal setting, it
emerges in the final vision and direction, articulated by
the manager. It underlies the creative thinking in
innovation and provides the capacity to envision and prepare
for an unpredictable future required in future orientation.
It is also implicit in the balance and feel involved in
'establishing the correct emphasis on managing versus
operating and in maintaining the big picture perspective
that comes from overview. In all of these areas analytical
ability is important, but it is insufficient by itself.
These s c ~ l e s require additional insight that 'can only be
obtained intuitively. As mentioned in chapter six the
emphasis on vision direction setting and intuition in this
sub-category, is more evocative of effective leadership than
it is of management. We also saw in chapter seven that the
scales in the vision sub-category (unlike the other
conceptual scales) tend to increase in importance as
managers progress through the hierarchy. Vision, intuition
and abstract thinking of the sort described by these scales
appear to more significant for senior managers than for
their more junior counterparts.
181
As we saw in chapter six, the remaining conceptual scales,
work capacity, assertiveness, prioritising, problem solving
and personal organisation form a second conceptual sub-
category. Whereas the vision sub-category conforms with
descriptions of effective leadership, these scales are more
related to shorter term action/implementation issues and are
more manager!al in emphasis. Effective managers, as
described by these scales have plenty of drive and
enthusiasm. They are well organised and this contributes to
an ability to balance priorities and concentrate on the task
at hand. They have the ability to get to the heart, even of
complex problems and fix their basic causes. with a
solution in mind they are decisive enough to take action,
regardless of how difficult or unpleasant the implementation
may be. While the vision sub-category is primarily under-
pinned by intuitive ability, the scales in this sub-category
call primarily for analytic ability. By analytic ability we
mean the ability to to think in a clear, rational manner and
to apply conventional analytical techniques and problem
approaches. This type of thinking is in line with the
"concrete" mental skills proposed by Jaques (1976 p.153) as
required for lower level management positions. It is of
interest that the scales in this sub-category tend to
receive greatest emphasis by lower level managerial
respondents (see chapter seven).
182
In summary conceptual ability category can be seen to
contain two ability sub-categories, namely intuitive and
analytic. The literature reviewed in chapter two places
much more emphasis on the interpersonal and intuitive nature
of managerial work than it does on analysis. In chapter two
the intuitive response mode (stewart 1982) emerged as a
critical mechanism for managing in complex, interactive work
environments. such environments are seen, in the research,
as a central characteristic of managerial work (Mintzberg
1973, 1989, Kotter 1982, Stewart 1982, Hales 1986, Bouwen
and Steyaert 1990, Brown 1990, Hosking and Fineman 1990).
Intuition has recently been strongly and explicitly
emphasised as a key requirement of effective leadership.
Bennis (1989) for example, devotes a chapter to "Operating
on Instinct", which he argues, is central to becoming a
leader. Both Bennis (1989) and Mintzberg (1989) argue that
intuition is an essential component of effective whole brain
management. This study lends support to this literature by
confirming that intuition is not only a feature of
managerial work but is an essential underlying element of
effective managerial work, particularly at more senior
managment levels.
Paradoxically, analysis receives most attention in writing
expressing concern about its over-emphasis in managerial
teaching (Mintzberg 1989). It is not without support
however. Carroll and Gillen (1987) in their affirmation of
183
the usefulness of the classical planning, co-ordinating,
commanding and controlling functions offer some support to
analytical approaches. It is present in the
technical/specialist skills which are seen to be an
important part of the manager's job (Katz 1974, Kotter 1982,
Dakin and Hamilton 1986). Analysis is also implicit as a
crucial left brain aspect of the whole brain leadership
emphasized by a number of commentators (see for example
Bennis 1989, Mintzberg 1989). Daft (1988) also indicates a
need for analytical ability in managerial reviews of hard
written information, such as reports and computer print-
outs. Overall, this study affirms the need for both
analytic and intuitive ability as part of an effective whole
brain approach to managerial work. This study indicates
that both are essential elements of effective
with neither being sufficient in themselves. Further; there
is some evidence from this study that the two components
behave differently across managerial levels with intuitive
skills increasing in importance with seniority as analytical
skills decline.
Interpersonal Ability
As we have seen in previous chapters, the interpersonal
ability factor is made up of the scales delegation/training,
personality, integrity, team building, consultation,
feedback, and concern for others. The external networking
184
scale, although not included in the factor analysis, also
fits logically in this area. Effective managers, as
described by this factor, relate well to other people and
are comfortable in interpersonal situations. They are
honest and reliable and have a high degree of concern for
both staff and clients. They consult regularly with staff
and are prepared to change their ideas in response to the
input of others. They delegate well, . involve others in the
operational work and ensure that staff are adequately
trained. They provide regular feedback to staff to whom
work has been delegated and take care to recognise and
reward good work. These managers are highly visible, moving
around and interacting with staff and also maintaining
contact with clients and people outside of their direct work
area. Underlying these managers' interpersonal approach is
a de-emphasis of formal authority and an emphasis on
posi ti ve rather '!:han puni ti ve approaches to feedback and
motivation. Motivation is through example and personal
mana, rather than coercion or formal authority. The net
result of this approach is an enthusiastic, even inspired,
team, who give of their best and are totally supportive of
the manager.
This is a common sense picture of managerial effectiveness
at the interpersonal level. It portrays managers with high
levels of interpersonal ability, maintaining effective
contact with staff and other key people in their networks.
185
These people have accepted the inherently social and
interpersonal process of their work and are able to work
within this social process to build a highly motivated and
supportive staff team. The same approach has generated high
levels of contact with individuals and clients outside of
the immediate work group, with additional gains to
effectiveness. This picture is in complete harmony with the
informal, political, and network driven nature of managerial
work highlighted in chapter two (Dalton 1959, Fletcher 1973,
Kotter 1982, stewart 1.983, Luthans et al 1985, Hales 1986,
Hosking and Fineman 1990). It also echoes the social,
verbal, and affective work process described in chapter two
(Burns 1954, 1957, Guest 1956, Horne and Lupton 1965,
Mintzberg 1973, 1989, 1990, stewart 1976, 1988, Fry,
Srivstva and Jonas 1987, Jonas 1987; Hosking and Fineman
1990). The de-emphasis of formal authority, the emphasis on
contact, example and equality in the motivation and
enthusing of staff, is also in harmony with the leadership
literature. As noted by (Kotter 1990, p.105) the emphasis,
in the leadership literature is on "alignment" of staff
rather than organising, controlling and/or coercing. Put
more simply, the patterns of interpersonal effectiveness
emerging from this research support popularist prescriptions
by consultants, such as Tom Peters (see Peters and waterman
1984), for leaders who will get out of their offices and
contact, coach, facilitate and support their staff and
clients.
186
In chapters five and six we noted the high levels of
interaction and interdependence that exist between both the
scales and the factors. In chapter five we concluded that
this interaction suggests that proficiency on one scale may
not only have a short term instrumentality but may be a
prerequisite to proficiency in other areas. This conclusion
applies to interpersonal ability, more than the other
ability dimensions, identified in this research. In chapter
five we noted that all of the twenty scales (with the
exception of personal organisation, and technical knowledge)
were arguably involved and/or were reliant on some aspect of
the manager's interpersonal ability. This meant for
example, that the manager's interpersonal ability
underpinned and served as a prerequisite to effectiveness in
almost all of the scales in the conceptual ability factor.
In short, interpersonal ability, although not sufficient in
itself, serves as a fundamental pre-condition to managerial
effectiveness. This finding indicates that interpersonal
ability is the most crucial of the abilities identified in
this study.
The emphasis on interpersonal ability in this study, comes
as no surprise. Even the managerial definition, developed
in chapter two, asserts that the manager has responsibility,
authority and accountability to other people. Overall our
findings echo the theme, stressed elsewhere in the
187
literature (for example Jaques 1976, Hales 1986, and stewart
1986) that, above all, "management does mean achieving
objectives with, and by means' of, other people" (stewart
1982, p.109). This study affirms that working with people
is not only an essential aspect of managerial work but it is
an essential dimension of effective managerial work ..
Technical Ability
The technical ability "factor", as we have, for convenience
called it, is comprised of the single technical knowledge
scale. As mentioned in previous chapters, this scale refers
to the specialist technical knowledge of the manager
(particularly of the laws, manuals and procedures that
characterise work in the Department) rather than the
definition, used by Kotter (1982, 1988), as a detailed
knowledge of the organisation's business and networks.
Effective managers are described, by this scale, as having a
strong technical knowledge of the jobs under their control.
They keep up to date technically and are able to assist
staff on technical matters. Consequently, they circumvent
situations where staff might try to "pull the wool over
their eyes" on technical matters.
As with analytical ability, technical knowledge is not a
major theme of the literature reviewed in chapter two. It
is nevertheless an identifiable and important part of
188
managerial work. It is seen in the literature (particularly
in the broader definition of Kotter 1982, 1988), as an
important dimension of managerial work right up to chief
executive level (Katz 1974, Kotter 1982, 1988, Hales 1986).
The need at more senior levels is to balance
technical/specialist skills with conceptual and
interpersonal abilities (Katz 1974, Dakin and Hamilton
1986). This same pattern was evidenced in chapter seven,
where technical knowledge was seen as most important at
supervisory management levels, with a corresponding decline
in its importance, with movement up the managerial
hierarchy.
The broad ability requirements which underpin effective
management in the Department show a,clear pattern of
emphasis. Overall, they call most strongly for ability in
interpersonal relations. In the conceptual area the need is
for a balance of intuitive and analytical ability. Finally
there is a need for technical knowledge and ability. These
findings are in keeping with the thrust of most previous
research. Where the findings of this study differ from
previous research (particularly Katz 1974) is in their
challenge to the unitary nature of the key managerial
skills. In this study the different conceptual scales in
particular, showed a tendency to behave differently at
different levels. This suggests that the Katz (1974)
conceptual skills category, which has been echoed in
189
subsequent research (see Pavett and Lau 1983, Dakin et al
1984), may be a less homogeneous entity than has been
suggested in these papers. The findings of this study, in
their emphasis on the interpersonal and intuitive aspects of
effectiveness, also lend support to those who have expressed
concern about the excessively rational and analytic nature
of management teaching at the university level (see for
example Hayes and Abernathy 1980, Leavitt 1983, Mintzberg
1989). The discontinuity between the findings of this study
and the approach of some business schools is reviewed next.
IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGERIAL TEACHING AND DEVELOPMENT
Criticism of Current Business School Practise
In a (1971) article entitled "The Myth of the Well Educated
Manager" Sterling Livingston highlighted the lack of
correlation between high grades at the Harvard Business
School and subsequent managerial effectiveness. Livingston
(1971, p.82) argued that university teaching "overdevelops
an individual's analytical ability, but leaves his ability
to take action and get things done underdeveloped". Nearly
ten years later, Robert Hayes and William Abernathy (1980)
suggested that short term, overly anaiytical, simplistic,
190
and superficial (due to lack of industry experience)
managerial approaches were undermining the effectiveness of
u.s organisations. T ~ e implication was that the business
schools, in their emphasis on rationality and formal
analysis, were partly responsible for the decline of
organisational performance in the U.S.A. In 1983 Harold
Leavitt expressed this view rather more succinctly. He
noted (1983, p.2) that lithe decline of American management
is [so] closely correlated with the rise of the American
business school [that] the real source of our malaise must
be the educators".
Mintzberg (1989 p.79) in renewing the argument, notes that
since Hayes and Abernathy's paper, "business school
education [has] become more analytic, not less". Mintzberg
(1989, p.80) argues that the modern MBA process is so
disconnected from the needs of practising managers that "if
those people in business and government who support today's
business schools really knew what was going on inside many
of them, including some of the best known, really took the
trouble, for example to interview the professors at random,
they would be demanding revoluntary changes in faculty and
curriculum instead of passively writing checks." The
leadership literature echos similar concerns, in its stress
on the need for the vision and character of leadership over
the detachment and rationality of management (see example
Zaleznik 1977, 1989, Adair 1983, Bennis and Nanus 1985, Bass
191
1985,1988, Kouzes and Posner 1987, Kotter 1988,1990, Bennis
1989) .
The claim of these critics is that management teaching at
the MBA level lacks relevanc.e to real world management and
may actually be damaging to long term organisational and
national competitiveness. The common theme in these papers
is that the weakness of business school teaching centres on
an over-emphasis of management as rational, linear,
quantifiable, sequential, and analytical. This over-
reliance on rationality is seen as coming at the expense of
the intuition, insight, wisdom, and "affective empathy"
needed in "leading, changing, developing, or working with
people" (Livingston 1971, pp 80, 89).
There seem to be at least two reasons for the approach taken
by the business schools. The first, (as we saw.in chapter
two) is that there has been so little research on
specifically effective management (Martinko and Gardiner
1985, Hales 1986, stewart 1989) that it has not been
possible to build MBA teaching around coherent models of
effective managing. The emphasis on rationality has perhaps
thrived in the absence of a coherent understanding of the
realities of effective managing. The second, is that many
teachers of management are not particularly interested in,
(or able to teach) hands-on managerial skills. Koontz
(1980, p.176) notes that unlike the earlier work in
management, which was lead by "alert and perceptive
192
practioners" such as Henry Fayol and Chester Barnard the
area is now dominated by "highly, but narrowly trained
instructors who are intelligent, but know too little about
the actual task of managing and the realities that
practising managers face".
193
Koontz was writing more than ten years ago, but his
comments, if anything, are even more relevant to
contemporary management teaching. Rising academic standards
and demands for pUblication are producing a generation of
management teachers with perhaps even less management
experience, than the academics described by Harold Koontz.
Such academics are correspondingly less able to teach about
real management For many management academics, the
attachment is to their discipline and to scholarly research
and pUblication in'a firmament largely divorced from the
realities faced by practising managers. In the absence of
such hands-on experience the tendency is to emphasize skills
that relate, not to the practise of management, but to the
research demands of their discipline. Hence, the emphasis
on rational analysis as the dominating theme of many MBA
programmes. The emphasis on individual disciplines and to a
lesser extent, the absence of any coherent integrating model
of managerial effectiveness, in turn means that many MBA
courses are presented as a series of disparate specialist
SUbjects. This can create the impression that management
has a separate, sequential, and specialised character rather
than the highly interactive process which has been revealed
in this and other research. The call then, is for an
integrated teaching process, which reflects the interactive
nature of managerial work and effectiveness, rather than
increasing subject isolation and specialisation (Koontz
1980, Mintzberg 1989).
Relationship of these criticisms to this study
The abilities required for effective management identified
in this study have much in common with the prescriptions
a d v o c a t ~ d above and lend support to critics of the MBA
teaching process. This is an important finding given that
this is a study of effective management rather than
management ,or managerial work per see The criticisms
outlined above however, are well known and many (although
certainly not all) business schools are improving their
programmes in response to them. We cite them in this
chapter, not to mount another critique of business school
approaches but to provide a current context for the findings
of this research.
194
Recommendations for Management Development at the MBA Level
In this study we have identified an ability mix which sees
interpersonal ability as a fundamental prerequisite to
effective management. We have also identified a need for a
balance of analytic and intuitive ability in dealing
effectively with the conceptual demands of the managerial
job. Finally we indicated a need for varying levels of
technical ability. As indicated above, these findings are
in harmony with the literature criticising past business
school approaches. The abilities identified in this
research, in their emphasis on the interpersonal and
intuitive, also lean more toward the whole brain approaches
advocated by the leadership theorists. We will complete
this chapter by drawing from the findings of this study to
make some general recommendations for management development
at the MBA level. In making these recommendations we are
generalizing the findings of this study beyond the
Department of Social Welfare. As mentioned in chapter five
there is some evidence to support the generalizability of
our findings. However, we do recognise the limitations of
generalization beyond this specific research setting and
acknowledge the consequent limitations of the following
195
recommendations. Our recommendations for an effective MBA
process are structured around the following five areas;
1. Selection
The MBA selection process would place an emphasis on depth
of life/industry experience. This would result in an older
MBA student population with most participants ~ e i n g , at
least, in their thirties. There are a couple of reasons for
this. First, there is some evidence that the kind of
interpersonal and intuitive abilities identified in this
research cannot develop without sUbstantial life and work'
experience (Ohmae 1982, Agor 1984, Bennis 1989, Mintzberg
1989). Second, although not strongly emphasized, there is
some evidence in this study that specialist technical
knowledge is a significant aspect of effective management
even at senior levels. We are also mindful of Kotter's
(1982,1988) assertion that broader technical knowledge, as
it relates to an understanding of specific
organisational/industry networks, nuances and politics, are
important, even at senior management levels. Neither
specialist nor broader technical knowledge, as described by
Kotter (1982,1988), can be taught on an MBA. The
foundations in these areas need to be laid before
individuals enter the programme.
196
There is no evidence in this study that effective managers
require extraordinarily high levels of intelligence. The
conceptual demands of effective management, along with the
academic requirements of the MBA however, suggest the need
for at least moderate intelligence. Overall, we would agree
with Mintzberg's (1989) call for selection processes which
attempt to balance intelligence, past success in management
and a genuine interest in a career in managing people (as
opposed to things). To attract people with high levels of
work experience, the structure of the MBA would need to
reflect the pressures and time demands of t h ~ managerial
practioner. This would suggest the need for highly focused
course offerings, perhaps offered in modularised forms.
2. Technical Base
We would build on this experience base a solid grounding in
the core functional disciplines, for example, of marketing,
finance, computing, quantitative methods, human resource
management, economics, and production. This would add to
the manager's industry specific technical knowledge, a
generalist technical grounding (as discussed in chapter two)
in the key disciplines most needed at the general management
level. This would be a highly focussed prescriptive
offering concentrating on specific techniques that the
manager could apply, or at least understand, in each area.
The intent would be to give the manager the range of
generalist skills necessary to successfully make the
197
transition between lower level operationally driven
positions and m o r ~ senior generalist management jobs.
Aspects of this.transition are illustrated by the manager
versus operator scale described in Appendix Three. The
emphasis in this part of the process would be primarily
analytical.
3.Descriptive Material
Mintzberg (1989) argues that we have no right (as management
educators) being prescriptive, outside of the manager's
specific context. We would respond to Mintzberg's argument
by making a part of the MBA process descriptive in nature.
We would use the findings of our own research and that of
others to provide a thorough descriptive picture of the
organisational, decision-making, strategy setting, work and
external environments which characterize the manager's
world. We would particularly emphasize the interpersonal
and intuitive dimensions of effective managerial work
processes. Our aim would be to encourage reflection and
insight on the part of the student. The prescriptive
learning would come as students related the research, theory
and the experiences of other managers to their own problems
and practises. We would stimulate this process by
developing case examples from the managers' own experience
and by assessment, based largely on project work inside
local organisations.
198
4. Skill and Ability Development
We would use the findings of this and other research on
managerial effectiveness to build an experiential workshop
programme to develop specific skills and abilities. The
emphasis here would be on interpersonal abilities in the
context of the other skill areas suggested by the twenty
scale categories. We would also develop exercises which
would allow students to develop their intuitive abilities
and creativity both directly and through personal growth
workshops. The experience base of the students would enable
the exploration of issues surrounding intuitive practises in
a way unavailable to younger student populations.
Analytical skill development is strongly emphasized in the
functional disciplines offered in the technical base (see
above) and would not require specific attention in these
workshop experiences.
5. Integration
199
A repeated theme of this study has been the interactive and
interdependent nature of effective management. This finding
along with the work of Koontz (1980) and others, suggests a
need for an integrated teaching process which invites
students to apply the insights. of a diverse range of
disciplines simultaneously. Papers on general and strategic
management would be at the heart of the integrating process.
Additional integration could be achieved through exercises,
computer simulations, cases (based on the students own
experiences) and projects which present problems demanding a
range of abilities and understandings, rather than
emphasizing one or other of the core disciplines. Overall,
this process could provide a core integrating medium for the
MBA and would provide a much more realistic model of the
real world.
200
These recommendations are offered as initial (and fairly
ordinary) thoughts on what is a complex topic. However
ordinary they appear, it is our feeling that their-
implementation could lend useful improvement to many MBA
programmes. If we are to believe the business school
critics, this approach, even in the relatively orthodox form
suggested here, is at variance with many MBA programmes. In
such a pivotal time for our organisations and our societies
it is disturbing to think that so many of our developmental
efforts run contrary to fundament principles of managerial
effectiveness. The need is for more developmental
approaches based on research into the effectiveness of
practising managers. It is time that the findings of such
research were acknowledged and the offerings of our MBA
degree programmes modified accordingly.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
In this chapter we have reviewed some of the key abilities
that underpin managerial effectiveness, in the Department of
Social Welfare. We have also been able to draw some
implications from our findings, for hands-on management
development at the MBA level. As we saw in chapter five,
the findings of this study have also provided the basis for
a successful management development effort within the
Department of Social Welfare. As the reader will recall, we
set out at the beginning of this study to answer the
research question; "What are the characteristics and
behaviours of effective versus ineffective managers and how
do these characteristics and behaviours vary between
different management levels". In this and previous
chapters, we feel we have made a useful contribution to the
understanding of this question. This is but an initial
study in this area however, and there remains much to be
done in the exploration of managerial work and
effectiveness.
201
The major opportunities for future research have been
clearly defined by Martinko and Gardner (1985) Hales (1986)
and stewart (1989), in their review papers. As we saw in
chapter two, all of these papers highlight the need for more
research on the characteristics and behaviours or, in
stewart's (1989, p.5) terms "thoughts and actions", of
specifically effective managers. This is an area that will
need continuing research attention for the foreseeable
future.
As we saw in chapter two, there is general agreement, in the
literature, that the content and p r o c ~ s s of managerial work
varies acr9ss management levels, job types, organisations,
environments and cultures (Burns 1957, Dubin and Spray 1964,
Horne and Lupton 1965, Nath 1968, Child and Ellis 197.3,
Mintzberg 1973, Boyatzis 1982, Stewart 1982, 1988, Pavett
and Lau 1983). Rosemary Stewart argues that the differences
between managerial jobs are qualitative in nature and are so
great, that they defy attempts to explore variations using
standardised or generic typologies. stewart (1982, p.79-80)
writes; "My original hope was to develop a single typology
to differentiate managerial jobs ... but now I think that
managerial jobs are too varied and consist of too many
different aspects for that to be useful."
202
It is interesting, given the strength of Stewart's argument,
that the findings of this research provide tentative support
for a generic model of managerial effectiveness. It is
possible that a comprehensive typo.logy of effectiveness
categories could have application across a wide variety of
managerial settings . It may be.that, while managerial jobs
are subject to great variation, the skills and abilities
needed to handle them are more finite and generalizable in
nature.
Little if any research has been done comparing the
characteristics and behaviour of effective managers across
different settings. There is a need therefore for research
which explores the issue of effectiveness and the skills
that underpin effective managing, across a variety of
settings. This research could provide a test for the
development of generic models of effective managing.
203
Chapter seven of this study makes an initial contribution in
this area of research.
Such research could also (as advocated by Stewart 1989) look
at the impact of the job and job context on the
effectiveness of the individual manager. It could be
possible to build a contingency model of managerial
effectiveness which explored the "fit" between the
characteristics and behaviour of individual managers and the
situations encountered on the job. Such a contextual
approach could also be used to explore effectiveness in
terms of the organisational environment using frameworks,
such as Stewart's (1982) demands, constraints and choices
model.
Finally, the issue of interaction, within the dimensions of
effectiveness, is clearly an area worthy of further
research. The concept of interaction, within the different
dimensions of managerial work and effectiveness, has been
strongly emphasized in this study and is fairly well
established in other research (see for example Kotter 1982,
Mintzberg 1990). Little is known however, about the
direction or impact of those interactions and negligible
research has been done in this area. The assumption
outlined in chapter five for example, that interpersonal
ability operates as the main prerequisite to managerial
effectiveness needs further testing. Research efforts in
this area would benefit from a mode of enquiry different to
that adopted in this study. It is our feeling, that the
major breakthroughs in the field of management effectiveness
will in future, be driven by qualitative research rather
than the quantitatively orientated methods employed here.
Such methods will also be required as more understanding is
sought on the intuitive aspects of managerial effectiveness.
These then are some of the areas that hold potential for
further fruitful research. As mentioned in chapter one,
research on managerial effectiveness can be both exciting
and socially beneficial. Given the immense pace of change
that characterizes late twentieth century life, such
research is essential, if we are to retain our relevance as
management educators and developers. This chapter brings
204
this thesis to a close. It is hoped that it will provide a
useful contribution to present understanding and future
efforts in" this important area.
205
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Thanks are due to my wife and children, particularly my
wife Liz who has supported me in innumerable ways through
this process. Without her help I could not have
completed this project. I must acknowledge my supervisor
steve Dakin who has taken sUbstantial time from a hectic
schedule to guide the research and painstakingly review
the drafts of this thesis. My thanks also to my
colleagues Nilakant and Bob Hamilton. Nilakant for his
crucial guidance on the computing side of the project and
his willingness to give generou?ly of his time. Bob
Hamil ton for providing much needed support, encoura,gement
and guidance at various phases of the project and taking
time out of his personal schedule to read and comment on
drafts of the thesis. A number of other colleagues in
the Department of Managment have also helped,
particularly our secretaries Shelly, Irene, Janis and
Margaret. Finally my thanks to the Department of Social
Welfare who funded and supported this research.
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APPENDIX ONE
Open, shares financial
information.
high level of technical
competence.
Establishes a network of
contacts and filters to act
as buffers between dept
and community (eg on Maori
issues) .
strong external networks.
Low profile in the
community.
Sees his authority in the
intent of the legislation.
Makes decisions on files
within three minutes.
Understands the original intent
of the legislation.
Understands the real needs
of clients, people.
Knows what the real purpose
of the Department is
to humanity.
Knows how to work the
system to benefit
the people.
Won't share financial
formation.
Low level of technical
competence.
Establishes no contacts
no filters or
constraints. Takes the
Maori problem up to
himself.
Poor external networks.
High profile in the
community.
Sees his authority in
procedures and
regulation.
Procrastinates decisions
when there is no need.
Loses sight of the
original intent ..
Unable to understand the
real needs/situation of
clients.
Has lost sight of the
real purpose of the
department.
Inflexible approach.
APPENDIX TWO
MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS STUDY
In this study we are seeking to identify the factors which make for effective
management in t.he Department. of Social Welfare. To help us do t.his we have
compiled' a questionnaire which contains t.he ideas of nearly 100 non-management and
management staff about practices which distinguish effective from less effect.ive
managers in the Department. Altoget.her the questionnaire contains 170 items.
We would be grateful if you would go through these 170 items twice: first, would you
think about the least effective manager that you are or have been involved with in
the level immediately above your present level and rat.e him or her on t.he
questionnaire entitled "Least Effective Manager"; would you then think of the most
effect.ive manager that you are or have been involved with at. t.he level immediately
above your present level and rate them on the second questionnaire entitled 'I",[ost
Effective Manager".
Please t.ry and identify people you have observed closely and remember to use people
who are or have been in the level immediat.ely above the level you occupy now e.g., if
you are an assistant director then you would rate directors.
Each item consists of one idea about. management which is expressed in both a
posit.ive and negat.ive way. For example, t.he idea may be:
Highly in tel1igent
1---:---1---1---1---1
Rather slow
Your task is t.o place a check ( ) on the line to indicate how you would describe the
person you are rating.
Be sure to finish rat.ing one person completely before you st.art rating the second
person.' It would be useful if you could leave a few hours or even a day between
rating the two people. In this way your rating of the second person is less likely to
be affected by your recollections of the first person. On completing the
questionnaires, please check to see t.hat you have completed all of the items.
The results of the survey are completely confidential, and to ensure full confidentialit.y
please do not include t.he names of t.he people you are rat.ing. We would appreciate it.
however if you could writ.e the grade level and management t.itle e.g., 104 Divisional
Officer of the managers being rat.ed in t.he space provided on t.he t.op of each of the
quest.ionnaires. Could you also write your own name, grade, position and work area in
the space below. We need this information t.o determine the management levels being
rated and to keep track of the people and areas of the Department that have
completed the questionnaires. A member of the survey t.eam will collect. the
questionnaire when you have completed it. Thanks for your help.
Peter Cammock
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
Name: Grade:
Position: Work Area:
PART ONE
LEAST EFFECTIVE MANAGER
Management Level and Title:
(Please do not write name)
1 . Insists on high perform- ' __ 1 __ ' __ 1 __ ' __ 1
ance standards from
staff.
2. Maintains a high stand- ' __ 1 __ ' __ ' __ 1 __ 1
ard of housekeeping;
keeps work area tidy.
3. Has natural leadership 1 __ t __ I __ I __ I __ '
ability and takes
command easily.
4. Has a realistic view of ' __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ ' __ 1
his/her own ability.
5. Looks for new approaches, ' __ 1 __ 1 __ ' __ 1 __ 1
ideas and opportunities.
6.
Will not back down 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
'7.
when wrong or backs
down with bad grace.
Tends to buckle in an
argument.
8. Poor listener;
discourages discussion.
9. Little basic education
and/or training;
self-taught.
10. Slow learner.
11. Willing to learn.
12. Makes careful decisions
backed by evidence;
thinks before acting.
13. Puts in extra time and
effort when required.
1 __ 1 __ ' __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1_...:.1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
14. Encourages staff's 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ '
participation in decision
making; asks and suggests.
15. Has a high level of drive 1 __ 1 __ ' __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
and ambition.
16. Goes to pieces under
pressure and gets
priorities_mixed.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ ' __ 1
Sometimes lets sub-
standard work through.
Sloppy in housekeeping;
maintains an untidy
work area.
Lacks natural leader-
ship ability an is
reluctant to take
command.
Has an urealistic view
of his/her own ability.
Satisfied with the
status quo.
Will back down grace-
fully when wrong.
wrong.
Sticks to what she/he
believes in.
Listens well and
encourages discussion.
Strong formal education
and/or training; has a
trained mind.
Picks things up
quickly.
Unwilling to .learn.
Makes hasty decisions
and ignores inform-
ation; acts before
thinking.
Puts in the minimum
time and effort
required.
Autocratic approach
to decision-making;
tells and demands.
Lacks drive and
ambition.
Remains calm and
maintains
priorities under
pressure.
)
17. Poor team leader.
18. Plays favourites or
picks on staff he/she
doesn't like.
19. Doesn't get too involved
with staff. Able to
exercise authority.
20. Lacks respect, goodwill
and support from
his/her staff.
21 . Supports and backs up
her/his staff; brings
out the best in them.
22. Delegates well and
involves others.
23. Works alongside his/her
staff when necessary
(e.g., when overworked
or having difficulty).
24. Buffers and protects
her/his subordinates
from outside pressures.
25. Puts him/herself out to
help others.
26. Does not follow-up or
check on work once
delegated.
27. Keeps his/her knowledge
and experience to
him/herself .
28. Has little respect or
confidence in his/her
staff.
29. Keeps her/his staff in
the dark.
30. Delivers reprimands in
private.
31. Recognises and rewards
good work.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1_1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1_--'1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
Team-oriented and keeps
their team together.
Treats everybody the
same even those he/she
has problems with.
Too much "one of the
boys" to e x e r c i ~ e
authority.
Has the respect,
goodwill and support
of his/her staff.
criticises and
complains about her/
his staff; brings out
the worst in them.
Does not delegate
enough. Tries to do
too much him/herself.
Reluctant to pitch in
and help.
Passes outside pressure
to her/his subordinates
Reluctant to help
others.
Follows-up and checks
on work he/she has
assigned.
Happy to share his/her
knowledge and
eXperience with others.
Respects the abilities
of his/her staff.
Keeps her/his staff
informed.
Reprimands people in
public.
Doesn't give sufficient
recognition or reward
for good work.
32. Sensitive to the
feelings of staff
33. Fronts up to problems;
assumes responsibility
if things go wrong.
34. Observant; aware of
the skills and
potential of his/her
staff.
35. Sells ideas
well; able to make
others enthusiastic.
36. Devious and does not
give straight answers.
37. Hard to talk to and
has difficulty relating
to people.
38. Does not define duties
and responsibilities
clearly enough.
39. Goes behind other
peoples' backs.
40. Fixes problems him/
herself rather than
training others.
41. Always available when
neet=led.
42. Reliable; keeps his/her
promises.
43. Does not ask people
to do things they
will not do themselves;
leads by example.
44. Ensures that people are
trained in a wide range
of skills.
45. Accepts criticism well.
46. Methods and production
oriented.
47. Breaks confidences.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1':"_1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ .1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
Insensitive and blinded
to the problems of
staff.
Makes excuses for
problems; looks for
a scapegoat.
Unobservant; doesn't
recognise the skills
and potential of his/
'staff.
Unable to sell
ideas; turns others
off.
Straightforward and
honest.
Easy conversationalist
and mixes 'easily with
people.
Defines duties and
responsibilities
clearly.
Uses open channels of
communication.
Takes time to train
others.
Often hard to find
when needed.
Unreliable; makes
vacant promises.
Asks staff to do
things which he/she
cannot or will not do;
leads by direction.
Allows him/herself to
become too dependent
on a few subordinates.
Takes criticism
personally.
Results and customer
oriented.
Keeps confidences.
48. Spends too much time 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
out of circulation;
gets out of touch.
49. Backs away from tough 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
decisions.
50. Moody and temperamental. 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
51. Has a broad understanding 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
of different areas of
the company and their
needs.
52. Encourages and supports 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
staff with problems.
54. Self-controlled and 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
disciplined.
56. Feels insecure in
her/his position.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
57. Knows few of the jobs 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
under his/her control.
His/her staff are better
informed about. the work
than he/she is.
58. Poor at planning, 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
organising and
scheduling work.
59. Theoretical in her/his 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
approach; rather
impractical.
60. Has difficulty in 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
breaking from his/
her old job.
61. Has strong technical 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
knowledge in his/her
area; keeps up to date
with technical matters.
62. with routine; 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
sticks with monotonous
jobs.
63. Does not allow 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
work and private life to
interfere with one
another.
Moves around and keeps
an eye on things.
Takes tough decisions.
Stable temperament.
Cannot see past his/her
own area nor
understands others'
needs.
Has a low tolerance for
staff with problems.
Takes him/herself too
seriously.
Lacks self-control;
undisciplined.
Quiet.
Feels secure in her/his
position.
Can do most of the jobs
under his/her control.
His/her staff can't
"pull the wool over
his/her eyes".
Good at planning,
organising and
scheduling work.
Down to earth and
practical
Able to leave his/her
old job behind.
Has limited technical
knowledge in his/her
area; gets out of date
on technical matters.
Avoids routine and
systems; easily bored.
Allows his/her work and
private life to inter-
fere with one another.
64. Works for the good of 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
the department.
65. Flexible; Hill bend the 1 __ 1 __ ' __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
rules if it Hill
get the job done
better.
66. A poor record-keeper; 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
forgets and loses things.
67. Shows little initiative 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ ' __ 1
and waits for Hark to
come to him/her.
68. Gets bogged down in 1 __ ' __ 1 __ 1 __ ' __ 1
detail; loses the "big
picture".
69 . Ineffective in handl ing 1 __ 1 ___ ' __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
multi-cultural issues.
70. Not prepared to assume 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
responsibility for
decisions.
71. Good sense of priorities ' __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
and concentrates on the
task in hand.
72. Looks ahead and , __ , __ , __ , __ , __ ,
anticipates problems.
73. Maintains contact Hith , __ , __ , __ , __ , __ ,
other managers.
74. Stands back from the
Hork. to get an
objective vieH.
75. Will negotiate with
superior for realistic
budgets and targets.
76. Poor at balancing
Hork; concentrates
on one thing to the
exclusion of others.
77. Supervises too closely.
,--,--,--,--,--,
' __ ' __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ '
'_' __ 1 __ ' __ 1 __ '
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ ' __ 1 __ 1
Runs the department
dOHn.
Inflexible; Hon't bend
the rules even if
following them rigidly
causes inefficiency.
Good record-keeper;
writes things down and
knoHs where to find
them.
Self-starter. Shows
initiative and looks
for extra work.
Avoids getting bogged
down in detail;
maintains the "big
picture".
Effective in handling
multicultural i s s u e ~ .
Prepared to assume
responsibility for
decisions.
Little sense of
priorities and easily
sidetracked.
Lives from assignment
to assignment; fails to
anticipate problems.
Avoids contact with
other managers.
Too close to the work
to be objective.
Accepts targets
and budgets without
question.
Able to balance the
competing demands of
work.
Gives people room to
make their own
decisions.
78. Lacks a broad vision; 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
shows narrow judgement
in his/her decisions.
79. unable to present ideas 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
systematically and
logically. Cannot
explain complex
issues in practical terms.
80. A technical specialist 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
rather than a manager.
81. Thinks each problem
through carefully;
doesn't rely too much on
past experience.
82. Able to handle several
problems ~ t once.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
83. Good understanding 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
of financial matters.
84. Recognises when she/he 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
is in difficulty;
seeks help or
renegotiates targets.
85. Tackles unpleasant but 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
necessary tasks.
86. Disqrganised - has 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
difficulty finding
answers to even
routine enquiries.
87. Needs to have goals 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
set for him/her.
Doesn't really know
where he/she is going.
88. Resists new ideas. 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
89. Lacks conceptual skills. 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
Cannot imagine the
implications of new
developments.
90. Repeats mistakes. 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
91. Has a good understanding 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
of overall corporate
objectives.
Has a broad vision of
the enterprise which
helps to guide his/her
decisions.
Presents ideas clearly
and logically. Able to
explain complex issues
in practical terms.
A manager rather than
a technical specialist.
Fails to think problems
through; relies too
much on past
experience.
Unable to tackle more
than one problem at a
time.
Little understanding
of financial matters.
Doesn't know when she/
he is out of her/his
depth; leaves it too
late seeking help.
Avoids tackling
unpleasant tasks.
Knows where to look
for the answers to
questions; has the
answers at his/her
fingertips.
Able to set own
goals and work
towards them. Knows
where he/she is going.
Accepts new ideas.
Has good conceptual
skills. Can visualise
the implications of new
developments.
Learns from mistakes.
Has little
appreciation of over-
all corporate
objectives.
92. optimistic, positive
outlook.
93. Has family support.
94. Never lets work get
on top of him/her.
95. Appears confident.
Has bearing and
presence.
96. Pays little attention
to detail. Has a
"broad brush" approach.
97. Too easily persuaded
by others' arguments.
98. Poor at accepting and
implementing decisions
which have 'gone against
him/her.
99. Does not question well,
and accepts things at
face value.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ -I __ I __ 1 __ 1 __ I
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
100. Poor at negotiating. 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
101. Makes firm decisions 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
and doesn't look back.
'102. A great capacity for 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
work.
103. Allocates time 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
effectively. Methodical.
104. Shows good performance 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
against targets and
deadlines.
105. Future-oriented; looks 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
ahead and thinks in the
long term.
106. Finds reasons why things 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
can't be done.
107. Loses sight of what is 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
important.
108. Lets'things ride. 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
Pessimistic, negative
outlook.
Lacks family support.
Gets weighed down
worrying'about work.
Lacks self-confidence
and bearing.
Pays good attention
to detail.
Listens to others but
keeps an open mind.
Is able to accept and
implement decisions
which have gone against
him/her.
Questions effectively
and gets to the truth.
Good at "wheeling and
and dealing"; a good
negotiator.
constantly questions
past decisions.
Limited capaciti for
work.
Does not allocate
time we)l. Less
methodical.
Poor performer against
target. Misses
important deadlines.
Can't visualise the
future. Thinks in
the short-term.
Willing to try. Looks
for ways to make things
happen.
Able to keep sight of
the "bottom line".
Has a sense of urgency;
Pushes for results.
109. Confused if has to deal 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
with too much information.
110. Uncreative. Rarely
comes up with ideas.
111. Concerned with getting
the job done.
112. Gathers the critical
information. Minimises
paperwork.
113. Gets to the bottom of
problems and fixes
the basic cause.
114. Thrives on change and
challenge.
115. Pursues objectives
patiently.
116. Maintainer of existing
services.
117. Doesn't train
successors. Only he/she
knows his/her job.
118. Destructive and
aggressive in
criticism.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
119. Tends to feel inferior 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
to competent subordinates.
120. Holds grudges.
121. Able to work
without supervision.
122. Deci,sive.
123. Flexible and easy
to reason with.
124. Uses information she/he
gathers efficiently.
125. Shows pride in work.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
Can sort through a mass
of information and
reach appropriate
conclusions.
creative thinker. Has
more ideas than others.
Concerned with
impressing people.
Gathers too much
information. Wages
a paper war.
Crisis manager. Fights
fires and doesn't fix
the basic cause.
Avoids change and
challenge.
Impatient - tries to
do too much at once.
Able to start new
operations; an entre-
preneur.
Grooms successors.
Insists that others
know his/her job.
Gives constructive
feedback. Able to
criticise without
putting people down.
Gathers competent
people around him/her.
Doesn't hold grudges.
Needs supervision and
guidance.
Indecisive.
Rigid and closed-
minded.
Gathers information
but doesn't use it
efficiently.
Lacks pride in work.
126. Clashes with other
managers.
127. Spends too much time
on one area to the
detriment of others.
128. Her/his heart is not in
the job; slap-happy and
and unconscientious.
129. Won't push staff
interests to senior
management. won't
fight on behalf of
staff.
130. Doesn't handle pressure
and stress well.
131. Doesn't feel she/he has
to defend her/his right
to be in charge.
132. Does his/her fair share
of the work. Doesn't
delegate unfairly.
133. Consults with staff
before introducing
changes.
134. Has a'clear idea of the
the results he/she
wants to achieve.
135. Able to see the
complexities of
issues an? problems.
136. Doesn't really manage;
"just another worker".
137. Doesn't stick to an
agenda in meetings.
Doesn't give enough
structure or direction
to meetings.
138. Only approaches staff
when things are not
not to her/his liking.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
I __ I __ __ I __ I
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
Cooperates with other
managers.
Spends appropriate
time on all the areas
under his/her adminis-
tration.
Wants to do the job
well; has enthusiasm
for the job.
Prepared to stand up
to senior management
and fight on behalf off
staff.
Able to handle pressure
and stress.
Always defending her/
his right to be in
charge.
Delegates work he/she
should be doing him/
herself.
Imposes changes without
consulting staff.
Little idea of what he/
she is trying to
achieve.
Has a black and white
mentality. Can't see
the complexities of
issues and problems.
Actively manages.
Not "just another
worker" .
sticks to an agenda
in meetings. Allows
for interaction but
gives direction and
structure to
Regularly approaches
staff to see how they
are getting on.
139. Won't listen to staff
with different views.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
140. Deadens staff enthusiasm. 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
Not inspirational.
141. Interested in developing 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
staff as individuals.
142. Concerned about the 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
overed 1 work
effectiveness of
staff.
143. Takes into account staff 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
workloads and abilities
before delegating.
144. Will fight behind the
scenes for clients.
145. Defines goals and
objectives. Gives
his/her unit a clear
sense of purpose.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
146. Tends not to change 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
ideas and decisions
as a response to staff
input .
. 147. Interacts with just a 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
few staff members.
Remains remote from
the rest.
148. Doesn't get to the root 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
of problems. Waffles.
149. Doesn't get satisfaction 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
from the job. Lacks
motivation.
150. Overly dependent on 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
consultation. Unwilling
to make a final decision.
151. Encourages staff to take 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
initiative.
Allows staff with
different views to
argue their case.
Listens to them.
Makes staff
enthusiastic.
Inspirational.
Little interest in
developing staff as
individuals.
Nitpicks over minor
things having little
impact on the overall
work effectiveness of
staff.
Doesn't take into
account staff work-
loads and abilities
before delegating.
Will not fight behind
the scenes for clients.
Fails to define goals
and objectives. His/
her unit has no clear
sense of purpose.
Will change ideas and
decisions in response
to staff input.
Interacts with all of
the staff.
Gets to the root of
problems quickly.
Incisive.
Is involved and
motivated by the job.
Sees it as a career.
Consults but is
prepared to make a
final decision where
necessary.
Staff initiative is
not encouraged.
152. Uses encouragement and
praise to get people to
perform.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
153. Doesn't get too involved 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
in the detatled desk work;
leaves time to manage.
154. Concerned about the whole 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
organisation; not just
his/her own patch.
155. Will admit failures
and mistakes and discuss
them openly.
156. Doesn't give sufficient
feedback to staff about
work performance.
157. Not involved with staff;
distances her/himself
from the rest of the
group.
158. Tends not to front up
to senior management.
Agrees even when she/he
feels management is wrong.
159. Has few work-related
contacts in the
community.
160. Emphasises the boss/
subordinate distinction
when talking to staff.
161. Approachable and
friendl y.
162. Bounces back quickly
if knocked back.
163. Will admit if he/she
doesn't know the
answer.
164. Up with the play; aware
of what's going on in
his/her unit.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1_-,-1_1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
Uses fear and punish-
ment to get people to
perform.
Spends most of her/his
time involved in
detailed desk work;
leaves little time
tOo manage.
Narrow view of the
organisation; con-
cerned only about
his/her own patch.
Reluctant to admit
failures and mistakes.
Blames outside factors.
Provides regular
feedback to staff
about work
performance.
Involved with staff;
mixes with the
rest of the group.
will front up to
senior management.
Will tell them what
she/he feels.
Has a big network of
community contacts.
Talks on equal terms
with staff.
Unapproachable.
Feels badly when
knocked back. Takes
a long time to bounce
back.
Will bluff if she/he
doesn't know the
answer.
Not up with the play;
unaware of what's going
on in his/her unit.
165. Persistent. Will see 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
a difficult task through.
166. Has little contact with 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
clients.
167. Highlights the negative 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
aspects of staff
p'erformance.
168. Holds few staff meetings, 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
to communicate new
information.
169. Tends to accept the 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
credit for success
personally.
170. Seen infrequently by 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
staff; less visible.
Gives in easily.
Defeatist.
Maintains close contact
with clients.
Highlights the positive
aspects of staff
performance.
Holds regular staff
meetings to communicate
new information.
Passes credit for
successes on to the
staff.
Visible. Walks the
floor and spends time
with staff.
Finally, compared with all other managers you know, how would you rate
this manager's effectiveness overall?
Check one.
Below Average Above Very Superior
Average Average Good Top 10%
Bottom 10%
D D 0 0 0
PART TWO
MOST EFFECTIVE MANAGER
Management Level and Title:
(Please do not wri te name)
1
2.
3.
Insists on high perform-
ance standards from
staff.
Maintains a high stand-
ard of housekeeping;
keeps work area tidy.
Has natural leadership
ability and takes
command easily.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ t __ 1 __ 1 __ .1 __ 1
4. Has a realistic view of 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
his/her own ability.
5. Looks for new approaches, 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
ideas and opportunities.
6. Will not back down 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ '
7.
when wrong or backs
down with bad grace.
Tends to buckle in an
argument.
8. Poor listener;
discourages discussion.
9. Little basic education
and/or training;
self -taught.
10. Slow learner.
t1. Willing to learn.
12. Makes careful decisions
backed by evidence;
thinks before acting.
13. Puts in extra time and
effort when required.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
'_1 __ ' __ ' __ 1 __ '
14. Encourages staff's 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
participation in decision
making; asks and suggests.
15. Has a high level of drive I ~ _ I __ ' __ I __ I __ I
and ambition.
16. Goes to pieces under
pressure and gets
priorities_mixed.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
Sometimes lets sub-
standard work through.
Sloppy in housekeeping;
maintains an untidy
work area.
Lacks natural leader-
ship ability an is
reluctant to take
command.
Has an urealistic view
of his/her own ability,
Satisfied with the
status quo.
Will back down grace-
fully when wrong.
wrong.
Sticks to what she/he
believes in.
Listens well and
encourages discussion.
Strong formal education
and/or training; has a
trained mind.
Picks things up
quickly.
Unwilling to learn.
Makes hasty decisions
and ignores inform-
ation; acts before
thinking.
Puts in the minimum
time and effort
required.
Autocratic approach
to decision-making;
tells and demands.
Lacks drive and
ambition.
Remains calm and
maintains
priorities under
pressure.
17. Poor team leader.
18. Plays favourites or
picks on staff he/she
doesn't like.
19. Doesn't get too involved
with staff. Able to
exercise authority.
20. Lacks respect, goodwill
and support from
his/her staff.
21 Supports and backs up
her/his staff; brings
out the best in them.
22. Delegates well and
involves others.
23. Works alongside his/her
staff when necessary
(e.g., when overworked
or having difficulty).
24. Buffers and protects
her/his subordinates
from outside pressures.
25. Puts him/herself out to
help others.
26. Does not follow-up or
check on work once
delegated.
27. Keeps his/her knowledge
and experience to
him/herself.
28. Has little respect or
confidence in his/her
staff.
29. Keeps her/his staff in
the dark.
30. Delivers reprimands in
private.
31. Recognises and rewards
good work.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1...,_1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
Team-oriented and keeps
their team together.
Treats everybody the
same even those he/she
has problems with.
Too much of the
to exercise
author.ity,
Has the respect,
goodwill and support
of his/her staff.
Criticises and
complains about her/
pis staff; brings out
the worst in them.
Does not delegate
enough. Tries to do
too much him/herself.
Reluctant to pitch in
and help.
Passes outside pressure
to her/his subordinates
Reluctant to
others.
Follows-up and checks'
on work he/she has
assigned.
Happy to share his/her
knowledge and
experience with others.
Respects the abilities
of his/her staff.
Keeps her/his staff
informed.
Reprimands people in
public.
Doesn't give sufficient
recognition or reward
for good work.
32. Sensitive to the
feelings of staff
33. Fronts up to problems;
assumes responsibility
if things go wrong.
34. Observant; aware of
the skills and
potential of his/her
staff.
35. Sells ideas
well; able to make
others enthusiastic.
36. Devious and does not
give straight answers.
37. Hard to talk to and
has difficulty relating
to people.
38. Does not define duties
and responsibilities
clearly enough.
39. Goes behind other
peoples' backs.
40. Fixes problems him/
herself rather than
training others.
41. Always available when
needed.
42. Reliable; keeps his/her
promises.
43. Does not ask people
to do things they
will not do themselves;
leads by example.
44. Ensures that people are
trained in a wide range
of ski 11s.
45. Accepts criticism well.
46. Methods and production
oriented.
47. Breaks confidences.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ I __ 1 __ I __ I __ 'I
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
I __ I __ I _ ~ I __ I __ I
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
I __ I __ I __ I __ I _ ~ I
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
Insensitive and blinded
to the problems of
staff.
Makes excuses for
problems; looks for
a scapegoat.
Unobservant; doesn't
recognise the skills
and potential of his/
staff.
Unable to sell
ideas; turns others
off.
Straightforward and
honest.
Easy conversationalist
and mixes easily with
people.
Defines duties and
responsibilities
clearly.
Uses open channels of
communication.
Takes time to train
others.
Often hard to find
when needed.
Unreliable; makes
vacant promises.
Asks staff to do
things which he/she
cannot or will not do;
leads by direction.
Allows him/herself to
become too dependent
on a few subordinates.
Takes criticism
personally.
Results and customer
oriented.
Keeps confidences.
48. Spends too much time 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
out of circulation;
gets out of touch.
49. Backs away from tough 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
decisions.
50. Moody and temperamental. 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
51. Has a broad understanding 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
of different areas of
the company and their
needs.
52. Encourages and supports 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
staff with problems.
53. Good sense of humour. 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
54. Self-controlled and 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
disciplined.
55. outspoken. 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
56. Feels insecure in 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
her/his position.
57. Knows few of the jobs 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
under his/her control.
His/her staff are better
informed about the work
than he/she is.
58. Poor at pla,nning, 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 ___ 1 __ 1
organising and
scheduling work.
59. Theoretical in her/his 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
approach; rather
impractical.
60. Has difficulty in 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
breaking from his/
her old job.
61. Has strong technical 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
knowledge in his/her
area; keeps up to date
with technical matters.
62. Copes with routine; 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
sticks with monotonous
jobs.
63. Does not allow his/her _ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
work and private life to
interfere with one
another.
Moves around and keeps
an eye on things.
Takes tough decisions.
Stable temperament.
Cannot see past his/her
own area nor
understands others'
needs.
Has a low tolerance for
staff with problems.
Takes him/herself too
seriously.
Lacks self-control;
undisciplined.
. Quiet.
Feels secure in her/his
position.
Can do most of the jobs
under his/her control.
His/her staff can't
"pull the wool over
his/her eyes".
Good at planning,.
organising and
scheduling work. -
Down to earth and
practical
Able to leave his/her
old job behind.
Has limited technical
knowledge in his/her
area; gets out of date
on technical matters.
Avoids routine and
systems; easily bored.
Allows his/her work and
private life to inter-
fere with one another.
64. works for the good of
the department.
65. Flexible; will bend the
rules if it wi 11
get the job done
better.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
66. A poor record-keeper; 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
forgets and loses things.
67. Shows little initiative 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
and waits for work to
come to him/her.
68. Gets bogged down in 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
detail; loses the "big
picture".
69. Ineffective in handling 1 __ 1 __ 1 ___ 1' ___ 1 __ 1
multi-cultural issues.
70. Not prepared to 1 __ 1 ___ 1_..:..1 __ 1 __ 1
responsibility for
decisions.
71. Good sense of priorities 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
and concehtrates on the
task in hand.
72. Looks ahead and I __ I __ I __ __ I
anticipates problems.
73. Maintains. contact with I __ I __ I __ __ I
other managers.
74. Stands back from the 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
work. to get an
objective view.
75. Will negotiate with
superior for realistic
budgets and targets.
76. Poor at balancing
work; concentrates
on one thing to the
exclusion of others.
77. Supervises too closely.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
Runs the department
down.
Inflexible; won't bend
the rules even if
following them rigidly
causes inefficiency.
Good record-keeper;
writes things down and
knows where to find
them.
Shows
initiative and looks
for extra work.
Avoids getting bogged
down in detail;
maintains the "big
picture".
Effective in handling
multicultural issues.
Prepared to assume
responsibility for
decisions.
Little sense of
priorities and easily
sidetracked.
Lives from assignment
to assignment; fails to
anticipate problems.
Avoids contact with
other managers.
Too close to the work
to be objective.
Accepts targets
and budgets without
question.
Able to balance the
competing demands of
work.
Gives people room to
make their own
decisions.
78. Lacks a broad vision; 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
shows narrow judgement
in his/her decisions.
79. Unable to present ideas 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
systematically and
logically. Cannot
explain complex
issues in practical terms.
80. A technical specialist 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
rather than a manager.
81. Thinks each problem 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
through carefully;
doesn't rely too much on
past experience.
82. Able to handle several
problems at once.
83. Good understanding
of financial matters.
84. Recognises when she/he
is in difficulty;
seeks help or
renegotiates targets.
85. Tackles unpleasant but
necessary tasks.
86. Disorganised - has
difficulty finding
answers to even
routine enquiries.
87. Needs to have goals
set for him/her.
Doesn't really know
where he/she is going.
88. Resists new ideas.
89. Lacks conceptual skills.
Cannot imagine the
implications of new
developments.
90. Repeats mistakes.
91. Has a good understanding
of overal; corporate
objectives.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
I_!...I __ I __ I __ I __ I
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ ' __ 1 __ ' __ 1 __ '
' __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ '
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
Has a broad vision of
the enterprise which
helps to guide his/her
decisions.
Presents ideas clearly
and logically. Able to
explain complex issues
in practical terms.
A manager rather than
a technical specialist.
Fails to think problems
through; relies too
much on past
experience.
Unable to. tackle more
than one problem at a
time.
Little understanding
of financial matters.
Doesn't know when she/
he is out of her/his
depth; leaves it too
late seeking help.
Avoids tackling
unpleasant tasks.
Knows where to look
for the answers to
questions; has the
answers at his/her
fingertips.
Able to set own
goals and work
towards them. Knows
where he/she is going.
Accepts new ideas.
Has good conceptual
skills. Can visualise
the implications of new
developments.
Learns from mistakes.
Has little
appreciation of over-
all corporate
objectives.
92. optimistic, positive
outlook.
93. Has family support.
94. Never lets work get
on top of him/her.
95. Appears confident.
Has bearing and
presence.
96. Pays little attention
to detail. Has a
"broad brush" approach.
97. Too easily persuaded
by others' arguments.
98. Poor at accepting and
implementing decisions
which have gone against
him/her.
99. Does not question well,
and accepts things at
face value.
100. Poor at negotiating.
101. Makes firm decisions
and doesn't look back.
102. A great capacity for
work.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
103. Allocates time 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
effectively. Methodical.
104. Shows good performance 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
against targets and
deadlines.
105. Future-oriented; looks 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
ahead and thinks in the
long term.
106. Finds reasons why things 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
can't be done.
107. Loses sight of what is 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
important.
108. Lets things ride. 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
Pessimistic, negative
outlook.
Lacks family s u p p o ~ t .
Gets weighed down
worrying about work.
Lacks self-confidence
and bearing.
Pays good attention
to detail.
Listens to others but
keeps an open mind.
Is able to accept and
implement decisions
which have gone against
him/her.
Questions effectively
and gets to the iruth.
Good at "wheeling and
and dealing"; a good
negotiator.
constantly questions
past decisions.
Limited capacity for
work.
Does not allocate
time well. Less
methodical.
Poor performer against
target. Misses
important deadlines.
Can't visualise the
future. Thinks in
the short-term.
Willing to try. Looks
for ways to make things
happen.
Able to keep sight of
the "bottom line".
Has a sense of urgency;
Pushes for results.
109. Confused if has to deal 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
with too much information.
110. Uncreative. Rarely
comes up with ideas.
111. Concerned with getting
the job done.
112. Gathers the critical
information. Minimises
paperwork.
113. Gets to the bottom of
problems and fixes
the basic cause.
114. Thrives on change and
challenge.
115. Pursues objectives
patiently.
116. Maintainer of existing
services.
117. Doesn't train
successors. Only he/she
knows his/her job.
118. Destructive and
aggressive in
criticism.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1_1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
119. Tends to feel inferior 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
to competent subordinates.
120. Holds grudges.
121. Able to work
without supervision.
122. Decisive.
123. Flexible and easy
to reason with.
124. Uses information she/he
gathers efficiently.
125. Shows pride in work.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
Can sort through a mass
of information and
reach appropriate
conclusions.
Creative thinker. Has
more ideas than others.
Concerned with
impressing people.
Gathers too much
information. Wages
a paper war.
Crisis manager. Fights
fires and doesn't fix
the basic cause.
Avoids change and
challenge.
Impatient - tries to
do ton much at once.
Able to start new
operations; an entre-
preneur.
Grooms successors.
Insists that others
know his/her job.
Gives constructive
feedback. Able to
criticise without
putting people down.
Gathers competent
people around him/her.
Doesn't hold grudges.
Needs supervision and
guidance.
Indecisive.
Rigid and closed-
minded.
Gathers information
but doesn't use it
eff ioien tly.
Lacks pride in work.
126. Clashes with other
managers.
127. Spends too much time
on one area to the
detriment of others.
128. Her/his heart is not in
the job; slap-happy and
and unconscientious.
129. Won't push staff
interests to senior
management. Won't
fight on behalf of
staff.
130. Doesn't handle pressure
and stress well.
131. Doesn't feel she/he has
to defend her/his right
~ o be in charge.
132. Does his/her fair share
of the work. Doesn't
delegate unfairly.
133. Consults with staff
before introducing
changes.
134. Has a clear idea of the
the results he/she
wants to achieve.
135. Able to see the
complexities of
issues and problems.
136. Doesn't really manage;
"just another worker".
137. Doesn't stick to an
agenda in meetings.
Doesn't give enough
structure or direction
to meetings.
138. Only approaches staff
when things are not
not to her/his liking.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
I __ I __ I __ I _ ~ I __ I
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
Cooperates with oth.er
managers.
Spends appropriate
time on all the areas
under his/her adminis-
tration.
Wants to do the job
well; has enthusiasm
for the job.
Prepared to stand up
to senior management
and fight on behalf off
staff.
Able to handle pressure
and stress.
Always defending her/
his right to be in
charge.
Delegates work he/she
should be doing him/
herself.
Imposes changes without
consulting staff.
Little idea of what he/
she is trying to
achieve.
Has a black and white
mentali'ty. Can't see
the complexities of
issues and problems.
Actively manages.
Not "just another
worker" .
sticks to an agenda
in meetings. Allows
for interaction but
gives direction and
structure to meetings.
Regularly approaches
staff to see how they
are getting on.
139. Won't listen to staff
with different views.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
140. Deadens staff enthusiasm. 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
Not inspirational.
141. Interested in developing 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
staff as individuals.
142. Concerned about the 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
overed I work
effectiveness of
staff.
143. Takes into account staff 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
workloads and abilities
before delegating.
144. Will fight behind the 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
scenes for clients.
145. Defines goals and
objectives. Gives
his/her unit a clear
sense of purpose.
146. Tends not to change
ideas and decisions
as a response to staff
input.
147. Interacts with just a
few staff members.
Remains remote from
the rest.
148. Doesn't get to the root
of problems. Waffles.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
149. Doesn't get satisfaction 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
from the job. Lacks
motivation.
150. Overly dependent on 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
consultation. Unwilling
to make a final decision.
151. Encourages staff to take 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
initiative.
Allows staff with
different views to
argue their case.
Listens to them.
Makes staff
enthusiastic.
Inspirational.
Little interest in
developing staff as
individuals.
Nitpicks over minor
things having little
impact on the overall
work effectiveness of
staff.
Doesn't take into
account staff work-
loads and abilities
before delegating.
Will not fight behind
the scenes for clients.
Fails to define goals
and objectives. His/
her unit has no clear
sense of purpose.
Will change ideas and
decisions in response
to staff input.
Interacts with all of
the staff.
Gets to the root of
problems quickly.
Incisive.
Is involved and
motivated by the job.
Sees it as a career.
Consults but is
prepared to make a
final decision where
necessary.
Staff initiative is
not encouraged.
152. Uses encouragement and
praise to get people to
perform.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
153. Doesn't get too involved 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
in the detailed desk work;
leaves time to manage.
154. Concerned about the whole 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
organisation; not just
his/her own patch.
155. Will admit failures
and mistakes and discuss
them openly.
156. Doesn't give sufficient
feedback to staff about
work performance.
157. Not involved with staff;
distances her/himself
from the rest of the
group.
158. Tends not to front up
to senior management.
Agrees even when she/he
feels management is wrong.
159. Has few work-related
contacts in the
community.
160. Emphasises the boss/
subordinate distinction
when t ~ l k i n g to staff.
101. Approachable and
friendly.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 10---
1
__
1
__
1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
162. 80unces back quickly
if knocked back.
. 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
163. Will admit if he/she
doesn't know the
answer.
164. Up with the play; aware
of what's going on in
his/her unit.
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
Uses fear and punish-
ment to get people to
perform.
Spends most of her/his
time involved in
detailed desk work;
leaves little time
to manage.
Narrow view of the
organisation; con-
cerned only about
his/her own patch.
Reluctant to admit
failures and mistakes.
8lames outside factors.
Provides regular
feedback to staff
about work
performance.
Involved with staff;
mixes with the
rest of the group.
Will front up to
senior management.
Will tell them what
she/he feels.
Has a big network of
community contacts.
Talks on equal terms
with staff.
Unapproachable.
Feels badly when
knocked back. Takes
a long time to bounce
back.
Will bluff if she/he
doesn't know the
answer.
Not up with the play;
unaware of what's going
on in his/her unit.
165. Persistent. will see 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
a difficult task through.
166. Has little contact with 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
clients.
167. Highlights the negative 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
aspects of staff
performance.
168. Holds few staff meetings 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
to communicate new
information.
169. Tends to accept the 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
credit for success
personally.
170. Seen infrequently by 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1
staff; less visible.
Gives in easily.
Defeatist.
Maintains close contact
with clients.
Highlights the positive
aspects of staff
performance.
Holds regular staff
meetings to communicate
new information.
Passes credit for
successes on to the
staff.
Visible. Walks the
floor and spends time
with staff.
Finally, compared with all other managers you know, how would you rate
this manager's effectiveness overall?
Check one.
Below Average Above Very Superior
Average Average Good Top 10%
Bottom 10%
0 D 0 D D
APPENDIX THREE
THE CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIOURS OF MOST AND LEAST EFFECTIVE
MANAGERS
CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIOURS RELATING TO CONCEPTUAL ABILITY
The scale categories in this area relate primarily to inferred
conceptual processes taking place in the inner world of the
manager. The scale descriptors deal primarily with individual
characteristics and their influence on the manager's
conceptual They also make reference to the
observed behaviour flowing from these inner processes. All
names used in illustrative examples have been changed to
protect individual confidentiality.
Goal Setting.
This scale refers to the manager's capacity to establish
(through setting goals and objectives) a clear sense of
purpose for themselves and their staff.
The effective manager.
Effective managers know where they are going and have a clear
idea of the results they are trying to achieve. They are able
to set their own goals and work towards them. They define
goals and objectives and instill a clear sense of purpose into
the units they manage.
The ineffective manager.
Ineffective managers have little idea of where they are going
or the results they are trying to achieve. They need to have
goals set for them. They fail to define goals and objectives.
consequently their units have no clear sense of purpose.
The following interview examples are illustrative;
"We have a clear idea of what results we wanted. We are not
too involved in the detail machinery. When we worked together
we defined our goals and objectives and gave our staff a sense
of purpose and philosophy. We defined the results that we
planned to achieve, defined our expectations and people's
responsibilities. For example, we wanted to provide a quality
service for the public and a quality environment for the
staff."
"John has a clear idea of what he's trying to achieve, a clear
idea of where he's going. He defines a clear sense of future
direction for his staff. In many ways they are transforming
objectives. But they are still clear, specific and down to
earth."
"He lacks a vision so he tends to deal on day-to-day crisis
management. He hasn't established clear goals ... so he's got
nothing to aim at. He never establishes in his mind what he
wants the end result to be .. so he gets side-tracked."
"Mike didn't have any idea of these issues [goals and
objectives]. He just followed the book. It comes down to a
technical thing. He was a guy locked i n ~ o processes. He
ignored what his area was trying to achieve. He came up in a
time when that was what the public service expectations were."
Innovation
The issue of innovation was important in an organisation
which was being changed from top to bottom. Issues of
innovation fell into two broad categories. The first dealt
with responsiveness to changes being imposed on the manager.
Some managers appeared to enjoy the opportunities for change
and were responsive to them. other managers, characterized as
old school had been socialised in the bureaucratised public
service approach and found the changes bewildering. The second
category referred to the ability of the to use
initiative and to be change agents and innovators in their own
right.
The effective manager.
Effective managers have a sense of urgency and are constantly
looking for new approaches, ideas and opportunities. They are
self-starters who show initiative and look for extra work.
They thrive on change and challenge and accept new ideas.
They are entrepreneurial by nature and are able to start up
new operations. They are willing to try new approaches and
look for ways to make things happen. They pick things up
quickly. They are creative thinkers who have more ideas than
most other people .

The ineffective manager.
Ineffective managers are satisfied with tne status quo and
tend to let things ride. show little initiative and wait
for work to come to them. They avoid change and challenge and
resist new ideas. They are maintainers of existing services
rather than entrepreneurs and find reasons why things can't be
done. They are uncreative, rarely coming up with new ideas
and resisting the new ideas of others.
The following interview examples are illustrative;
"They are not averse to change, they're not resistant. They
will look ahead and look at the pros and cons. They are
innovative. They come up with new concepts of management, new
approaches. They try to implement n e ~ management approaches.
They are prepared to change with the times. They have the
flexibility to change direction."
"She has lots of fresh ideas. She tries to stimulate, tries
to change things for the better. She gets things going. She
creates a different work environment where people are free to
argue and discuss various opti9ns without back-stabbing."
"I understand the insignificance of head office directives. I
treat them as a bottom line. It's your business to move up
from there and to use your own initiative. I use the basic
buying. contract as a guide. I'll make sure I can beat it, or
I'll stay with it. I'm always trying to do better, to be
constantly innovative. Ted will spend millions, without
getting the best deal. He just follows the status quo."
"She's old school in orientation. Her knowledge of the past
is more technical. She is not receptive to new ideas. She
doesn't make her own moves very quickly or take initiative."
"They are stable, aren't creative, very negative. They pay
lip service to change, but it's a "It'll go away" thing.
Change is not.welcomed. They are comfortable, maintain the
status quo."
"They have an all consuming apathy and don't look at fresh
ideas. They never look at things questioningly. They just
accept. They assume that the shepherd is always correct they
don't question it ...
Future orientation
This scale category ~ e a l s with the manager's ability to
anticipate and respond to future problems and opportunities.
The effective manager.
Effective managers are future orientated and can look ahead
and think in the long term. They have good conceptual
skills and can visualise the implications of new developments.
They can anticipate problems and will negotiate with superiors
for realistic targets and budgets.
The ineffective manager.
Ineffective managers live from assignment to assignment. They
think in the short term and cannot visualise the future. They
lack conceptual skills and cannot imagine the implications of
new developments. They fail to anticipate problems and accept
targets and budgets without question.
The following interview examples are illustrative;
"An ability to think far down the tunnel is a major criterion
of future directors. He is a person that can anticipate and
perceive things better than most You've got to look way
down the line and understand the implications."
"They are able to think ahead, to anticipate requirements ...
"They care about their staff and people. It comes back to
dealing with problems before they occur, being They
spend time with their staff, they listen, they pick up
indicators that things are not quite right. Then they move in
before it becomes a big problem."
"She does little forward planning so she's got no easy way to
interpret the implications of things. She just falls from
puddle to puddle. Every incident becomes a major incident ...
"He is a crisis manager. He can't plan ahead ... He will react
to what comes out, to problems as they arise, or to new
directions as they are given. He waits for direction.
overview.
The overview dimension, as discussed here, bears a strong
similarity to the helicopter quality, which has been used
widely in the training and appraisal activities of Shell
Petroleum (Uttley, 1985). It also fits with Barnard's (1956,
p.239) "art of sensing the whole" of which he wrote; "A formal
and orderly conception of the whole is rarely present, perhaps
even rarely possible except to a few men of executive genius,
or a few executive organisations the personnel of which is
comprehensively sensitive and well integrated."
overview appears to be a pre-condition to success in a number
of areas of management and the interviews indicate a
relationship with a number of other scale categories.
The effective manager.
Effective managers avoid getting bogged down in detail and
maintain the big picture. They stand back, from their work,
to get an objective view and have a broad vision of the
different areas of the organisation and their needs. They
establish an appropriate balance between all the areas under
their administration. They maintain contact with other
managers and are concerned about the whole organisation, not
just their own patch. They are flexible and are willing to
bend the rules, if it means getting the job done better. They
are concerned with the overall work effectiveness of staff
rather than minor aspects of staff behaviour, that have little
effect on work performance.
The ineffective manager.
Ineffective managers get bogged down in detail and lose the
big picture. They are too close to the work to be objective
and lack a broad vision of the organisation. Consequently,
they show a narrow judgment in their decisions. They spend
too much time on one area under their administration, to the
detriment of other areas. They avoid contact with other
managers and cannot see past their own areas, Qr understand
the needs of others. They have a narrow view of the
organisation and are concerned only about their "own patch".
They are inflexible and won't bend they rules, even if
following them rigidly causes inefficiency. Rather than
concentrating on the overall work effectiveness of staff, they
nitpick on minor things, which have little impact on work
performance.
The following interview examples are illustrative;
"They have their fads, but they don't just look at their own
area. They don't have a narrow view of their own area. They
are aware of the whole Department and the slotting in of
sections and divisions. They realise that they ,have a
responsibility for the whole Department. They don't just
think of their own patch."
"These two see the divisions as a team. Theymaintain a close
liaison with other managers and will swap staff between
divisions. He wouldn't dream of swapping staff between
divisions. He maintains a rigid distinction between accounts
and BiP. He's only in his own patch."
"They are stuck with their own section and they can't see
outside it. They have a selfish view, based on how far they
can get for themselves. Their view is not even as wide as the
section. They will only do things to help themselves."
"She lacks overview. She is so tied up with the nuts and
bolts that she can't see the wood for the trees. For example,
in staff training she gets tied up in the detail of why some
things should or shouldn't be paid for, rather than with how
the training is contributing to overall productivity. Because
of this she considers less, when making decisions."
"He nitpicked over stupid things. I lost confidence in him as
a person. For example, he dragged me off to the A.D. over
crossing my sevens. He would pick it up and make a point of
it."
"He is much more insular, has a narrow base and is stale and
bureaucratic. He is systems orientated, molding people to fit
the system. The system is their dominant reason for being."
"She has a tendency to get bogged down in a philosophical
base, versus achieving outcomes .. She gets. into means, rather
than achieving ends. For example, she sees the development of
the individual as of prime importance, but the task itself
isn't always clearly defined. She has a tendency to look at
processes rather than ends."
"A woman with two or three children came in. Her husband had
left and she applied for a deserted wife's benefit. He said
she had to prove he hadn't contributed in any way. It was
bloody nonsense. He would deny people just because it was in
the book. He justified his actions on the basis of
instruction. He said, "I don't get paid to think"."
"Fred has a procedures orientation, a narrow inflexible
approach. He treats the regulations as inflexible and sticks
with the system. He loses sight of the original intent and
seems unable to understand the real needs of clients."
Managing Versus operating
This scale refers to the managers' capacity to leave their old
technical/specialist jobs behind and adopt a more generalist
managerial role. In most cases (particularly at supervisory
level) this requires a balancing of past technical roles with
the newer managerial aspects of the job. This scale becomes
particularly important at the Director level, when the manager
is, for the first time, responsible for areas of the
organisation outside of their specialist area (see chapter
seven for further discussion) .
The effective manager.
Effective managers are able to leave their old .
specialist/technical roles behind and adopt a more managerial
approach. They don't get too involved in the detailed
technical desk work and leave time to manage. They are seen
as managers rather than "just another worker".
The ineffective manager.
Ineffective managers have difficulty breaking from their old
jobs into a more generalist management role. They spend most
of their time involved in detailed technical desk work and
leave little time to manage. They don't really manage and as
a consequence, they are seen as "just another worker".
The following interview examples are illustrative;
"These two pushed technical aspects but made sure that
everything was OK with the staff."
"She was so tied up in technical aspects that she lost sight
of what the job was about. It's half work and half staff
management."
"He had been a very good technician and was promoted to
management ... He never quite adapted to the changed
expectations and wound down. He decided he would do certain
menial technical things, but he never thought of himself as a
manager. He never came to terms with the fact that he was
expected to manage."
"She doesn't like having staff. She finds people work boring.
She prefers her own work."
"This person is a carry ove! of the "big social worker"
concept. He was an Assistant Director, but was stilL carrying
out basic social work. He was reluctant to let things go and
stayed too close to the clients. He still carried a case
load. He was highly motivated towards people, but avoided
management."
"She has an endless list of personal clients. It gets out of
hand. She ends up running around and doing what others are
paid to do, instead of managing the office."
stress Management
At the time of the study the Department was going through a
period of sUbstantial change, stimulated by government
restructuring and demands for greater efficiency and rising
unemployment. These changes generated increased demands on
skills and services, with little by way of increased
resources. It is not surprising therefore, that a number of
respondents identified stress as an important issue.
The attitude of the individuaYs own manager also appeared to
be a significant factor in their capacity to cope with stress.
This was particularly important to the more junior rion-
supervisory respondents. Supervisory support of' respondents
at this level seemed to relate strongly to levels of
experienced stress.
The Effective Manager.
Effective managers are able to handle stress. They remain
calm and maintain priorities under pressure.
The Ineffective Manager.
Ineffective managers don't handle stress well. They go to
pieces under pressure and get their priorities mixed.
The following interview examples are illustrative;
"The strain at times is intolerable. Too much
stress and overload. Some managers cope by just switching
off. I use my networks to maintain myself. The ability to
cope with stress is critical.
1i
"She's burntout. I suspect she started with lots of practical
common sense orientation, but she's shell-shocked by a never
ending run of crisis after crisis. She's never developed
strategies to deal with it."
"I get headaches and take disprin ... lt's hard,to sleep at
night. I can't talk when I get home because I'm too wound up.
I wake up at night, worrying about a file. I cry at home or
in the toilets. Most of the stress comes from the bosses.
They harass and bully. They put the screws on people they
don't like. They make petty rules. We get treated like
kids."
IiHe suffers from stress. The staff see him get worked up and
they get scared of him. He gets a bit hot tempered
occasionally and it tends to make the staff stay away. By
looking at him, his staff can see he's frustrated and unhappy.
He explodes occasionally. The stress comes because he can't
get the team running the way he wants. He takes it
personally, bottles it up."
"The pressure is always on for decisions to be made three days
ago. The staff who have to make the decision often don't know
how, yet they are often too scared to approach him.
Therefore, they hold on till there is someone at the desk,
till it's too late. Then, rather than accept the facts of the
staff's submission he reads them again. He doesn't trust
staff and wastes time checking. That adds to the stress."
Work capacity
This scale refers to the manager's work capacity
and application. It also involves the performance,standards
expected from the staff. The interviewS highlight
the role of the manager's organisational experience in
determining the level of work motivation.
The Effective Manager.
Effective managers have a high level of drive and ambition and
are involved in and motivated by their jobs. They have a
great enthusiasm and capacity for work. They are able to work
without supervision and insist on high performance standards
from their staff. They do not allow their work and private
lives to interfere with one another and will put in extra time
and effort when required. They are persistent enough to see a
difficult task through and disciplined enough to stick with
routine monotonous jobs.
The Ineffective Manager.
Ineffective managers lack drive and ambition and get little
satisfaction from their jobs. Their hearts are not really in
their jobs and they they are slap happy and unconscientious.
They have a limited capacity for work. They need supervision
and guidance and sometimes allow their staff to get away with
substandard work. They allow their work and private lives to
interfere with each other. They put in the minimum time and
effort required. They take a defeatist attitude with
difficult jobs and give in easily. They avoid routine and
systems and are easily bored.
The following interview examples are illustrative;
"These two will be working till. the day they leave. Neither
has had a serious knock back in their careers. Both have
questioned the Department, but have decided that they will
stick with it. If things got bad, they would seek work
elsewhere."
"We are more career orientated. We want to be Directors. We
have a greater vision. We've still far to go. We work very
much as a team."
"He's about sixty odd, due to retire later this year. He's
been in his current grade for years. He peaked sometime ago."
"She is in the later stage of her career. She doesn't see any
future. A bit tired. She's had little encouragement."
"He doesn't get satisfaction from the job. He's not
motivated. This is not his career by choice. He can't get
another job elsewhere."
"They've both been in the Department for years. They're
almost institutionalized, they would be hopeless out of the
Department. They've been here for years. They're all lazy,
lethargic. They just plod through the work. They have no
aim, they're not going anywhere. They're just going to 105.
Things never change with them."
Assertiveness
This scale relates to the managers' confidence in the role and
their willingness and/or ability to front up to risky,
difficult or unpleasant situations. It implies a drive toward
leadership and is in line with Kotter's (1988) motivation
category. The interviews indicate that one of the dominant
reasons for lack of managerial assertiveness was a desire to
"cover their backsides" in an organisation that has not
traditionally encouraged personal initiative and risk. Lack
of assertion also stems from other causes, for example, lack
of confidence in the position and lack of technical knowledge.
The Effective Manager.
Effective managers have a natural leadership ability and take
command easily. They feel secure in the.ir positions and
appear confident. They have a bearing and presence. They will
tackle unpleasant but necessary tasks and take tough
decisions. They are prepared to assume responsibility for
their decisions if thipgs go wrong. T ~ e y are decisive, making
firm decisions and not looking back. They stick to what they
believe in and will front up to senior management and tell
them what they think. They will listen to other people's
views but are prepared to make a final decision. when
necessary.
The Ineffective Manager.
Ineffective managers lack natural leadership ability and are
reluctant to take command. They feel insecure in their
positions and lack self confidence and bearing. They avoid
unpleasant tasks and back away from tough decisions. They are
not prepared to assume responsibility for their decisions and
make excuses,and look for scapegoats when things go wrong.
They are indecisive and constantly question their past
decisions. They tend to buckle in an argument and are too
easily persuaded by other people's opinions. They are overly
dependent on consultation and are unwilling to make a final
decision. They tend not to front up to senior management and
will agree with them, even when they feel they are wrong.
The following interview examples are illustrative;
"They are both particularly confident. They are prepared to
make big decisions, get behind them and go with it. It gives
senior staff the confidence to give them big tasks. Tane would
fall apart under these tasks. It comes back to a confidence
thing."
"She pushed the paper work through. She took a lot of
shortcuts which I thought would create problems. But she was
always prepared to take responsibility for it. She is fully
accountable for what she does and is prepared to accept the
risk of failure."
"They tried hard to get good conditions for their staff and
clients. They believe in that. They would never take no for
an answer. They were never bloody minded, but logically
argued. They don't take it lying down."
"She doesn't project her personality. You don't feel that
she's in charge. It would make no difference if.she weren't
there. You wouldn't know anyway. She is very quiet."
"He's frightened that he's going to be asked to justify what
he does. He hasn't really got all the technical information
at his finger tips. He's frightened of upsetting the system.
He hasn't got the courage of his convictions ... He would be
careful what he said, in case it affected his promotion
chances. The others are brave. If the crunch comes they will
stand up and say what they think ... He will have very little to
say."
"She is highly sensitive to social change but has a tendency
to allow unstructured critical responses to it. For example,
she allowed one of her staff to take precipitate industrial
action, which was badly researched and without any
consideration for the total organisation. He would expect his
boss to take control. The D.G. [Director General] threatened
to fire the bloody lot of them. These others would be
prepared to take control. They would have waved a big stick."
prioritising.
This scale relates to the balancing of priorities and the
focusing of managerial effort.
The effective manager.
Effective managers have a good sense of priorities and
concentrate on the task at hand. They are able to balance
competing work demands and keep sight of the bottom line.
They gather only the critical information, minimizing paper
work and using information efficiently. They pursue
objectives patiently and show good performance against targets
and deadlines.
The ineffective manager.
Ineffective managers have little sense of priorities and are
easily sidetracked. They are poor at balancing their work,
concentrating on one thing to the exclusion of others. They
gather too much information and lose sight of what is
important. They are impatient and try to do too much at once.
They perform poorly against targets and miss important
deadlines.
The following interview examples are illustrative;
"They maintain a balance. They fit their priorities closely
within a pattern of service. They are able to maintain key
areas and maintain a balance of priorities."
"They would address personal issues, but they managed to keep
up as well. They were able to organise priorities. They would
say we must do it. They sacrificed some things to achieve
their priorities."
"They are perfectionists in relation to the wrong things.
Complete perfection is unattainable. The costs are too great
in terms of the reward. They don't weigh up the
costs/benefits."
"He worked flat out. Did a lot of work, but tried to complete
too much. His input didn't match the output. He froze up
under pressure and got too bogged down in detail. He put too
much time into one item. He overkilled it and t o ~ k too long.
He couldn't: sort out priorities. His setting of prioritie.s
was bad. So he had a stack of three-quarter completed tasks."
Problem solving.
This scale is concerned with the managers' ability to get to
the heart of complex problems and fix their basic causes. It
also touches on managers' awareness of personal strengths and
weaknesses and their ability to learn from mistakes.
The effective manager.
Effective managers are incisive. They have an ability to
think issues through carefully and get to the root of
problems. They fix basic causes, rather than resolving short
term crises. They, can sort through a mass of information and
reach appropriate conclusions. They make, careful decisions,
backed by evidence and are able to see the complexities of
issues and problems. They recognise quickly when they are in
difficulty and either seek help or renegotiate targets. They
have a realistic view of their own ability and learn from
their mistakes. They present their ideas clearly and
logically and can explain complex issues in practical terms.
They are effective in problem solving meetings, allowing for
interaction but providing structure and direction.
The ineffective manager.
Ineffective managers fail to think issues through carefully.
Consequently, they don't get to the root of problems. They
are crisis managers, fighting fires without fixing the basic
causes. They get confused if they have to deal with too much
information. They make hasty decisions and ignore important
information, acting before they think. They have a black and
white mentality and can't see the complexities of issues and
problems. They don't know when they are out of their depth
and leave it too late in seeking help. They have an
unrealistic view of their own ability and repeat their
mis.takes. They are unable to present their ideas
systematically and logically and cannot explain complex issues
in practical terms. They don't stick to the agenda, or
provide enough structure or direction, in meetings.
The following interview examples are illustrative;
"He's got an eye for the key important things. He gets right
to the heart of problems. Thinks in broad concepts. Hopeless
on details, close to a genius."
"They are able to see the shades of grey. They are able to
see the complexities of issues."
"They take an incisive approach and get to the root of the
problem quickly ... In making a decision they keep to the
essence of the thing. They get to the heart of things and
respond to those points. They seem able to take a step back.
Of course their problems are easier to identify. They combine
both heart and head and respond to needs not wants in relation
to available resources."
"She is primarily humanitarian in approach, merely responds to
people's wants. She doesn't put it in perspective, responds
with the heart and puts herSelf in the poo. It's the head
that puts it in perspective. She makes a reactive
unstructured response. She waffles and doesn't get to the
heart of the problem. Her problems are more complex than the
others."
Personal organisation.
This scale category is concerned with the level of
organisation of the manager. It concerns time management,
planning and the general organisation of files, papers,
records and materials. It also touches on personal
characteristics, such as attention to detail and self control.
The Effective Manager.
Effective managers allocate their time effectively and are
good at planning, organising and scheduling work. They
maintain a high standard of housekeeping and keep their work
areas tidy. They know where to look for the answers to
questions and have the answers at their finger tips. They are
good record keepers, writing things down and knowing where to
look for answers to questions. They pay good attention to
detail and are self controlled, disciplined and methodical.
The Ineffective Manager.
Ineffective managers do not allocate their time well and are
poor at planning, organising and scheduling work. They are
sloppy in their housekeeping and have untidy work areas. They
are disorganised and have difficulty finding answers even to
routine enquires. They are poor record keepers, forgetting
and losing things. They pay little attention to detail and
lack self control and discipline. Their approach is broad-
brushed and unmethodical.
The following interview examples are illustrative;
"They both have very busy jobs but they are able to organise
themselves to'achieve and complete tasks ... They are very up to
date with their work manuals, systems and circulars. They can
find them and know where to look."
"They are very well organised and are conscious of the need to
make decisions quickly. They meet deadlines and keep their
desks up to date. Nothing is put aside, they decide quickly."
"He's only average at organising himself. He forgets things.
He collects papers but doesn't get into organising very
often."
"He does have a high volume, busy job but he can never seem to
organise himself to get the things I ask him done, even though
he works flat out."
"He's not inclined to do other peoples work because he isn't
well enough organised to do it. He doesn't organise. He
doesn't take time to sit down and look at the operation as a
whole. He gets bogged down in detail, therefore he's not able
to listen to the staff. He doesn't have the time."
CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIOURS RELATING TO INTERPERSONAL
ABILITY
The scale categories in this area relate primarily to observed
interactions with other people, 'in the external world of the
manager. scale descriptors deal with
although there is also reference to the underlying
characteristics that influence those behaviours.
Delegation and Training.
This scale refers to the manager's use and development of
staff through delegation and training.
The effective manager.
Effective managers are observant and are aware of the skills
and potential of their staff. They delegate well and involve
others. They define delegated duties and responsibilities
clearly and follow-up and check on work that has been
assigned. They do their fair share of work and don't delegate
unfairly. They take into account staff workloads before
delegating. They are happy to share their knowledge and
experience and take time to ensure that staff are trained in a
wide range of skills. They groom successors and insist that
others know their jobs.
The ineffective manager.
Ineffective managers are unobservant and don't recognise or
respect the skills and potential of their They don't
delegate enough and try to do too much They don't
define delegated duties and responsibilities clearly and do
not follow up or check on work they have delegated. They
delegate work that they should be doing themselves and don't
take staff workloads into account. They keep their knowledge
and experience to themselves. They fix problems themselves,
rather than training others and become too dependent on a few
key subordinates. They don't train successors and
consequently only they know their jobs.
The following interview examples are illustrative;
"They delegate and use delegation to train. They give you an
idea of why you are doing it."
"He allows me to manage until he sees I'm incompetent to do
so. I accept that my staff will do things differently from me
but I look at the results, so IUm not concerned. For example,
Peter's office is totally disorganised yet the results are
great. He gets things done and his staff like him. But the
way he works horrifies me."
"Robin is a terrible delegator. He undermines his staff. He's
afraid to give away power because he feels threatened. He
hangs on to things so that they never get done. He has a
finger in every pie, but is not dynamic enough to do it all.
He's inclined to give staff a job and follow-up and interfere
too much."
"Rather than train he did the job himself. His mistake was
that if he had shown us how to do the job it would have been
OK the next time."
"She doesn't delegate well. She doesn't say "You'll have to
do this because of this", its like a guessing game. The staff
don't learn from it."
Consultation.
This scale is concerned with the manager's willingness to
consult and respond to the input of the staff. It also
touches on the manager's communication of information to the
staff.
The effective manager.
Effective managers are flexible and easy to reason with. They
encourage staff participation in decision making. They
consult with staff before introducing changes and will change
ideas and decisions in response to staff input. They listen
well and encourage discussion. They are willing to learn,
accepting criticism well and backing down gracefully when
wrong. They hold regular meetings, to communicate new
information and keep their staff well informed. staff
initiative is encouraged and staff are given room to make
their own decisions.
The ineffective manager.
Ineffective managers are rigid and closed minded and take an
autocratic approach to decision making. They impose changes
without consulting staff and tend not to change ideas and
decisions in response to staff input. They are poor listeners
and discourage discussion. They are unwilling to learn and
take criticism personally. They will not back down when wrong
or back down with bad grace. They hold few meetings to
communicate new information and keep their staff in the dark.
They supervise too closely and do not encourage staff
initiative.
The following interview examples are illustrative;
"They take a board of directors approach .. put a lot of
emphasis on a teamwork approach. They make available the
opportunity for everyone to make a contribution .. They are
prepared to make adjustments if necessary. They are open to
being influenced and argued with."
"When I first came here ... the place was the pits, terrible. I
decided the staff had to know all of it. I got them to sit
down with senior staff and say how can we improve. I walked
through the ~ f f i c e , some of them were in tears. I went home
and I thought, "What can I do?" I decided to feed it all back
to each section and I asked them what can we do about it.
Even the basic grades had ideas. We shared things . lt
gradually lifted."
"I try to keep my staff informed through meetings and notes. I
open things up for discussion throughout the office. I keep
staff informed, involved. We have meetings weekly to inform
staff. Any member of the staff is welcome to attend if
they ... have something to say ... We talk to customers to see if
we are being successful. I talk to lower level staff to see
if they are getting the information I'm imparting."
"He's very set in his ways. If I ask him something and he
doesn't agree you can't change him at all. If I disagree he
just says "I'm the boss do it this wayll."
IIAny idea I put forward was dampened. The decision was
already made. I would bring my ideas and he would squash
them. It knocked the morale for six."
"Ken is very secretive. He is unable to share information or
power. He withholds information from staff. There is no
transfer of knowledge at all ... He with-held information I
needed as an A.D. [Assistant Director]. He held masses of
information that was critical to my operation. 'II
Feedback
In this scale we explore the manager's approach to performance
feedback and the approach taken to get people to perform. The
scale is also concerned with the issue of favouritism and the
manager's disposition to hold grudges.
The effective manager.
Effective managers respect the abilities of their staff.
regularly approach them to see how they are getting on.
They
They
provide regular feedback about work performance and recognise
and reward good work. They highlight the positive aspects of
staff performance and use encouragement and praise to get
people to perform. When necessarythey are able to criticise
without putting people down. Staff with different views are
allowed to argue their case. They don't hold grudges and
treat everyone the same, including those they have had
problems with.
The ineffective manager.
Ineffective managers have little respect or confidence in
their staff. They only approach them when things are not to
their liking. They don't give sufficient feedback about work
They highlight the negative aspects of work
performance and don't give sufficient recognition or reward
for good work. They use and punishment to get people to
perform. Their criticism is destructive and aggressive and
they will not listen to staff with different views. They hold
grudges, picking on staff they don't like and playing
favourites with others.
The following interview examples are illustrative;
"I used praise, rewards and achievement and I created a
positive culture. I try to emphasize the positive. I talk to
them about the good things. When they get a promotion I do
them across the desk. I sign it in front of them and I
congratulate them ... I have worked hard to create a positive
culture."
"They are interested in my personal development and provide
regular feedback. They tell me what's wrong and how to avoid
it. They give me positive feedback. A chocolate fish."
"He inspired fear. We had no confidence in being able to
approach him. He found fault and belittled you all the time.
He tried to reprimand you, find fault. The staff detested
him. "
"I found I was the lone ranger. I wasn't receiving the
guidance I needed. He wasn't interested in giving feedback ...
I felt an immense frustration every year, with the lack of
concrete feedback."
"He would make decisions in pubs with a few mates. He played
favourites. A lot of things were discussed in pubs and
because I didn't go over, I was out on a limb ... He was
partial, played favourites, and the morale crashed."
Team Building.
This scale touches on the manager's capacity as a team builder
and leader. It explores the level of managerial interaction,
involvement with and consequent understanding of the team. It
also explores the example of the in terms of work
output, dress, etc and his/her overall impact, in terms of
staff respect and enthusiasm ..
The effective manager.
Effective managers are team orientated and keep their team
together. They talk on equal terms with staff. They are
highly visible, moving around and interacting with their
staff. Consequently they are up with the play and aware of
whats going on in their unit. They support and back up their
staff and bring out the best in them. They do not ask people
to do things that they will not do themselves. They lead by
example in dress and action. Credit for success is given to
the staff. Such managers are generating
enthusiasm, respect, goodwill support from their staff.
The ineffective manager.
Ineffective managers are poor team leaders. They are seen
infrequently and distance themselves from most of their staff.
They emphasize the boss/subordinate distinction, when talking
to staff. They spend too much time out of circulation and
consequently are not in touch with what's going on in their
unit. They criticise and complain about their staff and bring
out the worst in them. They ask staff to do things that they
cannot, or will not, do themselves and set a poor example in
dress and action. They tend to take personal credit for the
successes of the team. Their impact is one of deadening
enthusiasm and losing the respect, goodwill and support of
their staff.
The following interview examples are illustrative;
"They don't hide away in a corner. They come out and have a
chat, including a bit of social talk. They also ask you how
the work is going. It's a really good atmosphere. It's a
pleasure to work for them, because they don't build imaginary
barriers."
"They get involved with their staff. They know what's going
on in their division and have a good r a p p o r ~ . They look, talk
and listen ... They are part of the team. They mix in with the
people, from the grass roots up to their level. They develop
the team by mixing in socially, in and out of work."
"She had very little involvement. She didn't know at all what
was going on. Her 103 was in total control. She didn't get
up to find out ...
"He works behind closed doors, has no contact with the staff
at all. No meetings, no contact ... He sets up a wall around
him. Shuts the door and all the time, the staff back off."
"He portrayed a dreadful image. Wore boots to work. ,His
image was terrible. He wore crumpled shirts and had a BO
problem. His ~ x a m p l e was not 100%. He had a drink problem and
was inclined to drink in lunchtimes."
"He was the laziest sod I ever met in my bloody life. He was
a brick shithouse, a useless Director. He wore the same
jacket for twenty years. He stank physically, wore the same
shorts all year. He was fat, overweight, obese. He was not a
happy man, miserable. Had a low level of concern for other
people.
Concern for Others
This scale highlights the manager's concern for other people.
It is primarily demonstrated in the manager's behaviour. In
particular, approachability, interest in staff development and
willingness to help out and "go to bat" for staff and clients
with problems.
The effective manager.
Effective managers are prepared to put themselves out to help
others. They are interested in developing staff as
individuals and are approachable and friendly. They are
sensitive to the feelings of staff and encourage, support and
if necessary, work alongside those with problems. They buffer
staff from outside p r e s s ~ r e s and are prepared to stand up to
senior management on behalf of both their staff and clients.
The ineffective manager.
Ineffective managers are reluctant to pitch in and help
others. They have little interest in developing staff as
individuals and are unapproachable. They are insensitive and
blinded to the problems of staff and have a low tolerance for
those with problems. They pass outside pressures on to their
staff and won't fight. senior management, either on behalf of
their staff or their clients.
The following interview examples are illustrative;
"When you approach them they look up and smile. They might
say, "Can you hang on a minute", but they will acknowledge
your presence."
"You could always approach her. You could always talk to her
with personal problems ... You could go up and have a chat.
It's good, especially if you've got a hundred beneficiaries
screaming at you. If you needed a break she would put her pen
down and talk to you."
"They are more interested in the career development of staff.
They give us opportunities to do different kinds of
work .. rotate to different divisions. They advise you on
career development. For example, Huia took a personal
interest. She encouraged me to do night school. She took me
around the area and took a personal interest in me."
"He makes me feel a burden if I have to approach
him ... Occasionally you will go up and he will grunt a short
answer. Sometimes he will basically tell you to go away."
"You would never approach her with a problem. I felt very
uncomfortable talking to her. People wouldn't go near her
desk. Hardly anybody asked her what to do. There was a
general wariness of her, a feeling that we were going to get
snapped at or told off. So we asked the 103, or each other."
"Nick was not interested in any way whatsoever in the career
development of staff. He only called you in to give you a
reprimand. He had no interest at all in my personal career
development."
Personality.
This scale is concerned with a number of aspects of the
manager's personality. Its most important dimensions impact
on the manager's capacity to relate to and influence other
people. The interviews indicate a relationship between
personality and a number of other scale categories, notably
stress managment, team building and concern for others.
The Effective Manager.
Effective managers have an optimistic, positive outlook and a
good sense of humor. They have stable temperaments and never
allow their work to get on top of them. They bounce back
quickly if they get a knock back. They relate well to people
and are good conversationalists. They are down to earth and
practical in their approach. They are good negotiators and
are able to sell their ideas well and enthuse others.
The Ineffective Manager.
Ineffective managers have a pessimistic, negative outlook and
tend to take themselves too seriously. They are moody and
temperamental and get weighed down worrying about their work.
They take a long time to bounce back from a knock back. They
are hard to talk to and have difficulty relating to other
people. Their approach is theoretical and rather impractical.
They are poor negotiators. They have trouble selling their
ideas and tend to turn people off.
The following interview examples are illustrative;
"He has a tremendous ability in handling people. He maintains
good working relationships with staff, even if he has to
discipline. For example, he once told John Takio to do
something, but John wouldn't do it. He told him for three
months and John still ignored him. In the end he got the
staff together and told him to do it in front of the staff.
Nobody carried a grudge with him. He can tell you serious
things and laugh. He's very positive about what he does. He
carries people with him."
"She's moody and not very patient. It's caused by her
personal life. She's paranoid about people liking her, b u ~
they don't. We [her staff] all feel tense when she's in a
mood. You never know what kind of day it will be."
"She might be having a bad day. She'll walk in and won't even
give you the time of day. One day she walked in and rang up
her Priest and confessed, right in front of her staff, who
were,sitting feet from her ... You can always tell what kind of
mood she's in. If I say the wrong thing I get ignored or get
my head bitten off."
"He's subject to outside pressures. If the door's shut you
don't go near him. If you do you will get a barrel. The word
spreads around. The word gets around and he doesn't get the
confidence of the staff. He's tied up in his own little
world."
Integrity
This scale concerns itself with the openess, honesty,
trustworthiness and reliability of the manager. This involves
relationships with staff, peers, superiors and with the
organisation as a whole.
The Effective Manager.
Effective managers are straightforward and honest. They ,use
open channels of communication and keep confidences. They are
reliable and keep their promises. They will admit if they
don't know the answer. They will also admit their mistakes
and d i s c u s ~ them openly. They can be trusted to accept and
, ,
implement decisions which have gone against them. They work
for the good of the organisation and don't run it down when
talking to others.
The ineffective manager.
Ineffective managers tend to be devious. They go behind
people's backs and break confidences. They are unreliable and
make vacant promises. They will bluff if'they don't know the
answers. They are reluctant to admit their failures and
mistakes and blame outside factors. They are poor at
accepting and implementing decisions which have gone against
them. They run the organisation down when talking to others.
The following interview examples are illustrative;
"They are willing to say if they don't know something, or look
it up ... in the manual. I didn't respect them less. She will
try to bluff if she doesn't know something. She'll give you a
waffly answer or get it passed on. The file will just
disappear."
"I would never confide in her because she talks behind
people's backs. She spreads things around and doesn't keep
confidences. With these two I can sit down in good faith and
say "I think such and such", or "I'm not happy with this".
You can trust them with anything. They won't tell anybody
else."
"I found out that he [my boss] was getting information from my
juniors on how things were running. He would meet with the
junior staff without consulting. He went behind my back. He
wanted a spy to keep an eye on me. They [the staff] spelled
it all out to me."
OTHER CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIOURS
Technical Knowledge
This category refers to the technical knowledge of the
manager. That is; specific knowledge of the laws, manuals and
procedures that apply to the technical work of the department.
Technical knowledge seems to be most important to managers at
the 104 supervisory level. Non-supervisory staff seem
particularly reliant on the technical guidance of their
supervisor. Lack of technical knowledge on the part of the
supervisor can create work bottle-necks, slow decision-making
and generally decrease the morale of' the work unit.
The Effective Manager.
Effective managers have a strong technical knowledge and know
most of the jobs under their control. They keep up to date
technically and the staff can't "pull the wool over their
eyes" on technical matters.
The Ineffective Manager.
Ineffective managers know few of the jobs under their control
and have a limited technical knowledge. They get out of date
on technical matters and their staff are better informed about
the work than they are.
The following interview examples are illustrative;
"His work knowledge is good. I know I'll get an answer from
him. He won't tell me to look in the manual. I can get a
decision from him when I'm not sure."
liMy boss can help me make quick decisions on the telephone.
It makes the work quicker. Things take less time and it gives
a good impression to clients."
"They are quietly confident ... They are quietly
confident and b.ring out the best in their staff. They have a
broad background and recent line experience and they are
prepared to help staff out if they have a problem."
"He thinks he's quietly confident but people don't have the
same respect for him because of his lack of technical skills."
"She doesn't have the technical experience. She's good on
basic things ... but she lacks expertise. There have been a few
personality clashes because of overwork. We are not getting
the work through because of a lack of training."
"There's been no time for the necessary training. It's
because all of the promotions are new. We've all moved up one
and we are still training ourselves. It's getting better as
the understanding grows but it puts pressure on everyone."
"He doesn't have the knowledge to make effective decisions.
But he still tries to do it straight away instead of saying
I'll come back to you. So he collects paper. He lacks the
technical knowledge to make a fast decision and fails to get
things out to the divisions on time. The others get rid of
the paper on their desks quickly. They make decisions."
External Networking
This scale is concerned with the manager's involvement and
orientation to clients and work related networks, outside of
the organisation.
The Effective Manager
Effective managers have a big network of community contacts
and maintain close contacts with clients.
The Ineffective Manager
Ineffective managers have few work related contacts in the
community and have little contact with clients.
The following examples are illustrative;
"Tony talks to his customers. He tries "to see if we are being
successful."
"He understands the original i n t e n ~ of the legislation and
targets for the needs of people. He understands the real
needs of clients and of people"
"He established a network of contacts, of filters between the
Department and the community".
"Harry has a high profile in, the community, yet has poor
external networks. No filters and no constraints. He has
lost sight of the original intent. He i ~ unable to understand
the real needs, the real situation of people."
APPENDIX FOUR
Correlations:' \JlORlCl
_n
PERSL
nUSH
DELTACt
TEAML
CONCERNl
CONSULTl
GOAlL
POAGL
STRESSL
PRQ8SlVl
PR tORTL
FRONTL
I NNVNl
RWPUNl
/4GRlJA:ICt
rECHKNYl
FUTUREL
OVRVEYL
:orreUtlons:
'..IORI(M
?ERSH
fRUSTH
OELTRQ4
re ......
CONCERN"
CONSUlTH
GOALH
POI!Q4
STRESS><
PROBSt ...,..
PRIOIHH
FRONT14
INKVN"
;;!.I..DPUNI4
l'IGR1.IRlO4
ieCHICN\.IM
FUTUREM
OVRVE1S4
1.0000
... 140-
.4973"
.6259'"
.5SOB"
.5933"
.3827'"
.69n" -
.6700'
.3737"
.602S'
.60n"
. 6352"
.6496'
.3926"
.2762'
.5165"
.5709'"
.521S"
\;(JIU'"
1.0000

.5!l4a"
.651S'
.4998*
.5259"
. 420S-

.0695"

.;040-
.679S

.5560'-
.<.5711-'
. :'356"
.':'7'91
.545S
.5912"
PERSL
.4140
1.0006
.6431
.5923'-
.7029"
.6914'-
.7127'"
.4568"
.:'204-'
.6712"
.6636"
.6168"
.5582"
.6011"
.6896'
.5076"
.Z344'
.5804-
.7383"" -
?ERS>I

1.0000
.7006"
.6063"'
.i990"'.
.7104
.7392"
.5474"
.c..ooS-
.';132'
.roZe.-
.';157'"
.6656'-
.5an-
.i'lOl
.5327'"
.J605 ......
.5499""
.712:4"
TRUSTL
.4973"
.6431"
1.0000
.6340'-
.6951"
.6519'"
.7175-
.:'552"
.5035"
.5041-
.6936"
.1>794"
.5039""
.5328'
.7423" -
.3084"
.3349'"
.5273"
.6543"
fRUST'"
. .5848"'"
.. -006"
1.0000
.6781"
7320"
.6889"
7201-
5415
.5366
.;064 .....
.7371
.6733"
.;062'
.5349'u,
.7365


.5117'"
.lO609 ';'
PEARSON'S CORRELATION ANALYSIS FOR NINETEEN SCALE VARIABLES
OELTRCL
.6259"
.5923"
.6340
1.0000
rEAHL
.5508'
.7029"
.6951
.7571""
.7571 t.ODOO
.7129'" .8423"
.6371" .7627"'
.6659'"
.6274'
.:'758'
.7465-
J219'"
.6324'
.6929
.0245
.4520"
.4906
.67n"
.67'/9"
OELTRQ4
.';518"
.S063""
.6761
1.0000
.7190'-
.;109'"
.6395'-
.;659-
.;171'
.4641"
.;565'-
.6844-
.:,476"
.6429"'
. .!I51""
.5599'"
.5123
.5719"
.6840-
.5237""
.4600'-
.5049"
.6957"
.6945
.S54S
.6582-
.8070"
.4057"-
.<.678"
.5907'"
.7137"-
rEAMII
.:'998'
.7990'
.7320"
. 7190'
1.0000
.7561"
.5075"
.5740"
.4760"
.5589"
.i"099".
. .:.310'
.6729"-
.579""
.3316"
.5590"
. 491-
.5065
.7117'"
CONCERNL
.5933"
.691'
.6519""
.7129"-
.8423"
1.0000
.7319""
.5079"-
.4265"
.4813""
.6437""
.6120-
.5777"
.6453"
.7600"
.3587""
.3549'"
.594S
.6858""
CONCERN"
.5259-
.7104
.6889"
.6109"
.7561'-
1.0000
.7025
.<.866"
.'-018
.5002"
.6502-
.5959"
.5880"
.':'7'9'-
.7297'"
.4535"
.3453"
.5042-
.6749""
Least Effective Manager Ratings
CONSULTl GOALl
.3827""
.7127""
.7175
.6371'
.7627"
.7319'"
1.0000
.4049""
.3413
.4nS"
.6358'
.6225"
.4038'-
.5742"
.8440-
.4021"
.2250-
.5525
.7423'
.6972"
.4568"
.4552'
;659'
.5237'"
.5079"
.4049"'
1.0000


7153"
.6682"'
.6653
.7114'
.3849'"
.4524"
.4883'
7309'"
.6006"
POIleL
.6700
.4204"'
.5035"
. 6274
. 4600"
.:'265"
.3413
.68SS'
1.0000
.:..490'
.714S
.722S
.5'830'
.521S
.3157"
.3146"
.5295'
.5481"
.5126"
STRESSL
.3737'"
.6712
.5041
. :.75S'
.5G49"
.:'S13
.4ne"
. 474S
.4490
1.0000
.6668'
.S87S
.5887'"
.53.7'"
.4303"
.4121'
.324S'
.5144"
.,,106
PAQQSlVl PIlIOA.TL FROWTL
.6025"
.6636"
.6936'
.7465"
.6957'"
.6437"
.6358'
.7153"
.714S"
.6668'
1.0000
.8571'
. 7256"
.7072"
.S8G4'
.4en
.S42S
.7438"
.7888
.6072"'
.6168'
.6794--
.7219'"
.6945'
.6120"
.6225"
.6682"
.7228
.5878
.8571'
1.0000
.642S
.6177"'
.5966-
.4505"
.5204'
.6884"
.7369""

. 5582"
.5039"
.6324'
.554S'
.5777'"
.40115
.6653"
.5830"
.5887""
.7256"
.642S
1.0000
.6604'
.3678'
.4268-'
.4866"
.6681"
.5994"
Most Effective Manager Ratings
COI4SULTH
.:.20S
. ;392"
.7201'
.;395'-
.3075
0
'
.7025"
1.0000
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