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Multi-Axis Techniques

Student Guide February 2006 MT11050 NX 4

Publication Number mt11050_g NX 4

Manual History

Manual Revision

Unigraphics Version Version 16 Version 17.1.1 Version 18.0 Unigraphics NX Unigraphics NX 2 NX 3 NX 4

Publication Date August 2000 February 2001 November 2001 November 2002 January 2004 May 2005 February 2006

This edition obsoletes all previous editions. Proprietary & Restricted Rights Notice This software and related documentation are proprietary to UGS Corp. 2006 UGS Corp. All Rights Reserved. All trademarks belong to their respective holders.

2006 UGS Corporation All Rights Reserved. Produced in the United States of America. 2 Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide mt11050_g NX 4

Contents

Course Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Course Description . . . . . . . . . . Intended Audience . . . . . . . . . . Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Student Responsibilities . . . . . . Class Standard for NX Parts . . . Class Part Naming . . . . . . . Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seed Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How to Use This Manual . . . . . . Workbook Overview . . . . . . . . . Classroom System Information . Student and Workbook Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 11 12 13 13

WAVE Geometry Linker in Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 The WAVE Geometry Linker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geometry Types Used by the Geometry Linker Editing Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Broken Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Newly Broken Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deleting Parent Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deleting Linked Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Creating an Assembly for WAVE . . . . Linking Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Creating WAVE Geometry . . . . . . . . . Simplify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simplify Body Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Using Simplify Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Other Modeling Techniques . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 . 1-4 . 1-5 . 1-7 . 1-8 . 1-9 1-10 1-11 1-16 1-17 1-19 1-20 1-21 1-23 1-29

Advanced Cavity Milling Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Cut Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Using Cut Levels Parameters Cut Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Zig-Zag Cut Pattern . . . . . . . In-Process work piece for Cavity Milling . .
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Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

Contents

Level Based IPW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Using the Level Based In-process Workpiece (IPW) Activity: Using the 3D In-Process Work Piece (IPW) . . . . . . Pre-Drill Engage and Cut Region Start Points . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Using a Pre-Drill Engage Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cavity Milling Stock Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Using the Blank Distance Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2-17 2-18 2-19 2-25 2-32 2-35 2-39 2-40 2-50

Z-Level Milling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 Z-Level Milling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Z-Level Milling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steep Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: ZLEVEL_PROFILE_STEEP Operations . . . Activity: Z-Level Prole Milling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z-Level Cutting Between Levels (aka Gap Machining) Activity: Z-Level Gap Machining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 . 3-4 . 3-8 . 3-9 3-16 3-21 3-24 3-30

MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 MILL_AREA Geometry Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cut Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups Trim Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Using Trim Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 . 4-3 . 4-4 4-12 4-13 4-17

Fixed Contour Operation Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 Fixed Contour Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . More on Flow Cut Drive Methods . . . . . . . . Activity: Creating Fixed Contour Operations Non-Cutting Moves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Using Non-Cutting Moves . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 5-12 5-17 5-32 5-35 5-41

Introduction to Four and Five Axis Machining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 Multi-Axis Machining Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Operations at Other Than 0,0,1 Tool Axis . . . . . Dening the Center of Rotation for a Rotary Axis . . . . . . . . . Activity: Main and Local MCS in Multi-Axis Applications Activity: Main and Local MCS in Multi-Axis Applications Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved

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. 6-2 . 6-3 6-16 6-18 6-27 6-37

mt11050_g NX 4

Contents

Sequential Mill Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 Sequential Milling Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sequential Milling Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dening the Check Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiple Check Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Basic Sequential Milling Techniques . . . . . . More on Check Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Sequential Milling of a Multi-Surfaced Floor Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2 . 7-3 7-11 7-12 7-13 7-37 7-38 7-52

Sequential Mill Advanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 Tool Axis Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Sequential Mill Five-Axis Fan Motion . . . . Standard and Nested Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Sequential Mill Using Loops . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Removing Excess Stock from a Closed Wall Activity: Using Looping to Remove Excess Stock . . . Additional Sequential Mill Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2 . 8-7 8-19 8-23 8-27 8-34 8-36 8-42

Variable Contour Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 Variable Contour Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terminology used in Variable Contour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variable Contour vs Fixed Contour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drive Methods for Variable Contouring . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Overview of Variable Contour Options . . . . . . . Tool Axis Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Point and Line Tool Axis Types . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Normal to Part and Relative to Part . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Using Special Tool Axis and non Part Geometry Activity: Swarf Drive Tool Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Using the Interpolated Tool Axis . . . . . . . . . . . A Comparison of Variable Contour vs. Sequential Milling . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2 . 9-4 . 9-5 . 9-6 9-18 9-21 9-25 9-32 9-37 9-45 9-61 9-68 9-71

Variable Contour Advanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 Advanced Variable Contour Machining . . . . . . . . Activity: Examining the Part and Part Objects Contour Prole Drive Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Contour Prole Drive Method . . . . . . . . Geometry Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Automatic Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Floor selection and Automatic Wall . . . . Follow Bottom Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Follow Bottom Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

Contents

Automatic Auxiliary Floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Automatic Auxiliary Floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Auxiliary Floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity: Auxiliary Floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Auxiliary Floor and Automatic Auxiliary Floor . . . . . . . Activity: Auxiliary Floor and Automatic Auxiliary Floor Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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10-32 10-33 10-41 10-42 10-48 10-49 10-55

Projection Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1 Zig-Zag Surface Machining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1 Advanced Surface Contouring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index-1

Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

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mt11050_g NX 4

Course Overview
Course Description
The Multi-Axis Machining course teaches the use of the Manufacturing application for creating 4 and 5-axis milling tool paths. You will learn about the Variable Contour and Sequential Mill operation types that are designed for multi-axis machining. You will also learn about the tool axes that are available within Variable Contour and Sequential Mill operations.

Intended Audience
This course is intended for Manufacturing Engineers, NC/CNC programmers and anyone with the desire to learn how to create four and ve axis tool paths.

Prerequisites
The required prerequisites for the course are NX Manufacturing Fundamentals with Basic Design or the CAST equivalent. Any additional experience in creating multi-axis tool paths is an asset in taking this course.

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Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

Objectives

Objectives
After successfully completing this course, you will be able to perform the following activities in NX: choose between Variable Contour and Sequential Mill operation types choose the best type of tool axis for creating various multi-axis tool paths develop multi-axis machining practices develop NX multi-axis programming practices

Student Responsibilities
Be on time. Participate in class. Focus on the subject matter. Listen attentively and take notes. Enjoy the class.

Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

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mt11050_g NX 4

Course Overview

Class Standard for NX Parts


The following standards are used in this class. Standardization allows users to work with others parts while being able to predict the organization of the part le. All work should be performed in accordance with these standards.

Class Part Naming


This class uses the following le naming standard:

Where the student is requested to save a part le for later use, the initials of the students given name, middle name, and surname replace the course identier "***" in the new le name with the remainder of the le name matching the original. These les should reside in the students personal directory. The Arrow Symbol The arrow symbol ( ), represents that you choose an option, then immediately choose another option. For example, ToolsOperation NavigatorTool pathReplay means: put the cursor on Tools on the main menu bar press mouse button #1 to display the pull-down menu. slide the cursor down to Operation Navigator (continuing to press mouse button # 1) slide the cursor down to Tool path slide the cursor down to Replay release mouse button #1

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Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

Class Standard for NX Parts

Layers and Categories There are standard layer assignments and category names in each of the part les. They are as follows: Layers 1-100, Model Geometry (Category: MODEL) Layers 1-14, Solid Geometry (Category: SOLIDS) Layers 15-20, Linked Objects (Category: LINKED OBJECTS) Layers 21-40, Sketch Geometry (Category: SKETCHES) Layers 41-60, Curve Geometry (Category: CURVES) Layers 61-80, Reference Geometry (Category: DATUMS) Layers 81-100, Sheet Bodies (Category: SHEETS) Layers 101 - 120, Drafting Objects (Category: DRAFT) Layers 101 - 110, Drawing Borders (Category: FORMATS) Layers 121 - 130, Mechanism Tools (Category: MECH) Layers 131 - 150, Finite Element Meshes and Engr. Tools (Category: CAE) Layers 151 - 180, Manufacturing (Category: MFG) Layers 181 - 190, Quality Tools (Category: QA)

Colors
The following colors are preset to indicate different object types. Object Solid Bodies Sheet Bodies Lines and Arc (non-sketch curves) Conics and Splines (non-sketch curves) Sketch Curves Reference Curves (in sketches) Datum Features Points and Coordinate Systems System Display Color Color Used Green Yellow Green Blue Cyan Gray Aquamarine White Red

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Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

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mt11050_g NX 4

Course Overview

Seed Part
Seed parts are an effective tool for establishing customer defaults or any settings that are part dependent (saved with the part le). This may include non-geometric data such as: sketch preferences commonly used expressions layer categories user-dened views and layouts part attributes

How to Use This Manual


It is important that you use the Student Guide in the sequence presented since later lessons assume you have learned concepts and techniques taught in an earlier lesson. If necessary, you can always refer to any previous activity where a method or technique was originally taught. The format of the activities is consistent throughout this manual. Steps are labeled and specify what will be accomplished at any given point in the activity. Below each step are action boxes which emphasize the individual actions that must be taken to accomplish the step. As your knowledge of NX increases, the action boxes may seem redundant as the step text becomes all that is needed to accomplish a given task. Step 1: This is an example of a step. This is an example of an action box. Choose Edge Lengths, Corner for the creation method. The general format for lesson content is: Presentation Activity Summary

While working through lesson activities, you will experience a higher degree of comprehension if you read the Cue and Status lines. At the start of each class day you will be expected to log onto your terminal and start NX, being ready to follow the instructors curriculum. At the end of the days class you should always exit NX and log off the terminal.
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Workbook Overview

Workbook Overview
The workbook contains a project that requires you to apply the knowledge that you learned in the class and in the Student Activities. The projects do not contain detailed instructions as do the Student Activities. The intent of the projects is to allow you to apply the skills taught in this course. At any point when you are not making progress, ask your instructor for help.

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Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

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mt11050_g NX 4

Course Overview

Classroom System Information


Your instructor will provide you with the following items for working in the classroom: Student Login: User name:

Password:

Work Directory:

Parts Directory:

Instructor:

Date:

Student and Workbook Parts


The parts for this class are stored in the class Parts directory. There are two directories located in the Parts directory, the Student_parts and workbook. The Student_parts directory contains the parts that you will use when working on activities in the Student Manual. The workbook directory contains the parts that you will use when working on the project within the workbook. System Privileges You do not have the system privilege to modify any of the part les. If you attempt to do so, you will get a message saying that the le is Read Only. However, this does not restrict you from working with these les.

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Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

13

Lesson

WAVE Geometry Linker in Manufacturing

Purpose In this lesson, you will learn different methods available for creating machining geometry, using the WAVE (What If Alternative Value Engineering) Geometry Linker, that is associated to the designers original geometry. Objective Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Use the WAVE Geometry Linker to create associative, linked geometry. Make modications to linked geometry. Use a "base part" to control the manufacturing setup. Build a simulated casting solid body using the Wave Geometry Linker.

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Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

1-1

WAVE Geometry Linker in Manufacturing

The WAVE Geometry Linker


The WAVE Geometry Linker is used to associatively copy geometry from a component part in an assembly into the work part. The resulting linked geometry is associated to the parent geometry. Modifying the parent geometry will cause the linked geometry in the other parts to update. The WAVE Geometry Linker is available with an Assemblies license. It does not require a NX WAVE license. Different types of objects can be selected for linking, including points, curves, sketches, datums, faces, and bodies. The linked geometry can be used for creating and positioning new features in the work part. The Wave Geometry linker is accessed by choosing InsertAssociative CopyWAVE Geometry Linker from the menu bar.

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Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

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mt11050_g NX 4

WAVE Geometry Linker in Manufacturing

The At Timestamp option lets you specify where the linked object is placed in the feature list. When turned off, any new features added altering the parent geometry will be reected in the linked geometry. When turned on, new features added after the link was created will not be affected. Blank Original lets you blank the original geometry so that the linked geometry in the work part will be easier to work with while the assembly is displayed. Create Non-Associative option will create a broken link. The geometry will be created in the work part but will not be associated to the parent geometry.

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Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

1-3

WAVE Geometry Linker in Manufacturing

Geometry Types Used by the Geometry Linker


Several different types of geometry can be used in the WAVE application. Points Curves/Strings Sketches Datums Faces Regions of Faces Bodies and Mirrored Bodies

When selecting geometry to copy, you should consider how permanent the geometry will be. If you copy as little geometry as possible to do the job, performance will be improved but updates will be less robust when the parent geometry is altered. For example, if you copy individual curves to another part, the link may not update correctly if one of the curves is deleted. Conversely, if you copy an entire sketch, curves may be removed or added and the link will update.

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Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

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WAVE Geometry Linker in Manufacturing

Editing Links
Links may be edited by choosing EditFeature Parameters in the Model Navigator and selecting a linked feature. Linked features have an Edit dialog similar to the one below.

When this dialog is displayed, the cursor is active in the graphic window allowing new parent geometry selection for the link being edited. The new parent geometry must be the same type as the old geometry (curve, datum, solid body, etc.) Parent indicates the parent geometry type. If the feature was linked, but the link has been broken, the parent is shown as a Broken Link. Part shows the name of the part where the parent geometry is located. If the parent geometry is located in the current work part, the part name given is Work Part. The dialog information updates when you select new parent geometry, which you can do at any time.

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Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

1-5

WAVE Geometry Linker in Manufacturing

At Timestamp allows you to specify the timestamp at which the linked feature is placed. If toggled on, the list box will display the features in the parent part. One of these features may be selected from the list to specify a new timestamp location for the linked feature being edited. If toggled off, all features in the parent part will be reected in the linked feature. Break Link lets you break the association between the linked feature and its parent. This means that the linked feature will no longer update if its parent changes. You can later dene a new parent by selecting geometry with the cursor. Replacement Assistant allows replacement of one linked object with another (cannot be used on linked sketches or strings). Flip Face Normal reverses the normal of the face selected. An Extracted feature (intra-part) can be converted to a Linked feature (inter-part) by selecting the appropriate option and selecting new parent geometry from another component in the assembly.

Depending on the geometry type of the feature being edited, other options may appear on the dialog. When editing links and selecting new parent geometry, it may be easier to temporarily work in an exploded view to distinguish between the existing linked geometry and the new parent geometry.

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Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

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mt11050_g NX 4

WAVE Geometry Linker in Manufacturing

Broken Links
A link may become broken for several of the following reasons: The parent geometry is deleted. The path from the linked geometry to the parent part is broken. This can occur if the component part containing the parent geometry is deleted or substituted. If the parent is removed from the start part reference set that denes the linked part. If you deliberately break the link (e.g., using Edit Feature or the Break option on the WAVE Geometry Navigator dialog).

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Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

1-7

WAVE Geometry Linker in Manufacturing

Newly Broken Links


When a link breaks for an indirect reason (i.e., any reason except the last one listed above), the link is identied as newly broken until you accept it. You can accept newly broken links from the WAVE Geometry Navigator dialog or the Edit during Update dialog. After a link is accepted, its status is changed to broken until a new parent is dened.

1-8

Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

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mt11050_g NX 4

WAVE Geometry Linker in Manufacturing

Deleting Parent Geometry


To prevent unintentional deletion of the parents of linked geometry, a message will warn you if a delete operation would cause inter-part links to break. This applies to operations using EditFeatureDelete, EditDelete, and Model NavigatorDelete while the parts containing the linked geometry are loaded.

The Information option provides details about the links that will be broken in an Information window.

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WAVE Geometry Linker in Manufacturing

Deleting Linked Geometry


Linked geometry is created as a feature and can be deleted by choosing EditFeatureDelete (or choosing the Delete Feature icon). Linked bodies may also be deleted by choosing EditDelete. If you choose this method, you will not have an opportunity to verify child features before they are removed. Assemblies and WAVE The WAVE Geometry Linker only works in the context of an assembly. An assembly link must exist between two part les before a WAVE link can be established.

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Activity: Creating an Assembly for WAVE


In this activity, you will create an assembly structure for later use with the WAVE Geometry Linker. Remember that WAVE only works in the context of an assembly. This activity uses a hypothetical company that has been awarded a contract to machine a mixer housing. The customer has supplied a NX solid model of the designed part. Since high-production quantities are needed, the customer has decided to make the part as an aluminum casting. This will reduce signicantly, the amount of time spent machining. Unfortunately, the customer has not supplied a solid model of the casting which we will need to create. Using WAVE, you will create a simulated casting model that is associated with the original geometry. For the casting body, it will be necessary to remove the seven drilled holes, and add .250" machining stock on the inlet, outlet and mixer tube faces. Also note that the ring groove will not exist on the casting body.

All machined faces have 1/4" of added stock. Once the modeling changes are made, you will drill all holes and machine the ring groove into the mixer outlet face, since the casting process was not accurate enough for the tolerances required. Step 1: Open the seed part, seedpart_in, and save it with a new name. If necessary, start NX.

Use FileOpen.
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Navigate to your parts folder and open the le seedpart_in . Choose FileSave As ***_mixer_mfg where *** represents your initials. Step 2: Add the existing designed part as an assembly component. Your rst objective will be to add the existing mixer housing as the rst component of the mixer_mfg assembly. All assembly links will be on layer 11. If necessary, from the main menu, choose StartAssemblies. Change the Work Layer to 11. From the main menu, choose AssembliesComponentsAdd Existing. In the Select Part dialog, select the Choose Part File button. Select mixer_body, then choose OK. In the Add Existing Part dialog, change the component name to mixer. It can be typed in upper or lower case. If necessary, while still in the Add Existing Part dialog, choose SOLID from the Reference Set pull-down menu.

The Add Existing Part dialog is still displayed. Verify that the Positioning pull-down menu is set to Absolute.
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WAVE Geometry Linker in Manufacturing

Choose OK in the Add Existing Part dialog. The Point Constructor dialog is displayed. Choose the Reset button in the Point Constructor dialog, then choose OK. The mixer body part is now a component of ***_mixer_mfg. Cancel the Select Part dialog. Step 3: Examine the current assembly structure. Display the Assembly Navigator by choosing the Assembly Navigator tab in the resource bar. Clicking once on the tab temporarily displays the Assembly Navigator by sliding it to the left over the graphics display. Double-clicking on the tab displays the Assembly Navigator in a separate window which can then be moved and docked. There are currently two parts in this assembly. The top-level control part is ***_mixer_mfg, while mixer_body is the single component. Currently, only the component contains any geometry. The next step will be to create a new component that will contain the WAVE casting body. Step 4: Create an empty component, then apply the seed part preferences. Choose AssembliesComponentsCreate New from the menu bar.

Choose OK In the File Name eld, of the Select Part Name dialog, type in ***_mixer_casting, then choose OK. The Create New Component dialog is displayed.

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In the Component Name eld, type CASTING, then choose OK. A new component, named CASTING, is displayed in the Component Name column of the Assembly Navigator. The name of the part le is ***_mixer_casting. You may need to display the Component Name column by selecting MB3,ColumnsComponent Name. Next, apply the layer and color standards from the seed part le. In NX, all operations apply to the work part, which is currently ***_mixer_mfg. To apply the seed part defaults, the CASTING component should be the work part. For clarity, we will also make it the displayed part. In the Assembly Navigator, highlight the CASTING component, ***_mixer_casting, and using MB3 choose Make Displayed Part from the pop-up menu. To illustrate the lack of user-dened defaults, choose FormatLayer Settings. Notice the category eld is blank. Choose Cancel in the Layer Settings dialog. Choose FileImport Part. If necessary, in the Import Part dialog, uncheck Create Named Group, then choose OK. Browse to the seedpart_in.prt, and double-click on it. The Point Constructor dialog is displayed. Choose OK in the Point Constructor dialog. Since no geometry is being imported, position is not relevant. Also, there is no interaction on the screen. Choose Cancel in the Point Constructor dialog. Choose FormatLayer Settings. Notice the several different layer categories dened. Choose Cancel in the Layer Settings dialog. Step 5: Make the top-level part the displayed part, and save the work created thus far. In the Assembly Navigator, highlight ***_mixer_casting, and using MB3, choose Display Parent ***_mixer_mfg.
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In the Assembly Navigator, highlight ***_mixer_mfg, and using MB3, choose Make Work Part.

Choose the Save icon

on the toolbar.

When you save an assembly, all modied components below the work part are saved as well.

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WAVE Geometry Linker in Manufacturing

Linking Procedure
You use the AssembliesWAVE Geometry Linker dialog to create associated objects between part les. The linker allows you to copy geometry downward into component parts, upward into higher level assemblies, or sideways between components within an assembly. As you build your assembly you will use the sideways functionality. To create linked geometry: Arrange your assembly display so that the part containing the geometry to be copied is visible, and the geometry of interest is selectable. Change Work Part to the part that is to receive the linked copies. Set the Work Layer to the layer you want to contain the linked copies. Choose Insert Associative Copy WAVE Geometry Linker. Use the linker dialog to lter the type of object(s). You may select several objects of different types. Choose Apply to make copies and remain in the Selection dialog, or OK to copy objects and exit the dialog.

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Activity: Creating WAVE Geometry


In this activity, you will practice using the geometry linker. You will create a WAVE linked copy of the mixer body, then perform modications to that copy to simulate a casting. Step 1: Prepare the assembly. If necessary, open the ***_mixer_mfg assembly part and then the Assembly Navigator. Choose Start Modeling. Highlight the component ***_mixer_casting in the Assembly Navigator, and make it the Work Part by using MB3, and selecting Make Work Part. The mixer body, in the graphics window, fades to green. This is a visual clue that geometry is no longer in the current modeling hierarchy. The work layer is where linked geometry will be created. Choose FormatLayer Settings. Make Layer 1 the work layer. Choose OK in the Layer Settings dialog. Step 2: Select the Role Essentials with full menus and create a Linked Body. The simplify option does not appear on the Essentials role. Select the Roles tab and drag the Essentials with full menus icon to the graphics screen. Choose InsertAssociative CopyWave Geometry Linker. It is possible to link types of geometry other than solid bodies. Curves, Sketches, and Datum Planes are also commonly linked.

Choose the BODY icon dialog. Select the mixer body. Choose OK.

in the WAVE Geometry Linker

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Step 3:

Modify the display of the linked casting. There are now two identical bodies, lying in the same model space; the component body and the linked copy. It can be difcult to determine one from the other, it will be necessary to clarify the differences. First, you will remove the original body from the display. Then, you will change the display of the linked body. In the Assembly Navigator use MB3 over the ***_mixer_casting component, and choose Make Displayed Part. In the graphics window, use MB3Replace ViewTFR-TRI from the pull-down menu. Choose the Shaded icon from the main menu bar. Choose EditObject Display. Select the linked body and choose OK(green check mark) . Using Edit Object Display is a powerful method of differentiating between bodies that are similar in appearance. Change the Color to Yellow. Choose OK in the Edit Object Display dialog.

Step 4:

Make the top-level part the displayed part, then save the work in progress. At this point no physical difference exists between the mixer body and the mixer casting. They do have a visual difference. In the next activity, you will perform modeling changes to the mixer casting. In the Assembly Navigator, using MB3 on the ***_mixer_casting component, choose Display Parent***_mixer_mfg. In the Assembly Navigator, using MB3 on ***_mixer_mfg, choose Make Work Part.

Choose the Save icon

on the toolbar.

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WAVE Geometry Linker in Manufacturing

Simplify
Simplify is a powerful modeling tool that can be used to satisfy a wide range of needs in developing models that are associative, but somewhat different. Simplify provides a method of removing faces. This process must be able to extend surrounding faces to "heal the wound" where the faces have been removed. Uses of Simplify: Remove "machined" features for preparing an as cast part from a body that is not appropriately constructed for link At Timestamp, or from a body whose features are not accessible. Remove details such as holes and blends for nite element analysis. In casting tooling work, core and pattern preparation in parts where the regions were not modeled separately. Simplify can often be used both to remove interior faces, for patterns, and to remove exterior faces, for cores (if the system cannot heal wounds left by core removal, the pattern designer must extract regions and sew core-print faces to obtain a core body). Preparing a body for export to a supplier who need only be concerned with the exterior envelope. Interior faces are removed using simplify, then the simplied part is linked into a new part for export to the supplier. The linked part has no "knowledge" of interior features in the original, but it can still be updated by the owning company if the parent body changes.

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WAVE Geometry Linker in Manufacturing

Simplify Body Procedure


You will use the Simplify Body function to remove holes from your mixer casting body. To simplify geometry: Choose as a retained face, one that will not be simplied away. Select Automatic Hole Removal. Set the size for the Hole Dia Less Than parameter. Choose Apply to perform simplication. Acknowledge the simplify notice.

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Activity: Using Simplify Body


In this activity, you will practice using Simplify Body as a tool to reduce the complexity of a linked solid body. Step 1: Make the CASTING component the work and displayed part. If necessary, open your ***_mixer_mfg assembly part and then open the Assembly Navigator. In the Assembly Navigator, use MB3 on the ***_mixer_casting component and choose Make Displayed Part. Step 2: Perform a Simplify Body operation on the seven bolt holes on the outlet face and mixer tubes. Choose StartModeling. Choose InsertDirect ModelingSimplify. The Simplify Body dialog is displayed.

The cue line reads Select retained faces.


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Select any face on the body that will not be removed when the holes are removed. Select Automatic Hole Removal. Specify .500 in the Hole Dia Lless Than eld and press the Return key. Choose Apply and then press OK in the Simplify Body dialog. The Simplify Body information window gives the number of faces removed and retained (in this case 7 faces are removed, 108 faces remain).

Dismiss the Simplify Body information dialog by choosing OK.

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Activity: Other Modeling Techniques


Previously, Simplify Body was used to remove unwanted geometry from the Linked casting body. Now, you will explore other ways to modify a linked body. The rst option explored is Extrude. Step 1: Make the CASTING component the work and displayed part. If necessary, open your ***_mixer_mfg assembly part and then open the Assembly Navigator. If necessary, in the Assembly Navigator, using MB3 on the ***_mixer_casting component, choose Make Displayed Part. Step 2: Use Extrude to ll in the ring groove. Choose StartModeling. Choose Insert Design FeatureExtrude. The Extrude Widget is displayed. On the Selection Intent toolbar change the type lter from Any to Face Edges.

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Choose the bottom face of the ring groove, as shown below.

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WAVE Geometry Linker in Manufacturing

Choose the Unite icon from the Boolean pull-down menu.

Under Limits, End, change from Value to Until Extended.

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Select the outlet face, then choose OK on the Extrude dialog. The O-ring groove has been removed from the outlet face.

Step 3:

Use the Offset Face option to add machining stock. In this step, you will add machining stock to the inlet and outlet faces, as well as the mixer tube faces. From the menu bar choose InsertOffset/ScaleOffset Face. In the Offset Faces dialog, key in 0.250 for the offset value. Select the inlet and outlet faces, and the two mixer tube faces.

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Choose OK.

The modeling changes are complete. It will be difcult to visualize those changes in shaded mode, without a further display change to the casting. Step 4: Change the translucency of the casting. To make it easier to visually distinguish between the original designed part and the casting, you will make the casting model translucent. If necessary, use the Shaded icon to turn on shaded mode. From the menu bar choose EditObject Display. Select the body and choose OK. Slide the Translucency bar to 50% and choose OK. If the solid body does not become semi-transparent, choose PreferencesVisualization Performance, and turn off Disable Translucency, located on the General Settings tab under Session Settings. Step 5: Make ***_mixer_mfg the work part, and compare the two solid bodies. To fully realize the extent of the changes made, you will display both the original and the linked body together.
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WAVE Geometry Linker in Manufacturing

Find and depress the Assembly Navigator button to activate the Assembly Navigator. Use MB3 on the CASTING component and choose Display Parent***_mixer_mfg. In the Assembly Navigator, double-click on ***_mixer_mfg to make it the work part. Examine the two models.

The CASTING component has stock added on the machined faces. All drilled holes have been removed, as well as the ring groove. This is only one potential method for creating a simulated casting body. Other methods and techniques could also have been used. However, this method is fully associated to the original, so that if the original body changes, the casting body will update also. At this stage, NC/CNC programming, using the CASTING component as the BLANK, could now begin. Choose FileClose Save All and Close.

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Summary
The WAVE Geometry Linker provides an efcient method to associatively copy geometry used for machining from a component part in an assembly into a work part. The machining geometry is modiable for manufacturing needs but does not change the original design intent. In this lesson you: Used Assemblies to enable "Best Practices" for modeling in manufacturing. Created a WAVE solid body that is associatively linked to the original. Modied the WAVE geometry to simulate a casting for machining.

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Lesson

Advanced Cavity Milling Topics


Purpose This lesson teaches you how to use additional Cavity Milling options to create tool paths. You will also use Geometry Parent Groups to machine Cavity Milling geometry. Objective Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Utilize advanced Cavity Milling options Create and modify Geometry parent groups for Cavity Milling Create and modify Cut Levels Utilize the In-Process Work Piece

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Cut Levels
Cavity Milling cuts geometry in planes or levels. The advantage to this approach is that tool paths remain relatively short, due to minimum tool path movement, which is performed in layers. The disadvantage is that when machining geometry that is close to horizontal more stock may remain than desired. See the diagram below.

The closer the geometry approaches horizontal, the more stock that remains. Through the use of Cut Level parameters, you can reduce the amount of stock that remains.

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The Cut Levels dialog is located under the Cut Levels button in the Cavity Mill dialog.

The Cut Levels dialog serves two primary functions: Create and modify Ranges Modify Cut Levels within Ranges

To reduce the amount of additional stock, a new range can be added. The Depth per Cut in that Range only is modied. In the next activity, you will use various Cut Level parameters.

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Activity: Using Cut Levels Parameters


In this activity, you will replay an operation and review the various Cut Levels. You will then modify the range to allow the tool to cut without any warning messages. Step 1: Open, rename the part le, and enter the Manufacturing application. Open the part le base_mfg_2.

Rename the part ***_base_mfg_2 using the File Save As option on the menu bar. Choose Start Manufacturing. Step 2: Activate the Operation Navigator. Choose the Operation Navigator tab from the resource bar and expand the BASE_MALE_DIE parent group.

In the Operation Navigator, verify the Program Order view is active.


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Step 3:

Use Verify to examine the operation. You will use the Verify option to replay an existing operation. To speed up the Dynamic Replay mode, make the image smaller. In the graphics window, choose MB3 Zoom In/Out and zoom the object out. This option is unavailable when the Tool path Visualization dialog is active. Highlight the CAVITY_MILL operation, using MB3, choose Toolpath Verify. In the Tool path Visualization dialog, choose the 2D Dynamic property page (tab).

As shown, choose the Play icon.

This operation, in the current state, machines too low on the part. You will perform the steps necessary to correct this deciency. Choose Cancel in the Tool path Visualization dialog. Step 4: Edit the Bottom of Range #1. The rst step is to remove the warning from this operation by changing the cut range.
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Double-click on the CAVITY_MILL operation. Generate the operation.

At this level, the part and blank geometry are identical, the trace generated for the part and blank geometry are the same; therefore no geometry is available for machining. You will now alter the cut levels to eliminate the warning message. Choose OK to the Warning message. Choose Cut Levels from the CAVITY_MILL dialog. At the very top of the dialog, there are three buttons for dening ranges. The Auto Generate (1) button denes ranges that will align with planar horizontal faces. The User Dened (2) button denes ranges by selection of the bottom plane for each new range. The Single (3) button denes the cut range based on part and blank geometry.

Examining the status line, you will nd that there are currently 15 Cut Levels within one range in this operation.

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Advanced Cavity Milling Topics

In the Cut Levels dialog, choose the Edit current range icon.

Choosing a face will modify the bottom of Range #1.

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Select the face of the part as shown.

The status line shows 13 cut levels and the range depth changes to 3.25.

Choose OK on the Cut Levels dialog. Generate the operation. The operation successfully generates without warning messages. Save the part le.

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Advanced Cavity Milling Topics

Cut Patterns
The Cut Method (1) determines the cut pattern used for cutting.

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The Cut Patterns are as follows: machines in a series of parallel straight line passes. Climb Zig-Zag or conventional cut directions are not maintained since the cut direction changes from one pass to the next.

Zig always cuts in one direction. The tool retracts at the end of each cut, then positions to the start of the next cut.

also machines with cuts going in one direction. Zig with Contour However, contouring of the boundary is added between passes, before and after the cut motion. The tool then retracts and re-engages at the start of the contouring move for the next cut.

offsets the tool from the outermost edge that is Follow Periphery dened by Part or Blank geometry. Internal islands and cavities will require Island Cleanup or a clean up Prole pass.

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Advanced Cavity Milling Topics

Follow Part creates concentric offsets from all specied Part geometry. The outermost edge and all interior islands and cavities are used to compute the tool path. Climb (or Conventional) cutting is maintained.

Trochoidial cut pattern uses small loops along a path (resembles a stretched-out spring). This is a useful cut pattern in high speed machining applications when constant volume removal needs to be maintained.

Prole follows a boundary using the side of the tool. For this method, the tool follows the direction of the boundary.

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Activity: Zig-Zag Cut Pattern


In this activity, you will use the Zig-Zag cut pattern to cut the part.

Step 1:

Open the part le and enter the Manufacturing application. Continue using the part from the previous activity, ***_base_mfg_2.

If necessary, choose Start Manufacturing. Step 2: Edit an existing operation to change the Cut Pattern. Double-click on the CAVITY_MILL operation. From the CAVITY_MILL dialog, choose the Zig-Zag Cut Method.

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Advanced Cavity Milling Topics

Step 3:

Generate the operation. Choose the Generate icon to generate the operation. The tool path is generated.

Step 4:

Change the Cutting options. Choose the Cutting button from the CAVITY_MILL dialog. The Cut Parameters dialog is displayed. Options available are based on the selected Cut Method.

Key -45.0 in the Degrees eld of the Cut Parameters dialog.

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Choose the Display Cut Direction button.

An arrow indicates the applied Cut Angle. Choose OK on the Cut Parameters dialog. Step 5: Generate the operation. Choose the Generate icon to generate the operation. Use 3D Dynamic verication to analyze the results. The Zig-Zag cut pattern does not have a stepover on every pass, resulting in a less than desirable tool path. Cancel the Tool path Visualization dialog. Change the Cut Method to Zig with Contour.

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Step 6:

Generate the operation. Choose the Generate icon to generate the operation. Verify the tool path, using the 3D Dynamic option. This time the tool path is more efcient in the method of cleaning up the corners. Save the part.

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Advanced Cavity Milling Topics

In-Process work piece for Cavity Milling


To make the various Cavity Milling operations as efcient as possible, you must determine what has been machined in each operation. Variables such as cutting tool lengths and diameters, draft angles and undercuts, xture and tool clearances, will affect the amount of material that each operation may leave. The material that remains after each operation is executed is referred to as the In-Process work piece or IPW. Generally speaking, the remaining material (IPW) can be used for input into a subsequent operation which may be used for additional roughing. The end result is a semi-nished part that has most of the rough material or stock completely removed. To use the IPW, certain conditions must be adhered to. Tool path generation must be done sequentially, from the rst operation to the last, within a certain geometry group. The tool path must be successfully generated and accepted in all previous operations in the sequence before the IPW can be used for the next operation of the sequence. Two methods for creating the In-Process work piece are available. The options available are 3D IPW and Level Based IPW.

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Level Based IPW


Level-Based IPW uses the 2D cut regions from the previous Cavity Milling and/or ZLevel operations to identify and machine rest material. These previous operations are referred to as reference operations. Level-Based IPW is limited to Cavity Milling or ZLevel milling operations with the same tool axis as the previous operation. The rest milling and reference operations must belong to the same geometry group

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Use 3D
Use 3D uses a 3D internal denition to represent the remaining material. All milling operations can produce a 3D IPW. Use 3D is the correct IPW option if you are also using other types of operations to remove material from the blank. For example, if your cavity milling operation follows a surface contouring operation, then you must use the 3D IPW. If you must use 3D IPW for cavity milling operations.

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Activity: Using the Level Based In-process Workpiece (IPW)


In this activity, you will machine the part using three different cutter sizes. You will activate the use of the Level Based IPW and generate the operation. You will edit subsequent operations, each using smaller tools utilizing the Level Based IPW. Step 1: Open the part level_based_mfg and enter the Manufacturing application. From the menu bar, select File. Choose Open. Select the le level_based_mfg, then choose OK. Choose Start Manufacturing. Step 2: Activate the Operation Navigator. Choose the Operation Navigator tab from the resource bar.

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Step 3:

Display the Geometry View in the Operation Navigator and expand the objects. Choose the Geometry View button from the Operation Navigator tool bar, then expand the MCS_MILL , WORKPIECE , and MILL_AREA parent groups.

Step 4:

Edit the operation CVM1and use the Level Based IPW. Double-click the CVM1 operation in the Operation Navigator. Choose Cutting from the CAVITY_MILL dialog.

Choose the Containment tab from the Cut Parameters dialog.

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Select Use Level Based for the In-process Workpiece.

Choose OK to accept the Cut Parameters.

Choose Generate

to generate the tool path.

A warning Message appears The preference to enable Level Based IPW is not turned on appears.

Choose NO to turn the preference on and continue. Choose OK to accept the operation. Double-click the CVM2 operation in the Operation Navigator.

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Advanced Cavity Milling Topics

Choose Cutting from the CAVITY_MILL dialog.

Select Use Level Based for the In-process Workpiece.

Choose OK to accept the Cut Parameters.

Choose Generate

to generate the tool path.

Choose OK to accept the operation Double-click the CVM3 operation in the Operation Navigator. Choose Cutting from the CAVITY_MILL dialog.

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Select Use Level Based for the In-process Workpiece.

Choose OK to accept the Cut Parameters.

Choose Generate

to generate the tool path.

Verify the tool path, using the 3D Dynamic option. This time the tool path is more efcient in the method of cleaning up the corners.

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Advanced Cavity Milling Topics

Close the part le.

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Activity: Using the 3D In-Process Work Piece (IPW)


In this activity, you will machine the core block for an ATM key pad using three different cutter sizes. You will dene the BLANK in the MILL_GEOM parent group, activate the use of the 3D IPW and generate the operation. You will then use the subsequent IPW as the blank for the next operation and then use the IPW created from that operation to nish the keypad. Step 1: Open the part ipw and enter the Manufacturing application. From the menu bar, select File. Choose Open. Select the le ipw, then choose OK. Choose Start Manufacturing. Step 2: Activate the Operation Navigator. Choose the Operation Navigator tab from the resource bar.

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Advanced Cavity Milling Topics

Step 3:

Display the Geometry View in the Operation Navigator and expand the objects. Choose the Geometry View button from the Operation Navigator tool bar, then expand the MCS_MILL and WORKPIECE parent groups.

Step 4:

Edit the operations and use the IPW. Double-click the CVM1 operation in the Operation Navigator. Choose Cutting from the CAVITY_MILL dialog.

Choose the Containment tab from the Cut Parameters dialog.

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Select Use 3D for the In Process Workpiece.

Choose OK to accept the Cut Parameters.

Choose Generate

to generate the tool path.

The rst Cavity Milling tool path is displayed. You will want to display the amount of stock that remains that becomes the blank for the next operation.

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Advanced Cavity Milling Topics

Choose the Display Resulting IPW icon.

The resultant IPW is displayed.

This IPW will be used as the Blank for the next operation, CVM2. The initial IPW was dened as the Blank in the WORKPIECE geometry parent group. You generated the operation, using the initial IPW, and set options needed to create the IPW for a subsequent operation. You will use this IPW as the Blank for the operation, CVM2.
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Choose OK to accept the previous operation. Double-click the CVM2 operation in the Operation Navigator. Choose Cutting from the CAVITY_MILL dialog.

Select Use 3D for the In Process Workpiece.

Choose OK to accept the Cut Parameters.

Choose Generate

to generate the tool path.

The second Cavity Milling tool path is displayed. You will now display the IPW to show the remaining material.

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Choose the Display Output IPW icon.

The resultant IPW is displayed.

This IPW will be used as the Blank for the next operation. You will use the current IPW for the nal Cavity Milling operation. Choose OK to accept the previous operation. Double-click the CVM3 operation in the Operation Navigator.

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Choose Cutting from the CAVITY_MILL dialog.

Select Use 3D for the In Process Workpiece.

Choose OK to accept the Cut Parameters.

Choose Generate Close the part le.

to generate the tool path.

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Advanced Cavity Milling Topics

Pre-Drill Engage and Cut Region Start Points


Pre-Drill Engage and Cut Region Start Points are found in the Points/Control Geometry section of the Cavity Milling dialog. These two options provide control over the cutting start point within single and multiple regions of Cavity Milling. They also determine the direction that the tool moves towards the cavity or core walls.

Pre-Drill Engage Points Cavity Milling determines the tool path start point. You can use the Pre-Drill Engage Points option to specify where you want the tool to start cutting. With this option, the tool moves to the pre-drilled engage point you specify, then to the specied cut level. It then moves to the processor generated start point and generates the remainder of the tool path.

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To use this option, specify a pre-drilled engage point and an optional depth value. If you are going to specify a depth value, it must be done prior to specifying the start point.

There are three methods available for specifying pre-drilled engage points: Point/Arc - by using existing points or arcs. The arcs are associative to the geometry. They must be explicit or sketch curves. Cursor - by using the cursor position. Generic Point - by using the option on the generic point dialog.

The depth value for a start cut point is optional. If you do not specify a value, the pre-drilled engage point is used at every cut level. As shown , cut level 1 uses the pre-drilled engage point that falls within the specied depth. Cut levels 2 and 3 do not use the specied pre-drilled engage point since the cut levels are not within the specied depth. The processor will use the internally dened cut start point to cut the remaining cut levels (2 and 3).

All specied depths are measured from the top plane.

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You can dene Pre-drilled points using either the Engage/Retract dialog or the Pre-drill Start Points option located under the Control Geometry button. The Engage/Retract Pre-drill points and settings override the points dened under the Control Geometry Option. If you specify multiple Pre-drill points you can optimize the order in which they are drilled by customizing the Engage/Retract options which are available. Cut Region Start Points Cut Region Start Points allows you to specify cut start points for each region in a multi-region cavity. When you use circular engages, this option can avoid engages into pocket corners by using the Automatic or User Dened method of engagement.

The Cut Region Start Points defaults are as follows: Automatic establishes the Cut Region Start Point at the "attest" convex corner of the cut region. If there are no convex corners, the midpoint of the longest boundary segment of the cut region is used. This option assures that the tool will step over or engage the part at a location which is least likely to cause the tool to become buried in the material. Standard establishes the Cut Region Start Point as close as possible to the start point of the boundary region. The shape of the boundary, cut type, and position of islands and pockets will inuence how closely the processor positions the Cut Region Start Point to the Boundary Start Point. Moving the Boundary Start Point affects the location of the Cut Region Start Point.

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Activity: Using a Pre-Drill Engage Point


In this activity, you will edit the current operation to use a Pre-drilled Engage Point to start your tool path. The Pre-drill Engage Point is a hole that has been previously drilled. Step 1: Open the part form_mold_mfg and choose the manufacturing application. From the menu bar, select File. Choose Open. Select the le form_mold_mfg, then choose OK. Choose Start Manufacturing. Step 2: Activate the Operation Navigator. Choose the Operation navigator tab from the resource bar. Step 3: Edit an existing operation. Double-click on the CM_ROUGH operation in the Operation Navigator. The Cavity Milling dialog is displayed. You will now dene a point that represents a hole which has been previously drilled. This will be the engage point for the tool that is used to start each cut level. Step 4: Dene a Pre-drill Engage Point for this operation.

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Choose Points in the Control Geometry section.

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The Control Geometry dialog is displayed. Notice that there are two sections to this dialog, Pre-Drill Engage and Cut Region Start Points.

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Choose Edit in the Pre-Drill Engage Points section.

The Pre-Drill Engage Points dialog is displayed.

You can use the Depth parameter when you want a particular Pre-Drill Engage Point to be used only for certain cut levels. If you do not specify a depth parameter, the point will be used at all cut levels. If you use the parameter it must be dened before specifying the point. For this activity, you will not specify a depth parameter. This particular Pre-Drill Engage Point will be used at all cut levels. Choose Generic Point. The Point Constructor dialog is displayed. Key in the following values: XC=5 YC=2.5 ZC=0
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Choose OK. The point just created is displayed (this point is at the bottom of the part, if your display setting is solid, set to wire frame to see the point). Choose OK until you return to the Cavity Milling dialog. Step 5: Generate the tool path. Choose the Generate icon to create the tool path. Notice that all levels start at the Pre-Drill Engage Point in the center of the part, then move to the start point which is determined by the processor. Choose OK to accept the operation. Save your Part.

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Cavity Milling Stock Options


Stock options for Cavity Milling are found on the Cut Parameters dialog. This dialog is activated by selecting the Cutting button found on the Cavity Mill operation dialogs.

Some of the stock options are as follows: -Part Side Stock adds stock to the individual walls of the part. -Part Floor Stock adds stock to the oor. -Check Stock is the distance that the tool will stay away from the check geometry. -Trim Stock is the distance that the tool will stay away from the trim boundary. -Blank Stock is stock applied to Blank geometry. -Blank Distance applies to Part geometry. This is an offset distance which can be used for a casting or forging.

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Activity: Using the Blank Distance Option


In this activity, you will learn how to set the Blank Distance for a core type part. The MCS, Part geometry and Program Name have already been created for you. Step 1: Open a new part le, rename and enter the Manufacturing Application. Open the part le horn_mfg.

Rename the part ***_horn_mfg using the Save As option on the menu bar, where *** represents your initials. Choose Start Manufacturing . The Operation Navigator is displayed.

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Step 2:

Create an operation utilizing Blank Distance as a part offset. As shown below, select the Create Operation icon from the Create toolbar.

2
The Create Operation dialog is displayed. Select the Cavity Milling icon. Set the following: Program: ROUGH_WITHOUT_CASTING Use Geometry: WORKPIECE Use Tool: EM-.375-.06 Use Method: MILL_FINISH

On the Create Operation dialog, name the operation CM_.20_BLANKDISTANCE. Choose OK. The CAVITY_MILLING dialog is displayed. Step 3: Verify the Part Geometry selection.

Under the Geometry label, select the Part icon. Choose Display. Note that the Part geometry is displayed.

Under the Geometry label, select the Blank icon. Note that no Blank geometry has been selected. Step 4: Specify Operation settings. Set the Cut Method to Follow Part. Set Depth Per Cut to .125. Choose Cutting. The Cut Parameters dialog is displayed.
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Change the Cut Order to Depth First. Change the Blank Distance to .20.

Choose OK. The CAVITY_MILL dialog is displayed. Step 5: Generate the tool path. Choose the Generate

icon to generate the tool path.

Choose OK after viewing each Cut Level.

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The tool path cuts all of the core geometry.

Notice that the tool path follows the part contour since you used the Blank Distance option rather than selecting other geometry (such as a solid block) to represent the Blank shape. In this case, you specied that the Blank was near-net-shape with .250" stock overall. Choose OK to accept the tool path. Save the part le.

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Advanced Cavity Milling Topics

Cut Parameters - Trim by Trim by enables the Blank geometry to be recognized on core parts when the Blank geometry has not been explicitly dened. The Trim by method provides a Silhouette option to clean up the material which surrounds the Part geometry. It is available only when Tolerant Machining is toggled to on.

This option positions the tool to the outer most edge periphery (silhouette) of the part geometry and then offsets it outside by the tool radius. The silhouette can be consider as a shadow of the part projected along the tool axis. When using Trim by Silhouette, the processor uses the traces at the bottom of the dened part geometry as trim shapes. These shapes are then projected along the tool axis to each cut level and are used to generate machinable regions as trim shapes. Cut Parameters - Tolerant Machining The Tolerant Machining ON option is the preferred method for Cavity Milling operations. Tolerant Machining will nd all machinable regions without gouging the part. Tolerant Machining algorithms digitize a model on a rectangular grid that is determined by the dened cutting tolerance and the tool size. In most parts, the grid size range between 1-2 millimeters (.04 - .08"). When you specify a Blank distance that is an offset from the Part, the tolerance used to trace the Blank is larger than the tolerance used to trace
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the Part. This is due to dimensions of Blank geometry not being as accurate as those of the Part geometry. When you specify Blank geometry that is close to the size of Part geometry, the Blank and Part traces will overlap and result in an undesirable cut region(s). In this case it would be better to cut a prole pass along the Part without specifying the Blank. The resultant tool path will be along the Part geometry. When the processor encounters geometry that contains gaps or that is not perfectly matched, it will move the tool using an approximation within the specied tolerances. The processing time is longer when Tolerant Machining is on. Tolerant Machining SHOULD ALWAYS be turned on. Cut Parameters - Undercut Handling Undercut Handling is used with geometry features containing undercuts. It is applied only to non-tolerant machining.

If Tolerant Machining is turned on, Undercut Handling is automatically turned off. When using the Undercut Handling option Horizontal Clearance (specied under the Engage/Retract Method) applies to the shank of the tool (the portion above the utes) unless the Horizontal Clearance is greater than the tool radius. In this case the tool radius is used.

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As the tool progresses deeper through the various cut levels, Horizontal Clearance will keep the shank from contacting the part geometry which forms the undercut.

In the following example the Horizontal Clearance uses the default of .100. The tool radius is .120. The tool will be offset from the undercut face by .100.

Part, Blank, Check Geometry - Topology Topology provides options for surface analysis that allow checking for material side inconsistency, gaps and missing and duplicate surfaces.

This option is available when you are editing geometry and aids in the correction of model geometry errors that occur when models from other CAD systems are converted into NX models or from within a model created using NX. The topology processor inspects the model for missing, duplicated and non-tangent faces which can create multiple shells and an erratic tool path. It is suggested that the Topology option be used only if tool path generation fails. The following are common causes of tool path generation failures.
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Duplicate faces Missing llets and faces


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Smaller than tolerance faces (usually llets)

The following is a summary of the options on the Topology dialog:

Tolerances - Distance is the tolerance used for connecting faces and curves. The distance value represents the maximum value that two objects can be apart and still be considered connected. Angle is the tolerance used for determining the type of each edge (convex, concave or tangent). The Angle value represents the maximum angle that the normals of two adjacent faces or curves can vary at an edge to determine if the edge is convex, concave or tangent. Rebuild Topology - After editing tolerances or material side, you can choose Rebuild Topology to create the shell. Surfaces are considered adjacent if the gaps are less than the tolerance specied and one or more shells are created. Model geometry is not modied. Material Side- allows you to change the material side of any object that is used to dene the cutting operation. Material Side is represented by a vector arrow that points away from the material.
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Unify All - allows Material Side to be located on the same side for all objects. Reverse All - allows Material Side to be reversed for all objects. Inspect or Edit Shell - allows the inspection of the classication of edge types and Material Side for individual objects. Faces - allows the inspection of Material Side dened for each face. Faces can be set to undened, same or opposite. Undened allows you to highlight all faces where the Material Side is not dened Same allows you to highlight all of the faces where the Material Side is the same as that of the majority of faces Opposite allows you to highlight all of the faces where the Material Side is different than that of the majority of faces

Edges - allows the review of the classication of various edges. Edges can be set to the following: Undened allows the highlight of any edge which is not classied by the system Non-manifold allows the highlight of any unresolved edge where more than two faces meet along the same portion of the edge Exterior allows the highlight of all of the outside edges that dene the cutting region Interior allows the highlight of all of the inside edges that dene the cutting region Inconsistent allows the highlight of edges where the adjacent faces have material sides on opposite sides Complex allows the highlight of edges that are neither completely tangent, concave or convex Tangent allows the highlight of all edges that are classied as being tangent Concave allows the highlight of all edges that are classied as being concave Convex allows the highlight of all edges that are classied as being convex

Display Material Side - this option results in the display of the Material Side indicator whenever one of the face options is chosen.
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The Material Side indicator is a vector that points towards the material to be removed which is away from the Material Side. Refresh Before Display - the system will refresh the screen every time you choose one of the Face or Edge options. Arrow Buttons - allows you to cycle through the different shells as you inspect and edit the topology.

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Summary
The Cavity Milling module provides efcient and robust capabilities of removing large amounts of stock, primarily in cavity and core type applications. The following functions are available in Cavity Milling: Use of the In-Process work piece for accurate removal of material using different size cutting tools Cut levels to precisely control depths of cut Cut patterns to control direction and method of removing stock

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Lesson

Z-Level Milling
Purpose This lesson is an introduction to the Z-Level operation type, which is useful when proling steep areas. You can also isolate specic areas that you want to cut or avoid cutting within a Z-Level operation. Objective Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Understand the uses of Z-Level milling. Create milling operations using the Z-Level operation type. Understand the meaning and use of steep and non-steep areas of geometry.

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Z-Level Milling

Z-Level Milling
Z-Level Milling is designed to prole bodies or faces at multiple depths. It will cut steep areas (the steepness of the part at any given area is dened by the angle between the tool axis and the normal of the face) or the entire part. The following Z-Level operation types are available: ZLEVEL_FOLLOW_CAVITY - uses the Follow Part Cut Method; ideal for "cavity" type parts

ZLEVEL_FOLLOW_CORE - uses the Follow Part Cut Method; ideal for "core" type parts

CORNER ROUGH - Cavity milling with a reference tool that can be used with or without the In Process Work piece; uses existing reference tool ZLEVEL_PROFILE - uses the Prole Cut Method without the Steep Angle being set

ZLEVEL_PROFILE_STEEP - uses the Prole Cut Method with the Steep Angle set to 65 degrees

ZLEVEL_CORNER - Z-Level milling that uses an existing reference tool; compliments owcut machining

Part geometry and Cut Area geometry can be specied to limit the area to be cut. If cut area geometry is not dened, then the entire part is used as the cut area.

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3
1. Part 2. Check 3. Cut Area 4. Trim Many of the option settings found in Z-Level Milling are the same as in Cavity Milling. A description of some of these options are as follows: Geometry Part geometry consists of bodies and faces which represents the Part after cutting Check geometry consists of bodies and faces which represent clamps or obstructions that are not to be machined Cut Area geometry represents the areas on the Part to be machined; it can be some or all of the part Trim geometry consists of closed boundaries which indicate where material will be left or removed; all Trim boundaries have tool positions on only During tool path generation, the geometry is traced, steep areas and trace shapes are determined, cut areas are identied and a tool path is generated for all cut depths specied.
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Activity: Z-Level Milling


In this activity, you will generate tool paths using Z-Level Milling. Z-Level is designed to prole an entire part or steep areas that were previously left by the Area Milling Drive Method. Step 1: Open the part le and enter the Manufacturing application. Open the part base_mfg_3.

Enter the Manufacturing application. The Operation Navigator is displayed. Change the view of the Operation Navigator to the Geometry View. The MCS_MILL Parent Group is displayed in the Operation Navigator. Expand the MCS_MILL and WORKPIECE Geometry Parent Groups. The ROUGHING_1 operation is listed in the Operation Navigator. Step 2: Create a Z-Level operation. Choose the Create Operation icon on the Manufacturing Create tool bar.

Make sure the Type is set to mill_contour.


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Z-Level Milling

Choose the ZLEVEL_PROFILE icon. Set the Program to BASE_MALE_DIE. Set Use Geometry to WORKPIECE. Set Use Tool to EM_1.25_.25. Set Use Method to MILL_FINISH. Name the operation zlevel_nish. Choose OK. The ZLEVEL_PROFILE dialog is displayed.

Step 3:

Change the Depth of Cut. You will change the depth of cut. For ease of viewing turn model shading off. Next to the Global Depth Per Cut label, enter 0.100. You will now change the cut levels. You will stop cutting material at the top of the bottom face. The default is the bottom face.

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Choose the Cut Levels button. The Cut Levels dialog is displayed.

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Select the Down Arrow button.

Index to the 4th range and select the delete icon.

Choose OK. Step 4: Generate the tool path. Choose the Generate icon and generate the tool path.

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Choose OK in the Display Parameters dialog to continue generating the tool path.

Choose OK to accept the operation. Step 5: Verify the Program that you have created. Use Toolpath Verication to examine the tool path results. Close the part le.

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Z-Level Milling

Steep Angle
The steepness of the part at any given area is dened by the angle between the tool axis and the normal of the face. The steep area is the area where the steepness of the part is greater than the specied Steep Angle. When the Steep Angle is toggled on, areas of the part with a steepness greater than or equal to the specied Steep Angle are cut. When the Steep Angle is toggled off, the part, as dened by the part geometry and any limiting cut area geometry, is cut.

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Z-Level Milling

Activity: ZLEVEL_PROFILE_STEEP Operations


In this activity, you will create a ZLEVEL_PROFILE_STEEP operation to machine all of the steep geometry located within the cavity. You will use the Geometry Parent Group, WORKPIECE that contains all of the Part geometry. The tool path will cut only within the Steep areas specied. Step 1: Open the part le and enter the Manufacturing application. Open the part form_mold_mfg.

Enter the Manufacturing application. The Operation Navigator is displayed. Change the view of the Operation Navigator to the Geometry View. The MCS_MILL Parent Group is displayed in the Operation Navigator.
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Z-Level Milling

Expand the MCS_MILL and WORKPIECE Geometry Parent Groups. The CM_ROUGH operation is listed in the Operation Navigator. Step 2: Create the ZLEVEL_PROFILE_STEEP operation. Select the Create Operation icon from the Create toolbar.

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The Create Operation dialog is displayed.

Select the ZLEVEL_PROFILE_STEEP icon. Set the following: Program: INTERIOR Use Geometry: WORKPIECE Use Tool: EM-.750-.06 Use Method: MILL_FINISH

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Choose OK.

The ZLEVEL_PROFILE_STEEP dialog is displayed. Under the Geometry label, select the Part icon and choose Display. The Part geometry is displayed. Note that the Part geometry was specied in the Parent Group named WORKPIECE. Under the Geometry label, select the Cut Area icon and notice that only the Select button is available. Since the Cut Area was not specied, by default, the entire part will be used for cutting. Also note the Steep Angle and the other default option settings.

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Step 3:

Generate the tool path. Choose the Generate icon and generate the tool path. Choose OK to save the operation. Notice the areas cut by the tool path. Remember that the Steep Angle was set to 65 degrees.

Do not save the part, you will be using it in the next activity. Minimum Cut Length Minimum Cut Length enables the elimination of short tool path segments that may occur in isolated areas of the part. Moves shorter than this value are not generated. Depth Per Cut Depth Per Cut allows the specication of the maximum depth per cut in a range. Cut depths are calculated that are equal and do not exceed the specied Depth Per Cut value.

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Z-Level Milling

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Z-Level Milling

Cut Order Z-Level Milling determines cut traces by shape. Shapes can be proled by Depth First in which each shape is completely proled before beginning to prole the next shape. Shapes can also be proled by Level First in which all shapes are proled at a particular level before cutting each shape at the next level.

Control Geometry Control Geometry allows the specication of Control Points to determine where the tool engages the part and the oor plane.
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Trim by Trim by is used to prevent the tool from rolling around corners. The Silhouette option uses the outline of the part geometry, as viewed down the tool axis, to generate a trace. The tool is positioned along the silhouette of the part geometry. The trace is then offset to the outside by the tool radius distance. The silhouette can be thought of as the shadow of the part projected along the tool axis. When using Trim by Silhouette, the traces at the bottom of the part geometry are used as trim shapes. These shapes will be projected along the tool axis to each cut level and will be used in the process of generating the machinable regions as trim shapes. Remove Edge Traces Edge tracing (edge roll) is usually an undesirable condition that can occur when the Drive Path extends beyond the edge of the part geometry. The tool rolls over the edge of the part geometry potentially gouging the part. The Remove Edge Traces option allows the control of whether or not edge tracing occurs.

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Z-Level Milling

Activity: Z-Level Prole Milling


In this activity, you will create a Z-Level Prole operation to machine the geometry of the island within the cavity. You will create a Geometry Parent Group (MILL_AREA) that contains the geometry necessary for machining. The tool path will cut only within the area that has been specied. Step 1: Create the Geometry Parent Group. Continue using form_mold_mfg.

Select the Create Geometry icon from the Create tool bar.

The Create Geometry dialog is displayed (make sure Type is mill_contour). In the Create Geometry dialog select the Mill_Area icon. If necessary, select the WORKPIECE as the Parent Group. Enter ZLEVEL_AREA as the Name.

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Choose OK. The MILL_AREA dialog is displayed.

Choose the Cut Area icon. Choose Select. The Cut Area dialog is displayed.

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Z-Level Milling

Select the interior island geometry as shown.

Make sure that when selecting with a rectangle, selection criteria should be inside only. Choose OK, twice to return to the Create Geometry dialog. Note that you do not need to specify Blank Geometry. To briey review you have created a Geometry Parent Group, named ZLEVEL_AREA which contains the geometry of the island. This Parent Group will be used in the ZLEVEL_PROFILE operation. You will now create the operation. Step 2: Create the ZLEVEL_PROFILE Operation. Choose the Create Operation icon.

Select the ZLEVEL_PROFILE icon. Set the following: Program: INTERIOR Use Geometry: ZLEVEL_AREA Use Tool: EM-.750-.06
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Use Method: MILL_FINISH Choose OK. The ZLEVEL_PROFILE dialog is displayed. Under the Geometry label, select the Part icon and choose Display. The Part geometry is displayed. It was specied in the WORKPIECE Parent Group. Under the Geometry label, select the Cut Area icon and choose Display. The Cut Area geometry is displayed. It was specied in the ZLEVEL_AREA Parent under the WORKPIECE Parent Group. Change the Global Depth Per Cut to .15. Change Cut Order to Depth First. Step 3: Generate the tool path.

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Z-Level Milling

Choose the Generate icon to generate the tool path.

Choose OK to save the operation. Do not Save the part le.

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Z-Level Milling

Z-Level Cutting Between Levels (aka Gap Machining)


Z-Level cutting between levels, commonly referred to as Gap Machining, creates extra cut levels (2) when gaps occur due to the occurrence of non-steep (1) areas. This avoids the creation of separate Area Milling operations or, in some cases, the use of extremely small depths of cut to control excessive scallop heights in non-steep areas.

Gap Machining minimizes excessive tool wear and breakage caused by the removal of large amounts of scallop stock left from previous operations. Resultant tool paths from Gap Machining produce uniform scallops, regardless of the angle of steepness, incorporating fewer engages and retracts, producing a more consistent surface nish. Stepover option Stepover pertains to machining the gap areas. When used with the default Use Depth of Cut parameter, the stepover matches the depth of cut of the current cut range. To further enhance the
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control of the scallop height in these areas, you can also specify the stepover distance. Since each cut level range can have a different depth of cut, if you specify Use Depth of Cut, then the range it lies in determines the stepover for that gap region. If a gap region spans several ranges that do not have cut levels dened, the gap region will use the minimum depth of cut of the ranges. Max Cut Traverse option

Max Cut Traverse denes the longest distance that the cutting tool feeds along the part when not cutting. When connecting cutting areas, if the total distance is less than the Max Cut Traverse parameter, the tool will feed along the part. If the distance is larger then the current transfer method is used to retract, traverse, and engage to the next location. This value is a length or a percent of the tool diameter. Sequencing of Gap and Z-Level tool paths Z-Level and gap tool paths are sequenced and ordered as follows: Z-Level tool path is machined from the top-down and uses the same connection methods as it would without the Cut Between Levels option

1. After each Z-level cut is completed, the tool begins to cut the level below it 2. When cutting the lower level, gaps between the lower level and the previous level above it are determined 3. When a gap is discovered, the gap is cut, cutting continues until another gap is found or the cut is complete at that level 4. Gap level at the lower level is cut based on Max Cut Traverse parameter; if Max Cut Traverse is exceeded, a traverse move to the next level takes places; if the move to the next level is within the Max Cut Traverse distance, the tool makes a direct on-part move to the next level without traversing Level-to-level connections violating a gap region are removed and replaced with a traversal move Engage and retract moves are kept to a minimum along the tool axis Connections are made from the Z-Level cut to the gap area; after cutting the gap area, the tool returns to the lower level

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Z-Level Milling

Z-Level Gap machining is activated from the Cut Parameters dialog by selecting the Connections tab and selection of Cut Between Levels. Modify the parameters on that dialog as needed.

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Z-Level Milling

Activity: Z-Level Gap Machining


In this activity, you will activate Gap Machining option in an existing Z-Level operation. Step 1: Open the part le and enter the Manufacturing application. Choose File Open male_cover_mfg.

ChooseStart Manufacturing. If necessary, display the Operation Navigator in the Program Order view.

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Z-Level Milling

Step 2:

Replay an existing Z-Level operation. Double-click on the ZLEVEL_PROFILE operation for editing purposes. The ZLEVEL_PROFILE dialog is displayed.

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Z-Level Milling

Choose the Replay button.

3
The tool path is displayed. Note the non-steep areas and the numerous engage retracts that occur.

The operation does a fairly good job of machining the steep geometry but does not machine the non-steep area very well. You will now turn on the Cut Between Levels (Gap Machining) option to completely nish machine the part in one complete operation.

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Z-Level Milling

Choose the Cutting button.

The Cut Parameters dialog is displayed. Choose the Connections to tab.

Turn On the Cut Between Levels option.

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Z-Level Milling

Set the Stepover to Constant.

Change the Distance to 0.15.

ChooseOK.

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Z-Level Milling

Step 3:

Generate the tool path. Choose the Generate icon to generate the tool path.

The non-steep areas are now machined as well as the steep areas of the part. Choose OK to save the operation. Do not Save the part le.

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Z-Level Milling

Summary
This lesson was an introduction to Z-Level milling, which is used when proling steep areas (the steepness of the part at any given area is dened by the angle between the tool axis and the normal of the face). This operation type is useful in minimizing the amount of scallop or cusps that remains on the part. In this lesson you:

Created an operation using Z-Level Prole operation types. Reviewed and generated operations using Z-Level operations incorporating Steep options. Reviewed and generated operations using Z-Level operations incorporating Cut Between Levels (Gap machining).

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Lesson

MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups


Purpose This lesson introduces you to the MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups, which are used in limiting cut areas.

Objective Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Create and use MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups. Create and modify Trim Boundaries. Recognize the type of geometry MILL_AREA Parent Groups use.

MILL_AREA Geometry Overview


Occasionally, when machining large or complex parts, it is desirable to limit the area that an operation machines. The MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Group is designed for that purpose. The MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Group allows the user to select a small portion of a part to machine. This area is based on the faces of the part which you select. This group of faces to machine is called a Cut Area. The area to machine can be further limited by use of a Trim Boundary. Below is the MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Group dialog.
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MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups

Part Geometry - is typically specied in the WORKPIECE Geometry Parent Group and represent the material to be cut

Check Geometry - represents clamps, vises, locator pins, and other items that are not cut

Cut Area - represents the specic geometry to be machined

Wall Geometry - represents walls or sides of a part

Trim Boundary - allows you to dene trim boundaries that limit the cutting area

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MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups

Cut Area
When choosing the Cut Area icon, the Cut Area dialog is displayed.

Only faces and sheet bodies can be selected for Cut Area geometry. The Features option allows surface regions (groups of faces or sheet bodies) for selection purposes.

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MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups

Activity: MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups


This activity will demonstrate how to create and use a MILL_AREA geometry Parent Group in an operation. You will Replay and examine the results of an existing operation. You will then create a MILL_AREA geometry Parent Group consisting of faces and will modify the inheritance of the operation to use the MILL_AREA parent. Step 1: Open the part le, rename it, and enter the Manufacturing application. Open the part male_cover_mfg_2.

Rename the part ***_male_cover_mfg_2 using the File Save As option on the menu bar. Choose Start Manufacturing . Change the Operation Navigator to the Geometry View.

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MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups

Expand the MCS_MILL and WORKPIECE Geometry Parent Groups.

Step 2:

Replay the current operation. Highlight the FC_FINISH_RIBS operation, use MB3 and select Replay.

This Fixed Contour operation machines the entire part. This is not the desired result. In the next steps, you will create a MILL_AREA geometry Parent Group to limit the machining to just the two ribs protruding from the part.

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MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups

Refresh the graphics screen. There are at least three ways to refresh the screen: 1. MB3 Refresh 2. Press the F5 button 3. From the top menu bar, choose View Refresh Step 3: Create the MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Group. Choose the Create Geometry icon. If necessary, change the Type to mill_contour.

Choose the Subtype MILL_AREA.

Change the Parent Group to WORKPIECE. In the Name eld, enter two_ribs. Choose OK. The MILL_AREA dialog is displayed. Step 4: Dene the Cut Area geometry. Choose the Cut Area icon.

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MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups

Choose the Select button.

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MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups

Choose the faces of the ribs, as shown.

When nished selecting the faces, choose OK. Choose OK again to accept the dialog.

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MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups

Step 5:

Change the inheritance of the operation. You will move the FC_FINISH_RIBS operation, so that the operation will machine only the faces specied. Currently, the Geometry View of the Operation Navigator looks as follows:

4
Using MB1, click and drag the FC_FINISH_RIBS operation so that it resides under the TWO_RIBS Parent Group, then release MB1.

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MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups

Highlight the FC_FINISH_RIBS operation, using MB3, select Generate from the pop-up menu.

The tool path is generated and cuts the faces selected in the MILL_AREA Parent Group.

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MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups

Choose OK to accept the tool path. Save the part le.

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MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups

Trim Boundary
A Trim Boundary is the same as any other boundary except that any tool path that falls within the area described by the boundary will be trimmed away. When you choose the Trim Boundary icon, the standard boundary dialog is displayed.

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MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups

Activity: Using Trim Boundaries


In this activity, you will create a trim boundary inside of a MILL_AREA Parent Group and will then generate the corresponding operation. Step 1: Continue using the part le. Continue using ***_male_cover_mfg_2.

Step 2:

Create a Trim Boundary. Change the view to TOP. Change the Operation Navigator to the Geometry View. You will now edit the operation. Double-click on the TWO_RIBS operation.

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MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups

Choose the TRIM icon, and then choose Select.

The boundary you will create will be developed using cursor location points.

Choose the Point Boundary icon. Change the Point Method to Cursor Location.

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MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups

Using four screen position points create a trim boundary similar to the one shown below.

Choose OK to return to the main dialog. Step 3: Generate the tool path.

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MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups

Generate the tool path for the FC_FINISH_RIBS operation and examine the results.

Any tool path that falls within the Trim boundary is removed. Save the part le.

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MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups

Summary
The MILL_AREA geometry group allows exibility in determining exact areas for cutting purposes. The use of this geometry group and Trim Boundaries gives you the ability of isolating specic areas of geometry used in the machining process. In this lesson you: Created MILL_AREA geometry to machine specic areas.

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Lesson

Fixed Contour Operation Types


Purpose This lesson will show you how to create a Fixed Contour operation using several of the options and concepts that are unique to Fixed Contour machining. You will also review the steps necessary to create various Parent Groups that will aid you in the selection of geometry and cutting tools. Fixed Contour operations are generally used for creation of tool paths used to nish the contoured areas of a part. Objective Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Use the Fixed Contour Area Milling and Flow Cut Drive methods to create tool paths Use Non-cutting moves in Fixed Contour operations Create Parent Groups used for Fixed Contouring operations Choose the most appropriate drive method for a Fixed Contour operation Apply the more advanced concepts of Fixed Contour operations for creating tool paths

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

Fixed Contour Overview


Fixed Contour operations are used to nish areas formed by contoured geometry. Fixed Contour tool paths are able to follow complex contours by the control of tool axis, projection vector and drive methods. Tool paths are created in two steps. The rst step generates drive points from the drive geometry. The second step projects the drive points along a projection vector to the part geometry. The drive points are created from some or all of the part geometry, or can be created from other geometry that is not associated with the part. The points are then projected to the part geometry. The tool path output is created by internal processing which moves the tool from the drive point along the projection vector until contact is made with the part geometry. The position may coincide with the projected drive point or, if other part geometry prevents the tool from reaching the projected drive point, a new output point is generated and the unusable drive point is ignored.

Fixed Contour operations use a xed tool axis for nishing contoured geometry and can effectively clean up ridges and scallops left by other tool paths.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

Fixed Contour is the better choice for nish machining for several other reasons: In addition to Part geometry, Drive geometry can control tool movement Numerous Drive Methods are available for specialized machining Uncut areas left after semi-nishing or nishing passes can be easily removed

Fixed Contour Tool Path Accuracy Fixed Contour provides several options that help insure the accuracy of the tool path. Included are: Check Geometry to stop tool movement Gouge Checking to prevent gouging of the part Collision Checking to prevent unintended tool contact with other geometry Various tolerance options

Fixed Contour operations can position to existing locations on the part geometry (which includes the edge of an object), but the tool cannot position to an extension of part geometry as shown in the following illustration.

Terminology used in Fixed Contour operations Part Geometry - is geometry selected to cut. Check Geometry - is geometry selected that is used to stop tool movement. Drive Geometry - is geometry used to generate drive points. drive points - are generated from the drive geometry and projected onto the part geometry.
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Fixed Contour Operation Types

drive method - method of dening drive points required to create a tool path. Some drive methods allow the creation of a string of drive points along a curve while others allow the creation of an array of drive points within an area. projection vector - used to describe how the drive points project to the part surface and which side of the part surface the tool contacts. The selected drive method determines which projection vectors are available. The projection vector does not need to coincide with the tool axis vector. Drive Methods for Fixed Contouring The drive method denes the method of creating drive points.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

Each drive method contains a series of dialogs that are displayed upon selection. Area Milling drive method The Area Milling drive method allows you to specify a cut area for tool path generation. This drive method is similar to the Boundary drive method, but does not require drive geometry. Cut Area(s) may be dened by selecting surface regions, sheet bodies, or faces. Unlike the Surface Area drive method, the cut area geometry does not have to be selected in an orderly grid of rows and columns. If you do not specify a Cut Area, the processor will use the selected part geometry (excluding areas not accessible by the tool) as the cut area. The Area Milling drive method is generally the preferred Fixed Contour drive method for creating tool paths. Surface drive method The Surface Area drive method allows you to create an array of drive points that lie on a grid of drive surface. This drive method is useful in machining very complex surfaces. It provides additional control of both the tool axis and the projection vector. The tool path is created on the selected part surfaces by projecting points from the drive surface in the direction of a specied projection vector. If part surfaces are not dened, the tool path can be created directly on the drive surface. The drive surfaces do not have to be planar, but must be in an orderly grid of rows and columns. Adjacent surfaces must share a common edge and may not contain gaps that exceed the Chaining Tolerance dened under Preferences (Preferences Selection Chaining Tolerance). Trimmed surfaces can be used to dene drive surfaces as long as the trimmed surface has four sides. Each side of the trimmed surface can be a single edge curve or comprised of multiple tangent edge curves that can be considered a single curve. Tool Path drive method The Tool Path drive method allows you to dene drive points along the tool path of a Cutter Location Source File (CLSF) to create a similar tool path. Drive points are generated along the existing tool path and then projected on to the selected part surface(s) to create the new tool path that follows the surface contours. The direction in which the drive points are projected on to the part surfaces is determined by the projection vector.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

Radial Cut drive method The Radial Cut drive method allows you to generate drive paths perpendicular to and along a given boundary, using a specied Stepover distance, Bandwidth and Cut Type. This method is useful in creating cleanup operations. Flow Cut drive method Flow Cut drive methods allows you to generate drive points along concave corners and valleys formed by part surfaces. The direction and order of the ow cuts are determined using rules based on machining best practices. The tool path is optimized for maximum part contact to minimize non-cutting moves. Text drive method Text drive methods allows you to generate drive paths based on text created from drafting notes.

User Function drive method The User Function drive method creates tool paths from special drive methods developed in User Function code. These are optional, highly specialized custom routines developed for specic complex applications. Parent Groups associated with Fixed Contour operations There are three different Geometry parent groups available for use in Fixed Contour operations. They are:

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

The MILL_GEOM parent group which allows part, blank and check geometry.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

The MILL_BND parent group which also allows part, blank, check and trim and oor boundary geometry.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

The MILL_AREA parent group allows part and check but not blank geometry. It also allows for the specication of Cut Areas ,Wall and Trim geometry.

The parent group, MILL_AREA, which you used in Cavity Milling operations, is also used in Fixed Contour operations. It allows you to include or exclude areas to be machined in cut areas that you specify. These specic areas may have been previously roughed by Cavity Milling or nished by Planar Mill operations. Fixed Contour also provides several template operations that use the parent group, MILL_AREA. These operations also have the Area Milling drive method specied allowing you to quickly create nishing operations for contoured parts. Fixed Contour operations are generally used to nish contoured types of geometry.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

The following diagram can be used as an aid in the determination of the operation type needed for various types of geometry:

5
Fixed Contour Operation types The most commonly used Fixed Contour operation types are: FIXED_CONTOUR - Generic Fixed Contour operation type. Allows selection of various drive methods and cut types. Use when other Fixed Contour operation types are not applicable.

CONTOUR_AREA - Uses Area Milling drive method. Ideal for cutting specic areas of part geometry.

CONTOUR_SURFACE_AREA - Uses Surface Area drive method. Ideal for complex part surfaces where tool axis control is critical.

FLOWCUT_REF_TOOL - Uses the Flow Cut drive method. Flow Cut RTO (reference tool) will machine certain geometry types by level and provide you with the options to cut the two sides alternatively with a rounded or standard turn at each end, and side by side with the option from the steep side to non-steep side. This operation type takes into account the previous tool diameter used for roughing (you must specify
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Fixed Contour Operation Types

this). This results in cutting parts with a more constant cutting load and a shorter distance of non-cutting moves.

PROFILE_3D - Generates a prole pass utilizing three dimensional curves, edges, faces, existing boundaries or points. Machines at a given Z-depth offset with respect to the geometry type selected. Useful in creation of addendum prole cuts for stamping dies.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

More on Flow Cut Drive Methods


The Flow Cut drive method allows the specication of Climb, Conventional, or Mixed cut directions for single pass operations. The Climb and Conventional options allow the climb or conventional method for all cutting passes in the operation. If a steep side can be determined, the steep side is used to calculate the Climb or Conventional cut direction. If a steep side cannot be determined, the cut direction is determined internally. The Mixed option allows for the internal calculation of the cut direction.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

Flow Cut drive method using Cut Area and Trim Boundary Geometry The Flow Cut drive method allows Cut Area geometry to be dened the same way as the Area Milling drive method. Surface regions, sheet bodies, faceted bodies and or faces can be used as the cut area. Concave valleys are analyzed within the cut area as well as concave valleys formed by the cut area and part geometry. Valleys formed by the cut area and check geometry are excluded. Trim boundaries can be used to further constrain cut regions. Material Inside or Outside determines the area of the cut region to be omitted. Trim boundaries are always Closed, always use an on condition, and are projected to the Part geometry along the tool axis vector. More than one Trim Boundary may be dened. Trim Stock may be specied to dene the distance the tool is positioned from the Trim Boundary.

Flow Cut Reference Tool Drive Method Flow Cut Reference Tool drive method produces multiple cutting passes on either side of the center ow cut by allowing you to specify a reference tool diameter to dene the total width of the area to be machined and a Stepover Distance to dene the interior passes.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

This method is useful for cleanup machining after roughing out an area with a large tool. This method also uses the Cut Type, Stepover Distance, Sequencing, Reference Tool Diameter, Overlap Distance, and Steep Containment options.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

Flow Cut Reference Tool Options Maximum Concavity allows you to determine where Flow Cuts are created based on the Angle of Concavity. Cutting moves are created only where the Angle of Concavity is less than or equal to the specied Maximum Concavity angle. The value you enter must be positive and less than or equal to 179.0 degrees. When the Angle of Concavity exceeds the specied Maximum Concavity angle, the tool will retract and traverse. Minimum Cut Length allows you to eliminate short tool path segments that may occur in isolated areas of the part. Cutting moves shorter than this value are ignored. This option is useful in eliminating very short cutting moves that occur at the intersection of llets. Hookup Distance allows you to eliminate unwanted gaps in the tool path by connecting disjointed cutting motions that exceed the specied Maximum Concavity angle. These unwanted motions occur where the tool retracts from the part surface and are caused by gaps between surfaces or variations in the Angle of Concavity that exceed the specied Maximum Concavity angle. The value you enter determines the distance the tool will span to connect the end points of cutting moves. The two ends will be connected by linearly extending the two paths. Cut Type (Zig-Zag and Zig) allows you to dene how the cutter moves from one cut pass to the next. Stepover Distance allows you to specify the distance between successive passes. Sequencing enables you to determine the order in which the cut passes are executed. results in the cut starting at the center of the Flow Cut Inside-Out pass and moving toward one of the outside passes. The tool then moves back to the center cut and works its way toward the opposite side. You may start the sequencing by choosing either side of the center of the Flow Cut.

results in the cut starting at one of the outside passes Outside-In and moving to the center of the Flow Cut pass. The tool then picks up the outside cut on the opposite side and works its way to the center cut again. You may start the sequencing by choosing either side of the center of the Flow Cut.

Steep Last steep side.

results in the cut moving from non-steep side to the

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

Steep First results in the cut moving from the outside pass on the steep side to the outside pass on the non-steep side. The Steep First sequence is available for Zig, Zig-Zag, and Zig-Zag with Lifts patterns.

always cuts a Flow Cut valley from the middle Inside-Out Alternate Flow Cut pass. The cut starts at the center pass, moves to an inside pass and then to the inside pass on the opposite side. The cut then moves to the pass in the next pair on the rst side and then to the pass in the same pair on the second side. If one side has more offset passes then the other side, all the extra passes on that side are machined after machining the passes which are paired on both sides. Inside-Out Alternate sequence can be generated with a Zig, Zig-Zag, or Zig-Zag with Lifts pattern.

always machines a Flow Cut valley from Outside-In Alternate passes in an outside pair to inside pair, and then to the middle Flow Cut pass when necessary. The cut starts at one outside pass and moves to the other outside pass on the opposite side. The cut then moves to the pass in the next pair on the rst side and to the pass in the same pair on the second side. After nishing the passes in the inside pair, the cut will move to the middle Flow Cut pass, if required. If one side has more offset passes then the other side, all the extra passes on that side are machined before machining the passes in pairs on both sides. Outside-In Alternate sequences can be generated in a Zig, Zig-Zag, or Zig-Zag with Lifts pattern. Reference Tool Diameter enables you to specify the width of the nishing cut region based on the diameter of the previous roughing (reference) tool. The tool diameter specied must be larger than the current tool. Overlap Distance enables you to extend the width of the area dened by the Reference Tool Diameter along the tangent surfaces. Steep enables the use of steepness to control the cut regions and their cut directions. As in Area Milling drive method, Steep Containment allows the restriction of the cut area based on the steepness of the tool path. Steepness is dened by specifying a Steep Angle and a Steep or Non-Steep option. Cut direction is dened by specifying a Steep Cut or Non-Steep Cut Direction. You can also choose to machine ow cuts on both sides alternatively with a rounded or standard turn at each end, or machine side by side from the steep side to non-steep side.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

Activity: Creating Fixed Contour Operations


The following activity creates simple Fixed Contour rough and nish operations. You will rst review a Cavity Milling operation that was used to rough the majority of the part. You will then create Contour Area operations that will semi-nish and nish the part. Finally, you will use Flow Cut operations, using a Reference Tool, to remove stock that remained from previous operations. Step 1: Open the part le, rename and enter the Manufacturing application. Open the part male_cover_mfg_3.

Save As ***_male_cover_mfg_3. Enter the Manufacturing application and display the Operation Navigator. Step 2: Review the Cavity Milling roughing operation. This part le contains a Cavity Milling operation that rough cuts the part. Highlight the ROUGH_CM operation, using MB3, choose REPLAY. Note that a number of .250 steps were left in the material as a result of the specied Cut Level. Also, .050 Floor and Side Stock were specied in the operation.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

Refresh the display. You will create a Fixed Contour operation to semi-nish machine the part. Step 3: Create a Fixed Contour operation to semi-nish the part. Choose the Create Operation icon. If necessary, change the Type to mill_contour. In the Create Operation dialog, set: Program to MALE_COVER Use Geometry to WORKPIECE Use Tool to BALLMILL-1.00 Use Method to MILL_ROUGH

Choose the CONTOUR_AREA icon. Enter the Name as rough_fc.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

Choose OK. The Contour Area dialog is displayed.

Under the Geometry label, choose Display for the Part and Check geometry. You will use most of the default settings of the Area Milling Method to create a roughing tool path. Under the Drive Method label, choose Area Milling. The Area Milling Method dialog is displayed.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

Set the following options: Pattern to Parallel Lines

Cut Type to Zig Zag Cut Angle to Automatic Stepover to Tool Diameter Percent to 25

Choose OK.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

Generate the tool path and expect warning messages.

Choose OK to all warning messages.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

Choose the List icon to list the tool path. Note that the listing contains many warnings of Interference between the cutter and the Check geometry. You will see messages similar to the one shown below.

Close the listing window. Choose OK to accept the operation. Step 4: Create a Fixed Contour nishing operation using the Contour Area operation type. Choose the Create Operation icon. Choose the CONTOUR_AREA icon.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

In the Create Operation dialog, set the following: Program to MALE_COVER Use Geometry to WORKPIECE Use Tool to BALLMILL-1.00 Use Method to MILL_FINISH

Enter the Name as nish_fc.

Choose OK. The CONTOUR_AREA dialog is displayed. Under the Geometry label, choose Display for the Part and Check geometry. Note that the part geometry as well as the check geometry representing pins, bolts and the surface plate are displayed. Under the Drive Method label, choose Area Milling. The Area Milling Method dialog is displayed.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

Set the following options: Pattern to Follow Periphery Tool motion to Outward Stepover to Constant Distance to .030

Choose OK. The next action will prevent the Warning message from appearing. Choose the Cutting button. Choose the Clearances tab.

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Change the When Gouging option to Retract.

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Choose OK.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

Generate the tool path.

Your tool path should look similar to the above. Note that Warnings were not generated and the tool path follows the contour of the part. Choose OK to accept the tool path. Step 5: Create a Flow Cut nishing operation. The tool could not t into some areas of the part geometry because of tool size. You will use a Flow Cut operation and a smaller tool to remove uncut areas. Choose the Create Operation icon. Choose the FLOWCUT_REF_TOOL icon. In the Create Operation dialog, set: Program to MALE_COVER Use Geometry to WORKPIECE Use Tool to BALLMILL-0.500 Use Method to MILL_FINISH

Enter the Name as ow_fc.


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Choose OK. The FLOWCUT_REF_TOOL dialog is displayed.

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Under the Geometry label, Display the Part and Check geometry. Note that on the dialog there is no Drive Method label since Flow Cut is the Drive Method. Step 6: Change the Reference Tool setting. You will change the Reference Tool setting. The previous tool used was a 1.00 diameter tool.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

Enter 1.00 in the Ref. Tool Diameter value eld.

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Step 7: Generating the tool path.

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Choose the Generate icon.

Note that the area being cut is in reference to the 1.000 Reference Tool diameter. Choose OK. Step 8: Create a nish Planar Milling Prole pass. You have nish machined the core part except for the tapered outer edge. The geometry is planar and requires a nish cut; therefore, you will use a Planar Milling operation to generate the tool path. The MILL_BND geometry parent group, which contains the geometry needed for the prole pass, has already been created for you. Choose the Create Operation icon. Choose mill_planar as the Type. Choose the PLANAR_PROFILE icon.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

Set the following: Program to MALE_COVER Use Geometry to MILL_BND Use Tool to DRAFTED_ENDMILL Use Method to MILL_FINISH

Enter the Name as nish_pm.

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Choose OK. The PLANAR_PROFILE dialog is displayed.

Choose the Display button. This Parent Group (MILL_BND) contains the outer edge Part boundary and the part Floor. Remember, this is a Planar Milling operation, which uses boundary geometry You normally use a MILL_BND Parent Group for Planar Milling operations
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If necessary, set the Cut Depth to Floor Only for a single depth of cut. The other default PLANAR_PROFILE settings will be used to demonstrate this operation. Generate the tool path. Note that the tool cuts the outer boundary and forms the tapered wall joining the part to the plate.

Choose OK to accept the operation. Save the part le.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

Non-Cutting Moves
Fixed Contour operations uses Non-Cutting Moves for control of the tool when not physically cutting metal.

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There are ve individual cases when the tool is not physically cutting metal. They are: Initial Case - At the beginning of the operation, controls how the tool moves from its present position to cutting metal Final Case - At the end of the operation, controls how the tool moves from its last cutting move to a safe position above the work piece Check Case - When the encountering check geometry, determines how the tool retracts from the work piece and moves to a new cutting position Reposition Case - controls how the tool retracts and re-engages the work piece when there are gaps in the part geometry Local Case - When the tool has to leave the part surface to complete the step over for the next pass, this determines what action will be taken

The Case is specied at the top of the Non-Cutting Moves dialog.

Each Case has up to ve moves that can be specied. The Moves are: Retract Move - controls how the tool disengages from the work piece Departure Move - Once the tool has retracted, controls how the tool moves to a safe clearance area Traverse - move from the current position to a safe area above the next engage position Approach Move - controls movement into position for engage motion Engage Move - controls how the tool engages into the work piece

To avoid having you manually set all moves for all cases, the Default case was created. This case has all the moves that the other cases have. Each move has been pre-dened for the most common machining situation. Additionally, all other cases have been assigned to use the Default case.
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Fixed Contour Operation Types

To use Non-Cutting Moves: Create a Fixed Contour operation Set all Cutting Parameters necessary (Drive Method, stepover, etc.) Generate the operation Examine the default Non-Cutting moves If necessary, edit the Non-Cutting moves and change only the affected moves

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Activity: Using Non-Cutting Moves


This activity teaches you how to use the various Non-Cutting Moves options. Step 1: Continue using the part le. Continue using the ***_male_cover_mfg_3 part.

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Choose the Create Operation icon. The Type should be set to mill_contour. Choose the CONTOUR_AREA icon. Set: Program to MALE_COVER Use Geometry to WORKPIECE Use Tool to ENDMILL-2.00-.125 Use Method to MILL_ROUGH

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Enter the Name as non_cutting_fc.

Choose OK. Step 2: Generate the default tool path. The CONTOUR_AREA dialog is displayed. The Drive Method is Area Milling.

Also note, the geometry that you specied is WORKPIECE, which is a MILL_GEOM Parent Group for contour geometry. Under the Geometry label, Display the Part, and Check geometry to verify the geometry selections. For easier visualization, set the Tool Display to Off.

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Choose the Cutting button and then select the Clearances tab.

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If necessary, change the When Gouging parameter to Skip. Choose OK on the Cut Parameters dialog. Choose the Edit Parameters icon then change the Pattern to Follow Periphery. Change the Inward radio button to Outward. Choose OK. Generate the tool path. Note the Non-Cutting move to the Automatic Clearance Plane. The move is represented as the dashed vertical line.

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Fixed Contour Operation Types

Step 3:

Specify Non-Cutting Moves. On the CONTOUR_FOLLOW dialog, choose the Non-Cutting option.

Note that the Case is set to Default.

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Also Note: The Engage icon is highlighted by default

The Engage Status is Manual The movement is Linear

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Choose the Approach icon. A default Automatic Clearance plane is created at a safe distance above the highest area of the Part and Check geometry.

Next you will change the default setting from Automatic Clearance to Clearance. Choose Clearance from the Approach Status pull-down menu. Choose the Departure icon. Again, a default Automatic Clearance plane is created at a safe distance above the highest area of the Part and Check geometry.

You will now change the default setting from Automatic Clearance to Clearance. Choose Clearance from the Approach Status menu. Choose OK. Generate and review the tool path to verify that the clearance plane moves are correct. Note that the tool path engages the part in a linear motion. The preferred method of engagement is a circular ramping motion. Step 4: Change the Engage move. Choose the Non-Cutting button. You are still setting options for the Default case.
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Fixed Contour Operation Types

Choose the Engage icon. The Engage Status should be Manual by default. Change Movement to Arc Tangent to Approach. Change Radius Type to Radius. Enter .375 for the Radius. The Retract Status setting will be set to Use Engage by default. This can be veried by choosing the Retract icon. Choose OK and return to the CONTOUR_AREA dialog. Generate the tool path.

Step 5:

Change other Non-Cutting options. On your own, explore the various Non-Cutting options, change various ones and generate tool paths to see the effects. Save and close the part le.

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Summary
This lesson introduced you to Fixed Contour operations that gives you the ability to machine complex contour geometry with numerous options. In this lesson you: Created Area Milling and Flow Cut operations. Made extensive use of the MILL_GEOM and MILL_BND parent group. Created non-cutting moves to control cutter movements to and from the part during the machining process.

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Lesson

Introduction to Four and Five Axis Machining

Purpose This lesson introduces the application of machining parts utilizing 4 and 5 axis machining principles. Objective At the conclusion of this lesson, you will be able to: Create tool paths for 4-axis positioning and contouring operations. Properly place the MCS for multi-axis operations.

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Introduction to Four and Five Axis Machining

Multi-Axis Machining Concepts


The majority of what NC/CNC programmers term as "multi-axis" can actually be considered planar or xed axis machining. The spindle axis, on some machines, is not normal to the Z direction of the machine tool and the actual machining does not force a change in any motion of the rotary axis. This case considers using the rotary axis for positioning mode only. Programming of this type of operation is relatively simple, once you understand some of the more basic concepts of multi-axis machining. Some concepts for considerations are: NX always requires a tool axis; if one is not specied, the default tool axis is equal to the Z of the MCS (sometimes referred to by the vector of 0,0,1) Fixed-Axis machining with a tool axis other than (0,0,1) involves setting the tool axis to the proper orientation Most, if not all, NX multi-axis operations work with a tool axis other than + Zc 0,0,1 When performing multi-axis machining, never assume the tool axis is currently correct; always make sure you specify the proper tool axis if it is not 0,0,1 Prior to rotation of the table to a new position, verify the tool has been retracted far enough to clear the part/xture during rotational moves It is a recommended practice to return the tool axis back to (0,0,1) at the end of the operation. Clearance Planes are also suggested.

The following activity requires you to generate a tool path at other than a normal tool axis of (0,0,1).

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Activity: Operations at Other Than 0,0,1 Tool Axis


In this activity, you will machine the top and two angled areas of a sleeve collar used in a yoke mechanism. All necessary Parent objects have been created and the part has been previously roughed. The operations which you will create will nish mill the top and two angled faces of the part. Step 1: Open an existing part le and enter the Manufacturing application. Open the part le, collar_mfg.

Choose StartManufacturing.

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Choose the Operation Navigator tab from the resource bar.

The Operation Navigator and the part are displayed. Step 2: Create the nishing operation. The operation, ROUGHING, already exists to rough the pad at the top of the part. You will now create the operation to nish that particular pad. Choose the Create Operation icon from the toolbar. If necessary, set the Type to mill_planar. Choose FACE_MILLING as the operation type. Choose the following Parent objects:

Program: FIXED_AXIS Geometry: NORMAL_FACE Tool: EM-1.00-0 Method: MILL_FINISH Note that the geometry parent contains a boundary that describes the top face of the part. The oor plane is set to the top face. Also note that the tool used in this operation is a 1.00" diameter end mill with 0" corner radius. Since this operation is used for nishing, no machining stock will be left by the Method parent object. Key in top_face as the name of the operation. Choose OK. The FACE_MILLING dialog is displayed.
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Change the Cut Method to Follow Periphery and the Stepover Percent to 50.

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Generate the operation and then choose OK from the Display Parameters dialog. The generated tool path is displayed. Choose OK to accept the operation. Step 3: Verify the results. You will now verify the results by using Tool Path Visualization. If required, change to the Program Order View of the Operation Navigator.

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Highlight the FIXED_AXIS program object.

Choose the Verify Toolpath icon

from the toolbar.

Choose the 2D Dynamic tab from the Tool Path Visualization dialog.

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Choose the Play button from the bottom of the dialog.

Two operations will be replayed. The rst operation is used for roughing, the second is the nish operation that you just created.

Verifying the operation indicates the tool path to be acceptable, you will now continue with the next operation. Choose Cancel from the Tool Path Visualization dialog. Step 4: Create the rst angled-face operation. You will copy and rename the existing operation, TOP_FACE, to use as a template for creating the next operation.

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Introduction to Four and Five Axis Machining

Highlight the TOP_FACE operation and choose MB3Copy.

Choose MB3Paste. A copy of the previous operation is created, with the name TOP_FACE_COPY. You will now rename the operation to ANGLE_FACE_1. Change the name of the new operation by highlighting the TOP_FACE_COPY operation, choosing MB3Rename, then typing ANGLE_FACE_1. You will now change the geometry parent object. Double-click on the ANGLE_FACE_1 operation.

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Choose the Groups property page.

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Choose the Geometry radio button at the top of the dialog, then choose Reselect.

The Reselect Geometry dialog is displayed.

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Introduction to Four and Five Axis Machining

Choose ANGLE_FACE_1 from the pull-down list.

Choose OK. Choose the Main property page from the FACE_MILLING dialog. Choose Generate. Choose OK on the Display Parameters dialog. The Operation Parameter Error dialog is displayed.

This dialog is informing you that the operation type, FACE_MILLING, will not work unless the tool axis is set normal to the oor axis. You will now redene the tool axis normal to the oor. Choose OK from the Operation Parameter Error dialog.

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Choose the Machine button located on the FACE_MILLING dialog.

The Machine Control dialog is displayed. As described earlier, there is always a dened tool axis. In this particular case, the tool axis is the same as the Z of the MCS (the denition of "+ZM Axis"). You will now change the tool axis to one that is normal to the oor plane of the ANGLE_FACE_1 geometry parent object. Choose the Tool Axis pull-down arrow.

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Choose Specify Vector from the list.

The Vector Constructor dialog is displayed. From the Vector Constructor dialog, choose the Face Normal icon.

Note that Face Normal means to set the vector perpendicular to the face.

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Select the angled face as shown in the following gure. Hint: You may need to blank the stock component to select the proper face, by using the Assembly Navigator.

Choose OK until the FACE_MILLING dialog is displayed. Generate the operation. Step 5: Verify the results. Use Verication to verify your tool path (refer to Step 3 for detailed instructions). Step 6: Create the second angled face operation. You will use the copy/paste features of the Operation Navigator to create the third nish operation. Highlight the ANGLE_FACE_1 operation. Choose MB3 Copy. Choose MB3Paste. Change the name of the new operation to ANGLE_FACE_2. Edit the operation by doubling-clicking on ANGLE_FACE_2. Choose the Groups property page.
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Choose the Geometry radio button at the top of the dialog, then choose Reselect. The Reselect Geometry dialog is displayed. Choose ANGLE_FACE_2, as the geometry parent, from the pull-down list. Choose OK. Choose the Machine button located on the FACE_MILLING dialog. The Machine Control dialog is displayed. Select the Tool Axis pull-down arrow. Choose Specify Vector. The Vector Constructor dialog is displayed. From the Vector Constructor dialog, choose the Face Normal icon. Select the angled face as shown in the following gure.

Choose OK until the FACE_MILLING dialog is displayed. Choose Generate.


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Choose OK on the Display Parameters dialog. Choose OK on the FACE_MILLING dialog to save the operation. Step 7: Verify the results. Use Verication to verify the tool path. Close the part le without saving.

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Introduction to Four and Five Axis Machining

Dening the Center of Rotation for a Rotary Axis


To machine about a rotary axis, the position of the rotary axis must be dened. There are two methods to accomplish this: Place the WCS/MCS at the center of axis rotation. For a 4 or 5 axis machine tool, position the Main MCS at the center of rotation of the 4th or 5th axis. Designate the MCS as a geometry group, consisting of both a Main and Local MCS. This is used by the NX/POST post processor as either xture offsets or machine tool zero data.

Placing the MCS at the Center of Axis Rotation Position the part on the xture in a normal position. Place the MCS at the center of rotation of the fourth axis. At the machine tool, the operator will then set the rotary table center as the zero point. Advantages: Simplest method to use and deploy Considerably less work for the NC/CNC programmer

Disadvantages: Output in created program does not match output or dimensions on part print Adjustment of xtures may require some type of reprogramming

Designate the MCS as a Geometry Group, Consisting of Both a Main and Local MCS The programmer designates the purpose of the coordinate system as either Main or Local in the geometry group. When post processing, using the local MCS, the data of the Main and Local coordinate system are used and the output will then match the print dimensions. If the coordinate system is designated Local, then a special output parameter can be specied for the coordinate system. The options available are:
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None Use the Main MCS Fixture Offset CSYS rotation


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The default setting is Fixture Offset. The designated option setting is then passed to the post processor, along with the Main and Local coordinate system to output the appropriate xture offset values (G54...G59). The post processor needs to be modied for this action to occur. Advantages: Output in the program matches the part print Fixture adjustments can be solved by changing the Main and Local designation

Disadvantages: Programmer needs to understand the complexities associated with use of the Main and Local coordinate system and the options provided May be more confusing for machine operators Machine tool post processor must be set up to obtain the correct output

The following activity will address using a Main and Local MCS.

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Introduction to Four and Five Axis Machining

Activity: Main and Local MCS in Multi-Axis Applications


In this activity, you will use the Main and Local MCS, which is used by the post processor for formatting output used at the machine tool. The part le has the main and local MCS already created for you. The Main MCS is set where the machine zero would be. When you list the tool paths, the output is based on the Local MCS. When you post the program, the output of the tool paths, with their respective X, Y, and Z values, are based upon the Main MCS. Step 1: Open the part le and enter the Manufacturing application. Open the part le t_stone_mfg_assm.

Save the part as ***_t_stone_mfg_assm. If necessary, choose StartManufacturing. Step 2: Examine the Local and Main coordinate systems. If required, change to the Geometry view of the Operation Navigator.

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Expand the WORKPIECE group object and all subsequent objects contained within the WORKPIECE parent.

You will notice that the WORKPIECE parent contains three different MCS coordinate systems. You will now examine each individual one.

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Double-click on the MCS_MAIN group object. The MCS dialog is displayed. Select the green More Options arrow to see the Coordinate System Purpose options.

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Note that the Coordinate System Purpose selected is Main.

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Choose OK. Double-click on the MCS_000 group object. The MCS dialog is displayed. Choose the green More Options if necessary arrow to see the coordinate system purpose options.

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Note that the Coordinate System Purpose selected is Local, the Special Output is set to Use Main MCS, and the Fixture Offset is set to 1. Choose OK. Double-click on the MCS_090 group object. Choose the green More Options if necessary arrow to see the coordinate system purpose options. Note that the Coordinate System Purpose selected is Local, the Special Output is also set to Use Main MCS, and the Fixture Offset is set to 2. Choose OK. You will now list the tool paths for the existing operations that use the Local MCS and observe that the X, Y and Z values are output from the Local MCS. Step 3: Examine the tool path listing. Highlight the FM_001 operation, replay and list the tool path.
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Highlight the FM_002 operation, replay and list the tool path. You will now post process the operations and note that the X, Y and Z values are based on the MAIN MCS. Step 4: Post process the existing operations and examine the output. Change to the Program Order view in the Operation Navigator. Highlight the T_STONE parent group. Choose the Postprocess icon. The Postprocess dialog is displayed.

Using the Browse button under Available Machines, browse to your parts directory and select the mcs_purpose.pui post processor. Choose OK. Choose Apply on the Postprocess dialog.
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If necessary, choose OK to the Path Out of Date dialog. The posted output is displayed.

Notice the values for the X, Y and Z axes.

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Step 5:

Cancel the Postprocess dialog. You will now modify the local MCS so the output is from the local MCS. Change to the Geometry view of the Operation Navigator.

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Edit the MCS_000 parent group and change the Special Output to Fixture Offset.

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Choose OK. Repeat the above step action item for MCS_90 . Choose OK. Change to the Program Order view of the Operation Navigator. Highlight the T_STONE parent group.

Choose the Postprocess icon. The Postprocess dialog is displayed. If necessary, browse to your home directory and select the mcs_purpose.pui postprocessor. Choose OK.
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Choose Apply on the Postprocess dialog. If necessary, choose OK to the Path Out of Date dialog. If necessary, choose OK to overwrite Output File dialog. The posted output is displayed.

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Notice the values for the X, Y and Z axes and compare with the previously posted output. The tool path is now output from the local MCS. Close the part le without saving.

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Activity: Main and Local MCS in Multi-Axis Applications


In this activity, you will use the Main and Local MCS, which is used by the post processor for formatting output used at the machine tool. The part le has the main and local MCS already created for you. The Main MCS is set where the machine zero would be, the same as if you were using an ORIGIN statement to govern the output. When you list the tool paths, all have the same X, Y, and Z values since they are based on the Local MCS. When you post the program, the output of the three tool paths, with their respective X, Y, and Z values, are based upon the Main MCS. Step 1: Open the part le and enter the Manufacturing application. Open the part le mcs_local_main.

Save the part as ***_mcs_local_main. If necessary, choose StartManufacturing. Step 2: Examine the Local and Main coordinate systems.
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If required, change to the Geometry view of the Operation Navigator. Expand the WORKPIECE group object and all subsequent objects contained within the WORKPIECE parent.

You will notice that the WORKPIECE parent contains four different MCS coordinate systems. You will now examine each individual one.

Double-click on the MCS_MAIN group object. The MCS dialog is displayed. Choose the More Options arrow.

Note that the Coordinate System Purpose selected is Main. Choose OK. Double-click on the MCS_000 group object. The MCS dialog is displayed. Choose the More Options arrow.
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Note that the Coordinate System Purpose selected is Local and that Special Output is set to Use Main MCS. Choose OK. Double-click on the MCS_090 group object. The MCS dialog is displayed. Choose the More Options arrow.

Note that the Coordinate System Purpose selected is Local and that Special Output is set to Use Main MCS. Choose OK. Double-click on the MCS_180 group object. Choose the More Options arrow.

Note that the Coordinate System Purpose selected is Local and that Special Output is set to Use Main MCS.

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Choose OK. You will now list the tool paths for the existing operations that use the Local MCS and observe that the X, Y and Z values are the same for each one. Step 3: Examine the tool path listing. Highlight the PROFILE_000 operation, replay and list the tool path. Highlight the PROFILE_090 operation, replay and list the tool path. Highlight the PROFILE_180 operation, replay and list the tool path. Note that all the X, Y and Z values are the same. You will now post process the three operations and note that the X, Y and Z values are based on the MAIN MCS. Step 4: Post process the existing operations and examine the output. Change to the Program Order view in the Operation Navigator.

Highlight the TT1346-AA parent group.

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Choose the Postprocess icon. The Postprocess dialog is displayed.

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Using the Browse button under Available Machines, browse to your parts directory and select the mam_mcs_mill.pui post processor.

Choose OK. Choose Apply on the Postprocess dialog.

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If necessary, choose OK to the Path Out of Date dialog. The posted output is displayed.

Notice the values for the X, Y and Z axes. You will now modify the local MCS by adding xture offsets and will re-post the operations. Cancel the Postprocess dialog. Step 5: Modify the Local MCS by adding xture offsets and re-posting the operations. Change to the Geometry view of the Operation Navigator.

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Highlight the MCS_000 parent group, key in 1 for the Fixture Offset and change the Special Output to Fixture Offset.

Repeat the above step action item for MCS_90 and MCS_180 parent groups, using 2 as the xture offset for the MCS_90 parent group and 3 as the xture offset for the MCS_180 parent group. Choose OK. Change to the Program Order view of the Operation Navigator. Highlight the TT1346-AA parent group.

Choose the Postprocess icon. The Postprocess dialog is displayed. If necessary, browse to your home directory and select the mam_mcs_mill.pui postprocessor. Choose OK. Choose Apply on the Postprocess dialog. If necessary, choose OK to the Path Out of Date dialog.

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If necessary, choose OK to overwrite Output File dialog. The posted output is displayed.

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Notice the values for the X, Y and Z axes and compare with the previously posted output. Also note the G54, G55 and G56 that is used for xture offsets. Close the part le without saving.

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Summary
The majority of "multi-axis" machining can actually be considered to be planar or xed axis in nature. The spindle axis, on some machines, is not normal to the Z direction of the machine tool and the actual machining does not force a change in rotation of the rotary axis. Designation of tool axis and MCS is crucial to perform this type of work. In this lesson you: Performed planar type machining at a tool axis other than (0,0,1). Specied the MCS at the center of rotation for multi-axis machining.

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Lesson

Sequential Mill Basics


Purpose Sequential Mill operations allow you to machine contoured parts by cutting from one surface to the next in a sequence of moves referred to as suboperations. These suboperation types allow the exibility to completely control cutter movements to obtain desired results. Objective Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to: use Sequential Mill operations to create multi-axis tool paths create Sequential Mill rough and nish operations

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Sequential Mill Basics

Sequential Milling Overview


Sequential Milling operations are an alternative to Fixed or Variable Contour operations used for nishing 3, 4, and 5-axis parts. You normally use Fixed and Variable Contour operations to nish cut areas using area tool motion. Sequential Milling operations are used to nish cut part edges using linear tool motion. You can area machine using Sequential Mill, however, the area is usually limited to an offset from a single drive surface or a single part surface (or both). Sequential Mill also provides tool axis control capabilities in maintaining a tool position relative to drive and part geometry, recognizing multiple check surfaces.

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Sequential Milling Terminology


The following terms pertain to Sequential Milling: Part surface controls the bottom of the tool Drive surface controls the side of the tool Check surface controls the tool stopping position

In the above illustration, the tool is in contact with the Part, Drive and Check surfaces. The bottom of the tool follows the Part surface, the side of the tool follows the Drive surface until the tool contacts the Check surface. Before you specify the part, drive, and check geometry, you must indicate where the tool will stop. You have four possible choices: Near Side indicates that the tool will stop when it reaches the closest side of the specied part relative to the current tool position Far Side indicates that the tool will stop when it reaches the farthest side of the specied part relative to the current tool position On indicates that the tool will stop when its center axis reaches the edge of the specied part relative to the current tool position Ds-Cs Tangency and Ps-Cs Tangency indicates that the tool will stop when it is at the position that the drive (or part) surface is tangent to the check surface

Note that when a wall is tangent to a corner radius and the tool will contact that tangency, you must choose this option. Otherwise, you must choose the Near Side, Far Side or On condition. UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 7-3

Sequential Mill Basics

You must initially specify a tool Reference Point position to determine the side of the drive, part, and check geometry for tool placement. This establishes direction only. Once you specify the Reference Point, you can specify the tool starting position as the Near Side, Far Side, or On the Drive, Part, or Check geometry.

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Sequential Mill Basics

The Sequential Mill dialog Allows you to: add stock to all drive and part surfaces specify a Minimum Clearance value to be used in Engage and Retract suboperations add Corner Control specify Path Generation which determines whether the tool path is output for each suboperation Multi-axis output

After you set the Sequential Mill operation options you can create a suboperation to control tool motion. Suboperations are individual tool motions. The four different types of suboperations are Engage, Continuous Path, Point to Point and Retract motion.

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Normally, you will use these suboperations in sequential order. initially, specify an Engage move then, specify Continuous Path motions at the end of the tool path, specify a Point to Point and then a Retract move

After creating or editing an operation, you choose End Operation either generate the tool path, or save the operation without tool path generation. The Engage Motion The Engage Motion suboperation denes where the tool initially contacts the part. This is usually the rst suboperation dialog which you will encounter.

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(1) Insert or modify suboperations (2) toggles between 4 types of suboperations (3) list of suboperations (4) replay, list or delete highlighted suboperation (5) change engage feed rate (6) relative tool position (required) (7) specify geometry (required) (8) specify tool axis (9) display tool at current location

The Continuous Path Motion dialog After engaging the part, the tool motion is determined by a series of Continuous Path Motion (CPM) suboperations. Each tool move requires specic Drive, Part and Check geometry: Drive geometry controls the side of the cutter

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Sequential Mill Basics

Part geometry controls the bottom of the cutter Check geometry stops the cut movement

The cutter moves along the drive and part geometry until it reaches check geometry. (1) specify tool direction (2) must be specied (3) number of check surfaces

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The Point To Point Motion dialog The Point to Point dialog enables you to create linear, non-cutting moves. It is used to move the tool to another position where continuous path motions can then continue. You may or may not need to use this dialog when creating Sequential Mill operations. (1) specify special traverse feed rate (2) denes the way the tool will move to the next location

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Sequential Mill Basics

The Retract Motion dialog The Retract Motion dialog enables you to create a non-cutting move from the part to the avoidance geometry or to a dened retract point. It is similar to the Engage Motion dialog. (1) type of retract move (2) feed rate control for feed rate move

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Sequential Mill Basics

Dening the Check Surfaces


When you are creating a Continuous Path Motion suboperation, you must dene one or more Check Surfaces.

By default, the Check Surface for one suboperation becomes the Drive Surface for the next suboperation. This often saves you from having to specify the Drive Surface. The Part Surface, is by default, the same for each suboperation throughout the tool path. This also saves you from having to specify the Part Surface. Normally, you only need to specify the Check Surface in each suboperation. (1) type of geometry used for Check surface (2) add stock or dene the tool position with respect to Check geometry (3) action to take after suboperation (4) navigating through multiple Check surface dialogs

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Sequential Mill Basics

Multiple Check Surfaces


In a Continuous Path Motion command the cutter moves along the Drive and Part Surface until it reaches a Check Surface. If you specify more than one Check Surface (multiple check surfaces), motion continues until the tool reaches the rst of the possible stopping positions. You can dene up to ve Check Surfaces for each Continuous Path Motion suboperation. After you have dened the rst Check Surface, you are automatically prompted to dene the next Check Surface.

The following activities will familiarize you with Sequential Mill operations.

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Activity: Basic Sequential Milling Techniques


In this activity, you will use basic interactions necessary to create Sequential Milling operations. You will drive a tool around a simple part, create several suboperations, and establish Drive, Part, and Check geometry used in the various operations. Step 1: Open and rename an existing part le and then enter the Manufacturing application. Open the part le box_mfg. This part is programmed in the context of an assembly. The top-level component, box_mfg contains all of the manufacturing data. The box_stock le contains a WAVE-linked representation of the raw material and the box le contains the part that is to be machined.

The raw material le, box_stock, has been hidden from the display. Rename the part to ***_box_mfg. Enter the Manufacturing application. The necessary Parent Groups (i.e. Geometry, Machine, Program and Method) have already been created for you.
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Sequential Mill Basics

Step 2:

Create a Sequential Milling operation. Choose the Create Operation icon The Create Operation dialog is displayed.

If necessary, change the Type to mill_multi-axis.

Choose Sequential_Mill as the subtype.

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Set the Parent objects as shown and name the operation SM_1:

Choose OK. The Sequential Mill dialog is displayed. This dialog allows the input of basic global parameters that are active throughout the operation (unless changed in an suboperation).

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Sequential Mill Basics

Choose the Display Options button.

The Display Options dialog is displayed.

Change the Tool Display to 3-D and the Path Display Speed to 9. Choose OK.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Choose the Default Feed Rates button.

The Feeds and Speeds dialog is displayed.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Choose the Reset from Table button. Based on the tool material, part material and number of cutter utes, the feeds and speeds will be recalculated and reset. Choose OK until you return to the Sequential Mill dialog. The global parameters are now set. The Sequential Milling dialogs behave somewhat differently than other operation dialogs that you are normally familiar with. Normally, for any operation, choosing OK from the main dialog would save the operation, which would be subsequently displayed in the Operation Navigator. In Sequential Milling, however, choosing OK from the main dialog results in the suboperation dialog being displayed. This is where the actual programming process takes place. Choose OK from the Sequential Mill dialog. The Engage Motion suboperation dialog is displayed. By default, the suboperation dialog is set to Engage.

To properly determine the tools current location for Near Side/Far Side, establish a Pt to Pt motion as the rst suboperation.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Change the motion from Engage to Pt to Pt.

The dialog changes to match Point to Point motion. You will now establish the tool position, specifying both the position of the tool and the tool axis. Change the Motion Method to Point, Tool Axis. The Point Constructor dialog is displayed. Change the Offset from None to Rectangular. Note that using a Rectangular Offset allows an X, Y and Z delta offset from the point chosen.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Choose the corner of the ledge, as shown.

The Point Constructor dialog has changed to allow the input of delta values from the point selected. Key in the following values:

Delta XC 1.00 Delta YC -1.00 Delta ZC 1.00 Choose OK. The Vector Constructor dialog is displayed. You will accept the default tool axis vector of 0,0,1 which is the same as the Z coordinate of the WCS. Choose OK. The Point to Point suboperation is complete. By choosing OK, the suboperation will be placed in the sub-op list and you will be ready to create the next suboperation.
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Sequential Mill Basics

Choose OK. You will now dene the Engage component. Change to an Engage suboperation.

The Engage Motion dialog is displayed. This dialog requires Drive, Part and Check geometry. Additionally, you may specify an engage method. You will specify the geometry rst and then the Engage method. Choose the Geometry button from the Engage Motion dialog.

The Engage Geometry dialog is displayed. The defaults are set to Drive geometry, the Type is Face and the Stopping Position is Near Side. You will now select the Drive geometry.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Select the face as shown.

The geometry selection on the dialog advances to Part geometry.

You will now select the Part geometry.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Select the bottom of the pocket as the Part geometry.

The geometry selection on the dialog advances to Check geometry.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Select the face, as shown below, as the Check geometry.

As soon as the last geometry is selected, the dialog reverts to the Engage Motion suboperation. You will now specify the Engage motion.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Choose the Engage Method button from the Engage Motion dialog.

The Engage Method dialog is displayed. Change the Method to Vector Only. The Vector Constructor dialog is displayed. Key in the following values: I=-1.000 J= 1.000 K=-1.000

Choose OK.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Key in 0.500 in the Distance eld of the Engage Method dialog.

Change the Clearance Move to None.

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Choose OK twice. The second suboperation, 2 Eng, is created. The tool side is now positioned tangent to Drive and Check geometry and tangent to the Part geometry with the bottom of the tool.

You will now create a Continuous Path Motion suboperation. The arrow displayed at the bottom of the tool indicates the direction of the next cut. In this case the direction is correct. If the arrow was pointed in another direction, it would have been necessary to change direction by using the Direction option.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Notice the defaults for Drive Surf and Part Surf.

The Drive Surf is set to the Previous ds (drive surface). The Part Surf is set to the Previous ps (part surface). It will be necessary to set the Check surface. Choose the Check Surfaces button.

The Check Surfaces No. 1 dialog is displayed. You are now ready to select the rst (in this case, the only) Check surface. As soon as the surface is selected, the dialog advances to Check Surface No. 2. It is important to specify any changes to the dialog before the surface is selected. Note that the current Drive surface is tangent to the next surface that the tool will drive to. A stopping position of Near Side is incorrect. You will change the stopping position to Drive Surface/Check Surface Tangency.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Change the Stopping Position to Ds-Cs Tangency.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Select the Blend face as shown.

There will not be a second Check surface to select. Choose OK in the Check Surface dialog. Choose OK in the Continuous Path Motion dialog. The third suboperation, 3 cpm, has been created. You will now create another CPM suboperation. The processor has automatically forwarded the Drive surface to the previous Check surface. It has also kept the previous Part surface as the new Part surface. The Direction of Motion Vector setting is correct. You need to choose a new Check surface.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Choose the Check Surfaces button. The object type of face is correct as well as the Stopping Position of Ds-Cs Tangency. Select the face as shown.

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Choose OK in the Check surface dialog.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Choose OK in the Continuous Path Motion dialog. The suboperation, 4 cpm, is now placed in the dialog list.

Sequential Mill is now ready for the next suboperation. Once again, the defaults are correct. You only need to choose a new Check surface. Choose the Check Surfaces button.

This time, the Stopping Position of Ds-Cs Tangency is incorrect. You will change it to Far Side, so that the tool is completely off the Part surface, prior to stopping.

Change the Stopping Position to Far Side.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Select the surface as shown below.

Choose OK in the Check Surface dialog. Choose OK in the Continuous Path Motion dialog. The suboperation, 5 cpm, is now placed in the dialog list. The machining operation is complete. You will now retract the tool a safe distance from the work piece.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Change the suboperation to Retract.

The Retract Motion dialog is displayed. Choose the Retract Method button.

The Retract Method dialog is displayed. Change the Method from None to Vector Only.

The Vector Constructor dialog is displayed. Key in the following values: I= 1.000 J= -1.000 K= 1.000
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Sequential Mill Basics

Choose OK. Key in 0.500 in the Distance eld of the Retract Method dialog. Choose OK. Choose OK in the suboperation dialog. The suboperation, 6 Ret, is now placed in the list.

The tool retracts to the clearance plane. Programming of the wall is complete. The End Operation button will complete the process. Choose the End Operation button.

To observe the tool path, refresh the screen and display the tool path. In the graphics window, use MB3Refresh.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Choose Redisplay Tool Path from the End Operation dialog.

The tool path is displayed.

Choose OK from the End Operation dialog. Save and Close the part le.

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More on Check Surfaces


In the previous activity, you used the same Part surface for each Continuous Path Motion suboperation. The suboperation ended after the tool moved along the Drive surface to the Check surface. The Check surface then became the Drive surface for the next suboperation and the Continuous Path Motion dialog anticipated this choice by selecting Previous Check Surface as the Drive surface at the beginning of each Continuous Path Motion suboperation. It is also possible to exchange the Part surface for the next Check surface. One consideration that should be made when exchanging the Check surface as the new Part surface is the Stopping Position. If the Check surface is tangent to the present Part surface and PS-CS Tangency is chosen, the front edge of the cutting tool will be positioned to prevent gouging of the tool into the Check surface. This may cause the tool to be Out of Position to the new Part surface at the beginning of the next move. To compensate for this action, it may become necessary to drive the tool on to the Check surface, even though a tangency condition exists. In the following activity, the Drive and Part surfaces, as well as the Check geometry will change throughout the operation as you generate the tool path. You will see that the Check surface in a current suboperation can become the Part surface, as well as the Drive surface, in the next suboperation. You will also see that the processor is able to anticipate your choice for Drive and Part surfaces in Continuous Path Motion suboperations, so that you only need to specify the Check surface(s). When selecting either Drive or Part surface from the Continuous Path Motion dialog, you have the options of Other Surface, Previous ds, Previous ps and Previous cs.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Activity: Sequential Milling of a Multi-Surfaced Floor


In this activity, you will machine a oor that is at, sloped, and curved. The part requires that you re-specify the part surface when the oor surface changes. Step 1: Open a new part, rename and begin a Sequential Mill operation. Open the part le sq_3 and rename it to ***_sq_3.

Choose Start Manufacturing. Choose the Operation Navigator tab from the resource bar.

In the Operation Navigator, Replay the operation named DEMO. You will now create an operation identical to the operation which you just replayed. Step 2: Create the Sequential Mill operation. Choose the Create Operation icon. If necessary change the Type to mill_multi_axis.

Choose the SEQUENTIAL_MILL icon.

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On the Create Operation dialog, set: Program:MULTI-FLOOR-PROG Use Geometry: WORKPIECE Use Tool:EM_.75_.125 Use Method:MILL_FINISH Enter the operation name n-poc-walls into the Name eld. Choose OK. The Sequential Mill dialog is displayed. On the Sequential Mill dialog, verify that the Multiaxis Output check box is OFF.

Choose the Display Options button.

The Display Options dialog is displayed.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Change the Tool Display to 3-D and the Path Display Speed to 9. The global parameters are now set and you are ready to begin the Sequential Milling process. Choose OK and continue to the Engage Motion dialog. Step 3: Specify an Engage motion. You will now create a vector that will be used for engaging the part. Choose the Engage Method button. The Engage Method dialog is displayed. Change the Method to Vector Only. The Vector Constructor dialog is displayed. Key in the -1.000 value for I. Choose OK.
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Sequential Mill Basics

Key in 0.500 in the Distance eld of the Engage Method dialog. Choose OK to return to the Engage Motion dialog. Under the Reference Point label, specify a Position Point at: X=11, Y=6.5, Z=2.

Choose OK in the Point Constructor dialog. Choose the Geometry button and specify the Drive and Part surfaces as shown.

(1) Drive Surface (2) Part Surface (3) Check Surface (add .250 stock)

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Sequential Mill Basics

Specify .250 Stock for the Check surface, prior to selecting the surface. You must enter any Stock value and change the Stopping Position status before you select the Check Surface. Choose OK. The tool moves from the Clearance plane to the position just specied.

The tool direction arrow shows the current direction of motion. Throughout this activity, change the direction arrow whenever necessary so that it points in the intended cut direction. Step 4: Specify Continuous Path motion. Sequential Mill expects the next Drive surface to be the previous Drive surface, and the next Part surface to be the previous Part surface.

For the remainder of this activity, you will be prompted to change the Drive and Part surfaces only if the processor does not correctly select the proper surface. Each suboperation will require you to select a new Check surface. Choose the Check Surfaces button. Change the Check Stock to 0. Change the Check surface Stopping Position to Ps-Cs Tangency.
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Sequential Mill Basics

Specify a new Check surface as shown.

Return to the Continuous Path Motion dialog and choose OK. The tool moves to the new position.

Note the status of the Part Surface to previous Check surface.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Specify a new Check surface as shown.

Return to the Continuous Path Motion dialog and choose OK. The tool moves to the new position.

Note that the Sequential Mill processor did not change the status of the Drive or Part surfaces. Specify the Check surface Stopping Position as Near Side.

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Specify a new Check surface as shown.

Return to the Continuous Path Motion dialog and choose OK. The tool moves to the new position.

Note that the Sequential Mill processor expects that the next Part surface will be the previous Part surface. Specify the Check surface Stopping Position as Ds-Cs Tangency.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Specify a new Check surface as shown.

Return to the Continuous Path Motion dialog and choose OK. The tool moves to the new position.

Note that the status of the Drive or Part surfaces did not change. Specify the Check surface Stopping Position as Near Side.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Specify a new Check surface as shown.

Return to the Continuous Path Motion dialog and choose OK. The tool moves to the new position.

Note the status of the Drive or Part surfaces did not change. Specify the Check surface Stopping Position as Ps-Cs Tangency .

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Sequential Mill Basics

Specify a new Check surface.

Return to the Continuous Path Motion dialog and choose OK. The tool moves to the new position.

Note the status of the Drive and Part surfaces changed. Specify the Check surface Stopping Position as Ps-Cs Tangency.

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Specify a new Check surface as shown below.

Return to the Continuous Path Motion dialog and choose OK. The tool moves to the new position.

The status of the Drive or Part surfaces did not change. Specify the Check surface Stopping Position as Far Side.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Specify a new Check surface as shown.

Return to the Continuous Path Motion dialog and choose OK. The tool moves to the new position.

Change Cont. Path to Retract. The Retract Motion dialog is displayed. Change the Retract Method to Vector Only and then +XC Axis. Change the Distance to .200.
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Sequential Mill Basics

Return to the Retract Motion dialog and choose OK. The tool retracts to the Clearance Plane.

Choose End Operation and then OK to save the operation. The entire tool path is displayed. Save and Close the part le.

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Sequential Mill Basics

Summary
Sequential Milling operations allow complete control of cutter movement and are useful in the nish machining of complex, multi-axis geometry. The more experienced programmer will use Sequential Milling techniques to simplify the creation of complex tool paths. The following functions are used in Sequential Milling applications: Selecting of specic tool axis. Specifying tool starting and stopping positions based on contact with Part, Drive, and Check surfaces.

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Lesson

Sequential Mill Advanced


Purpose Some of the more advanced features of Sequential Milling allow for multiple passes and control of the tool axis. These options allow for increased exibility for roughing and nishing operations. Objective Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Use standard and nested loops for creating roughing and nishing passes. Completely control the tool axis in 3, 4 and 5-axis applications.

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8-1

Sequential Mill Advanced

Tool Axis Control


In Sequential Mill, you dene the tool axis by rst specifying 3, 4 or 5-axis tool positioning which is found on the Engage and Continuous Path Motion dialogs.

3-axis allows you to specify the ZM axis or a xed vector. 4-axis allows the tool to remain perpendicular to a specied vector and can be further adjusted by:

another vector - projected PS (or DS) Normal A "ring" height on the tool tangent to PS (or DS) An angle - at angle to PS (or DS)

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Project Part Surface (or Drive Surface) Normal indicates that the tool axis is calculated by rotating the surface normal by a lead or lag angle, projecting the resulting vector onto a plane perpendicular to the specied Perpto Vector, and then rotating it in that plane by a specied angle. This option causes the Perpto Vector and the Next Cut Direction buttons to appear. Tangent To PS (or DS) indicates that the side of the tool is tangent to the designated surface while the tool axis remains perpendicular to the specied Perpto Vector. At Angle To Ps (or Ds) indicates the tool axis maintains a xed angle with the designated surface normal while remaining perpendicular to the specied Perpto Vector. 5-axis allows the tool axis to :

remain normal, parallel or angled to the Part or Drive surfaces fan between surfaces pivot from a point

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Sequential Mill Advanced

5Axis Tool Axis Control Variable Contour Toward or Away From Point Normal to Part Normal to Drive Swarf Drive Relative to Drive Sequential Mill Thru Fixed Point Normal to PS Normal to DS Parallel to PS Parallel to DS At Angle to DS At Angle to PS Tangent to PS Fan Tangent to DS

Normal To Ps (or Ds) causes the tool axis to remain perpendicular to the specied surface. This generally involves keeping the center of the bottom of the tool in contact with the surface. Optionally, you can offset the contact point from the bottom center of the tool.

(1) Surface normal at contact point (2) new contact point

Parallel to Ps (or Ds) causes the side of the tool to be kept parallel to the surface rulings at the contact point. A ring on the tool must be specied to indicate where the side of the tool must touch the surface.

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(1) Drive Surface ruling (2) Ring height (3) Part Surface

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Tangent to Ps (or Ds) causes the side of the tool to be tangent to the specied surface while the tool axis stays perpendicular to the current direction of motion. You must specify a ring height.

(1) Drive Surface (2) Ring height

At Angle to Ps (or Ds) causes the tool axis to maintain a xed angle (Tilt) with the surface normal and a xed angle with the current direction of motion (a Lead or Lag angle). (1) Tool Axis (2) Lead (3) Lag (4) Direction of motion Fanning is an even distribution of tool axis change from the start to the stop position. This can be useful, for example, when the tool is canted at either or both positions.

(1) Final Tool Axis (2) Check Surface (3) Check Surface contact point (4) Part Surface (5) 5Axis Fanning

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Thru Fixed Point indicates that the tool axis always lies along the line joining the tool end tip and a user-dened point. Use the Point Constructor dialog to dene the point.

(1) User dened pivot point (2) Check Surface (3) Drive Surface (4) Part Surface

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Activity: Sequential Mill Five-Axis Fan Motion


In this activity, you will create a Sequential Milling operation to nish the walls of a pocket on an aircraft structural component. Step 1: Open, rename and examine the part le. Open the part le spar_mfg.

The spar is cut from a forged block of aluminum and is held in place by clamps along the slits that run the length of the block on either side. Dowel pins are used to locate the block. The orange material represents the "window frame" portion of the block. Small tabs run from it to the part to secure it during machining. This part has been partially machined. You will rst examine the machining progress made to this point. Rename the part ***_spar_mfg. Enter the Manufacturing application. Choose the Operation Navigator tab from the toolbar. Highlight the SIDE_1 program object, then use MB3, choose Tool Path, and then Verify. Select the 3D Dynamic tab from the Tool Path Visualization dialog.
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Sequential Mill Advanced

Choose the Play Forward button from the bottom of the dialog. The In-Process work piece of the part is represented. You will begin machining the left most pocket in the part.

Choose OK on the Tool Path Visualization dialog. Step 2: Create the Sequential Mill Operation. Choose the Create Operation icon from the Manufacturing Create toolbar. The Create Operation dialog is displayed. If necessary, change the Type to mill_multi-axis. Choose Sequential_Mill as the subtype.

Set the Parent objects as follows: Program: FINISH_1 Use Geometry: PART_AND_BLANK Use Tool: EM-.5.130CARBIDE Use Method: MILL_FINISH Name: SM_FINISH_WALLS_POCKET_1 Choose OK. The Sequential Mill dialog is displayed.
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Sequential Mill Advanced

Step 3:

Set Tool Display options and create a Point to Point Motion. You will now set the tool display options, which will make the tool easier to visualize. Choose the Display Options button. The Display Options dialog is displayed. Change the Tool Display to 3-D and the Path Display Speed to 9. Choose OK twice. The Engage Motion dialog is displayed. You will now establish the tool location and axis by using a Point to Point suboperation. Change the motion from Engage to Pt to Pt.

The corresponding dialog changes to match Point to Point motion. You will now establish the tool position, specifying both the position of the tool and the tool axis.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Change the Motion Method from Undened to Point, Tool Axis.

The Point Constructor dialog is displayed. Key in the following values for the Base Point: XC -5.00 YC 0.00 ZC 2.00 Choose OK. The Vector Constructor dialog is displayed. You will accept the default tool axis vector of 0,0,1 which is the same as the Z coordinate of the WCS. Choose OK to accept the tool axis default.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Choose OK to accept the rst suboperation.

The rst suboperation, 1 ptp, is created and inserted into the suboperation list. Step 4: Create the Engage Motion. A best practice is to establish a cutting tool along a straight wall as well as to feed into the wall away from a corner to eliminate tool chatter. You will engage the wall as shown.

You will now dene the Engage component.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Change to an Engage suboperation.

The Engage Motion dialog is displayed. Choose the Engage Method button.

The Engage Method dialog is displayed.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Change the Method from None to Vector Only.

The Vector Constructor dialog is displayed. Key in the following values: I= 0.000 J= 1.000 K= .500 Choose OK. Key in 2.00 in the Distance eld of the Engage Method dialog. Choose OK.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Choose the Geometry button from the Engage Motion dialog.

The Engage Geometry dialog is displayed. You will rst create a temporary check plane as the Drive geometry using the Three Points option for plane creation. In the Engage Geometry dialog, change the Type from Face to Temporary Plane. Choose the Three Points option from the Plane dialog.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Select the three control points as shown. Note that in the following views, the part has been rotated 180 degrees to facilitate looking at the wall being created. The stock and check geometry have been removed from the view for purposes of clarity.

As the last point is selected, the geometry selection advances to Part geometry.

Change the Type back to Face. Select the bottom face of the pocket as the Part geometry.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Select the wall face as the Check geometry.

After selecting the Check geometry, the Engage Motion dialog is displayed. Before proceeding any further you will want to change the Tool Axis to 5-axis fan motion. Change the Tool Axis from 3-axis to 5-axis.

The Five Axis Option dialog is displayed. Notice that the Method defaults to Fan, which is acceptable in this instance. Choose OK in the Five Axis Options dialog. Choose OK to create the Engage suboperation. You are now ready to create the rst Continuous Path Motion. Step 5: Create the rst Continuous Path Motion.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

The radii in the pocket corners are slightly larger than the tool radius and allows the opportunity to drive the corner llet with less tool chatter. Continuous Path Motion is the default as the next suboperation type. You will need to choose the llet as the next Check surface. Change the Drive Surface to Previous Cs. In the Continuous Path Motion dialog, choose the Check Surfaces button. In the Check Surfaces dialog, change the Stopping Position to Ds-Cs Tangency. Select the corner llet surface as shown.

Choose OK in the Check Surfaces dialog.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Choose OK in the Continuous Path Motion dialog. The tool drives into the corner and suboperation 3 is created.

Choose the Check Surfaces button. Select the next surface in line. Choose OK until the next suboperation is created. Step 6: Finish the operation. Continue to drive around the inner wall of the pocket, using the next surface in line as the new Check surface. When you reach the original surface that you used for engaging the part, drive past the temporary plane made up of control points on the edges of the surfaces. This should prevent any scallops from being left on the wall. Retract the tool from the pocket and end the operation. Save the part le. You nish machined the wall of the pocket. One of the walls of the pocket is at an extreme closed angle. Extra stock was left on that wall. In a future activity, you will use Sequential Mill looping functionality, with ve-axis motion, to remove the excessive stock.
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Sequential Mill Advanced

Standard and Nested Loops


Standard Loops Loops are modied copies of an original tool path. They are copies of a portion of a tool path that are repeated to remove extra stock. The Loop option is located in any of the Motion dialogs (Engage, Retract, Continuous Path, or Point to Point) under the Options Loop Control.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

The Loop Control dialog follows:

(1) starts and ends the looping routines that cut toward the drive surface (2) starts and ends the looping routines that cut toward the part surface (3) species the inner and outer loops when both start on the same suboperation

Before you begin the creation of a loop, the tool should be in the proper position within the operation (where you want the tool to start repeating from).

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Choose OptionsLoop ControlStart/End and change to Start. This establishes the beginning of the Loop.

You can also specify Loop Stock. This is the stock that is applied to the geometry within the loop. It is removed as the looping routine progresses.

To end the loop, you should be in the desired position within the operation and then stop the loop. Choose OptionsLoop ControlStart/End and change to End. The tool path is then recomputed by adding the loop Stock and moving toward the part in a specied number of steps. The path will display in the graphics window. You can also create an operation without a loop. You can later edit the operation and then add the loop.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Nested Loops A Drive surface and a Part surface loop within the same suboperation or a later suboperation is considered a nested loop (one inside of another). If the Ds loop and the Ps loop are started within the same suboperation, you must determine whether you want the Ds loop or the Ps loop to be cut rst. The Nesting Status option denes this for you. This option is only available after both the Ds and Ps Start/End Parameters are dened.

(1) Drive Surface Start/End parameter (2) Part Surface Start/End parameter (3) Nesting Status option

The next activity will familiarize you with some of the basic concepts of looping within Sequential Mill.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Activity: Sequential Mill Using Loops


In this activity, you will replay and examine Sequential Mill looping operations. Step 1: Open a new part le and replay an existing operation. Open the le sq_3_loop.

Enter the Manufacturing application. From the Operation Navigator, Replay the FINWALLS tool path.

The tool path makes several passes toward the part walls and oors. You will now examine the loop settings.
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Sequential Mill Advanced

Double-click on the FINWALLS operation. Note that the Multiaxis Output option is selected. Choose OK. The Point to Point Motion dialog is displayed. Choose OK. The Engage Motion dialog is displayed. Normally, you start the looping process from within this dialog. Choose Options. The Other Options dialog is displayed.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Choose Loop Control. The Loop Control dialog is displayed.

Note the Ds and PS loop settings. These settings will create ve passes, each pass will remove .050 stock. Choose OK three times to return to the Continuous Path Motion dialog. On the Continuous Path dialog, choose Options, then Loop Control to check the Loop Control status. They are set to Contin.
UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 8-25

Sequential Mill Advanced

Choose OK twice to return to the Continuous Path Motion dialog. Step 2: End the loop. On the Continuous Path Motion dialog, double-click on the suboperation 11 Ret. The tool path updates to the current location. On the Retract Motion dialog, choose the Options button, then the Loop Control button to check the loop status. They are set to End. Step 3: Start the looping process. Choose OK three times until the Loop Debug Options dialog is displayed. On the Loop Debug Options dialog, choose OK. The tool begins to cut as specied. Choose End Operation, then choose OK from the End Operation dialog to save the operation and return to the Operation Navigator. The entire tool path is now displayed. Close the part.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Activity: Removing Excess Stock from a Closed Wall


In this activity, you will use the looping functionality of Sequential Mill to remove the excess stock on a undercut wall. You will make a copy of the previous operation that you created and modify that operation for doing looping activities. Step 1: Copy a previous Sequential Mill operation. Open the part le***_spar_mfg (or choose from Window on the toolbar) If necessary, change the view of the Operation Navigator to the Program Order View. Expand the SIDE_1 and FINISH_1 Program objects. Highlight the SM_FINISH_WALLS_POCKET_1 operation that you previously created, then use MB3, Copy. Highlight the PM_FINISH_BOSSES operation, then use MB3, Paste. Use MB3, Rename to change the operation name to SM_SEMI-FINISH_WALLS_POCKET_1. Step 2: Edit the operation. You will want to edit the operation which you just copied and renamed. You will be using most of the same defaults as in the previous operation. However, some parameters will change. Double-click on the SM_SEMI_FINISH_WALLS_POCKET_1 operation. The Sequential Mill dialog is displayed. Change the Global Stock on Drive Surfaces to .030. Change the Global Stock on Part Surfaces to .030. Choose OK on the Sequential Milling dialog.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Scroll down to the bottom in the suboperation list.

Highlight the 12 Ret suboperation. Hold down the shift key, scroll back up in the dialog and choose the 4 cpm suboperation.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Choose the Delete button and conrm the choice in the message dialog.

There should now be three suboperations remaining in the suboperation list a Point to Point; an Engage, and a CPM. The dialog should look as follows:

Since this operation will leave stock on the wall and the tool radius is nearly the size of the corner llet, the corner llet radii will not be selected. When stock is added to the llet, it becomes impossible for the tool to reach its designated tangency point.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Step 3:

Edit the suboperation 3 cpm. Double-click on suboperation 3 in the suboperation list box. Note that in order to edit a suboperation, simply highlighting the operation will not place it in edit mode. A double-click on the suboperation is necessary. When successful, the word "editing" will appear following the suboperation name.

Choose the Check Surfaces button. Change the Stopping Position to Near Side. Select the undercut wall as shown.

Choose OK on the Check Surfaces dialog.


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Sequential Mill Advanced

Choose OK to accept the modied CPM suboperation. Since there are not any more suboperations to edit, Sequential Mill automatically switches to Insert mode.

Step 4:

Create additional suboperations. You will now create the additional suboperations, necessary to nish the undercut area of the pocket. Choose the Check Surfaces button. Select the wall as shown below.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Choose OK on the Check Surfaces dialog. Choose OK to create the suboperation. The suboperation is created. You will now position the cutter to the middle of the Check surface which you previously selected and then will retract the tool. Choose the Check Surfaces button. Change the Type to Temporary Plane. Choose the Three Points method. In the Point Constructor dialog, choose the Control Point icon. Select the three edges in the area as shown below.

8
Choose OK in the Check Surface dialog. Choose OK to accept the suboperation. Change the motion type to Retract. Choose the Retract Method button. Change the Method from None to Vector Only.
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Sequential Mill Advanced

Key in the following values to create the vector: I = 0.0 J = 1.0 K = 1.0 Choose OK in the Vector Constructor dialog. Key in 1.0 in the Distance eld. Choose OK in the Retract Method dialog. Choose OK to accept the suboperation. The suboperation, 6 Ret, is created. Choose End Operation. Choose OK in the End Operation dialog. Save the part le.

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8-33

Sequential Mill Advanced

Activity: Using Looping to Remove Excess Stock


In this activity, you will edit the previous operation, modify the operation by using the looping option, which will create a series of passes for stock removal. Step 1: Edit an existing operation. Continue using ***_spar_mfg. In the Operation Navigator, double-click on the SM_SEMI_FINISH_WALLS_POCKET_1 operation. Choose OK in the Sequential Mill dialog. Choose OK in the Point to Point Motion dialog to advance to suboperation 2. In the Engage Motion dialog, choose the Options button. Choose Loop Control. The Loop Control dialog is displayed. Change the Ds loop parameters Start/end from None to Start.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Key in 0.2 in the Initial stock eld and .05 in the Increment eld.

Choose OK. Choose OK on the Other Options dialog. Choose OK on the Engage Motion dialog. Continue to choose OK until suboperation 6 Ret is highlighted (Retract Motion dialog is displayed). Choose Options. Choose Loop Control. Change the Ds loop parameters from Contin to End. Choose OK on the Loop Control dialog. Choose OK on the Other Options dialog. Sequential Milling is now ready to create the additional loop passes. Choose OK on the Loop Debug Options dialog. When satised with the additional passes, choose End Operation on the Point to Point Motion dialog. Choose OK in the End Operation dialog. Visually examine the output using Visualization. Save and close the part.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Additional Sequential Mill Options


The following are Sequential Mill options that you have not used in the activities. You can review these options with your instructor or on your own. Path Generation and Multiaxis Output You can turn Path Generation on or off from the Sequential Mill dialog. When this option is toggled on, the tool path segment is graphically displayed as each suboperation is accepted. When it is off, the tool path segment is not calculated or displayed.

Multiaxis Output is an option. This outputs the I, J, and K components of the tool axis vector with each output point. This option must be active if 4 or 5-axis tool positioning is used. The default is ON (box is checked). Replace Geometry Globally Replace Geometry Globally, replaces faces, curves and temporary planes by other faces, curves and temporary planes throughout the operation.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

This option is located on the Sequential Mill dialog.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Other Options Use the Other Options dialog to set custom tolerances, limit the step distance and number of output points, set tool path and tool display options, use of Corner Control, and to specify looping routines for a specic suboperation.

A summary of the options on the Other Options dialog follows: Custom Surface Tolerances species special Intol and Outtolvalues for the current suboperation. This option is only active in the Engage and Continuous Path Motion dialog. Custom Tool Axis Tolerance species a special tool axis tolerance for the current suboperation. This option is only active in the Engage and Continuous Path Motion dialog. Custom Corner Control species the cutter feed rate, slowdowns, and llet radius at corners. By toggling the Custom Corner Control button
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Sequential Mill Advanced

and selecting the Edit Parameters action button, you bring up the Corner and Feed rate Control dialog. This option is available for Continuous Path suboperations only. Maximum Step species the maximum length of individual tool moves in the suboperation. If you change the default value of ten inches, the new value becomes the default value for the current and subsequent suboperations. If you are editing a suboperation, changing the Maximum Step does not affect subsequent suboperations. You must specify a positive value. This option is available for Continuous Path suboperations only. Maximum Points species the maximum number of points generated in a suboperation. If you change the default value of 400, the new value becomes the default value for the current and subsequent suboperations. If you are editing a suboperation, changing the Maximum Points does not affect subsequent suboperations. Output CL Points temporarily suspends the output of points to the CL source le. By suspending the output of CL points, you can move the tool in several suboperations that are not included in the tool path. When you nally position the tool to the correct geometry, activate this option and the tool path continues (this is similar to APTs CUT/DNTCUT). Automatic Redenition establishes a check plane at the last valid tool location when the processor is unable to complete the tool path for a suboperation. You can continue programming from the new check plane. Automatic Reposition is useful if the tool is not within tolerance to the Drive or Part surface at the start of a suboperation. Display Option sets tool, pattern, and tool path display options for the current suboperation. This is the same Display Options dialog used in Operation Parameters. Loop Control species a looping routine for area clean-up of Drive or Part geometry, or both. Most Sequential Milling processor errors are caused by the tool being out of tolerance to the geometry.

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Sequential Milling Best Practices Engaging: use a reference point that is near the startup geometry when using the Fan tool axis, use Tangent to Drive use the Direction Move option on the Engage Geometry dialog when the tool can move to more than one location or if the tool is not close to the surface remember that the Direction Move is applied rst to the Drive, second to the Part, and last to the one or more Check surfaces use Side Indication on the Engage Geometry dialog when the tool is on or overlaps a surface

You should imagine the tool moving initially after you specify the Drive surface. Then, if you need to specify a direction for the Part surface, do so from the imagined position. Then imagine the tool moving to the new position if you need to specify a Direction Move for the Check surface. Continuous Path: if the Drive and Part surfaces are at and long, reduce the Maximum Step (on the Other Options dialog) when using a Fan tool axis, reduce the Maximum Step (on the Other Options dialog) when using a Fan tool axis around curved geometry, limit the motion to 60 degrees

Looping:

start a loop on an Engage or Point to Point Motion suboperation; starting a loop on a Continuous Path Motion suboperation can cause the tool to be out of tolerance the last loop suboperation should be a Retract or Point to Point Motion move if you do not want the tool retracting during the loop, be careful in ending the loop on a Continuous Path Motion suboperation so that the loop ends with the tool in the same position and orientation as at the start of the loop

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Sequential Mill Advanced

use caution when specifying Added Stock to Check Geometry . In a loop, you may want to choose None when you do not use a Check Surface as a Drive or Part surface in the next suboperation. See the following example.

(1) Added stock = Drive (2) Added stock = None (3) Start (4) End

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Sequential Mill Advanced

Summary
The more advanced features of Sequential Milling allow for multiple passes and complete control of the tool axis. These options allow for increased exibility for roughing and nishing operations. Some of the more advanced features are: Looping control allowing for removal of excess stock. Fanning tool axis control. Complete control of tool positioning.

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Lesson

Variable Contour Basics


Purpose Variable Contour operations are used to nish areas formed by contoured geometry. Variable Contour tool paths are able to follow complex contours by the control of tool axis, projection vector and drive methods. Objective At the conclusion of this lesson, you will be able to: create multi-axis tool paths by choosing a tool axis that is most appropriate for the part geometry incorporate complementary programming practices that are necessary for multi-axis machining

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9-1

Variable Contour Basics

Variable Contour Operations


Variable Contour operations are used to nish areas formed by contoured geometry by the control of tool axis, projection vector and drive methods. Tool paths are created through the generation of drive points from the drive geometry and then projecting those points along a projection vector to the part geometry. The drive points are created from part geometry or can be created from other geometry that is not associated with the part. The points are then projected to the part geometry. The tool path output moves the tool from the drive point along the projection vector until contact is made with the part geometry. The position may coincide with the projected drive point or, if other part geometry prevents the tool from reaching the projected drive point, a new output point is generated and the unusable drive point is ignored. (1) Drive geometry is used to generate points (2) Projection vector moves the tool from the drive point, down the projection vector until it contacts part geometry (3) Drive points (4) Part geometry may keep the tool from reaching the projected drive point (5) Contact point (6) Cutter location output is generated Tool Path Accuracy

Variable Contour provides several options that help insure the accuracy of the tool path. Included are:
9-2

Check geometry to stop tool movement gouge checking to prevent gouging of the part Various tolerance options
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Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

Variable Contour Basics

Variable Contour operations can position to existing locations on the part geometry (which includes the edge of an object), but the tool cannot position to an extension of part geometry as shown by the following illustration. (1) Drive points (2) Projection vector (3) extension of part geometry (4) Part geometry (5) Valid (6) Invalid

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Variable Contour Basics

Terminology used in Variable Contour


Part Geometry - is geometry selected to cut Check Geometry - is used to stop tool movement Drive Geometry - is used to generate drive points Drive Points - are generated from the Drive geometry and projected onto part geometry Drive Method - method of dening Drive Points required to create a tool path; some drive methods allow creation of a string of drive points along a curve while others allow the creation of an array of drive points within an area Projection Vector - used to describe how the Drive Points project to the Part Surface and which side of the Part Surface the tool contacts; the selected drive method determines which Projection Vectors are available The projection vector does not need to coincide with the tool axis vector.

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Variable Contour Basics

Variable Contour vs Fixed Contour


The primary difference between Fixed Contour and Variable Contour lies with the various methods of tool axis control and the drive methods available.

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Variable Contour Basics

Drive Methods for Variable Contouring


Curve/Point Drive Method Allows you to dene drive geometry by specifying points and curves. Using points, the drive path is created as linear segments between the points. Using curves, drive points are generated along the curves. The drive geometry is projected on to the part surface(s) where the tool path is created. The curves may be open, closed, contiguous, non-contiguous, planar or non-planar. When points dene the drive geometry, the cutter moves along the tool path from one point to the next in the order in which they were specied. The same point may be used more than once, provided it is not dened consecutively in the sequence. A closed drive path can be created by dening the same point as the rst and last point in the sequence. The Curve/Point Drive Method dialog allows you to specify the distance between drive points and the projected location of drive points. You can also use the Display Drive Point option to view the location of the drive points before generating the tool path.

(1) Used to select and edit drive geometry (2) Controls the distance between drive points (3) determines the method of projection onto the part

Boundary Drive Method The Boundary Drive Method allows you to dene cut regions by specifying Boundaries and Loops. Boundaries are not dependent on the shape and size of the part surfaces while Loops must correspond to exterior part surface edges. Cut regions are dened by Boundaries, Loops, or a combination of both.
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Variable Contour Basics

The Boundary Drive Method allows you to use a permanent boundary, part curves or faces to generate drive points.

(1) Boundary (2) Tool axis (3) Projection vector Drive points are generated within the boundary and are then projected linearly onto the part geometry according to the specied projection vector. The Boundary Drive Method is preferred to the Surface Area Drive Method. You can quickly create a boundary and tool path without the surface design requirements of the Surface Area Drive Method. This method does not allow as many choices of tool axis options that are available in the Surface Area Drive Method and is better suited for roughing operations. The Surface Area Method is better suited for nishing operations. Each boundary member is assigned an On, Tanto, or Contact tool position (unique to Variable Contour Boundary Drive Method). The Contact tool position can be used when specifying boundaries using curves and edges. The boundary members graphically represent the associated tool positions as illustrated below:

(1) tanto condition

(2) on condition

(3) contact condition

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Variable Contour Basics

Options associated with the boundary drive method follows: Pattern option enables you to dene the shape of the tool path. Some patterns cut the entire region, while others cut just around the perimeter of the region. Some patterns follow the shape of the cut region, while others are independent of it. The selected Pattern determines which other options are available. If you select Parallel Lines as the cut pattern, the Cut Type, Cut Angle, and Degrees options become available. If you select Follow Pocket, only the Inward and Outward options are available. Parallel Lines creates a cut pattern dened by a series of parallel passes. You are required to specify a Cut Type of Zig-Zag, Zig, Zig With Contour, or Zig with Stepover and a specic Cut Angle.

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Variable Contour Basics

Radial Lines creates linear cut patterns extending from a user-specied or system calculated optimum center point. You are required to specify a Cut Type, a Pattern Center, and pocketing method as Inward or Outward. You may also specify an angular stepover, which is unique to this type. The Stepover distance for this cut pattern is measured along the arc length at the boundary point farthest away from the center.

(1) point furthest away from center (2) stepover distance measured along arc length

Concentric Arcs creates progressively larger or progressively smaller circular cut patterns from a user-specied or system calculated optimum center point. You are required to specify a Cut Type, a pattern center, and a pocketing method as Inward or Outward. In areas such as corners that the full circular pattern cannot extend into, concentric arcs are created and connected by the specied Cut Type before the cutter moves to the next corner to continue cutting.

(1) stepover

Cut Type denes how the cutter moves from one cut pass to the next. The options are used in combination with Parallel Lines, Radial Lines, or Concentric Arcs cut patterns. When used in combination with the Parallel Lines pattern, Zig-Zag, Zig and Zig with Contour work in the same way as their counterparts in Planar and Cavity Milling. Pattern Center allows interactive or automatic denition of the center point of Concentric Arcs and Radial Lines cut patterns.

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Variable Contour Basics

Cut Angle determines the angle of rotation for the Parallel Lines Cut Patterns. This option is available if the Cut Angle is set to Specify. Enter the degrees of rotation for the Parallel Lines Cut Pattern. Outward and Inward allow you to specify a pocketing method that determines whether to cut from the inside out or the outside in of a Follow Pocket, Concentric Arcs, or Radial Lines cut type. Stepover species the distances between successive cut passes. Constant species a xed stepover distance between successive cut passes. When used with the Radial Lines cut type, the constant distance is measured along the arc length at the boundary point farthest away from the center. Scallop determines the stepover distance based on the scallop height you enter. Tool Diameter denes the stepover in terms of a percentage of the effective tool diameter. Variable allows you to vary the stepover distance within a specied minimum and maximum value. The required input values differ depending on the selected cut type. Angular denes a constant stepover by keying in an angle. This option is used only in combination with the Radial Cut pattern. Additional Passes species an additional number of passes that allows the tool to step toward the boundary in successive concentric cuts for Prole and Standard cutting patterns. More Drive Parameters displays a dialog containing the following options: Options displays a dialog that enables you to create start points automatically or interactively and to specify how cut regions will be displayed when the Display button is selected. Display generates a temporary screen display of the cut regions for visual reference. The display is generated using the parameters specied under Cut Region Display options. Display Drive Path displays the Drive Path used to generate the tool path. The path is created as a temporary element projected onto the WCS along the tool axis and is for visual reference only.

Spiral Drive Method The Spiral Drive Method allows you to dene drive points that spiral outward from a specied center point. The drive points are created within the plane normal to the projection vector and contain the center point. The drive points are projected on to the part surfaces along the projection vector.
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Variable Contour Basics

Spiral Drive Method stepovers are a smooth, constant transition outward. This drive method maintains a constant cutting motion and is applicable to high speed machining applications. (1) Drive points projected from plane (2) Projection vector (3) Center point denes the center of the spiral, cut starts here (4) Part surface (5) Spiral drive If you do not specify a center point, the system uses the (0,0,0) of the Absolute Coordinate System. If the Center Point is not on the part geometry, it follows the dened projection vector to the part geometry. The direction of the spiral (clockwise vs. counterclockwise) is controlled by the Climb or Conventional cut direction. The following parameters pertain to Spiral Drive method: Stepover allows you to specify the distances between successive cut passes and are a smooth constant transition outward; does not require an abrupt change of direction.

(1) stepover

Constant allows you to specify a xed distance between successive cut passes. Key in the desired distance between subsequent cut passes. Tool Diameter allows you to dene the Stepover in terms of a percentage of the effective tool diameter.

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Maximum Spiral Radius allows you to limit the area to be machined by specifying a Maximum Radius. This constraint reduces processing time by limiting the number of drive points created. The radius is measured in the plane normal to the Projection Vector.

(1) maximum spiral radius (2) part surface

If the specied radius is contained within the part geometry, the center of the tool positions to the radius before retracting. If the specied radius exceeds the part geometry, the tool continues to cut until it can no longer position to the part geometry. The tool then retracts and engages. Surface Area Drive Method Surface Area Drive Method allows you to create an array of drive points that lie on a grid of drive surfaces. This Drive Method is useful in machining very complex surfaces. It provides additional control of both the Tool Axis and the Projection vector.

(1) Part geometry (2) other geometry (3) drive geometry

To generate Drive Points from part geometry, select the surfaces as drive geometry and do not select any part geometry. The drive points are then generated on the drive geometry. To generate Drive Points from other geometry, select the drive and part geometry. The Drive Points are then generated on the drive geometry and are projected onto the part geometry according to the Projection vector. In either case, the tool axis can follow the drive geometry contour.
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Variable Contour Basics

The Surface Area Drive method also provides an additional Projection Vector option, Normal to Drive, which enables you to evenly distribute drive points onto convex part geometries. The Surface Area Drive method is much more accurate than the Boundary Drive method for complex parts and is useful for nishing types of operations. The limiting factor of the Surface Area Drive method is that surfaces must be arranged in an orderly grid of rows and columns and adjacent surfaces must share a common edge. (1) columns (2) rows (3) common edge (4) drive surface Drive geometries must be selected in an orderly sequence dening the rows (1) Row 1 (2) Row 2 (3) Row 3 (4) Row 4 The following parameters pertain to Surface Area Drive method: Select allows you to select the Drive Geometry. Note that you can use part geometry as drive geometry. Surface Stock offsets drive points along surface normals a specied distance. Tool Position determines the tool contact points on the drive geometry as either On or Tanto. Cut Direction is the tool path direction and the quadrant where the rst cut will begin. It is specied by selecting one of the vector arrows which appear in pairs at each of the surface corners. Flip Material reverses the direction of the Material Side Vector which determines the side of the surface the tool contacts when machining directly the drive geometry. When machining part geometry, the Projection vector determines the Material Side.
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Cut Area denes how much of the total drive geometry area to utilize by specifying surface percentages or diagonal points and to display the boundary of the cut area. Surface % species the drive geometry area to cut by using positive or negative percentage values for the beginning and end of rst and last pass, and the rst and last Stepover. Diagonal Points uses the cursor to indicate two diagonal points dening the area. Pattern denes the shape of the tool path as Follow Pocket or Parallel Lines. Cut Type in combination with the Parallel Lines pattern denes cutter movement from one cut pass to the next. The types are: Zig-Zag, Zig-Zag with Lifts and Zig. Cut Step controls the distance between drive points created along the drive curve. For complex parts, the closer the drive points, the more accurate the tool path. You can control the cut step by specifying a Tolerance or by specifying a Number of points. Stepover controls the distance between successive cut passes. Stepover choices are: Scallop, (for Parallel Lines pattern) which requires you to enter the Height of the scallop and the Horizontal and Vertical Limit to restrict the distance the tool moves in a direction normal to the Projection Vector. This option avoids leaving wide ridges on near vertical surfaces by limiting the horizontal distance of the Stepover. Number, which requires you to enter the First and Second Directions of cutting (for Follow Pocket) or the Number of Steps (for Parallel Lines). These are used to generate drive points. When Gouging indicates the processor action when gouging is detected. The actions are: None; issue a Warning in the tool path output; Skip the output point; or Retract and avoid the gouge.

Cutting Parameters affect each of the Drive Methods. The corresponding Cutting Parameters dialog follows: The Part Stock option denes an envelope of material surrounding the part geometry which remains on the part after machining. The stock specied applies to those part entities which do not have Custom Stock specied (under Custom Data in the Part geometry dialog).
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Variable Contour Basics

The Check Stock option is an envelope of material surrounding the Check geometry, which the tool will not gouge. Tool Path Drive Method The Tool Path Drive Method allows you to dene drive points along the tool path of a Cutter Location Source File (CLSF) to create a similar Variable Contouring tool path. Drive points are generated along the existing tool path and then projected on to the selected part surface(s) to create the new tool path that follows the surface contours. The direction in which the drive points are projected on to the part surface(s) is determined by the Projection Vector.

Tool path created using Planar Mill, prole cut type (1) planar mill tool path

Results of using Planar Mill tool path, projected on to the contoured part geometry (1) part surface (2) drive point projection (3) surface contour tool path When you select Tool Path as the drive method, you must specify an existing CLSF to be used to generate drive points.

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Radial Cut Drive Method The Radial Cut Drive Method allows you to generate drive paths perpendicular and along a given boundary, using a specied Stepover distance, Bandwidth and Cut Type. This method is useful in clean-up type applications.

(1) selected boundary (2) tool path

The tool will Zig or Zig-Zag along the boundary in the direction of the boundary indicators. This can be changed by selecting Reverse Boundary. The following Radial Cut Drive Method options are available: Select displays the Permanent Boundary or Temporary Boundary dialog allowing you to dene the area to be cut. The Permanent Boundary dialog is only displayed if permanent boundaries currently exist. If multiple boundaries are dened, a lift is applied, allowing the tool to traverse from one boundary to the next. Bandwidth denes the total width of the machined area measured in the plane of the boundary. The bandwidth is the sum of the Material Side and Opposite Side offset values. The Material Side is the right side of the boundary as you look in the direction of the boundary indicators. The Opposite Side is the left side. The sum of the Material Side and Opposite Side cannot equal zero. (1) looking in the direction of boundary indicators (2) bandwidth

(3) material side (4) opposite side

Cut Type enables you to dene how the cutter moves from one cut pass to the next. The following options are available:
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Variable Contour Basics

(1) Zig-Zag (2) Zig

Stepover species the distances between successive drive paths. Each Stepover methods require you to enter a corresponding Distance value. Follow Boundary and Reverse Boundary allow you to determine the direction the tool travels along the boundary. Contour Prole Drive Method This method is a simple to use drive method to cut the undercut or overcut walls of a part and is especially effective in machining multi-pocket type parts. Selection of the bottom of the pocket, setting of various cut parameters, and generation of the operation are the only steps required for use. User Function Drive Method User Function Drive method creates tool paths from special drive methods developed using User Function programming. These are optional, highly specialized custom routines developed for specic applications.. Options available are: CAM Exit Name is the name of an operating system environment variable which contains the path name of the shared library containing the User Function Program. Users Parameters access a user exit specifying parameters for the drive path. The User Function program associates these parameters with the calling operation, using the name of the operation as the link.

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Variable Contour Basics

Activity: Overview of Variable Contour Options


In this activity, you will review the basic methods that Variable Contour uses to create tool paths. You will observe that some of the Fixed Contour options are not available in Variable Contour, as well as some options are only available in Variable Contour. Step 1: Open an existing part le. Open the part le vx_0.

Enter the Manufacturing application. Select the Operation Navigator tab from the toolbar. Step 2: Review an existing operation. You will review the options by examining their settings. In the Operation Navigator, expand the Program named OVERVIEW and double-click on the operation named REVIEW. The Variable Contour dialog is displayed. Step 3: View the Variable Contour dialog options. You will review the option settings on the Variable Contour dialog, then you will note the option settings on the Surface Area Drive Method dialog. These options are required to create the tool path.

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Variable Contour Basics

Choose the Groups tab and, if necessary, choose the Geometry radio button, then choose Display. The geometry Parent Group, WORKPIECE, is displayed. This is the Part geometry. Refresh the graphics window and select the Main tab. Under the Geometry label, note that the Part icon is already selected. Choose Display. The geometry Parent Group named WORKPIECE is displayed since it was selected as the part geometry. Choose the Check icon. Note that no previous Check geometry was selected. Under the Drive Method label, view the Drive Methods that are available. Note that the Area Milling, Flow Cut and Text Drive Methods are not available and are grayed out. On the Variable Contour dialog, under the Tool Axis label, note the various tool axes which are available. Step 4: View the Surface Area Drive Method settings. The Surface Area Drive Method is the most commonly used method of creating variable axis tool paths. Under the Drive Method label, choose Surface Area. The Surface Drive Method dialog is displayed. Under the Drive Geometry label, choose Display. Note that the top face was selected as the Drive Geometry. The Drive Points will be generated on this surface and projected to the part geometry based on the Projection Vector. Under the Projection Vector label, choose Specify Vector. The Projection Vector is I=0, J=0, K=-1 and is displayed pointing downward. The Drive Points will be projected to the top of the part geometry, which are also their current location. Choose Cancel.
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Variable Contour Basics

Choose Display Drive Path. The temporary Drive Points are displayed (which are used to create contact points. Choose Display Contact Points. The surface normals are displayed at each tool contact point. The Surface Area Drive Method is the only Drive Method that allows you to display contact points. Choose Cancel. Step 5: Generate and view the tool path. You will now create a tool path using the settings which you just reviewed. Generate the tool path.

Close the part le.

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Variable Contour Basics

Tool Axis Control


The Variable Contour Tool Axes can be grouped based on the geometry that determines the tool axis. The choice of tool axis depends upon the Drive Method you choose. For instance, the Surface Area Drive Method allows you to specify many 4 and 5 axis tool positions that are not available by using any other Drive Method. The table which follows shows the various drive methods with permissible tool axis:

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Variable Contour Basics

Tool Axis Away From point Toward Point Away From Line Toward Line Relative to Vector 4axis Norm. To Part 4axis Rel. To Part Dual 4Axis on Part Inter polate Swarf Drive Normal To Drive Relative To Drive 4axis Norm. To Drive 4axis Rel. To Drive Dual 4Axis on Drive Same as Drive Path

Curve/ Point X X X X X X X X X

Spiral

Drive method Bndry Surface Area X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Tool Path Radial

X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X

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Variable Contour Basics

Point and Line Tool Axes The following tool axis types use focal points and can produce 5-axis movements:

Away From Point

Towards Point

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The following tool axis types use focal lines and can produce 4-axis movements:

Away From Line

Towards Line

Away and Towards refers to a vector direction. Consideration must be given to machine conguration, part xturing and amount of swing or tilt of the table and or head when selecting tool axis types. It is advisable to select the method which minimizes the amount of table and or head tilt.

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Activity: Point and Line Tool Axis Types


In this activity, you will replay a series of Variable Contour operations that use point and line geometry to control the tool axis. Step 1: Open the part le and enter the Manufacturing application. Open the part le vx_4.

If necessary, enter the Manufacturing application and display the Program Order view in the Operation Navigator.

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Variable Contour Basics

Step 2:

Replay the operations. Replay the AWAYLINE operation.

(1) Focal line used with tool axis

The tool path is replayed using the tool axis option Away from Line. Replay the AWAYPT operation.

(1) Focal point used with tool axis

The tool path is replayed using the tool axis option Away from Point. Notice the amount of difference in tool tilt between the two different methods. Proper placement of the focal point and line can greatly reduce the amount of tool tilt resulting in reduced risk of head or tool interference with clamps and or xturing.

Replay the TOWARDLINE operation.

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Variable Contour Basics

Replay the tool path.

(1) Focal line used with tool axis

The tool path is replayed using the tool axis option Towards Line. Replay the TOWARDPT operation.

(1) Focal point used with tool axis

The tool path is replayed using the tool axis option Towards Point. Notice the difference in the amount of tool tilt. The method chosen, towards or away from a point or line, along with their respective placement of the geometry being cut, gives you precise control of the tilt of the tool. Close the part le.

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Variable Contour Basics

Normal Tool Axis Normal Tool Axis maintains a tool axis that is perpendicular to the part geometry, drive geometry, or rotational axis (4-axis) at each contact point. This is a preferred method of tool axis control when the contoured geometry that is being machined does not change radically in shape and or direction.

(1) Normal to part geometry at each drive point

The following tool axis types use the Normal tool axis: Normal To Part 4-axis Norm To Part Normal To Drive Surf (Surface Area Drive) 4-axis Norm To Drive (Surface Area Drive)

The 4-axis type options allow you to apply a rotational angle to the tool axis. This rotational angle effectively rotates the part about an axis as it would on a machine tool with a single rotary table. The 4-axis orientation causes the tool to move within planes which are normal to the dened rotational axis.

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In the following example, the rotational angle causes the tool axis to lean forward in relation to an otherwise normal tool axis. (1) axis normal to part geometry (2) rotation angle of 15 degrees (3) plane normal to rotation axis (4) axis parallel to plane

Relative Tool Axis Relative tool axis maintains a tool axis that is perpendicular to the part geometry, drive geometry, or rotational axis (4-axis) at each contact point and allows the application of Lead or Tilt angle to the tool axis. You can apply Lead or Tilt to the following tool axis types: Relative To Part 4-axis Rel To Part Relative to Vector Dual 4-axis Relative To Drive (Surface Area Drive) 4-axis Rel To Drive (Surface Area Drive)

Lead and Tilt Angle Lead Angle denes the angle of the tool forward or backward along the tool path. A positive Lead Angle leans the tool forward based on the direction of the tool path. A negative Lead Angle (lag) leans the tool backwards based on the direction of the tool path.

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Tilt Angle denes the angle of the tool, side to side. A positive value tilts the tool to the right as you look in the direction of cut. A negative value tilts the tool to the left. (1) Tool direction (front view) (2) Tool direction (right view) (3) Lead (4) Lag (5) Normal axis (6) Negative tilt (7) Positive tilt You can specify a Minimum and Maximum angle of movement for the Lead and Tilt of the tool axis. Unlike a Lead angle, a 4-axis rotational angle always leans to the same side of the normal axis and is independent of the direction of the tool movement. The rotational angle causes the tool axis to lean to the right of the part geometry normal axis in both zig and zag moves. The tool moves within planes normal to the dened rotational axis.

(1) axis normal to part geometry (2) rotational angle of 15 degrees

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Dual 4-Axis Dual 4-Axis applies rotational, Lead and Tilt angle to the Zig and the Zag moves independently. You can specify a 4-axis rotation angle, a lead angle, and a tilt angle. The 4-axis rotation angle rotates the part about an axis as it would on a machine tool with a single rotary table. In Dual 4-Axis mode, these parameters may be dened separately for Zig and Zag moves.

(1) zig cut (2) zag cut (3) zig cut, tool axis (4) zag cut, tool axis

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Activity: Normal to Part and Relative to Part


In this activity, you will compare two similar and frequently used tool axes; normal to Part and Relative to Part. Step 1: Open an existing part le. Open the part le vx_0 and enter the Manufacturing application. Step 2: View the tool path. Note the tool axis in the rst pass. The tool axis is Normal to Part, always perpendicular to the part geometry. Expand the TOOL_AXIS Program Parent Group. Replay the operation NORM_PART.

You will change the Tool Axis to Relative to Part and compare the tool paths. Step 3: Create a tool path using Relative to Part Tool Axis. Edit the operation NORM_PART. The Variable Contour dialog is displayed.

Under the Tool Axis area of the dialog, choose Relative to Part as the tool axis. You are prompted to change the Lead and Tilt angles. Use the defaults of 0 Choose OK.
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Variable Contour Basics

Generate the tool path.

Compare this tool path to the previous one. Note that the tool paths are nearly identical. Both tool paths are created using the surface normal at each contact point. Choose Cancel. Step 4: Use Lead with Relative to Part tool axis. You will now see the effect of adding a Lead angle to the Relative to Part tool axis. Edit the operation REL_PART_LEAD. The Variable Contour dialog is displayed. Under the Tool Axis label, choose Relative to Part. You are prompted for Lead and Tilt angle settings. You will use the specied settings, which are exaggerated so that you can easily see the angle of Lead. Choose OK.

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Variable Contour Basics

Generate the tool path.

Note that the tool leans forward as it cuts. Choose Cancel. Step 5: Use Tilt with a Relative to Part Tool Axis. This time you will see the effect of adding a Tilt angle to the Relative to Part tool axis. Edit the operation REL_PART_TILT. The Variable Contour dialog is displayed. Under the Tool Axis label, choose, Relative to Part. You are prompted for Lead and Tilt angle settings. Note the specied settings. Choose OK.

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Variable Contour Basics

Generate the tool path.

Note that the tool tilts to the right as it cuts. Choose Cancel. Close the part le. Swarf Drive Tool Axis Swarf Drive tool axis maintains a tool axis that is parallel to the drive geometry. The drive geometry guides the side of the tool while the part geometry guides the end of the tool.

(1) drive geometry (2) part geometry

The Swarf Drive tool axis should be used only when the drive geometry consists of ruled surfaces, since the drive geometry rulings dene the swarf ruling projection vector.

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Variable Contour Basics

This projection vector can prevent the gouging of the drive geometry when using a tapered tool as shown by the following: (1) tool axis projection vector (2) swarf ruling projection vector (3) ruled drive geometry (4) part surface (5) tapered tool (6) gouge (7) drive point (8) tool position In this example, a comparison is made between the Swarf Drive Projection Vector and the Tool Axis Projection Vector. The drive points are projected along the specied vector to determine the tool position, showing the Tool Axis Projection Vector method gouging the drive geometry, while the Swarf Ruling Projection Vector method results in the tool positioning tangent to the drive geometry.

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Variable Contour Basics

Activity: Using Special Tool Axis and non Part Geometry


The part in this activity has been partially machined. You are going to continue to machine the core for a hub cover used on a four wheel drive vehicle. To maximize the part nish, you will be using a short tool to prevent cutter deection. Step 1: Open an existing part le. Open the part le hub_core_mfg_asmb.

There are two existing sample operations that you will examine and then create like operations. First you will examine the various parts which comprise the assembly. Save the part as ***_hub_core_mfg_asmb. Step 2: Examine the assembly. If necessary, enter the Manufacturing application. Choose the Assembly Navigator tab from the toolbar. The Assembly Navigator and the part model are displayed. Note that the assembly consists of a mounting plate, compound rotary table, numerous bolts and the hub cover core part. Step 3: Examine various operations. Choose the Operation Navigator tab from the toolbar. The Operation Navigator is displayed.
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Variable Contour Basics

If necessary, change to the Program Order view of the Operation Navigator. Examine the various operations. Note that the HUB-PROJECT-PROGRAM group object contains a rough and nish operation. Change to the Machine Tool view of the Operation Navigator. Note the various tools that are dened. Choose the Assembly Navigator tab from the toolbar. For creating additional operations, it would be somewhat easier for selection and visualization purposes, to remove from the display, various parts of the manufacturing setup. Select the red check marks for the screws (soc_hd_screw.5x8), table assembly (compound_table_asmb) and mounting plate (mounting_plate). This will turn off the display of these components. Step 4: Create the operations to nish the uted area of the part. Choose the Create Operation icon. If necessary, set the Type to mill_multi_axis. Choose the VARIABLE_CONTOUR icon. Set the Parent Groups as follows: Program: HUB-FINISH Use Geometry: WORKPIECE Use Tool: BALL_MILL-.75 Use Method: MILL_FINISH

Name: vc_ute_n Choose OK. The Variable_Contour dialog is displayed. Change the Drive Method from Boundary to Surface Area.
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Variable Contour Basics

Choose OK on the Drive Method Information dialog. You will now select the drive geometry to control the tool motion. The part consists of many faces which are irregular in shape and uneven in contour. You will begin the selection process by selection of the outer face of the cylinder that denes the raw stock. Make Layer 2 and 5 selectable. Choose the Select button and select the outside face of the cylinder that represents the stock (1).

Choose OK. You will now set the direction of cut and its cut area in relation to the overall size of the outside face of the stock geometry. You will also set the Cut Type.

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Variable Contour Basics

Choose the Cut Direction button.

Cut direction vectors are displayed. Choose the vector as shown (1).

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Choose Surface % from the Cut Area pull-down menu.

Note the system highlight at the top and bottom of the cylinder. Refresh the screen. Set the start and end values as shown:

Choose OK. Note the area that is now highlighted. The cutter will now be limited to this area which encompasses the utes. Change the Cut Type to Zig. You will now set the tool axis and projection vector. Change the Tool Axis from Normal to Part to Relative to Drive.
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Variable Contour Basics

Set the Tilt angle to 45. Choose OK. Set the Projection Vector to Toward Line. The Line Denition dialog is displayed. Choose the Point and Vector button. Choose OK on the Point Constructor dialog (accept the defaults). The Vector Constructor dialog is displayed. Choose the ZC Axis icon Choose OK twice. The Variable_contour dialog is displayed. Step 5: Generate the tool path.

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Choose the Generate icon. Notice the last pass make an erratic move next to the clearance hole near the bottom of the part.

To avoid this move, you will need to select Check (2) geometry. Choose the Check geometry icon from the Variable_contour dialog.

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Choose the Select button and then choose the small disc area located near the bottom of the part.

You will now set the parameters used in collision detection. Choose OK. Choose the Cutting button. Select the Clearances tab. Select Skip from the When Gouging pull-down menu. Set the Check Safe Clearance parameter to .01 Choose OK. Choose Generate and review the tool path. Close the part le.

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Variable Contour Basics

Activity: Swarf Drive Tool Axis


In this activity, you will create an operation to nish the walls of a tapered walled part using the Swarf Drive Tool Axis. The part will be modied in order to start the tool path at the center of one of the walls, which prevents the cutter from engaging the interior corner of the part. Step 1: Open a part le and rename it for the current activity. Open the part le tub_ftg_mfg_asmb. Rename the part to ***_tub_ftg_mfg_asmb.

To prevent engaging and then gouging an interior corner of the part, you will engage the part from the middle of one of the long sides of the part. You must rst subdivide one of the tapered side walls by creating a curve (in this case a line) before you can subdivide the face. Step 2: Enter the Assemblies application and create a WAVE Linked body used for dividing the faces. You will rst change the work layer to the layer used for manufacturing data and will then create the WAVE linked body. Verify that Assemblies is turned on. Set the work layer to 151. Choose InsertAssociative CopyWave Geometry Linker from the main menu bar. The WAVE Geometry Linker dialog is displayed.

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Variable Contour Basics

Select the Body icon.

Select the solid body that is the part.

Choose OK. A linked body has been added to layer 151 which is associative to the engineering model (tub_tting) that appears in the Assembly Navigator. This linked body can now be modied, whereas the engineering model (tub_tting) can not. Step 3: Turn off the display of the component and change the color of the linked body. Using the Assembly Navigator, turn off the display of the component by clicking the check mark in front of the tub_tting component (the check mark will turn from red to gray). Change the color of the linked body by choosing EditObject Display from the main menu bar.
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Variable Contour Basics

Select the linked body and OK the selection. The Edit Object Display dialog is displayed. Select the check box for Apply to all faces. Change the color to one that is not the same as the engineering part. Choose OK. Step 4: Enter the Modeling application, create a datum plane and curve for subdividing and subdivide the tapered sidewall face. Enter the Modeling application. Choose InsertDatum/PointDatum Plane from the menu bar. Select the end face and key in the value 6.0 (Hint: use Offset as a constraint).

Choose OK. Choose InsertCurve from BodiesIntersect from the menu bar. The Intersect Curve dialog is displayed.
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Choose the First Set icon from the dialog and then select the contoured face.

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Choose the Second Set icon from the dialog, then select the datum plane.

Choose OK. You created a line that will be used to subdivide the face. A Datum Plane was used to create the curve to allow movement of the line easily. You will now move the Datum Plane to its proper layer and then subdivide the face. Choose FormatMove to Layer and select the datum plane. Choose OK. In the Layer Move dialog, set the Destination Layer to 61.
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Choose OK. Choose InsertTrimDivide Face from the menu bar. Change the face selection lter to Single face. Select the face to subdivide.

Choose OK from the Selection Conrmation dialog. The curve Subdivide Face dialog is displayed. Choose Blank dividing objects. You must select the curve you are going to use to subdivide the face.

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Select the newly created line.

Choose OK. The face is divided into two faces.

Choose Cancel. From the menu bar, choose PreferencesSelection. Set the Chaining tolerance to .001. Choose OK. You will now create the tool path to cut the part. Step 5: Change to the Manufacturing application. Enter the Manufacturing application. Choose mill_multi-axis as the CAM Session Conguration. Choose mill_multi-axis as the CAM Setup. This will initialize the part with multi-axis parameters. Choose Initialize. Step 6: Create an end mill needed to machine the part. Choose the Create Tool icon.
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Variable Contour Basics

Choose the Mill tool icon. Name the tool EM-.75-.06. Choose OK. In the Milling Tool-5 Parameters dialog, enter a diameter of .75 and a lower radius of .06. Choose OK. Step 7: Edit the MCS in the Operation Navigator and set the Clearance Plane 1.000 above the top face of the part. Double-click the MCS group object in the Geometry view of the Operation Navigator. The MILL_ORIENT dialog is displayed. Check the Clearance box and choose the Specify button. The Plane Constructor dialog is displayed. Set the clearance plane as being 1.000 above the uppermost top face of the part. Step 8: Specify the Part Geometry. You will now select the oor of the part as the Part Geometry.

Choose the Create Geometry icon. Set the Operation Navigator to the Geometry View. Choose the Mill_Geom icon. Choose WORKPIECE as the Parent Group. Name the geometry Parent Group PART_FLOOR. Note that the Type is mill_multi_axis.

Choose OK. In the MILL_GEOM dialog, under the Geometry label, choose the Part icon. Choose Select. The Part Geometry dialog is displayed.
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Variable Contour Basics

The Selection Options should be set to Geometry. Change the Filter Methods to Faces. Select the oor of the part.

Choose Accept from the Selection Conrmation dialog. Choose OK until you return to the Create Geometry dialog. Verify that the Parent Group, PART_FLOOR was created in the Operation Navigator. Step 9: Create the Variable Contour operation using the Surface Area Drive Method. Choose the Create Operation icon. Choose the Variable Contour icon.

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Variable Contour Basics

Set the following: Program: Program Use Geometry: PART_FLOOR Use Tool: EM-.75-06 Use Method: MILL_FINISH Name: n-poc-walls Choose OK. The Variable Contour dialog is displayed. Step 10: Dene an Engage and Retract move using the Non-cutting Moves option. Choose Non-cutting from the Machining Parameters area. The Non-cutting Moves dialog is displayed. You will now dene an Approach move for the Default Case. You can also dene different Approach moves for the Initial, Final Check, Local, and Reposition moves.

Choose the Approach icon. The options available have changed to reect the Approach move options. Next to the Status label, change None to Clearance. The Clearance geometry is assigned to the default Approach move. The Non-cutting Moves dialog is displayed again. You will now specify a Departure move for the Default case. Choose the Departure icon. Next to the Status label, change None to Clearance.

You will now dene an Engage move for the Initial case.

Choose the Engage icon. Next to the Status label, change None to Manual.
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Variable Contour Basics

Under the Movement label, change Linear to Arc: Normal Tool axis. Change the Radius Type to Radius. Key in .500 into the Radius value eld. Step 11: Set the Display options. Choose the Edit Display icon in the Tool Path section of the dialog. The Display Options dialog is displayed. Set the following options: Tool Display = 3D Frequency = 5 Path Display Speed = 8 Choose OK. The Variable Contour dialog is displayed. You have specied how to drive the bottom of the tool. You must specify how to drive the side of the tool. This is done by choosing a Drive Method from the available types. Step 12: Dene the Drive Method. Under the Drive Method label, choose Surface Area. If necessary, accept the warning message. The Surface Drive Method dialog is displayed. Step 13: Select the Drive Geometry. Choose Select from the Drive Geometry area. The Drive Geometry dialog is displayed.

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Variable Contour Basics

Select all the interior faces, beginning at (1) and ending at (9), in a counterclockwise direction.

Choose OK from the Drive Geometry dialog when the face selection is complete. If the material side and direction indicator appears as follows:

Choose Flip Material from the Surface Drive Method dialog (perform this action only if the indicators appears as above). Step 14: Dene the drive direction. You must now dene the direction of the cut.

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Variable Contour Basics

Choose Cut Direction from the Surface Drive Method dialog. Cut direction arrows are displayed. You will select the direction arrow that points in the direction that you will want to cut. Choose the lower left arrow (1).

Step 15: Set the Number of Passes. Next to Stepover, set the option to Number. In the Number of Steps eld, enter 0. Zero indicates that only one pass will be made. Step 16: Dene the Gouge Action. Next to the When Gouging label, change None to Skip. The Skip option will move the tool to the next non-gouging point if gouging is detected. Step 17: Dene the Tool Axis. Under the Tool Axis label, change Normal to Part to Swarf Drive. Remember, Swarf Drive enables you to dene a tool axis that follows the swarf rulings of the drive geometry with the side of the tool. Notice that several vector indicators appear. They are relative to the rst drive geometry you selected. The vector you select denes the swarf ruling direction that the tool axis will follow. The vector should point towards the tool holder. Select the arrow pointing up. Step 18: Dene the Projection Vector. The Projection Vector determines the direction that the drive points are projected upon the part geometry.
UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 9-57

Variable Contour Basics

Under Projection Vector, change Specify Vector to Tool Axis. The Surface Area Drive Method parameters are now complete. Choose OK. The Variable Contour dialog is displayed. Step 19: Create the tool path. Choose the Generate button. The tool path is generated and the option menu is displayed. The tool engages and retracts along the dened radius of the non-cutting move. The side of the tool maintains wall contact throughout the cut. Notice that the tool appears as to be gouging the part. It is not. The tool is longer than the surface it is cutting which makes it appear to be violating the geometry.

(1) retract (2) engage

Choose OK from the option menu. Save and Close the part le.

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Variable Contour Basics

Interpolated Tool Axis Interpolate tool axis enables the control of the tool axis at specic points by dening vectors. It allows for control of excessive change of the tool axis as a result of very complex drive or part geometry, without the construction of additional tool axis control geometry (e.g., points, lines, vectors, smoother drive geometry). Interpolate can also be used to adjust the tool axis to avoid overhangs or other obstructions. You can dene as many vectors extending from specied positions on the drive geometry as required to create smooth tool axis movements. The tool axis, at any arbitrary point on the drive geometry, will be interpolated by the user-specied vector. The more vectors specied, the more control you have of the tool axis. This option is available only when using the Curve/Point or Surface Area drive method. (1) user-dened controlling vectors (2) excessive tool axis change (3) smoother tool axis movement (4) drive surfaces (5) tool axis normal to drive surface (6) interpolated tool axis Interpolated tool axis dialog options are: Specify as denes the vectors used to interpolate the tool axis. You can dene as many vectors as necessary to control the tool axis. Vector denes vectors by rst specifying a data point on the drive geometry and then specifying a vector.

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Variable Contour Basics

Angle/PS (or DS) denes vectors by specifying a data point on the drive geometry and then specifying Lead and Tilt angles relative to the part (or drive geometry) surface normal at the tool contact point with the part geometry. Lead and Tilt angles must be within -90 to 90 degree range. After you choose OK to accept the desired vector or angle, you can continue dening data points and vectors until you choose Back in the Point Constructor dialog. Selecting Back accepts all of the dened vectors and returns you to the Interpolated Tool Axis dialog. Data Point allows you to create, delete and modify vectors used to interpolate the tool axis. Add enables you to create new data points. First specify a data point on the drive geometry and then a vector direction. After specifying the data point, a vector normal to the drive geometry is displayed. Remove enables you to delete data points. Use the Arrow Buttons to highlight the desired data point or select the desired data point directly from the screen and then choose Remove. Edit enables you to modify the tool axis at an existing data point. It does not allow you to move data points. Display displays all currently dened data points for visual reference. Interpolation method determines which algorithm is used to calculate the tool axis from one drive point to the next. Linear interpolates the tool axis using a constant rate of change between drive points Cubic Spline interpolates the tool axis using a variable rate of change between drive points; this method allows a smoother transition between points

Interpolate displays drive tool axis vectors at each drive point (when Specify as Vector is used) or drive points and interpolated lead and tilt angle values (when Specify as Angle/PS or Angle/DS is used).

Reselect removes all dened data points.

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Variable Contour Basics

Activity: Using the Interpolated Tool Axis


In this activity, you will create an operation using an Interpolated Tool Axis. The tool will start at the rear of the part with a tool axis that is normal and will then cut to the front of the part, ending with a tool axis that is aligned with the ZC axis. As the tool moves from the rear to the front, its orientation changes incrementally along the tool path. Step 1: Open a part le, rename and enter the Manufacturing application. Open the part le interpolate_mfg_asmb and rename it to ***_interpolate_mfg_asmb.

Enter the Manufacturing application. Choose the Operation Navigator icon from the toolbar. Step 2: Create a Variable Contour Operation. Choose the Create Operation icon. If necessary, change the Type to mill_multi-axis. Choose the Variable Contour icon. In the Create Operation dialog, set the following: Program: PROGRAM-AXIS-LIMITS Use Geometry: WORKPIECE Use Tool: BALL_MILL-1.0 Use Method: MILL_FINISH Name: interpolate
UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 9-61

Variable Contour Basics

Choose OK. The Variable Contour dialog is displayed. Under the Machining Parameters label, select Non-Cutting. Specify the Approach and Departure motions to Clearance Plane. Step 3: Dene the Drive Geometry. Under the Drive Method label, choose Surface Area. The Surface Drive Method dialog is displayed. Step 4: Specify a Drive Method. Under the Drive Geometry label, choose Select.

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Variable Contour Basics

Choose the surfaces as shown.

Choose OK. Choose the Cut Direction button.

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Variable Contour Basics

Choose the Cut Direction arrow as shown.

Change the Cut Type to Zig. Change the Cut Step to Tolerances.

Under the Stepover label, change the Number of Steps to 4. Change the Tool Axis to Interpolate. The Interpolated Tool Axis dialog is displayed. The default vector arrows show the current tool axis vector direction.
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Variable Contour Basics

As shown, select the front arrows (using the cursor or the Selection Arrows, select one at a time) and under the Data Point label, specify EditZC Axis for each vector direction arrow selected.

Each vector now points along the +ZC axis. Choose OK. The Surface Drive Method dialog is displayed.

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Variable Contour Basics

Choose OK to return to the Variable Contour dialog. Under the Tool Path label, choose the Edit Display icon and change the Tool Display to Axis. Choose OK to return to the Variable Contour dialog. Choose the Generate icon.

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Notice that the tool starts cutting along the surface normal vector at the rear of the part, gradually changing its axis to the vectors specied at the front of the part, which is parallel to the +ZC axis.
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Variable Contour Basics

Verify the Interpolate Tool Axis positions. List the tool path and verify the start and nish tool axis. By listing the tool path, you can see the tool axis position at the rst GOTO, is not parallel to the ZC axis. As the tool moves, the tool axis position interpolates and becomes parallel to the ZC axis at the last GOTO. Close the Information window. Choose OK. Save the part le.

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Variable Contour Basics

A Comparison of Variable Contour vs. Sequential Milling


Variable Contour and Sequential Mill operations allow you to specify Drive, Part and Check surfaces. Generally, the Drive geometry guides the side of the tool and the Part geometry guides the bottom of the tool. The Check geometry stops tool movement. Specifying Part and Check geometry is very similar in Variable Contour and Sequential Mill operations. Part Geometry Variable Contour does not always require that you specify Part geometry. When you do not, Drive geometry is used as Part geometry. Sequential Mill requires selection of Part geometry. The default selection is the previous Part geometry. Drive Geometry Drive geometry is used to create drive points that are projected to the Part geometry. You may use geometry other than that contained within the model. This "external" drive geometry can be points, curves, a boundary, etc. that you select after you choose an appropriate Drive Method. Drive geometry in Sequential Mill is used to control the side of the tool without developing and projecting drive points. Typically, you select a part wall that you want the side of the tool to contact as it follows the Part surface. Check Geometry Variable Contour does not require Check geometry. Check geometry is typically used to prevent collision and gouging. Sequential Mill requires selection of Check geometry. The Check geometry is used for tool positioning at the beginning of the next suboperation and for preventing collision and gouging. General Considerations The overriding consideration in choosing between Variable Contour and Sequential Mill is: "Which method creates the best tool path and is easiest to use."

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Variable Contour Basics

The answer depends upon whether the part model has features that only Variable Contour or Sequential Mill can resolve. If both processors are capable, you should consider the following relative strength of each processor: Variable Contour preferred method for area milling primary cutting with bottom of tool numerous drive methods for tool path containment numerous cut patterns for specic applications sheet body and surface region geometry allowed constant tool axis edits apply to entire tool path best at convex wall cuts easy to create operation easy to create multiple depth paths Sequential Mill preferred method for linear milling primary cutting with side of tool single drive method no cut patterns other than looping or nested loops temporary plane geometry allowed can change tool axis during operation edits apply to part of tool path best at overcut and undercut type walls numerous steps in operation creation N/A

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Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

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Variable Contour Basics

Tool Axis Usage The following table compares tool axis usage in Variable Contour and Sequential Mill operations: Tool Axis Usage Variable Contour 3 Axis Normal to Part (default) Relative to Vector Away from line (4) / Toward line (4) ZM Axis (default) Vector 4 Axis 4axis normal to part / 4axis normal to drive 4axis relative to part 4axis relative to drive dual 4axis on part / dual 4axis on drive Away from point toward point normal to part normal to drive swarf drive relative to drive interpolate same as drive path user function at angle to Drive Surface/at angle to Part Surface tangent to Part Surface tangent to Drive Surface project Drive Surface Normal project Part Surface Normal 5 Axis thru xed point thru xed point normal to Part Surface normal to Drive Surface parallel to PS /Parallel to DS at angle to DS / at angle to PS tangent to PS tangent to DS fan Sequential Mill

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Variable Contour Basics

Summary
Variable Contour operations provide an efcient and robust capability to machine complex geometry for multiple axes machining processes (4 plus axis). Numerous types of tool axis control and drive methods, give the NC/CNC programmer the ability to machine the simplest to the most complex of parts. The following features are common to variable contour operations. Complete tool axis control that allows for minimal tool and table rotations. Numerous drive methods to achieve the simplest to the more complex of surface machining techniques.

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Lesson

10 Variable Contour Advanced


Purpose This lesson will introduce advanced concepts in conjunction with Variable Contour operations. Objective At the conclusion of this lesson, you will be able to: create associative drive surfaces used to control the tool axis use Associative Datum planes to create surfaces and geometric objects used for creation of start points and initial tool axis

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UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-1

Variable Contour Advanced

Advanced Variable Contour Machining


The activity which follows will take you through some of the steps that allow greater control of the tool axis and avoids chaining tolerance errors that occur when drive surfaces edges do not match precisely. Surfaces will be extracted from the solid body by use of the WAVE Geometry Linker with timestamp applied. The use of the timestamp will prevent new geometry, which is created after the timestamp, from being used by the WAVE Linked surfaces. Associative Datum planes are created for use in creating the initial start point and tool axis as well as for the creation of various geometric elements that will be required for tool control. All surfaces which have not been intersected by parallel datum planes will be selected as part surfaces. The tool axis will be set to swarf drive and the projection vector will be the tool axis.

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Variable Contour Advanced

Activity: Examining the Part and Part Objects


The part in this activity can represent any type of ve-axis work that could be performed on an aircraft structural assembly, the inside of a mold or some other type of part that requires ve-axis machining. You will be required to semi-nish and nish the walls with two different diameter cutters. Assume that the part has already been roughed. Step 1: Open an existing part le. Open the part le vc_nc_assy.

There are two existing sample operations that you will examine and then create like operations. First you will examine the various parts which comprise the assembly.
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Variable Contour Advanced

Step 2:

Examine the assembly. If necessary, enter the Manufacturing application. Choose the Assembly Navigator tab from the toolbar. The Assembly Navigator and the part model are displayed. Make the vc_solidbody component the Displayed Part.

Note the cut out areas on top of the walls. Make the vc_assy the Work Part. Step 3: Examine layers in the assembly. Choose FormatLayer Settings from the menu bar.

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Variable Contour Advanced

Check the Show Object Count and Show Category Names boxes.

Note the change in the Layer/Status/Count/Category area of the dialog. You will now examine the layers. Make all layers Invisible. Make layer 15 Selectable. Choose OK. Now examine the WAVE Linked surfaces.

Note that the cut outs were not passed to the WAVE Linked geometry due to the use and placement of the timestamp.

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UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-5

Variable Contour Advanced

Make layer 61 Selectable.

The view now shows the part with the Associative Datum planes that are used to create the necessary intersection curves. Make layer 41 Selectable.

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10-6

The view now shows the part with the Associative Curves that are used to create the necessary ruled surface.

Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

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Variable Contour Advanced

Make layer 81 Selectable.

The view now shows the part with the Associative Ruled surface that is used to create the Drive surfaces.

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UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-7

Variable Contour Advanced

Make layer 15 Invisible.

The single vertical plane was used to split the WAVE Linked surface prior to the creation of the Intersection Curves. This can be at any angle to establish the initial tool axis. Dismiss the Layer Settings dialog by choosing Cancel. Step 4: Enter the Manufacturing application and review the existing operations. You will review the operations by examining their settings. Enter the Manufacturing application. Choose the Operation Navigator tab from the menu bar. Change the view of the Operation Navigator to the Geometry View. Expand the MCS and WORKPIECE Parent group objects. Double-click on the operation VC_RGH_POC_1.50_WO_CS. The Variable_Contour dialog is displayed.

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Variable Contour Advanced

Display the Part geometry and then the Check geometry. Notice that the Select button appears when you choose the Check geometry icon. There is no Check geometry available for display. Replay the operation and zoom in at the corner of the part. Notice the cutter violates the drive surfaces.

Double-click on the operation VC_RGH_POC_1.50_W_CS.

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UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-9

Variable Contour Advanced

Display the Part geometry, then the Check geometry.

Notice that the side walls of the part have been selected as Check surfaces.

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Variable Contour Advanced

Replay the operation and zoom in at the corner of the part.

Notice the cutter does not violate the walls. Replay the operation VC_FIN_POC_1.00. Examine the operation parameters and the surfaces used. Notice that this operation does not need Check surfaces. Step 5: Create new operations. Create operations to semi-nish and nish the pocket, using the previous operations as a guide only. Do not copy them. Close the part le.

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UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-11

Variable Contour Advanced

Contour Prole Drive Method


The Contour Prole Drive Method in Variable Axis Surface Contouring machines canted walls with the side of the cutter. Variable axis proling lets you automatically generate a tool path to machine the walls of a cavity or a region bounded by oor(s) and wall(s), with the sides of the cutter. After selecting the oor, the software can nd all the walls that bound the oor. The tool axis is constantly adjusted to get a smooth path. At concave corners, the side of the tool is tangent to both adjacent walls. At convex corners, the software adds a radius and rolls the cutter around to keep the tool axis tangent to each corner wall. Contour Prole also allows you to machine walls that are not bounded by oors, such as the outside periphery of a part. There are two options to control the placement of the cutter against the wall when your part has no oors. Either use Follow Wall bottom to follow the periphery of the wall or use an auxiliary oor that behaves as a real oor.

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10-12 Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved mt11050_g NX 4

Variable Contour Advanced

Activity: Contour Prole Drive Method


In this activity you will use the Contour Prole drive method to machine the canted walls of the part. Step 1: Open an existing part le and enter the Manufacturing application. Open the part le spar_mfg.

This part has already been roughed machined as well as the oor have been nished. All that remains to nish is the interior walls of the three rectangular pockets. Enter the Manufacturing application. Step 2: Create a Variable Axis Proling operation. Choose the Create Operation icon. If necessary, set the Type to mill_multi_axis.

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UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-13

Variable Contour Advanced

Choose the CONTOUR_PROFILE icon.

Set the group objects as shown:

The CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog is displayed. Choose OK. Step 3: Selection of Parameters. As stated earlier, the only requirements necessary to use this drive method is the selection of the oor of the pocket, setting various cutting parameters and generating the operation. You will rst select the oor of the pocket.

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Variable Contour Advanced

Under the Geometry area of the dialog, choose the Floor (1) icon and then Select (2).

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UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-15

Variable Contour Advanced

Choose the bottom of the pocket as shown.

Choose OK.

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Variable Contour Advanced

Choose the Wall icon (1) from the Geometry area of the CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog. Choose Display (2).

Note that the Automatic Wall parameter is On. The walls, forming the sides of the pockets are automatically detected (even though the oor is a radius). The operation is now ready to be generated, however we need to make multiple passes to keep the cutter from deecting. You will now select those parameters. Choose the Cutting button from the CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog. The Cutting Parameters dialog is displayed.

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UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-17

Variable Contour Advanced

Select the Multiple Passes tab. Turn on the Wall (1) option. Key in 0.1 for the Wall Stock Offset (2). Set the Step Method to Passes (3). Set the Number of Passes to 3 (4).

Choose OK (5). You have set the cutting parameters to remove .100 stock in three equally spaced passes. Step 4: Generate the operation and examine the tool path. Choose the Generate button from the CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog.
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Variable Contour Advanced

Examine the tool path.

(1) Tool path prior to stock removal; (2) tool path after stock removal

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Variable Contour Advanced

If time permits, create a second Contour Prole operation to machine the walls of the next pocket. Close the part le.

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Variable Contour Advanced

Geometry Selection
Creating a Contour Prole tool path requires Part geometry, Wall geometry and Floor geometry. There are several options that can be used to dene the geometry. You can dene the geometry by selecting the geometry or by allowing parts of the geometry to be detected automatically. Part Geometry Use Part geometry to specify the complete set of geometry that represents the nished part. In many cases, roughing and nishing operations are done on sections of the nished part Floor Geometry The oor is the geometry that limits the location of the cutter when it is placed against the wall. Floor geometry may be specied by selecting geometry from your part, from another geometry or in some cases it can be dened for you. Wall Geometry Wall Geometry denes the area to be cut. The cutter is rst placed against the wall, and once a tool axis is established, the cutter is then positioned against the oor. Wall geometry can also be selected manually or in some cases it can be dened automatically. The following activities will examine some of the possible geometry selection methods and combinations.

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UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-21

Variable Contour Advanced

Automatic Wall
When using the Automatic Wall selection you will select the part geometry and the oor geometry and turn on the Automatic Wall option. The walls will be detected for you.

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Variable Contour Advanced

Activity: Floor selection and Automatic Wall


You will create a new operation and specify the Part and Floor geometry for the operation. You will select Automatic for the Wall selection. Step 1: Open an existing part le and enter the Manufacturing application. Open the part le wedge_mfg.

Enter the Manufacturing application. Step 2: Create a Variable Axis Proling operation. Choose the Create Operation icon. If necessary, set the Type to mill_multi_axis. Choose the CONTOUR_PROFILE icon.

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UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-23

Variable Contour Advanced

Set the group objects as shown and select OK.

The CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog is displayed. Step 3: Specify the Floor Geometry. Under the Geometry area of the dialog, choose the Floor (1) icon and then Select (2).

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Variable Contour Advanced

Choose the bottom of the pocket as shown.

Choose OK.

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Variable Contour Advanced

Choose the Wall icon (1) from the Geometry area of the CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog. Choose Display (2).

Note that the Automatic Wall parameter is On. The walls, forming the sides of the pockets are automatically detected. The operation is now ready to be generated. Step 4: Generate the operation and examine the tool path. Choose the Generate button from the CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog. Examine the tool path using Replay or Verify.

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Variable Contour Advanced

Follow Bottom Wall


The Follow Bottom Wall option uses the bottom of the selected walls to determine the oor. The access vector determines the tool axis direction.

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UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-27

Variable Contour Advanced

Activity: Follow Bottom Wall


You will create a new operation and specify the part and wall geometry for the operation. You will select Follow Bottom Wall to detect the oor. Multiple level cutting is not available for Follow Bottom Wall. Multiple passes are available. Step 1: Continue to use the existing part le. The part le mfg_wedge should be open.

Step 2:

Create a Variable Axis Proling operation. Choose the Create Operation icon. If necessary, set the Type to mill_multi_axis. Choose the CONTOUR_PROFILE icon.

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Variable Contour Advanced

Set the group objects as shown and select OK.

The CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog is displayed. Step 3: Turn off the Automatic Wall option. Turn off Automatic Wall. Step 4: Specify the Wall Geometry.

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Variable Contour Advanced

Under the Geometry area of the dialog, choose the Wall icon and then Select .

Choose all of the walls on the outside of the part.

Choose OK.

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Select Follow Bottom Wall on the CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog.


Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved mt11050_g NX 4

Variable Contour Advanced

The operation will detect the bottom of the walls to use for oor geometry. The path could also be offset from the Bottom Wall. Step 5: Generate the operation and examine the tool path. Choose the Generate button from the CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog. Examine the tool path. The tool path follows the bottom contour of the wall geometry while using the wall geometry to guide the tool axis.

The tool path cuts to the bottom of the selected walls. You will edit the operation to apply a depth offset so the cutter cuts deeper than the part geometry. Step 6: Add a depth offset for the tool path. Set the Tool Position Offset to .250 and Generate the operation. Choose OK to accept the operation. Step 7: Move the operation to the Unused Items group on the Operation Navigator You will cut the same area of the part using slightly different options. Highlight the operation CONTOUR_PROFILE_1 and drag it to the Unused Items group.
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Variable Contour Advanced

Automatic Auxiliary Floor


Use Automatic Auxiliary Floor to dene an innite plane that is perpendicular to the access vector at the bottom of the wall. You dene the access vector to determine which direction the cutter should be positioned with respect to the wall.

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Variable Contour Advanced

Activity: Automatic Auxiliary Floor


You create a new operation using the Automatic Auxiliary Floor option. After generating the operation you will offset the oor and add multiple levels. Step 1: Continue to use the existing part le. The part le mfg_wedge should be open.

Step 2:

Create a Variable Axis Proling operation. Choose the Create Operation icon. If necessary, set the Type to mill_multi_axis. Choose the CONTOUR_PROFILE icon.

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Variable Contour Advanced

Set the group objects as shown and select OK.

The CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog is displayed. Step 3: Turn off the Automatic Wall option. Turn off Automatic Wall. Step 4: Specify the Wall Geometry.

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10-34 Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved mt11050_g NX 4

Variable Contour Advanced

Under the Geometry area of the dialog, choose the Wall icon and then Select .

Choose all of the walls on the outside of the part.

Choose OK.

10
UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-35

Variable Contour Advanced

Select Automatic Auxiliary Floor on the CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog. The operation will detect the bottom of the part to use for oor geometry. Use the Automatic Auxiliary Floor to dene an innite plane that is perpendicular to the access vector at the bottom of the wall. The path could also be offset from the Automatic Auxiliary Floor. Step 5: Generate the operation and examine the tool path. Choose the Generate button from the CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog. Examine the tool path. The tool path follows a plane at the bottom of the geometry while using the wall geometry to guide the tool axis.

Multiple depth and multiple passes are available with Automatic Auxiliary Floor. You can also set a depth offset. In the next steps you will add a depth offset and multiple depths. Step 6: Set a depth offset for the tool path. Select the Edit Parameters icon next to Automatic Auxiliary Floor.
10-36 Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved mt11050_g NX 4

10

Variable Contour Advanced

In the graphics screen click and drag the cone head to specify an offset of -.3 and select the Green Check Mark to accept it.

Step 7:

You will now select multiple oor passes. Choose Cutting Multiple Passes and select Floor. Set the Floor Stock Offset to 2.00, the Step Method to Passes and the Number of Passes to 4.

Choose OK to return to the CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog. Choose Generate.


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10

Variable Contour Advanced

Choose OK to accept the operation and tool path. You will also add multiple Wall passes to the operation.

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Variable Contour Advanced

Step 8:

Choose Cutting Multiple Passes and select Walls. Set the Wall Stock Offset to .100, the Step Method to Passes and the Number of Passes to 2.

Choose OK to return to the CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog. Choose Generate.

10
UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-39

Variable Contour Advanced

Choose OK to accept the operation. Step 9: Move the operation to the Unused Items group on the Operation Navigator. Highlight the operation CONTOUR_PROFILE_2 and drag it to the Unused Items group.

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10-40 Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved mt11050_g NX 4

Variable Contour Advanced

Auxiliary Floor
Auxiliary Floor allows you to select geometry that doesnt belong to the model being cut to represent the oor geometry. In the following activity you will use another face to simplify the tool motion for the cut.

10
UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-41

Variable Contour Advanced

Activity: Auxiliary Floor


You will create a new operation using the Auxiliary Floor option. Step 1: Continue to use the existing part le. The part le mfg_wedge should be open.

Step 2:

Create a Variable Axis Proling operation. Choose the Create Operation icon. If necessary, set the Type to mill_multi_axis. Choose the CONTOUR_PROFILE icon.

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10-42 Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved mt11050_g NX 4

Variable Contour Advanced

Set the group objects as shown and select OK.

The CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog is displayed. Step 3: Make the layer containing the auxiliary oor selectable. Select Format Layer Settings , highlight layer 52 and choose Selectable. Choose OK. Step 4: Turn off the Automatic Wall option. Turn off Automatic Wall. Step 5: Specify the Wall Geometry.

10
UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-43

Variable Contour Advanced

Under the Geometry area of the dialog, choose the Wall icon and then Select.

Choose all of the walls on the outside of the part.

Choose OK.

10
10-44 Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved mt11050_g NX 4

Variable Contour Advanced

Select Auxiliary Floor on the CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog and then choose Select.

You will select the sheet body as the Auxiliary Floor.

Step 6:

Generate the operation and examine the tool path Choose the Generate button from the CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog. Examine the tool path.

10
Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-45

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Variable Contour Advanced

The tool path follows the Auxiliary Floor geometry while using the wall geometry to guide the tool axis.

Step 7:

You will now select multiple oor passes. Choose Cutting Multiple Passes, and select Floor. Set the Floor Stock Offset to 2.00, the Step Method to Passes and the Number of Passes to 4.

Choose OK to return to the CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog.

10
10-46

Choose Generate.
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Variable Contour Advanced

Choose OK to accept the operation and tool path. In this case the Auxiliary oor establishes a smoother tool path than the Follow Bottom Wall path. It also allows multiple oor passes. Step 8: Move the operation to the Unused Items group on the Operation Navigator. Highlight the operation CONTOUR_PROFILE_3 and drag it to the Unused Items group.

10
UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-47

Variable Contour Advanced

Auxiliary Floor and Automatic Auxiliary Floor


You can combine Automatic Auxiliary Floor along with Auxiliary Floor. The innite plane created by Automatic Auxiliary Floor is treated as another face in the Auxiliary Floor denition.

10
10-48 Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved mt11050_g NX 4

Variable Contour Advanced

Activity: Auxiliary Floor and Automatic Auxiliary Floor


You will create a new operation using the Auxiliary Floor and Automatic Auxiliary Floor. . Step 1: Continue to use the existing part le. The part le mfg_wedge should be open.

Step 2:

Create a Variable Axis Proling operation. Choose the Create Operation icon. If necessary, set the Type to mill_multi_axis. Choose the CONTOUR_PROFILE icon.

10
UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-49

Variable Contour Advanced

Set the group objects as shown and select OK.

The CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog is displayed. Step 3: Turn off the Automatic Wall option. Turn off Automatic Wall. Step 4: Specify the Wall Geometry.

10
10-50 Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved mt11050_g NX 4

Variable Contour Advanced

Under the Geometry area of the dialog, choose the Wall icon and then Select .

Choose all of the walls on the outside of the part.

Choose OK.

10
UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-51

Variable Contour Advanced

Select Auxiliary Floor on the CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog and then choose Select.

You will select the sheet body as the Auxiliary Floor.

Step 5:

You will also turn on the Automatic Auxiliary Floor option. Choose Automatic Auxiliary Floor.

10
10-52

Step 6:

Generate the operation and examine the tool path


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Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

Variable Contour Advanced

Choose the Generate button from the CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog. Examine the tool path. The tool path follows the Auxiliary Floor and the Automatic Auxiliary oor geometry while using the wall geometry to guide the tool axis.

10
UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-53

Variable Contour Advanced

Step 7:

You will now select multiple oor passes. Choose Cutting Multiple Passes and select Floor. Set the Floor Stock Offset to 1.50, the Step Method to Passes and the Number of Passes to 4.

Choose OK to return to the CONTOUR_PROFILE dialog. Choose Generate.

Choose OK to accept the operation and tool path.

10
10-54 Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved mt11050_g NX 4

Variable Contour Advanced

Summary
Variable Contour operations provide an efcient and robust capability to machine complex geometry for 4 and 5-axis machining centers. This lesson familiarizes you with some the requirements that are necessary to make the programming task simpler.

10
UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide 10-55

10

Appendix

A Projection Vectors

The Projection Vector indicates the side of the part surface to be cut. It is also used to project drive points from the drive to the part surface. The following illustration shows a Projection Vector (dened as Away From Line, i.e. the center line) indicating the side of the part surface to be cut. It also shows a drive point projected, along the projection vector, from the drive surface (P1) to the part surface (P2).

(1) projection vector (2) part surface (3) drive surface

Note that, in this example, the drive point is projected in the opposite direction of the Projection Vector arrowhead. The drive point is always projected toward the part surface along the projection vector but without regard to the Projection Vector arrowhead. A Projection Vector is required for all Variable Contour Drive Methods.

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A-1

Projection Vectors

The following options allow you to dene the Projection Vector: Specify Vector xed projection vectors Tool Axis variable projection vector Away from Point variable projection vector Toward Point variable projection vector Away from line variable projection vector Toward line variable projection vector Normal to Drive surface area drive method only Swarf Ruling surface area drive method only User Function

Specify Vector Fixed Projection Vectors I, J, K dene the vector by keying in values relative to the origin of the Work Coordinate System. Line End Points by dening two points, selecting an existing line, or dening a point and a vector. 2 Points by using the point Constructor to specify two points. The rst point denes the tail of the vector; the second point denes the arrowhead of the vector. Tangent to Curve denes a vector tangent to a selected curve. Specify a point on the curve, select an existing curve, and select one of two displayed tangent vectors.

A-2

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Projection Vectors

Spherical Coordinates denes a xed vector by keying in two angular values, designated as Phi and Theta. Phi is the angle measured from +ZC and rotated in the ZC-XC plane from ZC to XC. Theta is the rotation angle about the ZC axis from XC to YC.

(1) Phi (2) Theta

Variable Contour Projection Vectors Tool Axis dene a projection vector relative to the existing tool axis. When using tool axis, the vector always points in the opposite direction of the tool axis vector. Away From Point creates a projection vector extending away from a specied focal point toward the part surface. Useful in machining the inside spherical (or sphere like) surfaces where the focal point is the center of the sphere. Towards Point creates a projection vector extending from the part surface to a specied focal point. Useful in machining the outside spherical (or sphere like) surfaces where the focal point is the center of the sphere. Away From Line creates a projection vector extending from a specied line to the part surface. Towards Line creates a projection vector extending from the part surface to a specied line. Surface Area Drive Method Projection Vectors Normal to Drive dene projection vectors relative to the drive surface normals. Swarf Ruling allows you to dene the projection vector parallel to the swarf rulings of the drive surfaces when you use a swarf drive tool axis. It should be used only when the drive surfaces are equivalent to ruled surfaces, since the drive surface rulings dene the swarf projection vector.

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A-3

Projection Vectors

The Swarf Ruling projection vector can prevent gouging the drive surface when using a tapered tool as illustrated below:

(1) Tool Axis Projection Vector (2) Swarf Ruling Projection Vector (3) Ruled Drive Surface (4) Part Surface (5) Tapered Tool (6) gouge (7) drive point (8) tool position

The above gure compares the Swarf Ruling projection vector to the Tool Axis projection vector (the Tool Axis projection vector is the reverse of the Tool Axis Vector). Drive points are projected along the specied vector to determine the tool position. When using the Tool Axis projection vector, drive points are projected along the tool axis (at an angle to the drive surface), causing the tool to gouge the drive surface. When using the Swarf Ruling projection vector, drive points are projected along the drive surface swarf rulings causing the tool to position tangent to the drive surface.

A-4

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Projection Vectors

The following is a summary table showing the types of projection methods available for each tool axis. The x indicates that the Projection Method is not available. Tool Axis Fixed Vector Away From Point Toward Point Away From Line Toward Line Relative To Vector Normal to Part Relative to Part 4axis Normal to Part 4axis Relative to Part Dual 4Axis on Part Interpolate Normal to Drive Swarf Drive Relative to Drive 4axis Norm to Drive 4axis Rel to Drive Dual 4Axis on Drive Same as Drive Path Projection Methods Tool Toward Toward Norm Axis / Away / Away Drive Point Line Swarf Rule X X X X X X X X X X X X

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A-5

Appendix

B Zig-Zag Surface Machining

Zig-Zag Surface machining is designed for machining a single trimmed surface. Zig-Zag Surface also provides the capability to offset the tool from holes trimmed in the surface (by the radius of the tool plus any specied stock). You can specify a tool path direction or accept a system generated tool path direction. Either Zig or Zig-Zag cut types are available. (1) trim (2) specify cut direction by selecting direction arrows Zig-Zag Surface tool paths are generated in parallel passes. The drive points are generated on the surface to be machined. You can control the number of input points by a chordal deviation (adjusting the step tolerance) in the direction of cut. This is the allowable deviation from the surface. Scallop height controls the distance between parallel passes according to the maximum height of material (scallop) you specify to be left between passes. This is affected by the cutter denition and the curvature of the surface. Zig-Zag Surface also provides gouge check so that the system can check for violation of the surface.

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B-1

Appendix

C Advanced Surface Contouring


C

Projection Mathematics of Projection: Place tool end at drive point Project tool along projection vector Tool stops when making contact with part If necessary, adjust the tool axis and repeat the above steps until the tool axis is satised Add more intermediate drive points to satisfy the Intol/Outol with the part (1) drive point (2) projection vector (3) tool position (4) part

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C-1

Advanced Surface Contouring

Projection and Steep Surface: X = d/sin d/ is very small (steep surface)

X becomes large if

The source of d is the chordal deviation of the drive path (1) drive path (2) drive point (3) d (4) x (5)

C-2

Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

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Advanced Surface Contouring

Projection and Material Side: Surface contouring does not have explicit denition of material side for part geometry, only the drive surface has explicit material side Material side of the part is determined implicitly by the projection vector (1) drive point (2) projection vector (3) focal point (4) A (5) B (6) C (7) away from point (8) all other cases In the case of Area Milling Drive (no projection vector), the tool axis vector is used to decide Material Side

Tool Axis Denition of Lead/Tilt angles: (1) lead (2) tilt (3) tool axis vector (4) reference vector (5) cut vector (6) tool axis Begin with cut vector, rotate it toward the Reference vector 90Then rotate around the cut vector degrees (counter clockwise) degrees

Reference vector is the surface normal relative to the part/drive or a vector which is relative to a vector
Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide C-3

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Advanced Surface Contouring

Denition of 4-axis rotation angle: (1) rotation angle (2) perpendicular plane (3) tool axis (4) projected tool axis

(5) 4axis vector Compute tool axis vector without 4axis constraint rst Project this tool axis vector onto the perpendicular plane of the 4axis vector Rotate the projected tool axis vector along 4axis vector (counterclockwise)

The unconstrained tool axis vector could be: Normal to Part / Drive Relative to Part / Drive

C-4

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Advanced Surface Contouring

Interpolated tool axis algorithm: (1) data point 1; (2) data point 2 (3) data point 3; (4) data point 4 (5) grid cell divide the whole parameter (u,v) space for the drive surfaces by a 19x19 grid compute the tool axis at each grid pt using the data pts weighted by the inverse of the distance square inside each grid cell, calculate the tool axis vector as the linear/spline interpolation of the tool axis vector at the four corners.

Drive Surface Remap of drive surface: Remap algorithm:

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C-5

Advanced Surface Contouring

(1) trimmed face; (2) underlined surface

merge the exterior edges of the trimmed face to 4 sides re-proportion the parameters of the exterior edges according to arc length use the arc length proportional edge parameters to construct the new (u,v) space for the trimmed face (Coons mapping). align the multiple drive surfaces into a rectangular grid pattern

Limitations of remap fails on 3sided faces fails on faces that do not have rectangular shapes may fail on faces with too many edges multiple drive surfaces must be in grid formation

C-6

Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

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Advanced Surface Contouring

Swarf developable surface: Developable surfaces are special kinds of ruled surfaces when the surface normal vectors on any given rule line are the same (ruled surface without twisting) Only developable surfaces can be milled by swarng without undercut or overcut

Planar Milling Blank - the region to be included Part - the region that can not be violated Check - the additional region that can not be violated Trim - as a nal step, the region to be trimmed away

(1) check inside (2) blank inside (3) trim outside (4) part inside

Boolean Logic Boundary Drive Drive boundary - similar to "blank" if no part containment, otherwise it is like "part" Part containment - similar to "blank"

Area Milling Drive Cut area - similar to "blank" Trim - behaves slightly different from planar milling

Stock Part offset and part stock


UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide C-7

Advanced Surface Contouring

What Part Offset Offset of part as the permanent denition of the nal shape of the product Leftover material on part by a given operation

Where Geometry Group

Part Stock

Operation

Part stock is dened on "top" of part offset (1) part stock of roughing (2) part (3) part stock of semi-nish (4) part offset

C-8

Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

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Advanced Surface Contouring

Safe clearance and part stock offset What Part Stock Offset Difference between the part stock from the previous operation and the part stock of the current operation The additional safety zone for collision checking Where Operation

Safe Clearance

Operation

Safe clearance is dened on "top" of part stock offset

(1) safe clearance (2) part (3) part stock (4) part offset (5) part stock offset

Part stock offset is used in multiple pass, engage/retract and collision checking Safe clearance is used in engage/retract and collision checking

Gouge / Collision Denitions: Rapid moves Cutting part of tool assembly Collision Feed moves Gouge Collision

Non-cutting part of tool Collision assembly

Usually gouge check against part offset + part stock


Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide C-9

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Advanced Surface Contouring

Usually collision check against part offset + part stock + part stock offset + safe clearance

C
(1) collision (2) gouge

Usage: Collision check Tool Path Generation Drive Path Generation Engage/Retract Transfer Moves Cut Region Computation (Cut Area) Check Geometry Gouge Check (Operation Navigator) No No Optional on Check (No Part Stock) No No No Optional on Part Optional (holder) on Part/Check Gouge check Yes on Part Optional on Drive Optional on Part Optional on Part Yes on Part

C-10

Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

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Advanced Surface Contouring

Noncut Moves Azimuth / Latitude:

(1) latitude (2) azimuth (3) part normal (4) cut vector (5) engage/retract vector

Begin with cut vector, rotate it toward the part normal Then rotate around the part normal End / Intermediate traverse:

degrees

degrees (counter clockwise)

(1) retract (2) departure (3) int traverse (4) end traverse (5) approach (6) engage

There is only one End Traverse in the sequence, but there may be zero or multiple Int Traverse The Start and End positions of the End Traverse move are determined by other moves in the sequence

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C-11

Index

A advanced surface contouring topics boolean logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . drive surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . remap of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . swarf developable . . . . . . . . . gouge/collision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . noncut moves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . planar milling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . projection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . material side . . . . . . . . . . . . steep surface . . . . . . . . . . . . stock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tool axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lead/tilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Approach Move Non_Cutting Moves . . . . . . . . . . C Case Fixed Contour . . . . . . Cavity Mill Cut Levels . . . . . . . . . Cut Patterns Cut Pattern . . . . . In-Process work piece . Cavity Milling cut parameters tolerant machining trim by . . . . . . . . undercut handling cut region start points . pre-drill engage . . . . . topology . . . . . . . . . . . Check Case Non_Cutting Moves . . Course Overview C-7 C-5 C-5 C-7 C-9 C-11 . C-7 . C-1 . C-3 . C-2 . C-7 . C-3 . C-3 5-33 . . . . .

Class Standards . . . . . . . . . Course Description . . . . . . . Intended Audience . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . Student and Workbook parts System Privileges . . . . . . . . Workbook overview . . . . . . . Cut Area MILL_AREA . . . . . . . . . . . Cut Area Geometry Z-Level Milling . . . . . . . . . . Cut Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cut Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . D

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . .

9 7 7 8 7 13 13 12

. . . . . 4-3 . . . . . 3-3 . . . . . 2-2 . . . . . 2-9

Departure Move Non_Cutting Moves . . . . . . . . . . 5-33 E

. . . . . . . . 5-33 . . . . . . . . . 2-2 . . . . . . . . . 2-9 . . . . . . . . 2-16

Engage Move Non_Cutting Moves . . . . . . . . . . 5-33 F Final Case Non_Cutting Moves . . . . . . Fixed Contour Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . drive geometry . . . . . . . . . . drive methods area milling . . . . . . . . . ow cut . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-125-13, 5-155-16 radial cut . . . . . . . . . . . surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . tool path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-33 . . . . 5-33 . . . . . 5-2 . . . . . 5-5 . . . . . 5-6, . . . . . 5-6 . . . . . 5-5 . . . . . 5-5
Index-1

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . 2-44 . . . . 2-44 . . . . 2-45 2-32, 2-34 . . . . 2-32 . . . . 2-46

. . . . . . . . 5-33

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Index

User Function . . . . . drive points . . . . . . . . . . Non_Cutting Moves . . . . operation types . . . . . . . . contour_area . . . . . . contour_surface_area xed_contour . . . . . . owcut_ref_tool . . . . Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . parent groups . . . . . . . . . MILL_AREA . . . . . . MILL_BND . . . . . . . MILL_GEOM . . . . . . terminology . . . . . . . . . . check geometry . . . . drive geometry . . . . . drive method . . . . . . drive points . . . . . . . part geometry . . . . . projection vector . . . . use of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . 5-6 . . . . . 5-2 . . . . 5-32 5-105-11 . . . . 5-10 . . . . 5-10 . . . . 5-10 . . . . 5-10 . . . . . 5-2 . . . . . 5-6 . . . . . 5-9 . . . . . 5-8 . . . . . 5-7 . . . . . 5-3 . . . . . 5-3 . . . . . 5-3 . . . . . 5-4 . . . . . 5-3 . . . . . 5-3 . . . . . 5-4 . . . . . 5-2

multi-axis positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2 rotary axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-16 tool axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2 N Non_Cutting Moves Approach Move . . Check Case . . . . . Departure Move . Engage Move . . . Final Case . . . . . Fixed Contour . . Initial Case . . . . Local Case . . . . . Reposition Case . Retract Move . . . Traverse . . . . . . . P Part Geometry Check Geometry Z-Level Milling . . . . . . . . Projection Vectors denition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . specication of . . . . . . . . . . . . as used in variable contour as used ins surface area drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . table of methods . . . . . . . . . . . R Reposition Case Non_Cutting Moves . . . . . . . . . . 5-33 Retract Move Non_Cutting Moves . . . . . . . . . . 5-33 S Sequential Milling Check surface . . . . . . creating operation . . dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . Drive surface . . . . . . engage motion dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3, 7-11 . . . 7-37 . . . . 7-5 . . . . 7-3 . . . . 7-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-33 5-33 5-33 5-33 5-33 5-32 5-33 5-33 5-33 5-33 5-33

General Milling Enhancements In-Process Workpiece for xed axis milling applications how to use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16 Geometry Parent Groups MILL_AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 Geometry Types Z-Level Milling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 I Initial Case Non_Cutting Moves . . . . . . . . . . 5-33 L Local Case Non_Cutting Moves . . . . . . . . . . 5-33 M MILL_AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 Cut Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 Trim Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12 Multi-axis
Index-2 Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

. . . 3-3 . . . A-1 . . . A-2 . . . A-3 . . . A-3 . . . A-2 . . . A-5

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Index

loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . multiaxis output . . . . . . . . . multiple check surface . . . . nested loops . . . . . . . . . . . . other options . . . . . . . . . . . overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part surface . . . . . . . . . . . . path generation . . . . . . . . . point to point motion dialog reference point . . . . . . . . . . replace geometry globally . . retract motion dialog . . . . . stopping position Ds-Cs Tangency . . . . . . far side . . . . . . . . . . . . near side . . . . . . . . . . . on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ps-Cs Tangency . . . . . . suboperations . . . . . . . . . . . continuous path motion commands . . . . . . . . continuous path motion dialog . . . . . . . . . . . engage . . . . . . . . . . . . . point to point motion commands . . . . . . . . terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . tool axis control . . . . . . . . . at angle to Ps or Ds . . . fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . normal to Ps or Ds . . . . parallel to Ps or DS . . . tangent to Ps or Ds . . . thru xed point . . . . . . T

. . . . 8-19 . . . . 8-36 . . . . 7-12 8-19, 8-22 . . . . 8-38 . . . . . 7-2 . . . . . 7-3 . . . . 8-36 . . . . . 7-9 . . . . . 7-3 . . . . 8-36 . . . . 7-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3 7-3 7-3 7-3 7-3 7-5

V Variable Contour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2 drive geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2 drive methods boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6 curve/point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6 radial cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16 spiral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10 surface area . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12 tool path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15 User Function . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17 drive points drive geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2 terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 check geometry . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 drive geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 drive method . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 drive points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 part geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 projection vector . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 tool axis dual 4-axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-31 interpolated . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-59 normal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-28 relative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-29 swarf drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-35 tool path accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2 used for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2 Variable Contour and Sequential Mill comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-68 part, drive, check surfaces . . 9-68 general considerations . . . . . . . . 9-68 W WAVE Geometry Linker Assemblies and Wave . . . At Timestamp . . . . . . . . Blank Original . . . . . . . . Create Non-Associative . . denition of . . . . . . . . . . deleting parent geometry editing links . . . . . . . . . . Extracted feature . . . . . . linking procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10 1-3, 1-6 . . . 1-3 . . . 1-3 . . . 1-2 . . . 1-9 . . . 1-5 . . . 1-6 . . 1-16
Index-3

. . . . . 7-6 . . . . . 7-7 . . . . . 7-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6 7-3 8-2 8-5 8-5 8-4 8-4 8-5 8-6

Traverse Non_Cutting Moves . . . . . . . . . . 5-33 Trim Boundary MILL_AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12 Trim Geometry Steep Angle Z-Level Milling . . . . . . . . 3-3, 3-8

UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved

Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

Index

Links Break Links . . broken . . . . . . deleting of . . . newly broken . simplify . . . . . . . . Simplify Body Z Z-Level Milling

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. . . . . .

. 1-6 . 1-7 1-10 . 1-8 1-19 1-20

Check Geometry . . Cut Area Geometry Geometry Types . . Part Geometry . . . Steep Angle . . . . . Trim Geometry . . . Types . . . . . . . . . .

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3-3 3-3 3-3 3-3 3-8 3-3 3-2

Index-4

Multi-Axis Techniques Student Guide

UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved

mt11050_g NX 4

UGS Education Services offers a blend of training solutions for all of our product lifecycle management products. Our Online Store Learning Advantage was developed to provide our customers with just in time training for the latest in application developments. Here are some of the Learning Advantages: Customers have direct access Self-paced course layout Online Assessments Just in time training for the latest release

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STUDENT PROFILE
In order to stay in tune with our customers we ask for some background information. This information will be kept confidential and will not be shared with anyone outside of Education Services.

Please Print

Your Name Course Title/Dates


Hotel/motel you are staying at during your training Planned departure time on last day of class

U.S. citizen / thru

Yes

No

Employer Your title and job responsibilities Industry: Auto Aero Consumer products /

Location

Machining

Tooling

Medical

Other

Types of products/parts/data that you work with Reason for training


Please verify/add to this list of training for Unigraphics, I-deas, Imageware, Teamcenter Mfg., Teamcenter Eng. (I-Man), Teamcenter Enterprise (Metaphase), or Dimensional Mgmt./Visualization. Medium means Instructor-lead (IL), On-line (OL), or Self-paced (SP)

Software

From Whom

When

Course Name

Medium

Other CAD/CAM/CAE /PDM software you have used

Please check! your ability/knowledge in the following


Subject CAD modeling CAD assemblies CAD drafting CAM CAE PDM data management PDM system management Platform (operating system) None Novice Intermediate Advanced

Thank you for your participation and we hope your training experience will be an outstanding one.

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Multi Axis Techniques- Course Agenda


Day One Course Overview Lesson 1. WAVE Geometry Linker in Manufacturing Lesson 2. Advanced Cavity Milling Topics Afternoon Lesson 3 Lesson 4. Workbook Z-Level Milling MILL_AREA Geometry Parent Groups Drilling the Top Flange

Day Two Lesson 5. Afternoon Lesson 6. Lesson 7. Workbook Introduction to Four and Five Axis Machining Sequential Mill Basics Sequential Mill - Cutting the Manifold Flange Fixed Contour Operation Types

Day Three Lesson 8 Lesson 9. Afternoon Lesson 10. Workbook Workbook Variable Contour Advanced Variable Contour - Cutting the Manifold Flange Variable Contour Additional Activities Sequential Mill Advanced Variable Contour Basics

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Accelerators
The following Accelerators can be listed from within an NX session by choosing InformationCustom MenubarAccelerators. Function FileNew... FileOpen... FileSave FileSave As... FilePlot... FileExecuteGrip... FileExecuteDebug Grip... FileExecuteNX Open... EditUndo EditCut EditCopy Edit-Paste EditDelete... EditSelectionTop Selection Priority - Feature EditSelectionTop Selection Priority - Face EditSelectionTop Selection Priority - Body EditSelectionTop Selection Priority - Edge EditSelectionTop Selection Priority - Component EditSelection-Select All EditBlankBlank... EditBlankReverse Blank All EditBlankUnblank Selected... EditBlankUnblank All of Part EditTransform... EditObject Display... ViewOperationZoom... ViewOperationRotate... ViewOperationSection... ViewLayoutNew... ViewLayoutOpen... ViewLayoutFit All Views ViewVisualizationHigh Quality Image... ViewInformation Window ViewCurrent Dialog ViewReset Orientation InsertSketch... InsertDesign FeatureExtrude... InsertDesign FeatureRevolve... InsertTrimTrimmed Sheet... Accelerator Ctrl+N Ctrl+O Ctrl+S Ctrl+Shift+A Ctrl+P Ctrl+G Ctrl+Shift+G Ctrl+U Ctrl+Z Ctrl+X Ctrl+C Ctrl+V Ctrl+D or Delete F G B E C Ctrl+A Ctrl+B Ctrl+Shift+B Ctrl+Shift+K Ctrl+Shift+U Ctrl+T Ctrl+J Ctrl+Shift+Z Ctrl+R Ctrl+H Ctrl+Shift+N Ctrl+Shift+O Ctrl+Shift+F Ctrl+Shift+H F4 F3 Ctrl+F8 S X R T

InsertSweepVariational Sweep... FormatLayer Settings... FormatVisible in View... FormatWCSDisplay ToolsExpression... ToolsJournalPlay... ToolsJournalEdit ToolsMacroStart Record... ToolsMacroPlayback... ToolsMacroStep... InformationObject... AnalysisCurveRefresh Curvature Graphs PreferencesObject... PreferencesSelection... StartModeling... StartAll ApplicationsShape Studio... StartDrafting... StartManufacturing... StartNX Sheet Metal... StartAssemblies StartGateway... HelpOn Context... Refresh Fit Zoom Rotate Orient View-Trimetric Orient View-Isometric Orient View-Top Orient View-Front Orient View-Right Orient View-Left Snap View

V Ctrl+L Ctrl+Shift+V W Ctrl+E Alt+F8 Alt+F11 Ctrl+Shift+R Ctrl+Shift+P Ctrl+Shift+S Ctrl+I Ctrl+Shift+C Ctrl+Shift+J Ctrl+Shift+T M or Ctrl+M Ctrl+Alt+S Ctrl+Shift+D Ctrl+Alt+M Ctrl+Alt+N A Ctrl+W F1 F5 Ctrl+F F6 F7 Home End Ctrl+Alt+T Ctrl+Alt+F Ctrl+Alt+R Ctrl+Alt+L F8

Evaluation Delivery NX 4 Multi Axis Techniques, Course MT11050


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Student:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I met the prerequisites for the class (I had the skills I needed) My objectives were consistent with the course objectives I will be able to use the skills I have learned on my job My expectations for this course were met I am confident that with practice I will become proficient

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