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3/4/2011

Control System Engineering Course


Semester II 2010/01 Lecture 5 Linearization of Nonlineaer Systems , Transfer Function and Block Diagram

Azeddien Mo. Salah Kinsheel

Linearization of Nonlinear Mathematical Models


A system is nonlinear if the principle of superposition does not apply. Although many physical relationships are often represented by linear equations, in most cases actual relationship are not quite linear. In fact, a careful study of physical systems reveal that even so-called linear systems are rarely linear only in a limited operational range.

3/4/2011

Linearization of Nonlinear Mathematical Models


In control engineering a normal operation of the system may be around an equilibrium point , and the signal may be considered small signal around the equilibrium. (with exceptions to many cases). Example:The pendulum case: The differential equation of such system can be obtained assuming equilibrium, thus: T(t)

Ml 2 Mgl sin( ) T (t )

m 0 Mg

Linearization of Nonlinear Mathematical Models


This is a nonlinear equation, however for small change of around zero position, we can assume: sin()=

Ml 2(t ) Mgl (t ) T (t )
T(t) m 0 Mg

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Linearization of Nonlinear Mathematical Models


Linearized vs Non Linearized sin function
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2
Sin(tita)

L NL

0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 -2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0 Tita in rad

0.5

1.5

Linearization of Nonlinear Mathematical Models


Linear approximation using Taylor series expansion method: Consider a system whose input is x(t) and output is y(t). The relationship between y(t) and x(t) is given by: Y=f(x) If the normal operation condition corresponds to x0,y0 then using Taylor series we get y f ( x)
df 1 d2 f y f ( x0 ) ( x x0 ) ( x x 0 ) 2 .... 2 dx 2! dt

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Linearization of Nonlinear mathematical models


Where the derivatives df/dt, d2f/dt2 .are evaluated at x=x0 If the variation x-x0 is small, we may neglect the higherorder terms in x-x0 then we can write
y y0 k ( x x0 ) y0 f ( x0 ) k df dx
x x0

y y0 k ( x x0 )

OR

y kx

Which indicates that y-y0 is proportional to x-x0

Linearization of Nonlinear mathematical models


Example: Linearize the following equation using Taylor series expansion y=x2 about x0=5 Solution:
y f ( x) x 2 y f ( x0 ) df 1 d2 f ( x x0 ) ( x x 0 ) 2 .... dx 2! dt 2 df f ( x0 ) (5) 2 , 10 and neglecting hiegher te rms dx x 5
100

80

60

40

20

we get : y 25 10( x 5) ( y 25) 10( x 5) y 10 x

-20

-40

10

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Summery of Modeling Process


Modeling is the mathematical representation of physical systems. The model is used to simulate the system and design the system controller. Its very often to compromise between simplicity and accuracy in modeling. Many physical systems can be represented by linear mathematical model. Nonlinear mathematical models can be approximated by linear equations over a specific operating point. Model parameters should be accurately measured and verified for accurate modeling. In practice the derived model should be verified and compared to the real model if possible. When its difficult to derive the model mathematically , we may use the input/output response of the real model to inversely derive the model (Black box modeling)

Transfer Function and Block Diagrams


In classical control systems control systems are often represented by transfer functions and block diagrams Transfer function: the transfer function of a linear , time-invariant differential equation system (LTI) is defined as the ratio of the Laplace transform of the output to the Laplace transform of the input, under the assumption that all initial conditions are zeros.

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Transfer Function and Block Diagrams


The transfer function can be represented mathematically as
( s z1 )(s z2 )..(s zm ) C ( s) bm S m bm1S m1 ... b1S b0 n n 1 R( s) an S an 1S ... a1S a0 ( s p1 )(s p2 )...(s pn )

G( s)

where n m
Or graphically R(s) G(s) C(s)

Transfer Function
The application of the concept of transfer function is limited to Linear Time-Invariant systems The transfer function is the prosperity of the system independent of the input or driving function. The transfer function includes the units necessary to relate the input to the output The transfer function can be used to study the output of a component, subsystem or a system under various types of input. The physical limitation of the system is not described in the transfer function.

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Transfer Function
System Order: is the highest power of S in the denominator (n) System Zeros: The roots of the nominator polynomial or the values of s at the nominator that will give G(s)=0. System Poles: The roots of the denominator polynomial or the values of S at the denominator that will give G(s)= System Type : is the highest order of s in the denominator with zero root, or the number of zero poles. Characteristic Equation of the system: is the denominator polynomial when set to zero, because it determines the time domain response .

Transfer Function
Example: System order=4th Zeros: -5,-1 Poles: 0,0,-2,-3 Type=2

s 2 6s 5 ( s 5)( s 1) G ( s) 4 2 3 2 s 5s 6 s s ( s 2)( s 3)

Characteristic equation:
S-plane O
|

s 4 5s 3 6s 2 0
Im X 0 Re

X -2

O -1

-5 -4 -3

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Block Diagram Reduction


Block diagram is the graphical representation of dynamic systems and consists of unidirectional, operational blocks that represent the transfer function of the variable of interest. There are three main components in block diagrams - Gain Block R(s) C(s) G(s) - Summing Point - Pickoff point
G(s) X(s) X2(s) + + X1(s) X1(s)+X2(s)

X(s)

Block Diagram Reduction


Reduction Rules
1-Combining block in cascade
x1(s)

G1

X(s)

G2

X2(s)

X1(s)

X2(s)

G1G2

2-Moving summing point behind block


X2(s) + + X1(s) G
X3(s)

X2(s)

+ + G

X3(s)

X1(s)

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Block Diagram Reduction


3-Moving a pickoff point ahead of a block
X1(s)

G X2(s)

X2(s)

=
X2(s)

X1(s)

X2(s)

4-Moving a pickoff point behind a block


X1(s) X1(s) G X2(s)

X1(s) X1(s) 1/G

X2(s)

Block Diagram Reduction


5-Moving summing point behind block
X1(s) G + + X2(s)
X3(s)

X1(s) + +

X3(s)

6-Eliminating the feedback loop


R(s) + G C(s)
R(s)

1/G

X2(s)

G 1 GH

C(s)

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Block Diagram Reduction


Example: Obtain the overall transfer function of the following systems using block diagram reduction.
R(s) +

+ G1

G2

H2 + + H1 H3 G3 G4

C(s)

Block Diagram Reduction


Solution

R(s)

G1G2G3G4 1 G3G4 H1 G2G3 H 2 G1G2G3G4 H 3

C(s)

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