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Chapter 10 Applying Critical Work Skills Self Management Tools Time Management refers to planning and using the

he hours and minutes for a workday in the most effective and efficient manner possible to complete specific assignments, projects, and goals. get organized analyze how you spent your time prioritize your to do list develop a workable schedule control large projects watch out for time wasters o visitors o phone calls o leaving your workstation o daydreaming o e-mail and internet o misplaced items o false starts stop procrastinating o procrastinating or delaying an action to a later time in a major drain on productivity Causes of Procrastinating: disorganization (the scope of a project has you feeling overwhelmed) Fear (what if you dont do a good job or what if you dont meet your deadline?) lack of enthusiasm for the task (purging files, for example) Techniques for dealing with procrastinating: o make promises to others o attack the task o make a contract with yourself o take care when multitasking Multitasking is attempting to do more than one task at a time. Stress Management Stress is the feeling you get from prolonged, unexpressed emotions. Positive emotions do not cause stress because you can express them openly. Negative emotions are often hidden and internalized, thereby causing you to suffer quietly and experience stress. Common Causes of Stress Everyday events Lifes transitions Personal finances Serious situations

Techniques for dealing with stress Get regular exercises Be easy on yourself Take a break Use stress reducers

Anger Management Anger is a normal human emotion. Symptoms of Anger Explosive outbursts leading to physical attack or destruction of property Exaggerated hostility to unimportant irritants Rapid and harsh judgment statements made to or about others. Use of body language such as tense muscles, clenched fist or jaw, glaring looks, or refusal to make eye contact. Social withdrawal due to anger. Refusing to complete assignments on timely basis Refusing to follow instructions or rules Complaining about authority figures behind their back Refusing to participate in activities when this behavior is expected Authority is challenge or disrespected. Verbal abusive language is utilized

Balancing Life and Work Determine what really matters to you. Eliminate unnecessary activities. Let others help. Plan time for you.

Two kind of Anger:

a. Passive Anger is anger that slowly burns your heart. This type of anger usually evolves into pure vindictiveness and often expressed in secretive or obsessive behavior, manipulation, or self-blame. b. Aggressive Anger is anger that explodes quickly on the spot and often is displayed as a threatening outburst. Anger management refers to the ability of a person to control his/her temperament, particularly in a stressful situations. Reactions to Anger: a. Expressing b. Suppressing c. Calming Anger Management Techniques Take a time out Do something physically exerting Practice deep-breathing exercises, visualize a relaxing scene, or repeat a calming word or phrase to yourself, such as take it easy Dont hold a grudge. Practice relaxation skills. Use assertive communication rather than aggressive behavior.

Developing Creativity Creativity is the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others, and entertaining ourselves. Look for alternatives How can I be more creative? o Be problem-friendly o Be optimistic o Be curious o Brainstorm by yourself o Force yourself to think creatively o Make notes Using Technology Effectively Information Management Maintaining contact Lists Calendaring Take lists File Management Archiving refers to moving data to a secondary storage medium that can be accessed, if required. Safety and Security Viruses. Virus is a software program designed to interfere with the operation of your computer Backup refers to making copies of data so that these additional copies may be used to restore the original files after a data loss. Purpose of backups: a. To restore data following a disaster such as the crash of a computers hard drive or a fire. b. To restore a small numbers of files after they have been accidentally deleted or corrupted. Phishing the act of sending an email that falsely claims to be an established entity Public Speaking Planning your speech Speech is a formal presentation of information to an audience. Speeches are typically given to inform, persuade, entertain, or inspire.

Efficient Work Habits Making decisions and solving problem Decision making is a part of the problem solving process that involves selecting one course of action from several alternatives. Uncertainty and Risk Information for Decision making Consequences of Decisions Methods of Decision Making 1. Identify the goal and the decision to be made. 2. Get the facts. 3. Identify the alternatives 4. Rate each alternative 5. Rate the risk of each alternative 6. Make your decision based on the goal, facts, alternatives and risks involved. 7. Implement the decision. 8. Evaluate the outcome of your decision.

The interests and needs of your audience Your knowledge of the subject How you will organize the speech Where and how will you present your speech Walk through of the planning phase Practicing your speech Delivering your speech

Points to remember Self management skills enable you to complete tasks independently and take an active role in monitoring and controlling your behavior Time management skills are critical to job success. Start each day with a realistic schedule and remain flexible enough to adjust the schedule when things dont go as planned The ability to balance life work provides peace of mind and energy for each aspect of your life. Prolonged stress can be devastating to your health and productivity. Practice effective techniques for dealing with stress. Anger that is out of control can turn destructive and lead to problems. You can learn to control your reactions, reduce anger, and finally to prevent it. Decision making and problem solving are interrelated skills. Effective decisions must be made to solve problems satisfactorily. Develop your creativity by thinking beyond your traditional way looking at things. Use technology wisely to handle information efficiently and make everyday task earlier. Protect your stored information from viruses and practice ethical use of information found on the internet. View an opportunity to give a speech or presentation as a chance to share your knowledge Chapter 11 developing customer focus Customers are vital to the success of any organization, regardless of its purpose.

What do customers expect? a. Quality b. Reliability refers to the ability to supply what was promised in a dependable, efficient, and timely manner. Reliability Commitment: 1. Business commitment 2. Common commitment 3. Personal promise c. Timeliness d. Empathy and Understanding Empathy the ability to look at situations through the eyes of others and understand another persons emotions and feelings. e. Recognition Good Customer Relations Meeting Customer Expectations Be Attentive Be Knowledgeable Be helpful Be respectful Be honest Maintaining customer loyalty

Dealing with difficult customer o Complaining customers o Verbally abusive customers Using the technology effectively Answer the call on the third ring Project a tone that conveys enthusiasm, confidence, friendliness, and attentiveness. Be prepared to take notes. Ask permission before placing a caller on hold. Transfer a call Chapter 12 Valuing Diversity Diversity refers to differences among individuals among individuals based on gender, race, age, religion, culture, and other characteristics. Bias is a way of thinking that prevents you from being impartial about a situation, issue, or person. Stereotype is a belief that certain groups of people all have certain qualities or characteristics.

Stereotyping occurs whenever you assume that all members of a group have the same characteristics instead of viewing the members of the group as individuals. Discrimination and prejudice Discrimination is behavior based on an unfair attitude. Prejudice is a term that is often used in connection with discrimination. It means to prejudge or form an opinion without taking time and effort to judge fairly. Subtle discrimination is discrimination that is not obvious and is seldom brought out in the open. It is based on appearance, values, or some other personal characteristics. Ethnocentrism tendency to believe in superiority of ones own culture. Expand your Multicultural Horizons by: Attend cultural events, festivals, and other activities sponsored by ethnic groups in your area Explore an ethnic grocery store or go to an ethnic restaurant and sample a new cuisine Take the initiative in getting to know people from different ethnic groups Participate in diversity workshops or other training activities sponsored by your employer or your school. Volunteer to help with fundraising events for people with disabilities Read or listen to authors and politicians speaking about issues affected by ethnic diversity Understanding other Culture Respecting Differences Dealing with Language Barriers Adjusting to a multicultural society

friends or coworkers who are fluent in the language. 4. Ask someone who knows the language to translate the words and also help you to interpret silences, gestures, and facial expressions from an unfamiliar cultural context. 5. Go to the meet up website and search for groups in your area that meet to practice speaking the language. Fairness in the Workplace Fairness also means treating people equally, without discriminating based on prejudices and stereotype. Diversity and Affirmative Action Diversity the demographic, cultural, and personal differences among individuals is sometimes confused with affirmative action. Affirmative action is a legal concept that requires employers to take positive steps to create employment opportunities for minorities and women. - This prohibited discrimination in voting, public places, government programs, and employment. It was designed to create equal opportunities for all regardless of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. Reverse Discrimination is discrimination against members of a social or racial group that is considered to be dominant in a society. Prohibited Job Interview Questions Sex Discrimination discrimination based on sex is a complicated issue. Marital Status a potential employer may not ask about your marital or family status. Age discrimination discrimination against workers over the age of 40 is also illegal. Younger workers can also be discriminated against the national unemployment rate for workers aged 16-24 is always higher than for older workers. Criminal background Pregnancy

Overcoming Language Barriers 1. Study at least one foreign language. 2. Listen to online radio stations that broadcast in the language you are learning. 3. Sharpen your skills by speaking the language instead of English with

Physical and psychological disabilities Accommodating People with Disabilities Work assignments may be adjusted to accommodate the worker with disabilities The workplace and its facilities must b accessible Special equipment may be needed or existing equipment or devices may need to be modified, to accommodate the worker with a disability. Sexual Harassment is coerced, unethical, and unwanted intimacy. It is not only an issue of sex; it is also an issue of power. Dealing with Sexual Harassment o Confront the person who is harassing you. o Write down exactly what happened and what you both said. o Talk to your coworkers about the incident o Tell some friends and family members. o If the harassment continues, explains the situations to your supervisor. Chapter 13 Acting Ethically Morals and ethics The words ethics and morals are closely related and often used interchangeably. The word ethics came into English from classical Greek, and the word morals from Latin. Morals are personal beliefs about whats right and whats wrong. Your moral compass guides your behavior and is the basis for your personal character. Ethics refers to the standards or codes of behavior expected by a group to which an individual belongs. Self-righteousness is self-satisfaction based on the belief that ones own morals are superior to the morals of others. Striving for Integrity Integrity refers to consistency in adhering to moral principles. Ethical business conduct Our Commitment to fellow employees

Our commitment Our commitment Our commitment Our commitment community

to consumers to the marketplace to stockholders to the global

Personal Code of Ethics Integrity Caring Excellence Attitude Courage The integrity of the Employer Codes of Ethical Conduct Unethical behavior by organizations Personal Integrity Ethics and Productivity Respect for the employers property and resources Following rules Fairness to others Petty theft is the illegal taking of another persons property without that persons freely given consent Alcohol and drug test Fraud in the Workplace Fraud is defined as intentional deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual. Conflicts of Interest means that you take unfair advantage of your situation to benefit yourself or others instead of putting the employers interest first. Abuse of fringe benefits and other privileges Injury and disability fraud Workers compensation is a type of insurance managed by the state in which you work. Expenses Account Abuse Workers Compensation Fraud can be: Reporting an off-the-job accident as onthe-job accident. Reporting an accident that never happened Complaints of accident injury symptoms that are exaggerated or nonexistent

Malingering to avoid work when injury is healed Not reporting outside income from other work-related activities while drawing workers compensation benefits from another employer Making false or fraudulent statements for the purpose of obtaining workers compensation benefits Chapter 14 Developing Leadership skills And Managing Change Leaders have personal qualities that motivate others to follow their direction and work toward a common goal. Qualities of Leaders Ambition means wanting to get things done. Integrity means being honest and trustworthy Energy is the effort you apply to getting things done. Intelligence is the ability to think, solve problems, and learn Self-confidence is belief in yourself and your abilities Creativity means having original ideas, or thinking about old things in new ways Persistence is sticking to a task until it is done well. Persuasiveness is the ability to influence and motivate others Assertiveness is the ability to put forth your own ideas with confidence Decisiveness is the ability to reach decisions and carry them out Sensitivity means that you care about the people around you and their success. Styles of Leadership Laissez-faire leader gives responsibility to followers to carry out their duties without a great deal of direction or close direction. This kinds of leader seta a goals and provides information and guidance when asked, but allow employees to determine how reach the goals. Democratic Leader encourages followers to participate in solving

problems and making decisions and practices moderate control over the followers. This kind of leader welcomes suggestions from followers but still makes the final decisions and accepts responsibility for outcomes. Autocratic leader makes plan and decisions alone; telling followers what to do and when and how to do things. This kind of leader expects followers to do as they are told and does not seek opinions and ideas from the group. Charismatic leader has extraordinary magnetism that inspires others to follow him or her with devotion. o Charisma comes from an ancient Greek word meaning divine gift Transformational leader it describes leadership based on the personal vision and passion a leader may have that inspires and transform others. Situational leader the style leader uses may also depend upon the situation, the qualities and abilities of the followers, and the task in question.

Leadership Skills Emotional Intelligence is the ability to recognize your own and others emotions and react appropriately. Diplomacy and Tact o Diplomatic person is skilled at considering how words, gestures, and actions may be interpreted from different points of view, in order to avoid offending others. o Tactful person has the ability to say or do the right thing without hurting another persons feelings. Effective Communication