Sunteți pe pagina 1din 7

Cherrilyn P.

Ducay BSECE-4 Special Types of Diodes:


1. Schottky diodes

6\PERO

&RQVWUXFWLRQ
A metal-semiconductor junction is formed between a metal and a semiconductor, creating a Schottky barrier (instead of a semiconductorsemiconductor junction as in conventional diodes). Typical metals used are molybdenum, platinum, chromium or tungsten; and the semiconductor would typically be N-type silicon.[2] The metal sides acts as the anode and N-type semiconductor acts as the cathode of the diode. This Schottky barrier results in both very fast switching and low forward voltage drop.

3ULQFLSOHVRI2SHUDWLRQ
The operation corresponds to an ordinary semiconductor pn-diode (silicon germanium). The peculiarity of the Schottky diode is under construction. The p-layer consists of metal and the n-layer of a semiconductor material (SiC, GaAs, SiGe). This results in certain properties for the electro-technical application. On the basis of the metal, the narrow-pn transition and the low river voltage (0.3 V) turns the Schottky diode much faster than conventional diodes. It comes with switching times of 1-3ns the ideal diode very close and is thus especially good for high-frequency applications. Deleted continue the forward or Rckwrtserholverhalten due to the limited capacity of the metal electrode. A serious drawback is that the narrow barrier leakage is higher than in semiconductor diodes.

$SSOLFDWLRQV Voltage clamping While standard silicon diodes have a forward voltage drop of about 0.6 volts and germanium diodes 0.3 volts, Schottky diodes' voltage drop at forward biases of around 1 mA is in the range 0.15 V to 0.46 V (see the 1N5817[3] and 1N5711 datasheets found online at manufacturer's websites), which makes them useful in voltage clamping applications and prevention of transistor saturation. This is due to the higher current density in the Schottky diode. Reverse current / discharge protection Schottky diodes are used in photovoltaic (PV) systems to prevent a reverse current flowing through the PV modules. For instance, they are used in stand-alone ("off-grid") systems to prevent batteries from discharging through the solar cells at night, and in gridconnected systems with multiple strings connected in parallel, in order to prevent reverse current flowing from adjacent strings through shaded strings if the bypass diodes have failed. Power supply They are also used as rectifiers in switched-mode power supplies; the low forward voltage and fast recovery time leads to increased efficiency. Schottky diodes can be used in power supply "OR"ing circuits in products that have both an internal battery and a mains adapter input, or similar. However, the high reverse leakage current presents a problem in this case, as any high-impedance voltage sensing circuit (e.g. monitoring the battery voltage or detecting whether a mains adaptor is present) will see the voltage from the other power source through the diode leakage.
2. Tunnel Diodes: 6\PERO

&RQVWUXFWLRQ
The TUNNEL DIODE is a pn junction with a very high concentration of impurities in both the p and n regions. The high concentration of impurities causes it to exhibit the properties of a negative-resistance element over part of its range of operation, as shown in the characteristic curve in figure 2-39. In other words, the resistance to current flow through the tunnel diode increases as the applied voltage increases over a portion of its region of operation. Outside the negative-resistance region, the tunnel diode functions essentially the same as a normal diode. However, the very high impurity density causes a junction depletion region so narrow that both holes and electrons can transfer across the pn junction by a quantum mechanical action called TUNNELING. Tunneling causes the negative-resistance action and is so fast that no transit-time effects occur even at microwave frequencies. The lack of a transit-time effect permits the use of tunnel diodes in a wide variety of microwave circuits, such as amplifiers, oscillators, and switching devices.

 3ULQFLSOHVRI2SHUDWLRQ
It is a p-n semiconductor with very high doping levels. The depletion region is also very small. When the device is forward biased, because of the narrow depletion region, when the forward current is increased, the forward current is decreased. The tunnel diode uses majority carriers, which have electrons in p-type and holes in p-type material.

This device had great promise in the earlier days but today it finds application in a few niche areas. The disadvantages are that because of the low current, it can be used only in low power applications. The reproducibility is quite low and this leads to high production costs and low yields.

$SSOLFDWLRQ TUNNEL DIODE OSCILLATOR A tunnel diode, biased at the center point of the negative-resistance range and coupled to a tuned circuit or cavity, produces a very stable oscillator. The oscillation frequency is the same as the tuned circuit or cavity frequency. Microwave tunnel-diode oscillators are useful in applications that require microwatts or a few mill watts of power, such as local oscillators for microwave TUNNEL DIODE AS AMPLIFIER The low-noisegeneration, gain ratios of up to 30 dB, highreliability, and lightweight make theseamplifiers ideal for use asthe first stage of amplification incommunications andradar receivers. The tunnel diode isbiased to the center pointof its negative-resistanceregion, but aCIRCULATOR replacesthe tuned cavity *OTHER APPLICATIONS** Used in high speed switching circuit. Used as pulse generator. Used for storage of binary information. Used for the construction of shiftregister. Sensor modulator for telemetry of temperature in human beings andanimals. Used in electron tunneling microscope.
3. Light Emitting Diodes: 6\PERO

&RQVWUXFWLRQ
It is a semiconductor diode that produces visible or infrared light when subjected to an electric current, as a result of electroluminescence. Visible-light LEDs are used in many electronic devices as indicator lamps (e.g., an on/off indicator) and, when arranged in a matrix, to spell out letters or numbers on alphanumeric displays. Infrared LEDs are used in optoelectronics (e.g., in auto-focus cameras and television remote controls) and as light sources in some long-range fiber-optic communications systems. LEDs are formed by the so-called III-V compound semiconductors related to gallium arsenide. They consume little power and are long-lasting and inexpensive.

 3ULQFLSOHVRI2SHUDWLRQ
An LED is a special semiconductor which emits light when current is passed through it. There are many different physical styles. The emitted color spectrum is usually very narrow. It can generally be specified as a specific wavelength in the electromagnetic spectrum. The emitted color selection is somewhat limited. The most commonly available colors are red, green, amber, yellow, blue and white. The red, green, yellow and amber have a working voltage of approximately 1.8 volts. You can refer to the data sheet for each LED to find the exact value. The actual working voltage is determined by the breakdown voltage of the particular semiconductor material. LEDs have the ability to last years and years. The reason LEDs have this characteristic is because they have no filament like an ordinary light bulb. Having no filament means that LEDs do not produce large amounts of heat and are not subject to vibration. LEDs work by passing an electrical current over a semiconductor chip. The chip has two side--a P-type and N-type. The P-type is the positive side and the N-Type is the negative. The electron flow from P-Type to N-Type is what creates light. This causes the chip to emit a photon or beam of light. The chip is often made out of arsenic, phosphorous or gallium.

$SSOLFDWLRQ Indicators and signs The low energy consumption, low maintenance and small size of modern LEDs has led to uses as status indicators and displays on a variety of equipment and installations. Large-area LED displays are used as stadium displays and as dynamic decorative displays. Thin, lightweight message displays are used at airports and railway stations, and as destination displays for trains, buses, trams, and ferries. Lighting With the development of high efficiency and high power LEDs it has become possible to use LEDs in lighting and illumination. Replacement light bulbs have been made, as well as dedicated fixtures and LED lamps. LEDs are used as street lights and in other architectural lighting where color changing is used. The mechanical robustness and long lifetime is used in automotive lighting on cars, motorcycles and onbicycle lights. LED street lights are employed on poles and in parking garages. In 2007, the Italian village Torraca was the first place to convert its entire illumination system to LEDs.[103]

Smart lighting Light can be used to transmit broadband data, which is already implemented in IrDA standards using infrared LEDs. Because LEDs can cycle on and off millions of times per second, they can be wirelesstransmitters and access points for data transport.[106] Lasers can also be modulated in this manner.

4. Laser Diodes: 6\PERO

&RQVWUXFWLRQ
A laser diode is formed by doping a very thin layer on the surface of a crystal wafer. The crystal is doped to produce an ntype region and a type region, one above the other, resulting in a p-n junction, or diode. Laser diodes form a subset of the larger classification of semiconductor p-n junction diodes. Forward electrical bias across the laser diode causes the two species of charge carrier holes and electrons to be "injected" from opposite sides of the p-n junction into the depletion region. Holes are injected from the p-doped, and electrons from the n-doped, semiconductor. (A depletion region, devoid of any charge carriers, forms as a result of the difference in electrical potential between n- and p-type semiconductors wherever they are in physical contact.) Due to the use of charge injection in powering most diode lasers, this class of lasers is sometimes termed "injection lasers or injection laser diode" (ILD). As diode lasers are semiconductor devices, they may also be classified as semiconductor lasers. Either designation distinguishes diode lasers from solid-state lasers.

3ULQFLSOHVRI2SHUDWLRQ
The laser diode is a further development upon the regular light-emitting diode, or LED. The term laser itself is actually an acronym, despite the fact its often written in lower-case letters. Laser stands for Light Amplification by StimulatedEmission of Radiation, and refers to another strange quantum process whereby characteristic light emitted by electrons falling from high-level to low-level energy states in a material stimulate other electrons in a substance to make similar jumps, the result being a synchronized output of light from the material. This synchronization extends to the actualphase of the emitted light, so that all light waves emitted from a lasing material are not just the same frequency (color), but also the same phase as each other, so that they reinforce one another and are able to travel in a very tightly-confined, nondispersing beam. This is why laser light stays so remarkably focused over long distances: each and every light wave coming from the laser is in step with each other.

$SSOLFDWLRQ
Laser diodes find wide use in telecommunication as easily modulated and easily coupled light sources for fiber optics communication. They are used in various measuring instruments, such as rangefinders. Another common use is in barcode readers. Visible lasers, typically red but later also green, are common as laser pointers. Both low and high-power diodes are used extensively in the printing industry both as light sources for scanning (input) of images and for very high-speed and high-resolution printing plate (output) manufacturing. Infrared and red laser diodes are common in CD players, CDROMs and DVD technology. Violet lasers are used in HD DVD and Blu-ray technology. Diode lasers have also found many applications in laser absorption spectrometry (LAS) for high-speed, low-cost assessment or monitoring of the concentration of various species in gas phase. High-power laser diodes are used in industrial applications such as heat treating, cladding, seam welding and for pumping other lasers, such as diode pumped solid state lasers. Many applications of diode lasers primarily make use of the "directed energy" property of an optical beam. In this category one might include the laser printers, bar-code readers, image scanning, illuminators, designators, optical data recording, combustion ignition, laser surgery, industrial sorting, industrial machining, and directed energy weaponry. Some of these applications are emerging while others are well-established. Laser medicine: medicine and especially dentistry have found many new applications for diode lasers. The shrinking size of the units and their increasing user friendliness makes them very attractive to clinicians for minor soft tissue procedures.

5. Photodiodes: 6\PERO

&RQVWUXFWLRQ
A photodiode is a type of photodetector capable of converting light into either current or voltage, depending upon the mode of operation.[1] The common, traditional solar cell used to generate electric solar power is a large area photodiode. Photodiodes are similar to regular semiconductor diodes except that they may be either exposed (to detect vacuum UV or X-rays) or packaged with a window or optical fiber connection to allow light to reach the sensitive part of the device. Many diodes designed for use specifically as a photodiode will also use a PIN junction rather than the typical p-n junction to increase the speed of response. A photodiode is designed to operate in reverse bias. Silicon is most often used to fabricate photodiodes; though,

germanium and gallium arsenide can be used. The junction through which light enters the semiconductor must be thin enough to pass most of the light on to the active region (depletion region) where light is converted to electron hole pairs.

3ULQFLSOHVRI2SHUDWLRQ
A photodiode is a p-n junction or PIN structure. When a photon of sufficient energy strikes the diode, it excites an electron, thereby creating a free electron (and a positively charged electron hole). This mechanism is also known as the photoelectric effect. If the absorption occurs in the junction's depletion region, or one diffusion length away from it, these carriers are swept from the junction by the built-in field of the depletion region. Thus holes move toward the anode, and electrons toward the cathode, and a photocurrent is produced. This photocurrent is the sum of both the dark current (without light) and the light current, so the dark current must be minimised to enhance the sensitivity of the device.[3] Photovoltaic mode When used in zero bias (with the cathode positive) or photovoltaic mode, the flow of photocurrent out of the device is restricted and a voltage builds up. This mode exploits the photovoltaic effect, which is the basis for solar cells a traditional solar cell is just a large area photodiode. Photoconductive mode In this mode the diode is often reverse biased (with the cathode positive), dramatically reducing the response time at the expense of increased noise. This increases the width of the depletion layer, which decreases the junction's capacitance resulting in faster response times. The reverse bias induces only a small amount of current (known as saturation or back current) along its direction while the photocurrent remains virtually the same. For a given spectral distribution, the photocurrent is linearly proportional to the illuminance (and to the irradiance).[4] Although this mode is faster, the photoconductive mode tends to exhibit more electronic noise.[citation needed] The leakage current of a good PIN diode is so low (<1 nA) that the JohnsonNyquist noiseof the load resistance in a typical circuit often dominates. Other modes of operation Avalanche photodiodes have a similar structure to regular photodiodes, but they are operated with much higher reverse bias. This allows each photo-generated carrier to be multiplied by avalanche breakdown, resulting in internal gain within the photodiode, which increases the effective responsively of the device. Phototransistors also consist of a photodiode with internal gain. A phototransistor is in essence nothing more than a bipolar transistor that is encased in a transparent case so that light can reach the base-collector junction. The electrons that are generated by photons in the base-collector junction are injected into the base, and this photodiode current is amplified by the transistor's current gain (or hfe). Note that while phototransistors have a higher responsively for light they are not able to detect low levels of light any better than photodiodes. Phototransistors also have significantly longer response times.

$SSOLFDWLRQV
P-N photodiodes are used in similar applications to other photodetectors, such as photoconductors, charge-coupled devices, and photomultiplier tubes. Photodiodes are used in consumer electronics devices such as compact disc players, smoke detectors, and the receivers for remote controls in VCRs and televisions. In other consumer items such as camera light meters, clock radios (the ones that dim the display when it's dark) and street lights, photoconductors are often used rather than photodiodes, although in principle either could be used. Photodiodes are often used for accurate measurement of light intensity in science and industry. They generally have a better, more linear response than photoconductors. They are also widely used in various medical applications, such as detectors for computed tomography (coupled with scintillators) or instruments to analyze samples (immunoassay). They are also used in pulse oximeters. PIN diodes are much faster and more sensitive than ordinary p-n junction diodes, and hence are often used for optical communications and in lighting regulation. P-N photodiodes are not used to measure extremely low light intensities. Instead, if high sensitivity is needed, avalanche photodiodes, intensified charge-coupled devices or photomultiplier tubes are used for applications such as astronomy, spectroscopy, night vision equipment and laser rangefinding.

6. Varactor Diode: 6\PERO

&RQVWUXFWLRQ A solid-state device which has a capacitance that varies with the voltage applied across it. The name varactor is a contraction of the words variable and reactor. Typically the device consists of a reverse-biased pn junction that has been doped to maximize the change in capacitive reactance for a given change in the applied bias voltage. The device has two primary applications: frequency-tuning of radio-frequency circuits including frequency-modulation (FM) transmitters and solid-state receivers, and nonlinear frequency conversion in parametric oscillators and amplifiers. 3ULQFLSOHVRI2SHUDWLRQ Varactors are operated reverse-biased so no current flows, but since the thickness of the depletion zone varies with the applied bias voltage, the capacitance of the diode can be made to vary. Generally, the depletion region thickness is proportional to the square

root of the applied voltage; andcapacitance is inversely proportional to the depletion region thickness. Thus, the capacitance is inversely proportional to the square root of applied voltage. All diodes exhibit this phenomenon to some degree, but specially made varactor diodes exploit the effect to boost the capacitance and variability range achieved - most diode fabrication attempts to achieve the opposite. In the figure we can see an example of a crossection of a varactor with the depletion layer formed of a p-n-junction. But the depletion layer can also be made of a MOS-diode or a Schottky diode. This is very important in CMOS and MMIC technology.

$SSOLFDWLRQ
Varactors are used as voltage-controlled capacitors, rather than as rectifiers. They are commonly used in parametric amplifiers, parametric oscillators and voltage-controlled oscillators as part of phase-locked loops and frequency synthesizers. For example, varactors are used in the tuners of television sets to electronically tune the receiver to different stations. A popular application of the varactor is in electronic tuning circuits, as in television tuners. The DC control voltage varies the capacitance of the varactor, retuning theresonant circuit.

7. Snap Diode: 6\PERO

&RQVWUXFWLRQ
The step recovery diode is fabricated with the doping level gradually decreasing as the junction is approached or as a direct PIN structure. This reduces the switching time because there are fewer charge carriers in the region of the junction and hence less charge is stored in this region. This allows the charge stored in this region of the step recovery diode to be released more rapidly when changing from forward to reverse bias. A further advantage is that the forward current can also be established more rapidly than in the ordinary junction diode.

3ULQFLSOHVRI2SHUDWLRQ
The step recovery diode is used as what is termed a charge controlled switch. When the step recovery diode is forward biased and charge enters it, the diode appears as a normal diode and it behaves in much the same way. When diodes switch from forward conduction to reverse cut-off, a reverse current flow briefly as stored charge is removed. When all the charge is removed it suddenly turns off or snaps off. It is the abruptness with which the reverse current ceases that enables the step recovery diode to be used for the generation of microwave pulses and also for waveform shaping. To explain this in more detail, under normal forward bias conditions the diode will conduct normally. Then if it is quickly reverse biased it will initially appear as low impedance, typically less than an ohm. Once the charge that is stored in the device is depleted, the impedance will very abruptly increase to its normal reverse impedance which will be very high. This transition occurs very quickly, typically well under a nanosecond. This property allows the step recovery diode to be used in pulse shaping (sharpening) and in pulse generator circuits. The high harmonic content of the signal produced by any repetitive waveforms from step recovery diode circuits enables them to be used as comb generators where a comb of harmonically related frequencies are generated.

$SSOLFDWLRQ
The step recovery diode finds a number of applications in microwave radio frequency electronics as pulse generator or parametric amplifier. It finds uses in a number of different roles including very short pulse generation, ultra fast waveform generation, comb generation, and high order frequency multiplication. The step recovery diode is also capable of working at moderate power levels, and this gives it a distinct advantage over some other radio frequency technologies that are available. The step recovery diode, SRD is not as common as many other forms of semiconductor diode, but it can be very useful in many microwave radio frequency applications.

8. PIN Diode: 6\PERO

&RQVWUXFWLRQ
The PIN diode receives its name from the fact that is has three main layers. Rather than just having a P type and an N type layer, the PIN diode has three layers: 1. P-type layer 2. ntrinsic layer 3. N-type layer The intrinsic layer of the PIN diode is the one that provides the change in properties when compared to a normal PN junction diode. The intrinsic region comprises of the undoped, or virtually undoped semiconductor, and in most PIN diodes it is very thin - of the order of between 10 and 200 microns. There are two main structures that can be used, but the one which is referred to as a planar structure is shown in the diagram. In the diagram, the intrinsic layer is shown much larger than if it were drawn to scale. This has been done to better show the overall structure of the PIN diode. PIN diodes are widely made of silicon, and this was the semiconductor material that was used exclusively until the 1980s when gallium arsenide started to be used.

3ULQFLSOHVRI2SHUDWLRQ
A PIN diode operates under what is known as high-level injection. In other words, the intrinsic "i" region is flooded with charge carriers from the "p" and "n" regions. Its function can be likened to filling up a water bucket with a hole on the side. Once the water reaches the hole's level it will begin to pour out. Similarly, the diode will conduct current once the flooded electrons and holes reach an equilibrium point, where the number of electrons is equal to the number of holes in the intrinsic region. When the diode is forward biased, the injected carrier concentration is typically several orders of magnitude higher than the intrinsic level carrier concentration. Due to this high level injection, which in turn is due to the depletion process, the electric field extends deeply (almost the entire length) into the region. This electric field helps in speeding up of the transport of charge carriers from P to N region, which results in faster operation of the diode, making it a suitable device for high frequency operations.

$SSOLFDWLRQ RF and Microwave Switches Under zero or reverse bias, a PIN diode has a low capacitance. The low capacitance will not pass much of an RF signal. Under a forward bias of 1 mA, a typical PIN diode will have an RF resistance of about 1 ohm, making it a good RF conductor. Consequently, the PIN diode makes a good RF switch. Although RF relays can be used as switches, they switch very slowly (on the order of 10 milliseconds). A PIN diode switch can switch much more quickly (e.g., 1 microsecond). PIN diode switches are used not only for signal selection, but they are also used for component selection. For example, some low phase noise oscillators use PIN diodes to range switch inductors.[2] RF and Microwave Variable Attenuators By changing the bias current through a PIN diode, it's possible to quickly change the RF resistance. At high frequencies, the PIN diode appears as a resistor whose resistance is an inverse function of its forward current. Consequently, PIN diode can be used in some variable attenuator designs as amplitude modulators or output leveling circuits. PIN diodes might be used, for example, as the bridge and shunt resistors in a bridged-T attenuator. Limiters PIN diodes are sometimes used as input protection devices for high frequency test probes. If the input signal is within range, the PIN diode has little impact as a small capacitance. If the signal is large, then the PIN diode starts to conduct and becomes a resistor that shunts most of the signal to ground. Photodetector and photovoltaic cell The PIN photodiode was invented by Jun-ichi Nishizawa and his colleagues in 1950. PIN photodiodes are used in fibre optic network cards and switches. As a photodetector, the PIN diode is reverse biased. Under reverse bias, the diode ordinarily does not conduct (save a small dark current or Is leakage). A photon entering the intrinsic region frees a carrier. The reverse bias field sweeps the carrier out of the region and creates a current. Some detectors can use avalanche multiplication. A PIN photodiode can also detect X-ray and gamma ray photons.
9. IMPATT Diode: &RQVWUXFWLRQ There is a variety of structures that are used for the IMPATT diode. All are variations of a basic PN junction and usually there is an instrinsic layer, i.e. a layer without any doping that is placed between the P type and N type regions. Typically the N type layer is around one or two microns thick and the intrinsic layer between 3 and 20 microns. In the very high frequency versions of the diodes the instrinsic layer will be very much thinner and dimensions of only 0.5 microns are not unknown. A variety of semiconductor materials are used for the fabrication of IMPATT diodes. Silicon and gallium arsenide are the most commonly used semiconductors, although germanium, indium phosphide and other mixed group semiconductors can be employed. The fabricated IMPATT diodes are generally mounted in microwave packages to ensure that their performance is not impaired by an inferior package. The package itself is key to the performance of the IMPATT, especially as these devices may operate at frequencies of many tens of GHz. For thermal reasons, the diode is mounted so that its high field region around the junction is close to a copper heat sink area in the package. This enables the heat generated within the device to be removed effectively so that it can run at its rated power without the junction temperature rising too high. Often the package is coaxial in format so that the correct transmission line properties are presented to the RF signal which may be at many tens of GHz. As a result the package is often quite intricate and accordingly very expensive, especially when very high frequencies are used. 3ULQFLSOHVRI2SHUDWLRQ In terms of its operation the IMPATT diode can be considered to consist of two areas, namely the avalanche region or injection region, and secondly the drift region. These two areas provide different functions. The avalanche or injection region creates the carriers which may be either holes of electrons, and the drift region is where the carriers move across the diode taking a certain amount of time dependent upon its thickness. The IMPATT diode is operated under reverse bias conditions. These are set so that avalanche breakdown occurs. This occurs in the region very close to the P+ (i.e. heavily doped P region). The electric field at the p-n junction is very high because the voltage appears across a very narrow gap creating a high potential gradient. Under these circumstances any carriers are accelerated very quickly. As a result they collide with the crystal lattice and free other carriers. These newly freed carriers are similarly accelerated and collide with the crystal lattice freeing more carriers. This process gives rise to what is termed avalanche breakdown as the number

of carriers multiplies very quickly. For this type of breakdown only occurs when a certain voltage is applied to the junction. Below this the potential does not accelerate the carriers sufficiently.

$SSOLFDWLRQ
These diodes are used in a variety of applications from low power radar systems to alarms. A major drawback of using IMPATT diodes is the high level of phase noise they generate. This results from the statistical nature of the avalanche process. Nevertheless these diodes make excellent microwave generators for many applications. The main application for IMPATT diodes is in microwave generators. An alternating signal is generated simply by applying a DC supply when a suitable tuned circuit is applied. The output is reliable and relatively high when compared to other forms of microwave diode. In view of its high levels of phase noise it is used in transmitters more frequently than as a local oscillator in receivers where the phase noise performance is generally more important. It is also used in applications where phase noise performance is unlikely to be of importance.

10. GUNN Diode: 6\PERO

&RQVWUXFWLRQ
Gunn diodes are fabricated from a single piece of n-type semiconductor. The most common materials are gallium Arsenide, GaAs and Indium Phosphide, InP. However other materials including Ge, CdTe, InAs, InSb, ZnSe and others have been used. The device is simply an n-type bar with n+ contacts. It is necessary to use n-type material because the transferred electron effect is only applicable to electrons and not holes found in a p-type material. Within the device there are three main areas, which can be roughly termed the top, middle and bottom areas.

3ULQFLSOHVRI2SHUDWLRQ
The operation of the Gunn diode can be explained in basic terms. When a voltage is placed across the device, most of the voltage appears across the inner active region. As this is particularly thin this means that the voltage gradient that exists in this region is exceedingly high. The device exhibits a negative resistance region on its V/I curve as seen below. This negative resistance area enables the Gunn diode to amplify signals. This can be used both in amplifiers and oscillators. However Gunn diode oscillators are the most commonly found. This negative resistance region means that the current flow in diode increases in the negative resistance region when the voltage falls - the inverse of the normal effect in any other positive resistance element. This phase reversal enables the Gunn diode to act as an amplifier and oscillator.

$SSOLFDWLRQ
A Gunn diode can be used to amplify signals because of the apparent "negative resistance". Gunn diodes are commonly used as a source of high frequency and high power signals. A bias tee is needed to isolate the bias current from the high frequency oscillations. Since this is a single-port device, there is no isolation between input and output. Sensors and measuring instruments These include[6]: airborne collision avoidance radar, anti-lock brakes, sensors for monitoring the flow of traffic, car radar detectors, pedestrian safety systems, "distance traveled" recorders, motion detectors, "slow-speed" sensors (to detect pedestrian and traffic movement up to 50 m.p.h), traffic signal controllers, automatic door openers, automatic traffic gates, process control equipment to monitor throughput, burglar alarms and equipment to detect trespassers, sensors to avoid derailment of trains, remote vibration detectors, rotational speed tachometers, moisture content monitors. Radio amateur use By virtue of their low voltage operation, Gunn diodes can serve as microwave frequency generators for very low powered (few-mill watt) microwave transmitters. In the late 1970s they were being used by some radio amateurs in Britain. Designs for transmitters were published in journals. They typically consisted simply of an approximately 3 inch waveguide into which the diode was mounted. A low voltage (less than 12 volt) direct current power supply that could be modulated appropriately was used to drive the diode. The waveguide was blocked at one end to form a resonant cavity and the other end ideally fed a parabolic dish. Oscillators and injectors Web material includes accounts of a relaxation oscillator, some negative resistance oscillators, and some injectors.