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Task 1 a.

Business envirnment keep changing as new technological, envirnmental and legal changes occur with the passage of time. This change may create unexpected challenges and apportunities and hence managers must anticipate and plan and set objectives and goals in order to survive and prosper both as a team leader and as an organization. A good strategic manager analyse the envirnment, assess the strengths and weaknesses of the organization and then identify opportunities where the organization could have competitive advantage. This process initiate the setting up of strategic objectives. Team performance can be judged from the targets achieved in stipulated time with minimum friction or wastage, to the satisfaction of all paries concerned. It is obivous that without having set strategic objectives the question of teamwork to achieve them doesnot arise. Objectives prove as driving force compeling the team to gel together and coordinate efforts. Team work is directed toward some goals. Goals are defined by strategic objectives set in advance by the strategic thinkers of an organization. so if we use scorcard adoption technique to see whether the performance of a team is as expected or not. for this purpose the progress in team performance is matched with goals set.

b. ref: www.rushcliffc.gov.uk\pmf by steve moris charlotte laven-atack

An organization of any sorts is established for some objectives and aims to achieve. These aims and objectives are than translated in the form of targets. These targets can be either the provision of some basic facilities by public departments or the commercial production of goods by factories. However, targets setting is not a simple random process that can be done in vague manner, instead certain tools and techniques have to be employed to set targets. However we have to be clear in mind whether we are planning a step change or desire continous improvement. then all relevant information have to be gathered to set suitable targets. The tools and techniques that may be used are; 1. Benchmarching: by carefully observing the standards followed by similar businesses in competition. The best way to observe other similar authorities or groupings is to follow the top best, the average and the below bottom in regard to the standard followed and quality of work produced. once complete survey is conducted then suitable targets are set.

2. Trend analysis- Targets are best set when we carefully examine the trends of our performance improvement through the years if the trends suggest improvements through the years then targets are more correctly set. If the trends suggests struggle in the organisational improvement then the targets are milded down to some rational level. 3. envirnmental scanning: This technique is used to anticipate and interpret changes in envirnment. New technological, social and legal changes occur with passage of time and managers must keep themselves aware of these changes in order to see in advance challenges and opportunities. 4. Budgets: budget is a numerical plan for allocating resources to specific activities. Budget is prepared for revenues and expenditure. Therefore budget may be used to improve the performance by

carefully allocating resources to desired areas and increasing revenues from expected success in set targets. The tool i like the most to use in target setting is Benchmarking as this tool makes us to stretch ourselves to the best level and standard that we have set for ourselves. Many an organization small and large have benefitted emensely from benchmarking technique because it is simple to follow and easy to chak out.

c. These tools and techniques we have used for terget setting are effective in measurement of future team performance. Such that we can predict with some degree of precision the success or failure chances of teams assigned the target achievement objective. 1. Benchmarking: this is basically the improvement of quality in an organization by analyzing and then copying the methods of the leaders in various fields. Once we employ methods of a successful organization then we can see in advance different ups and downs as well as chanllenges and success that that specific organization has gone through and we can project trends in our own organization to assess what we expect to see in future in our own organization. 2. Trend Analysis: Analyzation of current trends in our organization will help us to project current trends and predict future performance of team. Any area or unit in an organization that shows its graph of continous decline or improvement, suggests that that team will decline or improve in future as per their performance unless some dramatic event turn the trends upside down. 3. Envirnmental scanning: as this is just the anticipation and the interpretaion of changes in technological, social and legal process with the passage of time , we can use the same envirnment scanning process to measure our team performance in future, by realizing the good or bad aspect of these changes on our team members as individual and as team. 4. Budget; budget is the expected revenue and the allocation of resources to different jobs. the allocation of resources to teams assigned specific jobs is a very effective tool to contol that teams peformance and direction. once we have a degree of control as a teams direction and course of action, we can to some degree of precision measure how teams will perform in future. Task 2.

reference thequalityportal.com\mix\q-assess.html For team performance measurement a manager has to assess the performance of each team member. Each team member has certain weaknesses and strengths. those strenghts and weaknesses have to be analyed correctly and constaintly measured so that the manager can assign different members the tasks that they are not only good at but also enjoys doing those works. in order to deliver on team assignments the manager has to constantly measure the performance of the team as team and focus on the individual members as well. in order to determine required performance targets within team agianst current performance the manager has to; 1. ask questions from each team members about the tasks they are successful at as well as tasks they would like to do in job at hand. 2. Hold regular meetings with team members about schedule adherence, costs, risks associated, quality management etc. 3. evaluate team performance. criticise where there is need in construtive way and appreciate where good work has been done. 4. team meetings should be held specially at crucial times of milesone achievement or important dates of deliverance. 5. individual performance are to be assessed regularly as team is made up of individual. but the manager must also understand the needs and problems of individual as well. b. all organizations whether public or private are established for some objectives and aims to achieve. those objectives and aims are translated into systematic goal attaining process, by the top strategic management of the organizations. However, these goals or targets can not be achieved by machine or materials and human being are the driving force and controlling factors in achevement of goals. when many human work together closely for achieving a common goal they form a team. However, the team is but made up of individual and if individuals do not commit themselves to the common cause and instead focus on personal agenda then the team can not work as a united force moving in one direction. individual commitment is needed and essential for the following reasons. 1. friction between individual and team will result in wastage of energy and

time and commitment of individual to cause will reduce friction thus paving the way for smooth and speedy disposal of work. 2. an individual excellance in work becomes an example for all team members to excel. 3. an individual is an asset of the team and that asset has to be fully utilized for the accomplishment of goals set by the team. for this purpose an individual has to be persuaded to commit all his energies for the goal accomplishment of the team. c. the role of delegation, mentoring and coaching in achievement of organisational objectives is of great importance. Delegation of authority to subordinate staff and lower team memebers in decision making and initiative helps in building the confidence of the team members. secondly team members feed themselves more as part and parcel of the team and their is a sense of belongingness that motivate team members to work harder. when managers delegate power and authority to team members to take initiatives in solving problems in routine matters, this helps in increasing the expertise level of lower team members, this in turn is an asset for organization because the top management has more time to focus on important issues of planning and setting of strategic objectives. similarly experienced and top managers should search for raw talent in newly arriving youngsters, so that their talent is polished and a much better finished product is available to serve the organiation. great sportsmen like Mike Tyson , Maria Sherapova, scientists like Thomas edison might not have achieved the glory without proper mentoring of their peers. Mentors bassicaly guide the inexperience raw talent such that all the ups and downs that are expected in the way becomes a better and smooth sail. mentors not only guide youngsters the way they have to carry themselves, but also create opportunities for them so that they can prove themselves and move on. Coaching is yet another important element of polishing those workers that are still lacking in their expertise level. for this purpose regular workshops, seminars, training courses and on job training opportunities are essential so that employees lacking in appropriate skills may enhance their capacity to work according to the required standard of the organization and ensure quality of work. d.

what is a team performance plan? it actually comprises of the following; 1. to identify the desired level of performance by team 2. to find out how these performance level desired will be met. 3. where necessary guide and direct team memebers. 4 . and continously measure whether the desired performance levels are maintained. the purpose of team performance plan is to ; 1. specify goals 2. continous measurement of performance. 3. action plan for targets set. 4. specification of time required for the achievement of goals. The team performance plan should align with overall organiation 's objectives. this synchronization may be achieved by aligning team performance plan with the team purpose. secondly aligning team purpose with organiation's objectives. TASK 3. Reference. " management" by S P Robbins. Mary Coutler b. when the strategic thinkers of an organization set goals and objectives, these goals and objetives are then translated in the form of targets. once targets are set then the manager start the process of measurement and observation to ensure whether the team is moving according to the desired line of action and whether the process of step by step completion of work is underway or not. the GME team has definite set of goals and objectives to be completed in stipulated time. in order to ensure whether the performance of the team with the passage of time is as according to plan or otherwise, we take certain steps. for this purpose a common technique used is called scheduling. scheduling is the regular observation of group of supervisors or departments for some time so that it can be ascertained in detail what acivities have to be done, the order in which they are to be completed, who is to do what and when are the jobs to be completed. we will use a very useful schedule device i.e the GANTT chart to measure the performance of GME team.

the Gantt chart; the idea of Gantt chart is very simple. Gantt chart is basically a bar graph on this bar graph we will schedule time on the horizontal axis and the activites at different stages to be carried out by GME team on vertical axis. the bar show output, both planned and actual, over a period of time. the GANTT chart visually show us when tasks chalked out by GME team are supposed to be done and compares that to the acual progress. it is very simple technique by which we can measure and detail easily what has yet to be done, to complete a job or project and to assess whether an activity is ahead of , behind or on schedule. c. strategy is series of goal directed decision and actions that match an organizations' skills and resrouces with the opportunities and threats in its envirnment. strategic objectives are set after doing situation analysis then concurrent with this assessment, objectives are set. once objectives are set and action plan is designed and different team are formed with different duties assigned. than it is the team performance put together that define the success or failure of overall organizational objectives. the team performance of one team that is excellant proves an example for other team to copy for which they have to try and work harder for a healthy competition, individual teams are given incentives to excel at work so that other may feel that they can achieve better results like other have achieved and get benefits or rewards like they have recieved. secondly an arganiation is like a mechanical machine with different parts interrelated and works in cordination. if one part of a machine is faulty it affects the whle body of the machine. similarly different team performances have to be carried out in smooth manner with every team contributing its due share. but team performance is based on a few very important elements. such as team spirit in individual members of a team. if all the members of a team work with ambition of cooperation and support than the team has a high success rate. similarly team members must be assigned duties thatt they are not only good at but also likes doing those duties as well. participation in decision making by all memebers increase sense of belongingnesss and is helpful in team performance improvement. a. reference www.belbin.com Dr mevedith belbin and his research team under took the research to find out why certain team succeed while others fail. they found out that team success is not dependent on intellect but on the behaviour of team members. The research team begin to identify siparate cluster of behaviour each of which formed distinct ' Team Roles" Team Roles can be defined as "A tendency to behave, contribute and

interrelate with others in a particular way. different individual display different team roles to varying degrees. differen roles identified in this model are as following. 1. "plant" these members have creative minds and solve problems unconventionally . 2. "moniter evaluater" these members are needed where we have to choose between different options. in an impartial and logical mannner. 3. "co-ordinators" assign duties and define objectives. 4. Resource investigator " provide an opportunity to communicate with outside world. 5. "implementers" as the word imply implement the plan. 6. "completer" simply refine the work and improve quality. 7. " team workers" help in geling the team together and do things on behalf of team. 8. "shapers" ensure that team keep moving and do not loose sight. 9. "specialists" are master of their art and carry out things in the best possible manners.

This model can prove very effective in monitoring team performance because once team roles are assigned to people best suited to jobs they sort of are driven by their own desire. secondly when every respect of a work is alreadly clearly defined and assigned to a particular person or persons. if there is any sort of problem in team performance then we can identify and pin point the exact location where the problem is as all different roles and works are assigned to individual according to their aptitude. once problem location is identified the management can move quickly to rectify the fault in time. changing of roles may be possible in a team where workers are either not happy with their assigned duties because of their personal liking and disliking or either the duties assigned to individual are not according to the expertise of the worker. the team management must keep scanning the areas where there is a need of improvement so that if changes are needed, that timely changes are made for the improvement of the overall team performance.

TASK 4

reference; s.p Robbin and mary coutler "management" A. In order to infliuence and persuade individuals to gain commitment to a course of action, we will have to use certain methods, as quoted by S.P Robbins and Mary Coutler in " Management". 1. Recognize individual differences: employees arent always homogeneous. Their needs attitudes, personallities are unique and differ from one another. A manager must carefully examine his workforce and keep in mind these variables, which will greatly help in gaining the trust and understanding of the workforce. 2. Match people to job. some workers enjoy high degree of autonomy, responsiblity and variety in nature of their work. Such workers should be given an autonomous unit within a larger business so that they can express themselves fully and achieve maximum results. However, not all workers enjoy autonomy and responsiblity that offer challenges and would rather prefer to be engaged in a routine work such as in large bureaucratic organizations. 3. Use Goals: Managers must ensure that employees have hard specific goals and that they are given feedbacks on how well are they doing. The best way to assign goals is to allow the employees to participate in setting up of goals as participation increase the acceptance of goals and reduce resistance. 4. Ensure that goals are perceived as attainable; if the workers percieve the goals set as unattainable the chance of full committment and maximum efforts are low. Therefore managers must ensure their workers that increase efforts will lead to success in attaining goals. However, the goals set must be realistic and workers must percieve the preformance appraisal process as valid and reliable. 5. individual rewards. rewards is a very good tool in order to persuade and influence a worker to try harder. However as people vary so must their needs, and different workers may be rewarded in different ways in order to achieve the desired objective. Bonases, pay increases, promotions, autonomy etc are a few examples of rewards. 6. link rewards to performance; the employees that perform the most must be rewarded the most and not otherwise as rewards are given on goals. so any rewards on other that than the team goals will only strengthen the non important issues. Rewards are better made public and in a transparent way so that they may prove motivating for other as well. 7. check the system for equity; the input and rewards system in the

organization must be percieved just and equitable by the workers. Expereince, hardwork, ability should explain the differences in pays and promotions. the input and reward equity must be balanced in such a way that all different inputs are given due importance. 8. donot ignore money; the primary imprtant reason for most workers is earning money. so to influence workers to work harder they have to be compensated in terms of better salaries and other monetary rewards. b. David Mcclelland and others have proposed three needs theory. this therory best explain individual dynamics and interests and shape an employee place in an organization. 1. need for achievement 2. need for power. 3. need for affiliation. people who have strong need for achievment are those who like to take up moderate challenges and like being in a challenging situation where personal abilities such as taking up responsiblity for finding solutions to problems and then recieve feedback on whether or not they are improving. such people like to achieve something on thier own rather than leave to chance or actions of others. such people are best utilized by giving them autonomous units and setting for them moderately challenging goals. the second category is of those people who like to be in a position of power to influence others and be in a position of status. such people are best suited for managerial posts in organization where they can excel as managers. the third category is of those people who like to be accepted and like by others. this category of people are best suited for places in organization where friction is least desirable and where there is less need of being competitive. Like individual dynamics, organizational culture too is important in shaping the behaviour and performance of employees. Orgnization may vary in terms of decision making process that is whether decision are made at the top and communicated downward as in bureaucratic organizations or whether there is group participation. the best course of action in this regard is to let the employees participate in decision making in order to reduce resistance and increase participation. However, in large bureaucratic organization where the work is coded and routine in nature, there is no need of group participation in decision making rather the best way is to let decision to be made by top

management and communicated downwards.