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SCOPUL MODULULUI DE CURS: Acest modul urmrete consolidarea i dezvoltarea cunotinelor de limb englez ale cursanilor ID din anul

II Psihologie prin exersarea deprinderilor de limb specifice, relevante pentru viitoarea lor profesiune. OBIECTIVE OPERATIONALE: Consolidarea, aprofundarea i dezvoltarea deprinderilor generale de limb englez. mbuntirea capacitii studenilor de a-i edita i evalua propriile rezultate. EVALUAREA ACTIVITATII: Temele de la sfritul unitilor II, IV, VI, VII semnalate prin denumirea "Tutor-assessed Task i prin simbolul de mai jos:

trebuie trimise tutorilor prin posta clasic sau electronic la termenele anunate n timpul tutorialelor. n cazul n care studenii folosesc pota electronic, mesajele vor fi trimise concomitent ambilor tutori. Mesajul este considerat recepionat n momentul n care studenii primesc confirmare de primire de la tutori. Studenii vor avea grij s menioneze n aceste mesaje (n 'subject line' i n interiorul mesajului) toate elementele de identificare necesare (nume i prenume, an, grup, subgrup). Media rezultat din notele de la aceste teme va constitui 30% din nota obinut la examenul final.

Autorii mulumesc Nadinei Cehan pentru ajutorul primit la editarea acestui curs.

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Reading Digest 1
Does Honesty Always Pay?

Exercise 1.1 A. Can you think of a situation when it might not be a good idea to say exactly what you think? B. What kind of people could be described as dishonest? Exercise 1.2 A. Read the text and choose the best answer to the questions that follow. What exactly is a lie? Is it anything we say which we know is untrue? Or is it something more than that? For example, suppose a friend wants to borrow some money from you. You say, `I wish I could help you but I'm short of money myself.' In fact, you are not short of money but your friend is in the habit of not paying his debts and you don't want to hurt his feelings by reminding him of this. Is this really a lie? Professor Jerald Jellison of the University of Southern California has made a scientific study of lying. According to him, women are better liars than men, particularly when telling a 'white lie', such as when a woman at a party tells another woman that she likes her dress when she really thinks it looks awful. However, this is only one side of the story. Other researchers say that men are more likely to tell more serious lies, such as making a promise which they have no intention of fulfilling. This is the kind of lie politicians and businessmen are supposed to be particularly skilled at: the lie from which the liar hopes to profit or gain in some way. Research has also been done into the way people's behaviour changes in a number of small, apparently unimportant ways when they lie. It has been found that if they are sitting down at the time, they tend to move about in their chairs more than usual. To the trained observer, they are saying, 'I wish I were somewhere else now.' They also tend to touch certain parts of the face more often, in particular the nose. One explanation of this may be that lying causes a slight increase in blood pressure. The tip of the nose is very sensitive to such changes and the increased pressure makes it itch. Another gesture which gives liars away is what the writer Desmond Morris in his book Manwatching calls 'the mouth cover'. He says there are several typical forms of this, such as covering part of the mouth with the fingers, touching the upper-lip or putting a finger of the hand at one side of the mouth. Such a gesture can be interpreted as an unconscious attempt on the part of the liar to stop himself or herself from lying. Of course, such gestures as rubbing the nose or covering the mouth, or squirming about in a chair cannot be taken as proof that the speaker is lying. They simply tend to occur more frequently in this situation. It is not one gesture alone that gives the liar away but a whole number of things, and in particular the context in which the lie is told. 1 According to the passage, a 'white lie' seems to be a lie A that other people believe. B that other people don't believe. C told in order to avoid offending someone. D told in order to gain some advantage.

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 2 Research suggests that women A are better at telling less serious lies than men are. B generally lie far more than men do. C make promises they intend to break more often than men do. D lie at parties more often than men do. 3 One reason people sometimes rub their noses when they lie is that A they wish they were somewhere else. B the nose is sensitive to physical changes caused by lying. C they want to cover their mouths. D they are trying to stop themselves from telling lies. 4 It would appear from the passage that A there is no simple way of finding out if someone is lying. B certain gestures are proof that the speaker is lying C certain gestures are proof of lying only if they are repeated frequently. D people lie in some situations more often than in others. B. Which word or phrase in the passage above means 1 take something, promising to give it back? 2 amounts of money owed to another person? 3 do or carry out something? 4 able to do something well? 5 to feel that you want to scratch something? 6 be understood as meaning? 7 twist the body about nervously? 8 the general situation in which something occurs? C. Use one of the following words to complete each of the sentences below. borrow lend gain win itching scratching 1 Could you ...... me some money until tomorrow? 2 My skin is ...... under the bandage. 3 Why are you ...... yourself? 4 What do you hope to ....... from telling such terrible lies? 5 Do you think Argentina will ...... the World Cup again? 6 He never pays his debts so he can't ...... any more money from me! Exercise 1.3 Read the following film reviews and finish the questions below by matching parts 1-4 with the appropriate endings A-D. 1 Which film is about 2 What does Dunaway 3 Why do Redford and Newman 4 Who does the photographer A want revenge? B get involved with? C two small-time crooks? D star as?

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EYES OF LAURA MARS Faye Dunaway stars as a photographer who can 'see', in her mind's eye, the murders of her friends before they happen. The plot takes several nightmarish twists and turns, especially when Dunaway gets involved with a handsome detective. But is the detective really who he seems to be? Or is he just pretending to help her in order to trick her? See the film and find out! THE STING A classic! The film takes place in Chicago in the 1930s Two small-time crooks (Paul Newman and Robert Redford) pass themselves off as big gamblers in order to get revenge on a powerful New York gangster (Robert Shaw) who is responsible for the murder of one of Redford's friends. Through a series of cunning tricks, the two plan to cheat the gangster out of a huge sum of money Although at times it is difficult to work out who is betraying who, the film never fails to entertain. VOCABULARY Exercise 1.4 A Match the words on the left (1-8) with the meanings on the right. Two words have the same meaning. Which are they? 1 cunning 2 to cheat 3 a trick 4 to take someone in 5 to betray 6 to deceive 7 to pass yourself off as 8 a crook a) to make someone believe something that is not true b) a thief or dishonest person c) to act like someone or something you are not d) to act dishonestly in order to gain an unfair advantage (especially in games, sports or exams) e) clever in a dishonest way f) an act done to confuse someone or sometimes to amuse g) to be disloyal to a friend or to your country

B Complete the following sentences with a word or phrase from A above. Change the form if necessary. Example: Redford and Newman play the parts of two crooks in the film. 1) He hasn't really been ill. He has ...... you. 2) I read a story in the paper about a man who put on a white coat and managed to ...... himself ...... ...... a doctor. 3) Animals such as foxes are famous for their ....... 4) Don't play cards with him. He always ....... 5) Don't let that woman ...... you ...... with all her lies. 6) The man who ...... his country by giving away secrets was later hanged. 7) Magicians know all sorts of ...... which they use to entertain people.

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA LANGUAGE STUDY Exercise 1.5 Complete these sentences with the correct prepositions. 1) Newman and Redford wanted to play a trick ...... the gangster. 2) Redford wanted revenge ...... the murder of his friend. 3) They succeeded ...... their plan to cheat him .............. a great deal of money. 4) They did this ...... passing themselves off as gamblers. 5) The gangster bet the money ...... a horse race. 6) It's almost impossible ...... times to understand exactly what is happening. 7) But ...... the end of the film, everything has become clear. 8) This film is probably one of the best ...... its kind. 9) It's ...... television again next week. USE OF ENGLISH Exercise 1.6 Read the advertisement below. THE LIEBUSTER: A MIRACLE OF MODERN ELECTRONICS At last, ...................... (1) to modern technology, there is a way to find ...................... (2) if people are telling the truth. The Liebuster ...................... (3) just like an ordinary watch, but in .................... (4) it's far more ...................... (5) that! In ...................... (6) to telling the time, it buzzes when it detects a lie. The ...................... (7) the lie, the bigger the buzz. You will find it invaluable ...................... (8) you're at home or at work. It is by ...................... (9) the smallest, most accurate, lie-detector ever made. It measures the stress in people's voices by ...................... (10) of high-tech microchips. In business negotiations, it will ...................... (11) you if people are being ................... (12) with you. At ...................... (13) it can warn you if your girlfriend or boyfriend is lying when they tell you what they did that weekend when you were ...................... (14) on business. Never ..................... (15) has such an electronic miracle been ..................... (16) at such a low price. So get ...................... (17) now while stocks ...................... (18). Hurry! Don't ...................... (19)! Nobody can do ...................... (20) the Liebuster, the miracle of modern high-tech electronics! A. Here are ten of the missing words. Where do they belong? Can you guess the other ten? dishonest out wait/delay far than yours/one before means addition last B. Make all the changes and additions necessary to produce a complete dialogue from the words and phrases below. Example: So/get here/last/Peter. PETER Yes/I be/terribly sorry/late. (1) ............................................................. So you got here at last, Peter.

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JENNY It be/second time/this/happen/last two weeks. (2) ............................................................. PETER I know/I hope/you/forgive me. (3) ............................................................. JENNY Well/why/late/this time? (4) ............................................................. PETER The boss/ask me/work late/again. (5) ............................................................. JENNY Well/why/you not/phone me? (6) ............................................................. PETER I/try to/but/not be/possible. (7) ............................................................. J JENNY What/you mean? You try/tell me/there be/no phones/your office? (8) ............................................................. PETER Of course/there be/phones/the office/but/ there be/something wrong/them. (9) .............................................................

VOCABULARY Exercise 1.7 A. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the word in CAPITALS. 1 That man is a police ........ 2 Jack is a very bad ........ 3 Einstein was a great ........ 4 I've always wanted to be an ........ 5 The ....... all went back to the ship. 6 The town is full of tourists and other ........ 7 Jack the Ripper was a famous ........ INSPECT LOSE THINK ACT SAIL VISIT MURDER

B. Study these word combinations. Then, in as few words as possible, say what the thing is and what it does. Example: lie-detector 1 a cassette-player 2 a stain-remover 3 a water-softener A lie-detector is a machine that detects lies. 4 a water-purifier 5 a cigarette-lighter 6 a voice-stress-analyser

C. What is the word combination for each of the following definitions? Example: a machine that washes dishes a dish-washer

1 a special kind of pot that cooks things under great pressure 2 a liquid that is used to thin paints 3 another kind of liquid that removes paints
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 4 a machine people use to dry their hair 5 a kind of medicine or liquid that some men hope will restore their hair 6 a small gadget people use to open tins 7 a very simple kind of machine that people use when they sweep carpets 8 a powder which kills ants 9 a screw that pulls corks out of bottles 10 a small gadget that opens bottles

REVISION AND EXTENSION Exercise 1.8 Choose the best answer. 1 The Sting is by ...... the best Robert Redford film I have seen. A long B far C much D way 2 I like England, but I wish it ..... rain quite so much. A didn't B won't C hadn't D hasn't 3 People who live in cities ........ to suffer from stress more than people in the countryside. A lean B develop C tend D use 4 I thought I'd buy her a ..... brown bag. A shopping B black C new D French 5 I didn't realize everyone was going to wear formal clothes and I felt ..... in my jeans and jumper. A insulted B annoyed C offended D embarrassed 6 ..... the papers, the Prime Minister is giving a speech on the economy tomorrow. A Referring to B According to C Related to D Attached to 7 He didn't want to make up his mind until he had heard Pamela's ...... of the story. A side B angle C aspect D edge 8 I haven't heard from Pete for ages. I wish he ...... me his phone number before he left. A gave B would give C would've given D had given 9 The bank manager agreed to give me 200....... the 500 he had already lent me. A extra to B according to C in addition to D surplus to 10 The student who ........ in his exams was expelled from the school. A tricked B cheated C deceived D betrayed 11 Excuse me, do you ...... me bringing my dog into your house? A oppose B mind C object D complain 12 In court, she was so upset that she broke ....... A out Bin Cup D down 13 I wish you ...... put your clothes on the floor all the time. It drives me mad. A don't B wouldn't C won't D would 14 After going to several interviews, she eventually ...... to get a job. A managed B could C achieved D succeeded 15 I hope that you have read the contract and understand ...... it means. A that B how C what D which 16 He stole one of the officers' uniforms and managed to escape by passing himself ..... as a guard. A by B out C through D off 17 Excuse me, but would you ...... talking a little bit more quietly? We are trying to work. A mind B care C object D rather
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18 There are still a great many people in Africa who suffer ...... malaria. A of B with C from D by 19 He ...... to turn up for the football match. A omitted B neglected C stopped D failed 20 The young man swore that he would take ...... his father's killers. A revenge in B revenge on C revenge D revenge at

Grammar Digest 1 Past Progressive and Simple Past When, While, and As Soon As Present Perfect Since and For FOCUS 1 PAST PROGRESSIVE vs. SIMPLE PAST Form of the Past Progressive: was/were + verb + -ing
statement I She was sleeping. He It We You were sleeping. They negative I She He It We You They question was not sleeping. (wasnt) were not sleeping. (werent) Was I she he it we you they sleeping?

Were

sleeping?

The past progressive refers to an action that was in progress when something else happened. It started before this time and possibly continued after it. examples Sue left the party at 9:00 last night. Sue was leaving the party at 9:00 last night.: Sue was leaving the party when I arrived. explanations When talking about actions or events that started and finished in the past, we usually use the simple past: When talking about an action that was in progress at a specific time in the past, we use the past progressive We often use the past progressive with the simple past to describe two actions in the past:

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FOCUS 2 WHEN, WHILE, AND AS SOON AS


explanations While I was reading the newspaper, Diane called. When Diane called, I was reading the newspaper. As soon as we heard the good news, we started to celebrate. Exercise 1.1 A. A murder has taken place and a detective is investigating it. Make meaningful statements about Mr. Joness murder by matching information from column A with information from B. The first has been done for you. A 1. Mrs. James called the police 2. While she was waiting for the police to arrive 3. As soon as Mark Sutton, the detective, heard about the murder 4. Mrs. James took him to the scene of the crime 5. While Mark Sutton was searching the bathroom for clues 6. He saw that Mr. James died 7. When Mark Sutton charged Mrs. James with murder 8. A crowd of news reporters tried to interview Mrs. James B she insisted she was innocent. as soon as he arrived. when her husband died. while the police were taking her to jail. while he was brushing his teeth. she placed a bar of soap on the bathroom floor. he rushed to the James's house. he became suspicious of Mrs. James's story. examples While, when, and as soon as are time adverbials. While is associated with an action in progress. It means during that time. When is associated with a completed action. It means at that time. However, when and while are often used in the same way. When is more common, and we often use it in place of while, especially in informal situations. As soon as is also associated with a completed action. It means immediately after.

B. Look again at the sentences you created in the first part of the exercise. For each one, underline the part of the sentence that gives information about time. This is the part of the sentence that answers the question When? For example: He saw that Mr. James died while he was brushing his teeth.

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FOCUS 3 TIME CLAUSES WITH WHEN, WHILE AND AS SOON AS


examples While Renee was crossing the street, she ran into her friend. We left as soon as we got your phone call. When Pit arrived home, everyone rushed out to greet him. explanations Time clauses answer the question When? by giving information about the time an action or event happened. They contain a subject and a verb and are introduced by time terms like when, while, and as soon as. A time clause is a dependent clause (it is not Dependent Time Clause Main Clause complete by itself). For example, in order to fully understand, When Pit arrived home, we need When Pit arrived home, everybody rushed more information. A time clause depends on the to greet him. rest of the sentence (the independent/main clause) to complete the meaning: While Mom was cooking the dinner, the guests A time clause can come at the beginning of a sentence. arrived. The guests arrived while Mom was cooking the A time clause can also come at the end. dinner. When _________ , _________. If the time clause comes at the beginning of the (time clause; comma; main clause) sentence, use a comma between the time clause While _________ , _________. and the main clause: (time clause; comma; main clause) As soon as _________ , _________. (time clause; comma; main clause) _____________ when _____________. If the main clause comes at the beginning of the (main clause) (time clause) sentence and the time clause comes last, do not _____________ while _____________. use a comma between the two clauses: (main clause) (time clause) _____________ as soon as _____________. (main clause) (time clause) Exercise 1.2 Turn back to the sentences you created in Exercise 1.1.B. Write them down and add punctuation, as necessary. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA Exercise 1.3 Here is some information about John Lennons life. The wavy line indicates an action in progress. X indicates a completed action. 1. attends high school X his mother dies 3. studies at art school X form the Beatles 5. lives in London X falls in love with Yoko Ono 7. leaves his apartment X one of his fans shoots him Use this information to finish the short biography below. Fill in the blanks, using simple past or past progressive. The first one has been done for you as an example. John Lennon was one of the most famous singer/songwriters of his time. He was born in Liverpool, England, in 1940, but his childhood was not very happy. (1) His mother died while he was attending high school. Life was difficult for John after his mothers death, but after a time things got better. (2) _________________________ while ______________________________. Soon Paul introduced him to George Harrison, and they began to play in a band together. After that, John left high school and became an art student. (3) While ________________________________. Soon after John formed the Beatles, he married his first wife, Cynthia, and they had a son, Julian. (4) ____________________________________ when ___________________________________. John and the Beatles moved to London and became very famous throughout the world. (5) ___________________________________ while ____________________________________. A couple of years later, the Beatles split up. John and Yoko got marries and they moved to the United States, where their son Sean was born. John (6) _________________________________ when ____________________________________. On December 8, 1980, (7) _________________ while _________________________________. John Lennon died many years ago, but he still has many fans all over the world. Exercise 1.4 Complete the sentences in the story below using the word in parentheses. Decide whether you should use simple past or past progressive.
NOTE: After and before also introduce time clauses, but we use them with the simple past tense only, in contrast with while and when.

2. attends high school X meet Paul McCartney 4. performs in clubs in Liverpool X signs his first recording contract 6. works for peace and writes new songs X die

1.

Yesterday morning at 10:00, Marie ________________ (go) to see the dentist.

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

While she ________________ (wait) for he appointment, her old friend Monica ________________ (come) into the dentists waiting room. Before Marie ________________ (get) her new job at the software company, she and Monica ________________ (work) together at the bank. When Marie and Monica ________________ (see) each other in the waiting room, they ________________ (be) surprised and delighted. They ________________ (realize) that they had not seen each other for several months. While they ________________ (wait) for their appointments, they ________________ (talk and laugh) about old times. When it ________________ (be) finally time for Marie to see the dentist, they ________________ (not + want) to stop talking. Just before Marie ________________ (leave) the waiting room, they ________________ (make) a date to see each other again. While Marie ________________ (leave) the waiting room, Monica ________________ (say), I hope you dont have any cavities! Exercise 1.5

Combine the two sentences below into one sentence. Use the time word on the left to make a time clause and put the verb into simple past or past progressive. 1. (as soon as)
EXAMPLE:

Event #1: I (finish) shopping for groceries. Event #2: I (drive) home. As soon as I finished shopping for groceries, I drove home.
OR

I drove home as soon as I finished shopping for groceries. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Event #1: I (get) home. Event #2: I (put) the groceries away. __________________________________ OR __________________________________ (as soon as) Event #1: I (finish) my homework. Event #2: I (make) dinner. __________________________________ OR __________________________________ (while) Event #1: I (make) dinner. Event #2: My brother (come) home. __________________________________ OR __________________________________ (when) Event #1: I (ask) my brother if he was hungry. Event #2: He got upset. __________________________________ OR __________________________________ (while) Event #1: My brother (explain) why he was upset. Event #2: I (load) his plate with food. __________________________________ OR __________________________________ (when) Event #1: He (look) down at the food on his plate. Event #2: He (calm) down. __________________________________ OR __________________________________ (as soon as) Event #1: He (start) to eat. Event #2: He (apologize) to me. __________________________________ OR __________________________________ (when)

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FOCUS 4 PRESENT PERFECT: CONNECTING PAST AND PRESENT


Task. Quickly read the following:
MEDICAL HISTORY NAME: Michael James Harris MARITAL STATUS: Single SERIOUS ILLNESS(ES): None SMOKING: Stopped 10 years ago EYESIGHT: Wears glasses for reading; started in SEX: Male DATE OF BIRTH: 5/13/56 HEIGHT: 5 ft 11in WEIGHT: 185 lbs TIME IN HOSPITAL: May 1973. Broke both legs in DRINKING: 1 glass of wine with dinner
ALLERGIES:

1987

PRESENT PROBLEM: Headaches

traffic accident

WHEN PROBLEM STARTED: 2 months ago

None

Now try to find details from Michael Harriss medical history to complete the following list. Find two things that relate to the past, two things that relate to the present, and two things that started in the past and continue to the present. The first one has been done for you as an example. PRESENT PAST 1. __________________________________ 1. He broke his legs 2. ___________________________________ 2. __________________________________ FROM PAST TO PRESENT 1. _____________________________________ 2. _____________________________________ We use the present perfect to show a connection between something in the past and something in the present. The present perfect shows the result or relevance now of a past action, event, or experience. PAST February: I moved to Iai. (simple past) PRESENT September: I live in Iai now. (simple present)

FROM PAST TO PRESENT I have lived in Iai since February. I have lived in Iai for seven months. (present perfect) In this situation, the simple past tells us only about the past; the present tells us only about the present. One use of the present perfect is to tell us about something which began in the past and continues in the present.

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Exercise 1.6 Listed below are some important events in the life of Carmen, but the events are not in the order in which they happened. Write the numbers of the events in the correct order on the time line. If the event began in the past and continues into the present, write it out on the lines below the time line. The first one has been done for you. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Past She has volunteered at a hospital for one year. She will go to medical school. She was born in Suceava, Romania, in 1984. She learned English at "tefan cel Mare" High School. She hasnt become a doctor yet. She has lived and studied in Iai, since 2003. She is studying biology and chemistry. Since she was a child, she has dreamed of becoming a doctor. She learned how to take a blood sample. She graduated from high school in 2003. She will be a paediatrician. Present Future

1. She has volunteered at a hospital for 1 year. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

FOCUS 5 FORMING THE PRESENT PERFECT Form: have/has + past participle


statement I You We They She He It have gone. (ve) has gone. (s) negative I You We They She He It question have not gone. (havent) has not gone. (hasnt) Have I you we they she he it gone?

Has

gone?

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA Exercise 1.7 Using the words below, write sentences with the present perfect (have + past participle).
EXAMPLE:

I / not meet a famous person. I havent met a famous person.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

John / not eat ants _______________________________________________________________________ Helena / be to Hong Kong? _______________________________________________________________________ Adam and Kristen / see a penguin _______________________________________________________________________ you / ride a camel? _______________________________________________________________________ I / not catch any fish _______________________________________________________________________ Loren / not shoot a gun _______________________________________________________________________ I / have a pet snake _______________________________________________________________________ you / go to the Galapagos Islands? _______________________________________________________________________ Larisa and Dora / stand in line for more than an hour _______________________________________________________________________ you / do something crazy? _______________________________________________________________________ Exercise 1.8

Use the information about Michael Harris from the Task in Focus 4 to complete the doctors report about him. Use the simple past, simple present, or present perfect of the verbs in parentheses.
REPORT ON MICHAEL HARRIS

Michael Harris spoke with me yesterday about serious headaches. He (1) ____________________ (have) these headaches for two months. His previous medical history is good. He (2) ____________________ (not have) any serious illnesses. In 1973, he (3) ____________________ (be) in the hospital for three weeks, when he (4) ____________________ (break) both legs in a car accident. He (5) ____________________ (not smoke) now; he (6) ____________________ (stop) ten years ago, and he (7) ____________________ (not smoke) since that time. He (8) ____________________ (wear) glasses for reading, and he (9) ____________________ (wear) them since 1987. He (10) ____________________ (drink) a little wine with dinner every night. I examined Mr. Harris and took several tests. I asked him to return next week.

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Exercise 1.9 Write the questions that the doctor asked Mr. Harris in order to get these responses.
EXAMPLE:

1. Do you drink? Yes, a little. I drink a glass of wine with dinner every night.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

_______________________________________________________________________? Yes, I do. I wear them for reading. _______________________________________________________________________? I started wearing them in 1987. _______________________________________________________________________? Yes, Ive worn them since 1987. _______________________________________________________________________? No, I dont smoke now. _______________________________________________________________________? I stopped ten years ago. _______________________________________________________________________? No, I havent smoked since that time. _______________________________________________________________________? Yes, I have had these headaches for two months. Exercise 1.10

In order to donate blood, you must answer several questions about your medical history. Complete the following dialogue between a blood donor and the interviewer using the correct form of the verb in the present perfect. The first one has been done for you as an example. 1. 2. Interviewer: Donor: Interviewer: Donor: Interviewer: Donor: Interviewer: Donor: Interviewer: Donor: Interviewer: Donor: Interviewer: Donor: Interviewer: How long has it been (it be) since you ate? I ____________________ (not eat) anything since breakfast. ____________________ (you give) blood before? Yes, I ____________________ (give) blood many times. Really? How long ____________________ (it be) since you last donated blood? I ____________________ (not donate) blood for a year. ____________________ (you have) any serious illnesses? No, I ____________________ (have) any illnesses. ____________________ (you be) in the hospital in the past five years? No, I ____________________ (not be) hospitalized. ____________________ (you travel) abroad? Yes, ____________________ (go) to Italy. How long ago was that? I was in Italy in 1990, but I ____________________ (live) in Romania since then. Thanks for answering the questions. Now will you please roll up your sleeve and well take your blood.

3. 4. 5.

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA Exercise 1.11 Go back to Exercises 1.8 and 1.9. Look for the words since and for. In the boxes below, write down the word or words that directly follow them. We have done the first one for you. since for two months

What does this tell you about the use of since and for?

FOCUS 6 FOR vs. SINCE


examples for two weeks for ten years for five minutes since 1985 since my birthday since Monday since April Exercise 1.12 Complete the following dialogue by writing since or for in the blanks.
COUNT DRACULA BLOOD BANK

explanations You can use for to talk about the length of a period of time. You can use since to talk about when a period of time began.

Count Dracula: Stoker: Count Dracula: Stoker: Count Dracula: Stoker: Count Dracula: Stoker: Count Dracula: Stoker:

Good evening, Mr. Stoker. Welcome to the Count Dracula Blood Bank. So nice of you to come. We would like to take your blood, but first we want to see if youre our type. Would you answer a few questions? Well, uh, I guess so. How long ago has it been (1) ________ you arrived in Transylvania? I just arrived. Ive only been here (2) ________ two hours. Oh! Have you had time to explore the castle? Well, Ive walked around a little (3) ________ I got here. The castle is interesting, but that back room is full of bats. Yes, weve had that problem (4) ________ the castle was built. That reminds me, how long has it been (5) ________ you flew last night? What? I havent flown at night (6) ________ the last year. Im afraid of the dark. Well, perhaps we can help you with that problem. How log has it been (7) ________ youve been in a cemetery? These are the strangest questions I have ever heard. I guess the last time was in March. Yes, its been three months (8) ________ I was in a cemetery.

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Count Dracula: Stoker: Count Dracula:

Very good. Finally, Mr. Stoker, have you given blood before? Yes, but I havent donated (9) ________ the last six months. Wonderful! Because youve answered all out questions, weve decided youre a perfect victim I mean candidate. Please roll down your collar.

explanations Time Clause (past) You can use since to introduce a time clause. since he graduated from high school. He has worked here since April. He has worked here since the beginning of the You can use since to introduce a time clause. month. You can also use since with a phrase referring He has worked here for several years. to a specific time. Ive lived here five months. You can use for with a phrase that refers to a Ive lived here for five months. quantity of time, but not with a time clause. It is possible to omit for. Both examples are (For) how long have you lived here? correct, but the first one is more informal. Ive lived here since January. It is also possible to omit for in questions. NOT: *Ive lived here January. Since when have you lived here/ It is not possible to omit since. NOT: *When have you lived here? Exercise 1.13 Read the following statements and decide if they are referring to an action that is finished or unfinished. If you think it is finished, write F beside it; write U if you think it is unfinished. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. He has lived here 20 years. We have studied English for a few months. I saw him last week. My friends worked there for six months. Hes worn glasses since he was a child. She slept ten hours.

examples Main Clause (from past to present) He has worked here

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FOCUS 7 ACTIONS CONTINUING UP TO NOW


examples They have studied martial arts for a long time. Carrie has been a member of the tennis club since May. Andrew started to smoke on his eighteenth birthday, so he as smoked for three years. NOT: *He has started to smoke for three years. explanations When you talk about the duration of an action or situation that began in the past and that continues to the present, you can use present perfect + for or since + time word or phrase. Some verbs are not used in this way because the actions they describe cannot continue from past to present. Thus, in the first example, we understand that it is the smoking that continues, not the starting. Start refers to something that happens at one time only, or at several times, but not to an action that continues over time. For the same reason, some other verbs (including the ones on the left) are not usually used with present perfect + for or since to express the duration of an action or situation that continues from past to present.

start arrive begin leave meet stop Exercise 1. 14

Rewrite these sentences using the present perfect and since or for.
EXAMPLE:

Karen wears glasses. She started to wear glasses when she was a child. Karen has worn glasses since she was a child.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

He works for the TV station. He started working there eight years ago. They are married. They got married in 1962. She knows how to fix a car. She learned how to do it a long time ago. Tom rides his bike to work. He started to do it when his car broke down. I wanted to go to China several years ago. I still want to go now. My brother stopped smoking when he was in college, and he doesnt smoke now. I was afraid of bats when I was a child, and I am afraid of them now. My mother is in France. She went there last week. My sister runs two miles every morning before breakfast. She started to do it when she was 15 years old. They go to Spain every summer. They started to do this 12 years ago.

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Exercise 1.15 Rewrite these sentences using the present perfect and since or for.
EXAMPLE:

Does she work for Tarom? Did she begin to work there six years ago? Has she worked for Tarom for six years?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Do you like ice cream? Did you like it when you were a child? _______________________________________________________________________ She sings with the Milan Opera. She started singing there three years ago. _______________________________________________________________________ He is an accountant. He became an accountant in 1985. _______________________________________________________________________ Our parents enjoy playing tennis. They began playing tennis when we went to college. _______________________________________________________________________ Grandma doesnt drive anymore. She stopped driving when she turned 85. _______________________________________________________________________ Are your aunt and uncle in Italy? Did they go there last week? _______________________________________________________________________ Nick plays baseball every day. He started playing two years ago. _______________________________________________________________________ Their house is a wreck. It was destroyed when the hurricane struck. _______________________________________________________________________ She is in the library. She started to study three hours ago. _______________________________________________________________________ It isnt raining; it stopped raining at 5:00 am. _______________________________________________________________________ Exercise 1.16

Complete the following. Put in the empty blanks since or for or the appropriate form of the verb in parentheses. Leroy and Paula are having a party. Two of their guests, Lee and Bob, have just met. Lee: Bob: Lee: Bob: Lee: Bob: Lee: Bob: Lee: (1) Have you known (know) Leroy and Paula (2) for a long time? I (3) _____________________ (know) Paula (4) _____________________ my senior year in college. I first (5) _____________________ (meet) Leroy at their wedding two years ago. What about you? Im a colleague of Leroys. We (6) _____________________ (work) together (7) _____________________ several years. Oh, Leroy (8) _____________________ (show) me some of your work last week. Its great. Thanks. What do you do? I (9) _____________________ (teach) French (10) _____________________ ten years, but I (11) _____________________ (quit) a couple of years ago. Now Im an actor. An actor! I thought you looked familiar. Well, not really. I (12) _____________________ (not work) as an actor (13) _____________________ last October. In fact, last night I (14) _____________________ (start) to work as a waiter at the Pizza Hut. Really? I (15) _____________________ (eat) there last night. Thats why you look familiar.
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA Exercise 1.17 Look at the following and underline the sentences that you think are correct. My sister is very good at languages. 1. She studies Italian; she started studying Italian in 1991, so a) she has studied Italian for several years. b) she studies Italian several years. c) she studied Italian for several years. d) she is studying Italian since 1991. When she was a child, she wanted to learn Russian; she still wants to learn it. a) She wanted to learn Russian when she was a child. b) She wants to learn Russian since she has been a child. c) She has wanted to learn Russian for she was a child. d) She has wanted to learn Russian since she was a child.

2.

3. Two years ago she started taking courses at the local community college. Unfortunately, she doesnt have a car, so a) she takes the bus to school for two years. b) she have taken the bus to school for two years. c) she has taken the bus to school since two years. d) she has taken the bus to school for two years.

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Reading Digest 2 Leaving Home

Exercise 2.1 Answer these questions. 1 Do you think it is better for young people to live at home, on their own, or with other young people? 2 What different reasons do you think young people might have for leaving home? Exercise 2.2 A. Read the text, then explain and describe questions 1-6. When I told my mother, she looked at me as if I had slapped her face. 'What? Live in London?' she said. 'I just feel it's time I saw a little more of the world. After all, Mum, I'm twenty-two!' Just then, my father came downstairs, looking relaxed as he always did after his Sunday afternoon nap. I had chosen the moment carefully. Clive wants to leave home. He doesn't want to live with us any more,' she told him in a trembling voice. My father's expression changed. 'What? You aren't serious, are you, son?' he asked. He sat down at the table opposite me. Perhaps my parents wouldn't have reacted this way if they hadn't spent all their lives in a small village in Wales. And perhaps my mother in particular wouldn't have been so possessive if her only other child hadn't died as a baby. I tried to explain to them that the bank I worked for had offered me a chance to take a job in their head office. But I didn't dare tell them I had already accepted the job. 'London's a long way away. We'll hardly see you any more,' my father said. 'I can come back at weekends, Dad.' He shook his head, looking more and more like someone who had just been given a few months to live by his doctor. 'I don't know, son. I don't know.' He shook his head again and then got up and walked out into the garden. My mother and I sat there at the table. In the silence, I could hear the old clock ticking away in the hall. There were tears in my mother's eyes. I knew she was going to put pressure on me to give up the idea, and I wondered if I could stand up to it. I even began to wonder if it was wrong of me to want to leave my family, the village and the people I had known all my life to live among the English in their cold, strange capital. She put her hand over mine. 'Your father hasn't been well lately. Neither have I. You know that. But we won't stand in your way if it's what you really want,' she said.

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 1 This is an extract from a longer story. What exactly do you think the writer said to his mother just before the extract begins? 2 Describe what happened when his father came downstairs. 3 Describe what you think happened in the month or so just before this particular Sunday. 4 How do you think the writer's parents felt when he told them he wanted to leave home? 5 What do you think were the writer's reasons for wanting to leave home? 6 What do you think happened after his mother said 'We won't stand in your way...? B. Imagine you are a television camera. What can you see as you 1 look at the writer's parents? 2 move around the room the writer and his parents are in? 3 move into other rooms in the house and then go outside the house itself? VOCABULARY Phrasal verbs Exercise 2.3 A. What is the phrasal verb in the following examples? a) I'll stand by you if you need help. b) What do the initials `BBC' stand for? c) He couldn't stand up to the pressure. d) I won't stand for this nonsense. B. Which phrasal verb means resist? mean? give help; support? put up with; tolerate?

C. Complete the following sentences. 1 'UK' stands ....... United Kingdom'. 2 A good friend will stand ...... you when you are in trouble. 3 You can't treat me like this. I won't stand ...... it! 4 This machine will stand ...... hard use. USE OF ENGLISH Exercise 2.4 A. What are the missing words in the advertisement? Fill each of the numbered blanks with one word.

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If only wed known about YOUNG CONTACTS before!' Thousands of young people come to London every month, .................. (1) to find love, romance and adventure. A few succeed, but most never find what they are .................. (2) for. Meeting people in London, .................. (3) the sort of people you really want to meet, turns .................. (4) to be far more difficult than you imagined. But now there is a new scientific way - YOUNG CONTACTS. Q: How does it work? First, we give you a scientific personality .................. (5), using the very .................. (6) computer techniques. Then we match you .................. (7) someone of similar tastes and interests, who also has the characteristics you are looking .................. (8) in your ideal partner or companion. Q: Who can belong to YOUNG CONTACTS? We are the first organization in this .................. (9) to specialize in matching people between the ages of 17 and 29. But, .................. (10) from that, anyone can join. We have people from all walks of life. But they all have one thing .................. (11) common. They're .................. (12) of feeling lonely and think it's .................. (13) they did something about it. And that's the .................. (14) they come to us. Q: How do I actually meet people? Just come to one of our centres, with its special club-like atmosphere, and we'll do the .................. (15). A .................. (16) of our friendly staff will talk to you and then .................. (17) for you to meet just the sort of people you will get on .................. (18). For a list of centres and further information simply .................. (19) in the form below and send it .................. (20), today!

B. Now decide how you would fill in this form which appeared with the advert. CONFIDENTIAL I would like further details about how you can find my ideal partner. I enclose two first-class stamps. Your age ______________________ Your sex M F Height _________________ Weight ______________________________ Age you would like to meet ______________________________________ (min.) __________________ (max.) _______________________________ First name ____________________________________________________ Surname _____________________________________________________ Address ______________________________________________________ Nationality ______________ Religion ______________________________ Occupation ____________________________________________________ VOCABULARY Exercise 2.5 A. Complete these sentences with the correct form of the word in CAPITALS. 1 The test is very ...... 2 What a ....... atmosphere! 3 You have a very ...... nature. 4 She is a computer ........ 5 He is a wonderful ........ SCIENCE ROMANCE ARTIST SPECIALIZE PIANO
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 6 I wanted to be a ........ 7 Do you ever suffer from ...... ? 8. They got married and lived ........ ever after. 9 Are there any ...... between these two religions? 10 He joined in all the club's ........ B. Complete each sentence with between or among. 1 The woman was ...... the ages of 25 and 30. 2 She entered the crowded restaurant and sat down ...... the people there. 3 ...... all the things in her handbag, there was a photograph of a man. 4 When she looked up, the same man was standing ...... her and the door. 5 'Are you the woman I'm supposed to meet ...... three o'clock and three fifteen?' he asked. 6 ..... the many things they discussed that afternoon were the subjects of love and marriage. 7 Until that moment the man had only been a name ...... a lot of other names on a list. 8 What else do you think happened ...... the beginning of this story and their wedding day five months later? USE OF ENGLISH Paragraph completion Exercise 2.6 Read the information below and decide which of the three men you think would make the best partner for Alice. Give reasons for your choice. What is wrong with the other two? ALICE, aged 25 teaches art and music likes going out to concerts, good films, foreign restaurants, etc. favourite pastimes listening to classical music, reading and arguing about politics non-smoker wants children but not for a while looking for a man with a good sense of humour, intelligence and who 'will allow me to develop my career and own interests' SEBASTIAN, aged 29 research scientist favourite pastimes - working in the garden and other open-air activities (climbing mountains, hiking, cycling, etc. ) non-smoker, never drinks, hates spending money on things like cinema, food, etc. wants to start a family 'asap' and looks for an 'intelligent woman who will be a good mother' DONALD, aged 27 sports journalist enjoys Woody Allen films, opera and good food favourite pastimes -'playing the guitar and talking with friends' smokes 'but only now and then' isn't sure if he wants to have children; says 'it all depends ... looking for a woman 'who is a good companion but is also independent and will give me some time alone CHEMISTRY LONELY HAPPY SIMILAR ACTIVE

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BERNIE, aged 28 owns small sportswear shop favourite food-'good old-fashioned fish and chips, and roast beef with lots of mustard' favourite pastimes - 'going out to pubs with friends and watching cowboy films and football on TV heavy smoker looking for a woman who 'appreciates the same things I do and understands me'; can't stand women who talk too much Using the information above, continue in about 60 words each of these three paragraphs below, giving your reasons. 1 I think the best partner for Alice would be ...... She would probably get on well with him because .... He would also get on well with her because . 2 In some ways, Alice and ...... would be suited to each other because .. However .. 3 I don't think ...... and Alice would get on very well because .. VOCABULARY Prefixes Exercise 2.7 A. Study the words in columns A and B. What is the same about them? What is different? What has changed the meaning? A personal friendly satisfied satisfactory tolerant religious B impersonal unfriendly dissatisfied unsatisfactory intolerant irreligious

B. What do you need to add to each word in order to change its meaning to the opposite? Example: able 1 capable 4 polite 7 loyal 10 happy 13 willing 16 convenient unable 2 accurate 5 resistible 8 orderly 11 sensitive 14 pleased 17 correct 3 possible 6 regular 9 lucky 12 reasonable 15 pleasant 18 certain

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA REVISION AND EXTENSION Exercise 2.8 if, unless, when or in case? A. Complete the following sentences with if, unless, when or in case. 1 He got on the train at 8.30 and he'll phone us ...... he gets here. 2 Please don't phone me at work ...... it is an emergency. 3 The weather forecast wasn't good. You'd better take this umbrella ...... it rains. 4 She's not sure if she'll be free for the party, but she'll let us know ....... she can come. 5 You won't do well in the exam ...... you work a bit harder 6 ...... you didn't spend so much on beer, you'd have a lot more money. 7 Don't forget to send us a postcard ...... you arrive. 8 ...... the strikers go back to work at once, the management will dismiss them. B. Complete the following conversation with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. A You don't look very cheerful. You haven't failed your driving test again, have you? B Yes, I'm afraid so. But it really isn't fair, you know. I had to take it in a car I wasn't used to. If I (be able) to use my father's, I'm sure I (pass). A Why didn't you ask me? If I (know) you were taking your test, you (can borrow) mine. Anyway, what happened? B I was coming up to a pedestrian crossing, and had to stop suddenly to let someone over. I didn't have time to look in the mirror, that was all. Just think, I (be) all right if that stupid pedestrian (not want) to cross the road. A But surely they didn't fail you for that? B Yes, it's ridiculous, isn't it? And if you think about it, if I (not stop) so quickly, I (may run) him over. And if I [do) that, I (fail) for sure. But tell me, what (you do) if you (be driving) and that (happen) to you? A I think I (do) just the same. Did you complain? B No, I didn't, and it's too late now anyway. Do you think I (should do)? A If it (be) me, I (would do). B Maybe, but I'm sure it (not change) anything even if I (make) a fuss. You know what these driving examiners are like. C. Complete these sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1 Goodness! It's nearly midnight. It's time we (go) home. 2 I wish he (not come) to the party, seeing him again ruined my evening. 3 The alarm-clock went off half an hour ago; it's time for you (get) up. 4 Oh dear, I've broken the vase; if only I (be) a bit more careful. 5 You're an adult now. It's time you (start) to look after yourself. 6 This terrible weather has been going on for weeks. I wish it (get better). 7 If only you (be) at home, none of this would have happened. 8 Come along children, it's eight o'clock. It's time you (go) to bed.

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Grammar Digest 2 Present Perfect and Simple Past Ever and Never Present Perfect Progressive

FOCUS 1 PRESENT PERFECT vs. SIMPLE PAST


explanations To talk about a completed action, experience, or situation at a specific time in the past, you can use simple past to show that you are thinking about the past, not the present: He has been to Greece. To talk about a completed action, experience, or They have run a marathon. situation in the past when you do not refer to when it happened, use present perfect. I drank champagne last night. We use present perfect in order to show that (simple past because I want to show when it something happened in the past, but we do not happened) show when it happened. We show only that it I have drunk champagne. happened at some time before now; we are (present perfect because I want to show that the thinking about the past in relation to the present. experience is more important than when I did it) Ive been to Thailand. I went there about ten years W often use the present perfect to introduce the ago and travelled all over the country. I had a general idea and then continue with the simple great time, and I enjoyed meeting the friendly Thai past to give specific details about it. people. Exercise 2.1 Decide if the following verbs should be in the simple past or the present perfect. Then circle the correct form. Captain Michael Johnson, a pilot, is retiring this year. He (1. was/has been) one of the best commercial airline pilots in the world. He (2. began/has begun) working for the Western Airlines 35 years ago. In the beginning of his career, he (3. flew/has flown) only domestic flights, but later on the company (4. told/has told) him to fly internationally. Captain Mike, as his flight attendants call him, (5. flew/has flown) around the world many times. He (6. met/has met) a lot of people and (7. saw/has seen) a lot of different places. In one year he (8. went/has gone) to India, Egypt, and Greece, where he (9. saw/has seen) the Taj Mahal, the pyramids, and the Acropolis. In addition, he (10. did/has done) a lot of exciting things. On one trip, in 1980, he (11. jumped/has jumped) from an airplane with a parachute, and on another trip he (12. rode/has ridden) in a submarine. But his life (13. wasnt/hasnt been) easy. In 1976 his plane almost (14. crashed/has crashed); he (15. had/has had) to make an
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examples Last year, she graduated from high school. He lived in this house from 1980 to 1988.

ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA emergency landing. Ten years ago, he (16. had/has had) cancer, but Captain Mike (17. fought/has fought) the cancer and (18. won/has won). All in all, he (19. was/has been) very lucky, and so (20. were/have) we here at Western Airlines. Were going to miss you, Captain Mike. Exercise 2.2 Alice is on vacation in New York City. Complete her draft for a postcard home, using either simple past or present perfect with the verbs in parentheses. Hi folks! Having a great time! I (1) _________________ (walk) at least 50 miles, but I (2) _________________ (see) lots of interesting things. Yesterday I (3) _________________ (take) the Staten Island Ferry, and on Thursday I (4) _________________ (go) to the top of the Empire State Building. I (5) _________________ (see) several shows. Two nights ago I (6) _________________ (go) to see Cats: I (7) _________________ (have) great tickets. Wonderful food!! I (8) _________________ (eat) some delicious meals. Yesterday I (9) _________________ (try) sushi for the first time. See you next week. Love, Alice P.S. I (10) _________________ (spend) lots of money! Exercise 2.3 Read this job advertisement: EXCITING OPPORTUNITY for the right person Are you independent and adventurous? Requirements: knowledge of other cultures ability to speak at least one foreign language flexibility must enjoy working with other people and like travel Interested? This is a difficult but wee-paying job. Write Box 392, giving a short description of your previous experience. This is one of the letters the company received in answer to the advertisement. Complete the blanks with the appropriate form of the verb in parentheses. The first one has been done for you. Dear Sir, I am writing about the job advertised in todays paper. I (1) graduated (graduate) from high school in 1978. I (2) _________________ (have) experience in many different fields. I (3) _________________ (work) as a typist, receptionist, sales assistant, and teacher. I (4) _________________ (travel) extensively and (5) _________________ (learn) Spanish, French, and Italian.
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In 1979, I (6) _________________ (go) to France. First, I (7) _________________ (work) as a tour guide and (8) _________________ (help) American tourists in Paris. After that, I (9) _________________ (move) to Italy, where I (10) _________________ (live) with an Italian family and (11) _________________ (look after) their three children. In 1984, I (12) _________________ (work) in Barcelona, Spain, for three months and (13) _________________ (teach) English conversation to children. In 1985, I (14) _________________ (return) to the United States, and I (15) _________________ (be) a receptionist at a beauty salon for six months. In 1986, I (16) _________________ (leave) the country again, and for two years I (17) _________________ (give) sailing lessons on charter yachts in the Caribbean. I finally (18) _________________ (come) home in 1989 and (19) _________________ (take) a job at a book shop. As you can see, I (20) _________________ (work) with a lot of different people, and I (21) _________________ (experience) different cultures. In all my jobs, I (22) _________________ (enjoy) meeting other people. I believe this experience makes me a good candidate for the job. Sincerely, Nancy Martin

FOCUS 2 EVER and NEVER


examples Have you ever eaten Chinese food? Yes, I have eaten Chinese food. NOT: *I have ever eaten Chinese food. I havent ever eaten Chinese food. I have never eaten Chinese food. I have never eaten Chinese food. I have not eaten Chinese food. explanations Ever with the present perfect tense means at any time before now. It is usually used in questions and negative statements. It is not usually used in affirmative statements. Never with the present perfect tense means at no time before now. Not versus never: The opposite examples have similar meanings. Never means not + ever. In the first example, never emphasizes the fact that I have not had this experience in my life before the present moment. It is therefore stronger than not.

Exercise 2.4 Read the conversation. Underline and correct any mistakes. Mick: Dave: Mick: Dave: Have you ever visit Europe? visited Yes, Ive been there several times, in fact. Thee years ago Ive gone to France. Really? Where did you go? I went to Paris, of course. And then I rode my mountain bike in the Pyrenees. Last year Ive ridden my bike in Germany and Switzerland. Have ever you been there? Mick: Ive never been to Germany, but Ive ever been to Switzerland. Dave: When was that? Mick: Ive studied German there about eight years ago.

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA Exercise 2.5 Have you ever done these things? Using the words below and the present perfect, write sentences about your experiences. If you havent ever done the activity, use never or not + ever.
EXAMPLE: OR

study Chinese I have studied Chinese. I havent ever studied Chinese.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

find a wallet in the street _______________________________________________________________________ fly in a helicopter _______________________________________________________________________ fight in a war _______________________________________________________________________ break a bone _______________________________________________________________________ give blood _______________________________________________________________________ know a person from Greenland _______________________________________________________________________ have a car accident _______________________________________________________________________ wear snowshoes _______________________________________________________________________ build anything _______________________________________________________________________ travel to other countries _______________________________________________________________________

FOCUS 3 PRESENT PERFECT vs. SIMPLE PAST: QUESTIONS


examples Have you ever been to China? Yes, I have. When did you go there? Last year. Exercise 2.6 Complete the conversation, using the present perfect or the past simple of the verbs in parentheses. The first one has been done for you. explanations When we ask such a question, we are interested in knowing about the experience, not about when it happened. We expect the answer: Yes, I have, No, I havent, or No, Ive never done that. When we ask a question with when, we are more interested in when it happened, and we expect the answer to tell us something like: Last year or I went there last year.

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1.

A: Excuse me, sir, were doing a survey. Can I ask you a few questions? B: Sure, go ahead. A: Have you ever used WonderWhite detergent? (you/ever/use) B: No, (a) _________________ it. (I/try/never) A: Why not? B: (b) _________________ laundry in my life. (I/do/never) My wife always does it. A: What about you, sir? (c) _________________ your clothes with WonderWhite? (you/wash/ever) C: Yes, (d) _________________ it. (I/try) A: When (e) _________________ it for the first time? (you/try) C: (f) _________________ it for the first time about six months ago. (I/use) A: (a)_________________ any books by Latin American writers? (you/read/ever) B: Yes, I (b) _________________. I (c) _________________ a great novel by a Colombian writer a few years ago. (read) A: Which one? B: I (d) _________________ his name. (forget) He (e)_________________ the Nobel Prize several years ago. (win) A: Oh, you mean Gabriel Garcia Marquez. A: My brother is coming to stay with us for a few years next week. Do you have any ideas about how we can entertain him? B: (a) _________________ here before now? (he/be/ever) A: Yes. He (b) _________________ (come) once about three years ago. B: (c) _________________ to Chinatown then? (he/go) A: No (d) _________________ to Chinatown (he/be/never), but (e) _________________ a lot in China and in the Far East. (he/travel) B: Maybe youd better not take him to Chinatown then! (f) _________________ him to Greektown when he was here three year ago? (you/take) A: No, and (g) _________________ Greece. (he/visit/never) B: Great! Why dont you take him there? A: (a) _________________ last night? (you/go out) B: Yes. (b) _________________ to that new Italian restaurant. (we/go) A: Whats it like? (c) _________________ there. (I/be/never) B: Its OK, but (d) _________________ better Italian food in other restaurants. (I/eat) A: (e) _________________ the one on the Main Street? (you/try/ever) B: Yes. (f) _________________ a great meal there last weekend. (we/have) Exercise 2.7 Complete the following using the words in parentheses.

2.

3.

4.

My friend and I (1) _________________ (decide) to take our next vacation in Bali. Yesterday we (2) _________________ (go) to a travel agent and we (3) _________________ (pick up) lots of different brochures. We (4) _________________ (take) them home and (5) _________________ (read) them all very carefully. We want to go there because my friend (6) _________________ (travel) in Southeast Asia, but she (7) _________________ (never be) to Bali and I (8) _________________ (read) many books about the customs and culture of the Balinese people. My brother (9)
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA _________________ (be) there several times. He (10) _________________ (go) there for the first time about 15 years ago, and he (11) _________________ (stay) there for six months. He (12) _________________ (return) to Bali last year and according to him, life there (13) _________________ (change) a lot because there are so many tourists now. I dont care! I (14) _________________ (hear) so many different things about Bali, but now I want to find out for myself!

FOCUS 4 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE


Task. Read the statements below. Why do you think they were said? What had probably happened before? statement 1. A: Ugh your hands are covered with oil and grease. B: Sorry. 2. A: Are you OK? Your eyes are all red. 3. A: You look terrible. B: I didnt get much sleep last night. 4. A: Thats enough for tonight. Give me your car keys. B: Why? A: Ill take you home. You cant drive like this. 5. A: Why is your hair wet? 6. A: Hey, kids! Stop right there! B: What for? A: Take your shoes off at once! I dont want mud all over the carpet. recent activity _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________

_____________________________________ _____________________________________

_____________________________________

Now look at the activities in the list. Try to match each statement above to an appropriate activity in the list. Write the activity in the space beside the statement. activities baking bread drinking swimming studying for a test chopping onionsrunning eating garlic watching TV playing in the yard fixing a car

Meaning
examples Why are your hands yellow? Ive been painting my room. explanations The present perfect progressive connects the past with the present. You can use the present perfect to talk about an activity which was in progress very recently in the past. In fact, the activity is so recent that its effect or result is often still visible or apparent in the present.

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Exercise 2.8 Read the following story. Underline the words which show that the activities were in progress recently in the past. The first one has been done for you as an example. The Henderson family is on their way home from a week of camping. What have they been doing for the last week? Well, Mrs. Henderson has been cooking over a campfire. She enjoys cooking outdoors. But she has also been washing the dishes in a bucket. She doesnt like that very much. The whole family has been living in a tent. They havent been sleeping in regular beds. Instead, they have been sleeping in sleeping bags. The boys, Eric and Todd, have been very busy. They have been hiking and mountain climbing with their dad in the mountains. Also, they have been swimming in the cool mountains lakes. Rachel Henderson has been hiking too, but she also has been going horseback riding. Rachel loves horses. Finally, they have been having a contest to see who can find the most varieties of birds. So everyone has been bird watching. After the busy week they have been having, the Hendersons are glad to go home and have a vacation from their vacation. Exercise 2.9 Make a list of three things you have been doing since you woke up this morning. Write complete sentences. 1. 2. 3. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

Form: has/have + been + verb + -ing


statement I You We They She He It negative have been sleeping. (ve) has been sleeping. (s) question I You We They She He It I you we they she he it

have not been sleeping. (havent) has not been sleeping. (hasnt)

Have Has

been sleeping? been sleeping?

Exercise 2.10 Turn back to the Task at the beginning of Focus 4 and write appropriate statements, using the present perfect progressive in response to statements 1 6. The first one has been done for you: 1. 2. 3. She has been fixing a car. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 4. 5. 6. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Exercise 2.11 You are riding the subway in a big city, late at night. There are several other people in the same car. You observe them carefully and tray to figure out what they have been doing recently. Probably you will be able to think of several possibilities for each one. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. A man with lipstick traces on his face and on the collar of his shirt. He _____________________________________________________________________ Two young women with many bags and packages from well-known department stores: They ___________________________________________________________________ A couple wearing shorts and walking shoes and carrying backpacks. They seem very tired. They ___________________________________________________________________ A young woman with a bookbag full of chemistry textbooks. She has a book open in her hands and she is asleep. She ____________________________________________________________________ A woman with red stains on her hands. She ____________________________________________________________________ A man with white hairs all over his clothes and scratches on his hands. He _____________________________________________________________________ Exercise 2.12 Complete the following dialogue with the correct form of the verb in parentheses. The first one has been done for you as an example. Mom: What have you been doing (you do)? Lee: Nothing. We (1) __________________ (not do) anything. Mom: Are you sure? You (2) __________________ (make) lots of noise out here and you (3) __________________ (run). Chris: We (4) __________________ (play) baseball, Mom. Lee: Yes, we (5) __________________ (play) catch. Mom: (6) __________________ (you play) on the vacant lot next door? Chris: Yes, we (7) __________________ (practice) with Aaron. Mom: (8) __________________ (you do) anything besides throwing and catching the ball? I hope you (9) __________________ (not hit) the ball with a bat. You could break one of Mr. Smiths windows if you do that. Lee: I (10) __________________ (catch), but Aaron (11) __________________ (hit) the ball. Mom: You didnt break a window, did you? Chris: Sorry, Mom. Mom: I (12) __________________ (tell) you that you would get into trouble some day. I guess I had better go see Mr. Smith.

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Actions continuing to the present


examples He has been waiting for 20 minutes (and he is still waiting). explanations We also use the present perfect progressive to describe actions or situations starting in the past and continuing up to and including now.

Exercise 2.13 Complete the following sentences, using the scrambled verb in parentheses. We have done the first one for you. 1. 2. Lee: What are you doing? Mary: Im waiting to make a phone call. This woman has been talking on the phone for the last 20 minutes. (katl) Dan: Havent you finished writing that book yet? Heidi: No, were still working on it. Dan: You __________________ it for almost a year! (retwi) Heidi: I know, but its nearly finished now. Sky: Whats up? You look miserable. Tom: I am. I want to go for a bike ride, but it __________________ since eight oclock this morning. (anir) Gin: What do you want to do tonight? Bruce: I want to go out and have fun. I __________________ here all day. (krow) George: Excuse me, but is this your dog? Barbara: Yes. Is there a problem? George: I cant get to sleep because that dog __________________ for hours! Please keep it under control, or Ill call the police. (krab) Julie: Have you seen Patsy recently? Jan: No. Shes got a new boyfriend, and she __________________ all her time with him. (psned) John: Are these your glasses? Betty: Yes! Thank you so much. I __________________ for them everywhere! (oklo) Mike: How are things going in New York? Dave: We dont live there anymore. Mike: Really? Dave: Yes. We __________________ in Philadelphia since January. (lvei) Diane: Why are Kim and Cynthia so depressed? Marianne: They __________________ grammar for ages, but they still dont understand how to use the present perfect progressive. (yusdt) Pam: Arent you ready yet? Andrew: No. Ive lost my keys and I __________________ to find them for the last half hour. (ytr)

3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8.

9. 10.

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FOCUS 5 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE vs. PRESENT PERFECT


examples Jim has worked here for ten years. Jim has been working here for ten years. live work teach study explanations The present perfect and the present perfect progressive can both describe actions or situations starting in the past and continuing up to and including now. In this case, it is necessary to add a time adverbial to show how long the activity has been in progress. The verbs opposite are commonly used with both present perfect and present perfect progressive to describe an unfinished action.

You can also use the present perfect progressive to We have been working on this for a long emphasize an activity that started in the past and that time. continues without interruption to the present. You can express the same meaning with the present We have worked on this for a long time. perfect. However, the present perfect progressive emphasizes the fact that the activity has continued without stopping. The present perfect without a time adverbial shows They have painted their house. that an activity finished sometime before now in the past, but we are not sure when. The present perfect progressive without a time adverbial They have been painting their house. is often used to talk about an activity that finishes very recently before now. Exercise 2.14 Read the following sentences. On the line before each sentence write 1 or 2. Write: 1. If the sentence emphasizes that the action is without interruption. 2. If the action is finished but when it finished is unknown.
EXAMPLE:

The Klebert family has been working since early this morning to clean the house for a party.

___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

A. Mrs. Klebert has cleaned the kitchen. B. Shes washed and dried all the dishes and put them away. C. She has also wiped all the counters, and swept and mopped the floors. D. Deborah has been straightening up the bedrooms. E. She has changed the sheets and made the beds. F. Ben has been cleaning the bathrooms for the last hour. G. He has scrubbed the sinks and toilets. H. Hes also changed the towels. I. Mr. Kelbert has been working in the living room. J. Hes been vacuuming and dusting and making sure that everything is in its right place. K. Theyve been hurrying to finish in time for the party. I hope they are not too exhausted to enjoy themselves at their party.

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Exercise 2.15 Think about the activities that you have done already today. Write one sentence about your own activities for each of the examples below. 1. 2. Something you have done without interruption. _______________________________________________________________________ Something you have finished, but dont tell exactly when it finished. _______________________________________________________________________

Recent habits
examples They have been eating out a lot recently. Hes been working a lot lately. Ive been walking to work recently. Ive walked to work. explanations You can also use the present perfect progressive to talk about a regular habit or activity that someone started recently and which s/he continues to do. In this situation, you can add a time adverbial to emphasize that the action started recently. In the third example, we understand that walking to work is a recent habit. In the fourth, we understand that I did this at some time in the past, but I do not do it at the moment. In this situation, you do not usually add a time adverbial

Exercise 2.16 Barbara is talking with her friend, Janet. They have not seen each other for several months, and Janet is surprised by some of the changes in Barbaras appearance. Complete their conversation using verbs from the list below. happen do study Janet: Barbara: Janet: Barbara: sail feel eat cook take ski ride date talk go

Janet: Barbara:

Barbara, you look great! Youve really lost a lot of weight. Well, I (1) _________________________________ my bike to school recently and I (2) _________________________________ an aerobics class. Is that all? No special diets or anything? Not really. I (3) _________________________________ (not) to any fast-food restaurants, and I (4) _________________________________ at home instead. So, I (5) _________________________________ a lot of fresh vegetables and salads and other healthy stuff like that. It really makes a difference. I (6) _________________________________ much better, with lots more energy. Well, you seem to be very busy these days. Youre never home when I call. What else (7) _____________________ you _________________________________? I (8) _________________________________ this really cute guy. He has a boat, so we (9) _________________________________ a lot and he also has a cabin in the mountains, so we (10) _________________________________ too. And also, we (11) _________________________________ about taking some trips together. So its all

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA pretty exciting. But what about you? What (12) _________________________________ with you? Nothing. I (13) _________________________________ for my final exams, but when theyre over, Im going to start having fun! Exercise 2.17 Complete the dialogues, using present perfect progressive, present perfect, or simple past. Jim: Jill: Jim: Maria: Alex: Maria: Alex: Whats the matter? You look frustrated. I am. I (1) _________________________________ (try) to study all day, but the phone never stops ringing. People (2) _________________________________ (call) all day about the car. Thats great. I (3) _________________________________ (hope) to sell that car for six months now. Maybe todays the day.

Janet:

Im sorry Im so late. (4) _________________________________ (you/wait) long? Yes, I have! Where (5) _________________________________ (you/be)? I really am sorry. My watch is broken, and I didnt know what time it was. Why didnt you ask somebody? I (6) _________________________________ (stand) out here in the cold for at least 40 minutes. Maria: Oh, you poor thing! But wed better hurry to get to the movie theatre. Alex: Its too late. The movie (7) _________________________________ (start). Maria: Really? Alex: Yes. I (8) _________________________________ (start) 20 minutes ago.

Tutor-assessed Task 1

Before doing this test, revise Grammar Digests 1 and 2. Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be grammatically correct. 1. The native people of Northern Canada and Alaska have participated in dog sled races A B since more than 500 years. C D The Inuit people has used dog sleds as their main source of transportation since settling A B C D in the northern pats of North America. The sled dogs have working as faithful beasts of burden, carrying people and equipment A B C from place to place. D

2.

3.

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4.

In the past, every Inuit family wants a dog sled team because this was the only source A B C of transportation over the frozen land. D The use of sled dogs as the primary means of transportation have declined since the A B C D invention of the snowmobile. One of the most famous sled dog races, the Iditarod Trail, covers more than 1,000 A miles of Alaskan wilderness; it have challenged competitors and their dogs for many B C D years. I have wanted seeing this race for along time, but I never had the opportunity. A B C D Last year, I have seen this great race for the first time. I was there at the finish line in A B C D Nome, Alaska. Have you never eaten Indian food? No, I havent. A B C D I have had Indian food several times, but I didnt had it in a long time. I think you A B C D would like it. Yes, I think I would. Ive always wanted to try Indian food, but not ever had the A B C D chance. Indian food is famous for its curried vegetables. I have ate curried eggplant and A B C D curried beans. That sounds great. Lets go eat now. I need some lunch; I havent have anything to eat A B C D all day. I need to look up the address of the Indian restaurant. I havent being there in a while. A B C D I think Ill enjoy this. I havent eaten out since a while and I want a new taste A B C D experience.

5.

6.

7. 8.

9. 10.

11.

12.

13.

14. 15.

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence. 16. ________ to Smoky Mountain National Park since it has been improved? (A) You been (C) Have you been (B) Were you (D) Did you go No, but I want ________ back there. (A) going (C) go (B) to go (D) went I ________ camped in such a beautiful national park since I was in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. (A) no (C) havent (B) didnt (D) dont The wilderness is breathtakingly beautiful, but the campsites are rough; they ________ few of the amenities of home. (A) have had (C) havent (B) have (D) has There are wild animals in the park, and campers ________ be aware of the bears, who like to steal the campers food. (A) have (C) had (B) have had (D) have to Park rangers ________ many hiking trails since the park opened. (A) have developed (C) are developing (B) will develop (D) develop Rangers have protected the natural beauty of the Great Smokies National Park ________ it was created (A) for (C) when (B) since (D) that In the last decade, computers ________ an important part of everyday life. (A) have become (C) have became (B) will become (D) has became ________ computers have been readily available for home use, it has become more important to become computer literate. (A) For (C) When (B) Since (D) At the time Schools are teaching all children to be computer literate because in the future everyone will need ________ these skills. (A) to have (C) have (B) having (D) can have Almost every part of our lives ________ computerised work, school, the government, and even the grocery store over the past few decades. (A) had (C) was (B) have been (D) had been

17.

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27.

Since I ________ college, I ________ a computer to help me write my papers. (A) ve been ve using (C) ve been ve used (B) was ve used (D) ve been used Yesterdays, I ________ a computer to write my term paper. (A) have used (C) has used (B) used (D) have been using

28.

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Reading Digest 3 Letters to an Advice Column

Exercise 3.1 A. These two letters appeared in the 'advice column' of a popular Canadian newspaper. Read them and then choose the best answer. Dear Mary, For the last year I have been going out with a very nice man called Peter. I'm very fond of Peter in lots of ways. We have a calm, peaceful relationship and he has asked me to marry him. I would say yes if it weren't for Roger. Roger is my ex-boyfriend. We went out together for three years. Although we had lots of fights, I found the relationship deeply satisfying. We broke up because he found another woman he said he loved more. I didn't hear from Roger for a long time but last week he phoned me again. He told me that he was no longer seeing the other woman and wanted me to take him back. I am terribly confused. I get on much better with Peter. But the relationship with Roger was more exciting. What would you do if you were me? Nora F., Toronto I worked for a small company for ten years before I took on a new job with a much larger firm. Although I didn't earn as much in the old job, I got on much better with my boss and the other employees than I do now. I've had the new job for more than a year and have found that my personal life has suffered. I am expected to travel a lot and never have any time for my family. I find the job less interesting than the old one, too. There isn't the same contact with people I used to have. A few days ago I happened to see my old boss again. When I told him how I felt, he offered me my old job back. I told him I would think about it. If I take the offer, I will be happier but my salary won't be as good. What would you advise me to do? M. L., Hamilton

1 Nora's previous relationship with Roger broke up because A Nora started going out with Peter. B Roger left her to be with someone else. C they used to fight all the time. D they had been going out together for too long. 2 Nora does not know what to do because A Roger has asked her to marry him. B she finds Peter more exciting than Roger. C she isn't attracted to Roger any more. D Roger wants to start their relationship again.

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3 M.L. left her old job because A she wasn't happy in her work. B she had problems with her boss. C she found employment elsewhere. D she didn't get on with her colleagues. 4 Since she began her new job, she finds that A she is expected to spend more time working. B she has enjoyed travelling on business. C she has been so unhappy that she has decided to leave. D she has made many useful business contacts. B. When we read about people, we often form impressions which do not come directly from the information we are given about them. Discuss your answers to these questions. 1 Which of the following age groups do you think Nora F. probably belongs to? Why? 11-20 21-30 31-35 36-50 2 Have you any idea how old M.L. might be? Give reasons for your answer. 3 Try to describe a typical evening for Nora and Peter. Would an evening with Roger be different? How? 4 What do you think M.L. actually said to her old boss? Try to imagine the exact words of their conversation. 5 What would you advise Nora F. to do? 6 If you were M.L., what would you do? Why? VOCABULARY Exercise 3.2 Complete the following sentences with one of these words. money pay cash salary wages

1 In this job, you will get a monthly ..... 2 All he ever thinks about is making ...... 3 The job is interesting but the .... is poor. 4 The ..... are very low for work like this. 5 In the United States, most people pay by cheque or on credit rather than in ..... USE OF ENGLISH 1 Exercise 3.3 Below is another letter to an advice column but this time some words are missing. Here are five of the missing words. Where do they belong? Can you guess the other fifteen? result advice reason since after

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA About a year ago I had a bad quarrel with my father. ....... (1) then we have hardly spoken to each other. I would apologize if I felt that the quarrel was my ....... (2). But I don't think it ....... (3). It all began because he criticized the man I was ....... (4) out with and I told him he had no right to ....... (5) in my personal life. This ....... (6) him very angry. A few months ....... (7) the quarrel, I discovered my boyfriend was ....... (8) an affair with another woman, and as a ....... (9) of this, we broke ....... (10). But I still haven't ....... (11) my father about the break up even though I phoned him recently to ....... (12) him a happy birthday. He sounded very cool and I didn't feel ....... (13) continuing the conversation any longer than necessary. Unfortunately, I need a new car, as my old one has ....... (14) down and can't be repaired. But I am rather ....... (15) of money. I know my father ....... (16) lend it to me if I asked him, but I don't want him to think this is the only ....... (17) I have contacted him again. However, if he finds out that I have ....... (18) the money from a bank before asking him, he will probably never ....... (19) me. What ....... (20) would you give me?

Exercise 3.4 Read the information about these three people and answer the questions that follow. TONY works in a bank near his home has been offered a better job in another bank in a town 70 km away can get to the town only by car hasn't got a car, and needs an extra 500 to buy one HARRY is Tony's brother could lend Tony the 500 lent Tony 300 two years ago which Tony has never paid back ALICE is Tony's girl-friend works in the same bank as Tony could also lend Tony the 500 Tony hasn't told her about the new job yet

1 What do you think Harry will probably do if Tony asks him for the money? 2 What do you think Tony will do if he can't borrow the money from Harry? 3 How do you think Alice will probably feel when Tony tells her about the new job? 4 What is one of the reasons she may not want to lend him the money? VOCABULARY Exercise 3.5 Study the following definitions. lend vt (pt, pp lent) 1 give (a person) the use of (something) on the understanding that it or its equivalent will be returned: I will ~ you 100. bor-row vt, vi 1 get something, or its use, on the understanding that it is to be returned: May I ~ your pen? lend. 2 take and use as one's own: ~a person's ideas/methods. fault n 1 [C] something that makes a person, thing, etc imperfect; defect: She loves me in spite of all my -~s. There is a - in the electrical connections. at fault, in the wrong; in a puzzled or ignorant state: My memory was at ~. find fault with, complain about: I have no -~ to find with your work. Hence, 'faultfinder, 'fault-finding. 2 (sing only) responsibility for being wrong: It's your own ~.

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er-ror n 1 [C] mistake: spelling ~s; an -~ of judgement. 2 [U] condition of being wrong in belief or conduct: do something in ~, by mistake. mis-take n [C] wrong opinion, idea or act: spelling ~s. We all make ~s occasionally, by mistake, as the result of carelessness, forgetfulness, an error, etc: I took your umbrella by ~. lend or borrow ? A. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of lend or borrow. 1 Could I ...... some money from you? 2 Could you ...... me some money? 3 I ...... Bob a lot of money last month and he still hasn't paid it back. 4 If you're short of money, why don't you ...... some from the bank? 5 I don't believe in ...... money from my friends. 6 I don't believe in ...... money to other people, not even my friends. fault, error or mistake ? B. Complete the following sentences with fault, error or mistake. 1 I took someone else's coat by ....... 2 The accident wasn't my ...... ! 3 The letter was sent to you in ....... 4 It was a big ...... to pay so much for your car. 5 Look! Here's another spelling ...... in this stupid book! In which sentence could you use either error or mistake? USE OF ENGLISH 2 Exercise 3.6 Make al the changes and additions necessary to produce a complete letter from the words and phrases below. The first sentence has been done for you as an example. Dear Dad, I want/thank you/offer/lend me/1,000. I want to thank you for offering to lend me I,000. 1 I/already discuss/further loan/my bank manager. 2 He offer/lend me/2,600. 3 Now it/seem/there be/no problem/buy the car. 4 I/not yet decide/exactly which car/buy. 5 However/one of my friends/suggest/I buy/a Fiat Uno. 6 She buy one/several years ago/and/be very satisfied/it. 7 Another friend/suggest/I buy/a Volkswagen.
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 8 He say/he have one/six years/and it/still go/very well. 9 I/let you know/as soon as I/decide which car/best for me. LANGUAGE STUDY Exercise 3.7 still, yet or already ? Complete the following sentences with still, yet or already. 1 She hasn't decided which car to buy ....... 2 She has ...... asked her father if he will lend her some of the money. 3 When I left the bank, she was ...... talking to the manager about the loan. 4'You haven't told me ...... how much you want to borrow,' he said. 5'You ...... haven't told me if you can lend me the money,' she said later. 6 When she left, the bank had ...... closed. 7 However, some of the bank clerks were ...... working. 8 But most of them had ...... finished counting up. REVISION AND EXTENSION Exercise 3.8 A. Complete the following conversation with the correct form of the verb in brackets. A. Jack's coming this evening. B. When? A. Well, I'm not sure, it depends on the buses. He said he might catch the 7.30. If he (do), he (be) here at about 8.30, but if he (miss) it, he (have to) get the one at 8.15. B. What time he (get) here if he (take) the later one? A. I should think he (be) here at about 9.30, unless the traffic (be) bad, in which case he (may) not arrive until about 10. B. What do you want me to do about supper? A. Mmm. If he (get) here early, we (can) eat together, but if he (be) late, just (put) something in the oven to keep warm. But don't make too much, because if he (already eat) he (not be) very hungry. B. There's only one problem. What he (do) if I (be) out shopping when he (get) here? A. I wouldn't worry about that if I were you. If you (not be) here when he (arrive), he /have to/ wait. B. No, I know what - if I (go) out, I (leave) a key and a note so that he (can) let himself in. B. Explain what you would do if these things happened. Example: You found a wallet in the street. If I found a wallet in the street, I would take it to the police. 1 You heard a stranger shouting for help. 2 Someone insulted you. 3 You were offered a job in China for three years. 4 Someone you had never seen before said 'I love you'. 5 You saw a strange light in the sky which looked like a flying saucer.
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C. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1 If I (be) you, I (apply) for a job as soon as possible. 2 If I (speak) perfect English, I (not need) to take the exam. 3 If he (be) taller, he (be able) to join the police. 4 You (be) rich if you (win) the pools. 5 You (not be able) to travel next week unless you (get) a visa. 6 If the weather (be) nice next weekend, they (go) to the country. 7 Unless you (hear) otherwise, I (come) at 8.15. 8 If I (be) the Prime Minister, I (change) a lot of things. 9 If the bus (leave) by the time I arrive, I (get) a taxi. 10 If my headache (not go away) soon, I (take) an aspirin.

Grammar Digest 3 Comparison with Adjectives Similarities and Differences Comparison with Adverbs Superlatives FOCUS 1 COMPARISON WITH ADJECTIVES Comparative form of adjectives Regular comparatives
There are two regular forms of adjectives in English. 1. For adjectives with one syllable or those ending in y: X is ______-er than Y. example adjective This neighborhood is safer than that safe one. The one-bedroom apartment is big bigger than the studio. The studio is noisier than the one bedroom. The studio is smaller than the onebedroom. 2. noisy small comparative safer than bigger than rule For adjectives ending in e, add r. For adjectives that end in consonant-vowel-consonant, double the consonant, add er. For adjectives ending in y, change the y to i add er. For all other adjectives, add er.

noisier than smaller than

For adjectives with two or more syllables X is (more/less) ___________ than Y.


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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA example The studio is more economical than the onebedroom. The studio is less expensive than the one-bedroom.
NOTES:

adjective economical expensive

comparative more economical than less expensive than

rule Use more or less before the adjective.

Some adjectives with two syllables can take either er or more/less. For example: quiet quieter or more quiet. In formal English we say: Joe is taller than I (am). In informal English we sometimes say: Joe is taller than me. Irregular comparatives explanations The comparative forms of good, bad, and far are irregular. good -- better bad -- worse far -- farther Use much to make a comparison stronger.

examples This neighbourhood is better than that one. This years winter was worse than last years (winter). The one-bedroom is farther away from the bus stop than the studio is. This apartment is much better than that one. This apartment is much larger than the other one.
distance.

NOTE: Farther is used for physical distance, while further is used for both physical and metaphysical

Exercise 3.1 Write the comparative form of each adjective + than in parentheses. Example: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A cat is (big) bigger than a mouse.

a. A tiger is (large) ____________________ a cat. b. It is (dangerous) ____________________ a cat. a. outgoing people are (nervous) ____________________ shy people. b. They are (comfortable) ____________________ in social situations. a. The weather in Spain is (hot) ____________________ the weather in Sweden. b. The food in hot countries is (spicy) ____________________ the food in cold countries. a. Dog lovers say cats are (intelligent) ____________________ dogs. b. Cat lovers think cats are (good) ____________________ dogs. Today wasnt a very good day. a. We hope tomorrow will be (good) ____________________ today. b. We hope it will be (exciting) ____________________ today. Exercise 3.2 Fill in the blanks with the comparative form of the adjective.

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Jane: Kevin, I found these two apartment ads in the newspaper this morning. Theres a studio and a one-bedroom. I think the one-bedroom sounds nice. What do you think? Kevin: Well, the one-bedroom is definitely (1) (large) __________________ than the studio, but the studio is (2) (cheap) __________________ You know you only have a part-time job. How can you afford to pay $750 a month for rent? Jane: I know the one-bedroom is (3) (expensive) __________________ but I have so much furniture. The one-bedroom is (4) (big) __________________ and I want to have guests visit and it will be much (5) (comfortable) __________________ Besides, maybe someday Ill have a roommate, and Ill need a (6) (spacious) __________________ apartment, Kevin. Right? Kevin: Well, maybe, but you need to be realistic. the studio is in the center of town. Youll be (7) (close) __________________ to transportation, stores, the library, and the college. Jane: Youre much (8) (practical) __________________ than I am, Kevin. But the studio is directly over a video store, so it will be (9) (noisy) __________________ than the one-bedroom. I will need peace and quiet so I can study. Kevin: Listen the studio is small, but its much (10) (cozy) __________________ than the onebedroom and youll spend much less time cleaning it! Jane: True, but I think the one-bedroom will be much (11) (safe) __________________ for me than the studio. Kevin: It seems to me your mind is made up. Jane: Yes, it is. By the way, Kevin, Im going to see the one-bedroom later today. Can you come with me? Kevin: Sure. Exercise 3.3 Yoko wants to study English in the United States. She knows about an English program in Brattleboro, a small town in Vermont. She also knows about a program in Los Angeles, a big city in California. She needs to decide where she wants to live. Here is some information about the two places. 1. Rent for a one-bed apt. 2. Population 3. Weather 4. Public transportation 5. Quality of life a. the environment b. the crime rate c. lifestyle d. the streets 1. 2. 3. 4. Brattleboro, Vermont $450 a month 12,000 cold in winter hot in summer not good clean low relaxed quiet Los Angeles, California $ 1,000 a month 3 million warm in winter hot in summer good not so clean high busy noisy

Make comparative statements about Brattleboro and Los Angeles. crime rate (low/high) The crime rate is lower in Brattleboro than in Los Angeles. (populated) __________________________________________________________________ (cheap/expensive) __________________________________________________________________ public transportation (good/bad) __________________________________________________________________
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. winters (cold) __________________________________________________________________ (dangerous/safe) __________________________________________________________________ (clean/dirty) __________________________________________________________________ (quiet/noisy) __________________________________________________________________ (relaxed/busy) __________________________________________________________________ In your opinion, which place is better for Yoko? Why? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

Questions with comparative adjectives


examples Is the one-bedroom more expensive than the studio? Are studios better than apartments? Are studios less practical than one bedroom apartments? Who is older, you or your brother? Which is more difficult, English or Chinese? Whose apartment is more comfortable, yours or hers?

FOCUS 2 EXPRESSING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES WITH AS AS


examples Mark is as tall as Sam. Tokyo is as crowded as Hong Kong. Mark isnt as tall as Steve. (= Steve is taller than Mark.) The studio isnt as expensive as the onebedroom. explanations To say two things are equal or the same, use as + adjective + as. To say there is a difference between two things, use not as + adjective + as.

Exercise 3.4 Here is a dialogue between Tommy and his mother. Write the correct form of the comparative in the blanks. Use er, more than, less than, and as as. Mother: Tommy, I dont want you to buy a motorcycle. Why dont you buy a car instead? A car is (1) more convenient than (convenient) a motorcycle and its (2) _____________________ (practical), too.
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Tommy: Maybe its more practical, but a car isnt (3) _____________________ (economical) a motorcycle. I can get fifty miles to a gallon with a motorcycle! And a motorcycles (4) _____________________ (cheap) a car. Mother: Listen to me. You live in a big city. There are a lot of crazy people out there on the streets. A car is (5) _____________________ (safe) a motorcycle. Tommy: Mom, Im a good driver. Im (6) _____________________ (good) you are. Besides that, its (7) _____________________ (easy) to park a motorcycle in the city than it is to park a car. Mother: Well, youre right about that. But Im still your mother and you live in my house, so you will do as I say! When you are (8) _____________________ (old), you can do whatever you want. Tommy: But all my friends are getting motorcycles, Mom. I wont look (9) _____________________ (cool) my friends. Mother: I dont care, Tommy. Maybe their mothers arent (10) _____________________ (nervous) I am, or (11) _____________________ (concerned) I am. My answer is no and thats final.

Making polite comparisons


examples Harry is shorter than Mark. Harry is not as tall as Mark. explanations The second sentence is more polite. To make a polite comparison, use not as + adjective + as.

Exercise 3.5 Correct the errors in the following sentences: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. John is more tall than Mary. __________________ Seoul is more safer than Los Angeles. __________________ Paul is as intelligent than Robert.__________________ Mary test scores were more worse than Margarets. __________________ My test scores were more worse than Margarets. __________________ Lorraines eyes are darker than me. __________________ Jeff is more handsomer than Jack. __________________ My parents life was hard than mine. __________________ Is New York exciting as Paris? __________________ Is Lake Ontario cleaner that Lake Erie? __________________ The Hudson River is polluted as the Volga River. __________________ Mexicos capital city is more crowded than the United States. __________________

Exercise 3.6 Use the following adjectives to compare the worn basketball shoes of Bob, the basketball player, and the flashy high-heel shoes of Felicia, the fashion model. comfortable
EXAMPLE:

old dressy

expensive casual

new

big

Bobs shoes are more comfortable than Felicias shoes.

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

Bob likes comedy movies and Felicia likes romances. Use the following adjectives to compare the movies. emotional 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. exciting sensitive sad funny silly

__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Exercise 3.7

This is my hometown, Skagway, Alaska. It is a small, isolated town only 700 people live there, but the people are very friendly because they all know each other. The closest town to Skagway is 50 miles away. Skagway is a historic town. In1898, Skagway was a gold rush town. At that time 20,000 people lived there. Most of the buildings from that time are still standing. Every summer thousands of tourists visit Skagway to see a gold rush town and to see the spectacular beauty of the surrounding mountains. In the winter Skagway doesnt have many tourists. It is very cold, wet, snowy, and windy, but in the summer the weather is pleasant. Because Skagway is near the Arctic Circle, the summer days are long. Sometimes the sun never sets at all. Using the cues, write sentences comparing your hometown to Skagway.
EXAMPLE:

good winter weather The winter weather in Iai is better than in Skagway.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.


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old ___________________________________________________________ far ___________________________________________________________ large ___________________________________________________________ historic ___________________________________________________________ touristic ___________________________________________________________ beautiful ___________________________________________________________ cold ___________________________________________________________ wet ___________________________________________________________ snowy ___________________________________________________________ windy ___________________________________________________________ long days ___________________________________________________________ bad winter weather _____________________________________________________

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FOCUS 3 COMPARISON WITH ADVERBS


Task. Comparing men and women: Check () Yes, No or Maybe for each question. Yes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Do women work harder than men? Do men drive more safely than men? Do women communicate better than men? Do men dance more gracefully than women? Do women take care of children more patiently than men? Do man express their feelings more openly than women? Do women learn math more easily than men? Do men spend money more freely than women? Do women learn languages more easily than men? Do men think more clearly in emergencies than women? No Maybe

Comparative forms of adverbs


example Women live longer than men. Do women drive more safely than men? Do men drive less carefully than women? Eugene and Carol eat out much more often than Warren and Harriet. Do women cook better than men? Do boys do worse in school than girls? Can a man throw a ball farther than a woman? adverb/comparative long longer than safely carefully often well badly far more/less safely than carefully than more/less often than better than worse than farther than With irregular adverbs, use the irregular form + than. rule For short adverbs, add er + than. For adverbs with two or more syllables, use more/less + adverb + than. With adverbs of frequency, use more/less + adverb + than.

Comparative sentences
examples Jason can climb higher than his brother (can). Shes better in school than I (am). I type faster than my friend (does). We speak Spanish better than they (do). I type faster than she (does). I type faster than her. explanations Sometimes, the auxiliary verb, for example can, be, or will, follows the subject after than. If there is no be or auxiliary verb, you can use do. In formal English, the subject pronoun follows than. In informal English, the object pronoun (me, you, him, her, us, them) follows than.

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA Exercise 3.8 Go back to the questions in the Task and underline the comparatives with adverbs.

Expressing similarities and differences


examples A woman can work as hard as a man. A man can dance as gracefully as a woman. He doesnt speak as clearly as I (do). = I speak more clearly than he (does). = He speaks less clearly than I (do). explanations To show similarities, use as + adverb + as. To show differences, use not as + adverb + as.

Exercise 3.9 Sally and Bill are applying for a job as director of an art company. Decide who is better for the job. Make comparative statements about each person.
EXAMPLE:

Sally works as hard as Bill. Bill draws better than Sally/Sally doesnt draw as well as Bill. Work habits Sally Bill 1. works hard X X 2. draws well X 3. thinks creatively X X 4. communicates openly X 5. plans carefully X 6. works well with others X X 7. acts calmly in emergencies X 8. solves problems fairly X 9. writes clearly X X 10. works fast X

Exercise 3.10 Imagine you are the president of the art company. You want to compare Sally and Bill. Write some questions to ask about them.
EXAMPLE:

Does Sally work as hard as Bill? Does Bill draw better than Sally?

1. 2. 3.

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Exercise 3.11 Answer these questions in writing before you read the text below: 1. 2. Do you think boys and girls grow up differently? __________________________________________________________________ In what ways do they grow up differently? __________________________________________________________________

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3. 4.

Do you think boys and girls talk to each other differently? __________________________________________________________________ In what ways do you think boys and girls play differently? __________________________________________________________________

Boys and girls grow up in different worlds. Research studies show that boys and girls act very differently. For example, when boys and girls play, they dont play together. Some of their activities are similar, but their favourite games are different. Also, the language they use in games is different. Boys usually play outside in large groups. The group has a leader. The leader gives orders. There are winners and losers in boys games. Boys frequently brag about how good they are at something and argue about who is the best. Girls, on the other hand, play in small groups or pairs. The most important thing for a girl is her best friend. Closeness is very important to girls. Girls like to sit together and talk. In their games, like jump rope, everyone gets a turn. In many of their activities, such as playing together with their dolls, there are no winners or losers. Girls dont brag about how good they are at something. They dont give orders. They usually make suggestions. Does this text say the same things you said in your answers? What information is the same? What information is different Exercise 3.12 With the information from the reading, check True or False for the statements below. True 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Boys and girls play differently. Boys and girls usually play with each other. Girls act more aggressively than boys. Girls play more competitively than boys do. Boys brag about how good they are at something more frequently than girls. Girls talk to each other more intimately than boys do. Girls give suggestions more frequently than boys. Boys play more cooperatively than girls do. Exercise 3.13 Write statements to compare boys and girls. Use more/less/as as.
EXAMPLE:

False

1. build things more creatively Boys build things more creatively than girls. Girls build things as creatively as boys (do). _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________
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2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

score high on math tests run fast act aggressively act independently learn languages easily

ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 7. 8. 9. 10. solve problems peacefully make friends quickly study hard express feelings openly _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

FOCUS 4 SUPERLATIVES
Task: General Knowledge Quiz. Check the correct answer. 1. 2. What is the largest ocean? a. Pacific b. Atlantic Whats the most valuable painting in the world? a. Van Goghs Sunflowers b. Leonardo da Vincis Mona Lisa c. Rembrandts Self Portrait Whats the most widely spoken language in the world? a. English b. Spanish c. Chinese Whats the hottest place in the world? a. Libya b. Israel Whats the tallest office building in the world? a. the Sears Tower, Chicago b. the World Trade Center, New York c. the Petronas Tower, Kuala Lumpur Whats the most crowded city in the world? a. Shanghai b. Mexico City c. Tokyo c. Ethiopia c. Indian

3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Whats the most expensive university in the United States? a. Harvard b. Yale c. M.I.T. Whats the wettest place in the world? a. Hawaii b. India Whats the most nutritious fruit? a. banana b. avocado Whats the hardest gem? a. ruby b. diamond c. Jamaica c. orange emerald

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Superlatives
examples The tallest building in the world is the Petronas Tower. The least expensive food on the menu is a hamburger. Rosa writes the most carefully of all. Dr. Demeter is the most respected teacher at the school. M.I.T. is the most expensive university in the United States. Helen performs the best of all the dancers. explanations Superlatives compare one thing or person to all the others in a group. Use prepositional phrases after superlatives to identify the group.

Exercise 3.14 Go back to the opening task. Underline all the superlative forms in the questions.
EXAMPLE:

What is the largest ocean?

Regular and irregular superlative forms Regular forms


examples The Sears Tower in Chicago is the tallest building in the United States. My grandfather worked the hardest of his three brothers. Jupiter is the largest planet. I get up the latest in my family. The hottest place in the world is Ethiopia. adjective/ adverb tall hard large late hot superlative form the tallest the hardest the largest the latest the hottest rule One-syllable adjectives or adverbs: the + adjective/adverb + -est. Adjectives/Adverbs ending in e: add st. One-syllable adjectives, ending in consonantvowel-consonant: double the final consonant, add est. Two-syllable adjectives/adverbs ending in y: change y to i: add est. Adjectives/adverbs with two or more syllables: use the + most/least.

The easiest subject for me is geography. She arrived the earliest. The most nutritious fruit is the avocado. The least expensive food on the menu is a hamburger. Of all his friends, he drives the most carefully. She danced the least gracefully of all the students.

easy early nutritious expensive carefully gracefully

the easiest the earliest the most nutritious the least expensive the most carefully the least gracefully

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Irregular forms
examples The college has the best professors. That was the worst movie I saw last year. He ran the farthest. adjective good bad far adverb well badly far superlative the best the worst the farthest

Exercise 3.15 How much de you know about the country of Canada? Match the information in the two columns below. The first one has been done for you as an example. _C_ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ 1. the longest river 2. the tallest mountain 3. the longest waterfall 4. the largest lake 5. the biggest city 6. the tallest building 7. the oldest city 8. the highest government official 9. the town that is the farthest north 10. the earliest European explorer 11. the biggest trading partner A. Quebec B. the Prime Minister C. the Milk River D. the CN tower E. Mount Logan F. Toronto G. the United States H. Alert, the Northwest Territories I. Lake Superior J. Della Falls K. Jacques Cartier

Exercise 3.16 Here are some interesting facts from the Guinness Book of World Records. Write the superlative form of the adjective/adverb in parentheses in the blanks.
EXAMPLE:

(cold)

Antarctica is the coldest place on earth.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

_________________ (large) cucumber weighed sixty-six pounds. _________________ (popular) tourist attraction in the United States is Disney-world in Florida. _________________ (successful) pop group of all time is the Beatles. _________________ (heavy) baby at birth was a boy of twenty-two pounds eight ounces. He was born in Italy in 1955. _________________ (fat) person was a man in New York City. He weighed almost 1,200 pounds. _________________ (prolific) painter was Pablo Picasso. He produced about 13,500 paintings, 100,000 prints, 34,000 book illustrations, and 300 sculptures. _________________ (long) attack of hiccups lasted sixty-seven years. _________________ (big) omelette was made of 54,763 eggs with 531 pounds of cheese in Las Vegas, Nevada in 1986. _________________ (hot) city in the United States is Key West, Florida. Mexico City is now the worlds _________________ (fast) growing city.

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One of the + superlative + plural noun


examples (a) Bach was one of the greatest composers of all time. (b) He is one of the least popular students in the school. explanation One of the + superlative + plural noun is common with the superlative form. Example (a) means that there are several composers we think of as the greatest composers of all time. Bach is one of them.

Exercise 3.17 Fill in the blanks with one of the + superlative + plural noun. Use the words in parentheses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Thats one of the most expensive cars you can buy. (expensive car) In my opinion, wrestling is ________________________________ you can play. (exciting sport) That was ________________________________ of my life. (proud moment) That was ________________________________ in the city. (expensive hotel) Drinking and driving is ________________________________ you can do. (bad thing) The chocolate ice cream is ________________________________ on the menu. (good desert) Dr. Jones is ________________________________ in the hospital. (fine doctor) Louis Armstrong was ________________________________ in America. (great jazz musicians) This is ________________________________ in the museum. (beautiful sculpture) Sergei Grinkov, the Olympic ice skater, died in 1995. He was twenty-nine years old. This was ________________________________ in the history of ice skating. (tragic death) Exercise 3.18 Make sentences with one of the + superlative + plural noun.
EXAMPLE:

1. Prague is one of the most beautiful cities in the world.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

a beautiful city in the world __________________________________________________________ an interesting place ( in the city you are living in) __________________________________________________________ a good restaurant (in the city you are in) __________________________________________________________ a famous leader in the world today __________________________________________________________ a dangerous disease of our time __________________________________________________________ a serious problem in the world __________________________________________________________ a popular food (in the country you come from) __________________________________________________________ a funny show on television __________________________________________________________

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA Exercise 3.19 Using the information from Exercise 3.15, write five sentences about Canada.
EXAMPLE:

The Milk River is the longest river in Canada.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 3.20 Think of all the people you know. Write the name of a person who is at the top of the group next to each category. Write a sentence with the correct form of the superlative. Be careful to spell the superlative correctly.
EXAMPLES:

tall / Jim Jim is the tallest. writes neatly / Diane Diane writes the most neatly.
OR

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

silly sleepy runs quickly helpful sleeps lightly pleasant heavy busy sad drives slowly good musician graceful dancer has blue eyes works hard

________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Exercise 3.21 Do the same as in Exercise 3.20, except this time write the name of a person who is at the bottom of the group next to each category. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. bad writer shy interesting busy sings badly ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

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Reading Digest 4 Crime Wave

Exercise 4.1 A. Match the crimes in the box with their definitions 1-10. burglary murder mugging minor offences forgery shoplifting robbery theft assault kidnapping

1 stealing from shops while they are open 2 killing someone intentionally 3 stealing objects in general 4 breaking into buildings to steal things 5 attacking and hurting someone physically 6 making false documents 7 attacking someone and stealing from them in the street 8 stealing money from banks, etc. 9 taking someone prisoner and demanding money for their release 10 crimes such as illegal parking, speeding, etc. false. B. Look at these statements about crimes in Britain, and say whether you think they are true or

1 Most crimes involve possessions and not people. 2 Most criminals make enough money from crime to live on. 3 Most criminals follow careful plans. 4 Most criminals are young people. 5 Most criminals give up crime after a few years. 6 Most crimes are the result of carelessness. 7 20% of drivers never lock their cars. 8 70% of house burglaries are through open doors or windows. C. Now read the extract about crime prevention below and see if you were right. 1. Crime, as we are all aware, has been a growing problem all over the world in the last 30 years. But we are not powerless against crime. Much is being done - and can be done - to reverse the trend. You can play a part in it. 2. The first step towards preventing crime is understanding its nature. Most crime is against property, not people. And most is not carried out by professionals; nor is it carefully planned. Property crimes thrive on the easy opportunity. They are often committed by adolescents and young men, the majority of whom stop offending as they grow older-the peak ages for offending are 15-18. Also, and not surprisingly, the risk of crime varies greatly depending on where you live. 3. This reliance by criminals on the easy opportunity is the key to much crime prevention. Motor cars, for example, are a sitting target for the criminal. Expensive, attractive and mobile, they are often left out on the streets for long periods at a time. The police estimate that 70-90 per cent of car crime results from easy opportunities. Surveys have shown that approximately one in five drivers do not always bother to
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA secure their cars by locking all the doors and shutting all the windows. It's the same story with our homes. In approximately 30 percent of domestic burglaries, the burglar simply walks in without needing to use force; the householder has left a door unlocked or window open. 4. If opportunities like these did not exist, criminals would have a much harder time. The chances are that many crimes would not be committed at all, which would in turn release more police time for tackling serious crime. Of course, the primary responsibility for coping with crime rests with the police and the courts. But there are many ways that you can help reverse the trend. So if you care about improving the quality of life for yourself, your family and your community, read on ...

D. Choose the sentences from the list A-E which best summarise each part of the text 1-4 above. Then is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. A We make it easy for them. B What to do to make your house safer. C Let's work together against crime. D How to reduce the number of crimes. E Who steals what. VOCABULARY Crimes and criminals Exercise 4.2 A. Complete the following table: Verb to steal to rob to to commit an offence to to murder to to shoplift to kidnap Noun (crime) robbery burglary offence mugging murder forgery mugger forger shoplifter kidnapper Noun (person) thief burglar

B. Now put the correct form of one of the words into each of these sentences. 1 The police are looking for a gang which got away with 20,000 in a bank ______________ 2 She came home to find her house had been _________ and her car _______________ . 3 A _____________ broke into the school at night and took two video players. 4 Police are very concerned about the increase in _______________ from parked cars. 5 The ________________ knocked him to the ground and ran off with his briefcase. 6 I shouted 'Stop! _______________ !'as the man ran off down the street with my bag. 7 When the bank ____________ was arrested by the police, they found a shotgun in the back of his car.
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8 Big stores in the city centre have reported a 25% increase in _____________ this winter. 9 The bank checks all notes in a machine which can detect ______________ . 10 She had committed a number of minor ___________ before robbing the post office. Exercise 4.3 A. Read this magazine article about burglaries. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-I the one which fits each gap 1-7. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0). SOMEONE IS BURGLED EVERY TWO MINUTES IN THE UK 0 D A burglar can enter your home, grab the most valuable portable items - and escape. Often these fast raids happen while the owner is at home, perhaps in another part of the house or in the garden, leaving the front door or a window open. Or they may have just gone out to pick up the children from school and thought it 'wasn't worth' the trouble of shutting and locking the windows for that short time. The fact is that the majority ~ of burglaries occur between 2 p.m. and 5.30 p.m. on a weekday. 1 Your call will show up on a screen at the local police station and an officer should be with you within minutes. If you see or hear obvious signs of entry (noises inside, jammed front door, or the door locked from the inside), and suspect the burglar may still be in the building, don't enter. Make your emergency call from a phone box or from a neighbour's house. If you are sure the burglar has gone, call your local police station rather than the emergency number. Ideally have the number readily to hand near the phone. Dont destroy evidence. The police will take an impression of a damaged door, to check against records of tool marks. They may also take finger and footprints, in an attempt to link the crime with known burglars or suspects. 2 Walk around the edge of carpets as much as possible - dust impressions of the burglar's shoe marks can be lifted and identified by special forensic techniques. The fingerprint powder the scene-of-crime officers will use can normally be removed later from work tops and everyday glass and china by washing in warm, mild detergent. 3 Ask the officers not to dust any delicate furniture or possessions if you think the powder may affect them in any way. 4 You will need this for the police and for any insurance claim. It will help you if you have already taken photographs and written a description of your most valuable items - such as jewellery, video, CD player and CDs, hi-fi, camera, mobile phone and computer, including any detail of manufacturer and model numbers. Items you have marked with your post code and house number will be easier for the police to return to you if they are found. 5 If you rent, the landlord should arrange these for you. House-owners must make their own arrangements. Your insurance company may have emergency numbers for local tradesmen. Otherwise, contact 24-hour carpenters and locksmiths through recommendations or Yellow Pages. Your building insurance policy should cover the cost of repairs; remember to keep receipts.

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 6 Ideally, you'll have previously made and hidden a list of emergency numbers to ring with your bank account number and the numbers of the cards themselves. 7 The police may arrange for a Crime Prevention Officer to call who can give free advice on such measures as security locks, timing light switches and alarm systems, and may recommend reliable firms who can install them. Remember that opportunist thieves are always on the lookout for signs that a property is vulnerable, so make sure you don't advertise the fact that your house is empty. There's plenty of information available these days on how to prevent it happening to you - so make sure you take precautionary steps now, before it's too late. A Tell your bank or credit card company as soon as possible. B Make a list of the stolen items. C Avoid touching anything the burglar may have touched. D Just 30 seconds can be all it takes. E Prevent it happening again. F Knowing what to do if you are a victim has become a necessity. G Ring the police if you think the burglar is still around. H Arrange for emergency repairs once the police give you the all clear. I Most furniture can be cleaned with a good quality furniture polish. B. Find words or phrases in the passage that mean: take quickly easy to carry collect appear in a convenient place connect easily damaged things you own maker which you can trust put in easy to attack

Exercise 4.4 Read the passage quickly and find out what these numbers refer to: 460,000 20 1/4

Apart from your home, your car is probably your most valuable possession. It's also your most vulnerable.

Keeping your car safe

Car thefts and thefts from cars -typically of radios and cassette players - account for over a quarter of all recorded crime. Together they impose costs on everyone -the cost of the police time taken up in dealing with the offences, the cost of taking offenders through the criminal justice system, and the cost to motorists of increased insurance premiums. Over 460,000 cars are reported missing in Britain each year and many of these are never recovered. Many of those which are found have been damaged by the thieves. A stolen car is also far more likely to be involved in an accident than the same car driven by its owner; car thieves are often young and sometimes drunk. Yet car crime can be cut drastically if motorists follow a few simple rules to keep thieves out of their cars in the first place. Most car thieves are opportunist unskilled petty criminals; many are under 20. So make your own car a less inviting target, to discourage thieves from trying.

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Exercise 4.5 Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Quick as a flash!
Some villagers (0) who wanted to protect a rare bird's nest have finally solved (1) _________ mystery of the disappearing eggs. (2) _______ the last three years, a pair of rare birds has built a nest near the village of Sawton and every year the eggs (3) __________ vanished. Last year, the villagers suspected thieves (4) __________ stealing the rare eggs and selling (5) ________ on the black market. This year, organised by local bird-watcher Margery Thisk, they (6) ___________ weeks guarding the nest-site. They installed a burglar alarm and kept watch (7) __________ a powerful video camera. (8) __________ all their careful precautions, they found the eggs missing again. However, the video recording has been (9) __________ to identify the thief, who is Mrs Thisk's black and white pet cat called Flash. 'We were watching the video playback (10) __________ Flash suddenly appeared and ran (11) __________ with one of the eggs' said a red-faced Mrs Thisk. (12) ___________ year, the villagers plan to fix a cat scarer to the tree (13) ___________ the birds build their nest. This machine makes a very high-pitched noise (14) ___________ birds and people cannot hear, but cats can and they do not like the noise (15) ______________ all.

Exercise 4.6 Read the text below and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. If a line is correct put a tick ( ) . If a line has a word which should not be there, write the word in the space on the right. There are two examples at the beginning (0) and (00).

Car crime
Apart from your home, your car is probably your most valuable with possession. Over 460,000 of cars are reported missing in the Britain each year and many of those are never to recovered. Many of those which are found have been damaged by thieves. A stolen car which is also far more likely to be involved in an accident than the same a car driven by its owner; car thieves are often young and sometimes its drunk. Yet car crime can be to cut drastically if motorists follow a few by simple rules to keep thieves out of their cars in the first place. Most them car thieves are opportunist unskilled petty criminals; many are under twenty age. So, make your own car is a less inviting target, to discourage thieves from go trying. 0 _______ ________ 00 _____ with _______ 1 _________________ 2 _________________ 3 _________________ 4 _________________ 5 _________________ 6 _________________ 7 _________________ 8 _________________ 9 _________________ 10 ________________ 11 ________________ 12 ________________ 13 ________________ 14 ________________ 15 ________________
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA Exercise 4.7 Read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space on the same line. See the example at the beginning (0).

Technology and crime


Modern (0) technological advances have led to great changes in police work. Whilst computer (1)_________ are important in allowing the police to store efficiently the (2) ____________ they need, computer technology has also helped (3) ____________ , particularly those making (4) ____________ of banknotes and other documents. The police can no longer rely on (5) ____________ and other more traditional methods of (6) _____________ . They have to keep up to date with (7) ___________ in many fields. For example, the (8) _____________ of the cordless electric drill left them (9) ______________ against robbers of telephone boxes. The police now devote more time to the (10) ____________ of crime, by giving advice to motorists and householders about how to protect their possessions. TECHNOLOGY NET INFORM CRIME FORGE FINGER DETECT DEVELOP INVENT POWER PREVENT

Grammar Digest 4 Should, Ought to, Had Better, Could, and Must Expressing Degree: Too, Enough, Very FOCUS 1 EXPRESSING OPINIONS, BELIEFS AND ADVICE
Examples In my opinion, more men should/ought to teach in elementary schools. In Aaron's opinion, women should not drive cars. Any kind of change should be introduced gradually and slowly. You ought to learn how to make them feel at home. Should and Ought To examples explanations She should be a doctor. Should and ought to are modal auxiliaries. They do not take -s in the third person singular: He ought to work with children. Should we go? No, you shouldnt. Questions and negatives are made without do. Ought to is rarely used in questions and negatives. It is important to remember that should does not take to.
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explanations To show you think something is a good idea or that it is right for people to do, you can use should or ought to: To show something is a bad idea or that it is not right for people to do, you can use should not (shouldnt): Should/should not and ought to/ought not are used to express the speakers opinion about a situation. Therefore, they are also usually used when you need to give advice to somebody.

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Exercise 4.1 Many self-help books are published every year all over the world. These books give people advice on what they should do in order to improve their lives in specific ways. Look at the list of book titles and the extracts below. Match each extract to the book you think it probably comes from.
BOOK TITLES

A. B. C. D.

How to Stay Married for a Long Time Caring for a Neurotic Cat How to Dress For Success Getting along with Your Coworkers
EXTRACTS

E. F. G. H.

Lose 30 Kilos in 30 Days Live Longer, Eat Better How to Attract Women Ways to Save the Planet

1. 2. 3.

4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

You should not try to surprise him or her. Any kind of change should be introduced gradually and slowly. Take things slowly, and he or she will soon be happy to accept whatever you propose. As an important first step, you really ought to eliminate red meat. This may be hard at first, but you will be amazed at how many healthy alternatives exist. Honesty is not always the best policy. In some situations, you should not say exactly what you think; the truth might cause more trouble than it is worth. For example, you should try to be tactful and diplomatic when called upon to settle an argument, by trying to show that you value both points of view. Learn to cook! You ought to learn some unusual and exotic dishes that you can prepare in advance. Pretend that it was easy and effortless to prepare so you can focus your attention on her and not on the meal. Wait for her to compliment you and your skill as a chef. Remember you should never beg for compliments! Organize the people in your office! The officer manager ought to arrange special bins for different types of paper, for bottles, and for cans. Make everybody at work feel they have a part to play. You should never settle into a regular routine. Surprise each other with fun activities, like picnics after work and moonlight barbecues on the beach. You should try to motivate yourself to keep going on. Buy a dress that is just a little bit too small and hang it in your closet. You should look at it every day and dream of the day when it will really fit you. You should not draw attention to yourself. Choose conservative but becoming styles because you ought to look competent and professional at all times.

Exercise 4.2 Ask Gabby Advice columns appear frequently in all kinds of magazines. Readers write and ask for advice about problems they are having. Write four sentences to the following people who are having problems. Use should, should not, or ought to to express your opinions. Dear Gabby, I moved to Canada from Romania three years ago. My mom says that I am forgetting my Romanian heritage and Im acting too much like a Canadian because I like curling and playing hockey with my friends. Im not trying to be disrespectful to my mom. I just want to be like the other kids. What should I do? Sincerely, On Thin Ice in Calgary

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 1. 2. 3. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Dear Gabby, I work all day as a cashier in a department store. When I come home my husband expects me to make his dinner and clean the house. Not only that, but my husband is a slob. When he comes home from work, he leaves his clothes all over and then just sits in front of the TV and drinks beer. What should I do? Sincerely, Worn Out _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Dear Gabby, Im a 25-year-old construction worker. I am very dissatisfied with my job. Ive always wanted to help people. Id like to study nursing, but all my friends say nursing is womens work. What should I do? Sincerely, A Fish Out of Water _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

1. 2. 3. 4.

1. 2. 3. 4.

FOCUS 2 SHOULD vs. MUST


examples A: I cant sleep at night. B: You should drink a glass of milk before you go to bed. A: I dont have a drivers license. B: You must get a license before you drive. explanations Should shows that something is a good idea. In this example, B is giving advice, but A is not obliged to follow that advice. A is free to do what she or he pleases. Must is much stronger. In this situation B is giving advice, but it is obligatory for A to follow the advice. A is not free to do what she or he pleases.

Exercise 4.3 Oscar has just bought a used car. Complete the following, using should, shouldnt, or must, as you feel appropriate. 1. He ____________________ get insurance as soon as possible. 2. He ____________________ take it to a reliable mechanic and have it checked. 3. He ____________________ get registration.
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4. He ____________________ drive without insurance. 5. He ____________________ drink and drive. 6. He ____________________ wear a seat belt. 7. He ____________________ lock the doors when he parks the car. 8. He ____________________ keep a spare key in a safe place. Exercise 4.4 Rene wants to be a doctor. Complete the following, using should, shouldnt, or must as appropriate.
EXAMPLE:

She should learn how to read X rays.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

She ________________ get high grades in college. She ________________ like biology. She ________________ study for at least seven years. She ________________ find some friends who also want to be doctors so they ca support each other and study together. She ________________ apply for a scholarship. She ________________ be afraid of blood. She ________________ like to help people. She ________________ be able to work long hours. She ________________ take the Hippocratic Oath (a promise to follow a code of medical ethics). She ________________ work well under pressure. She ________________ smoke cigarettes while examining a patient.

FOCUS 3 HAD BETTER


examples You had better finish this tomorrow. I had better leave now. He had better pay me for this. Youd better leave me alone. Youd better not leave me alone. You had better not finish this late. explanations Had better refers to the present and the future. It does not refer to the past, even though it is formed with had. Had is often contracted to d. To form the negative, use had better not.

Exercise 4.5 Victors mother nags him about how he acts, and tells him something bad will happen if he doesnt follow her advice. Victor is on his way to college. This will be the first time he is away from home. His mother cant resist telling him things he had better do at college one last time. Complete the sentences using the cues given with had better, d better, had better not, or d better not.
EXAMPLE:

(write a letter) You had better write a letter once a week or Ill come there and visit you.
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. (study hard) ___________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ (wash your clothes) _____________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ (eat unhealthy food) _____________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ (make me proud) _____________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ (fail any classes) _____________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ (pay the tuition money back) _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ (stay out late) ___________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ (remember how hard you worked to go to college) _____________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ (stay out of trouble) _____________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ (leave now) ___________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

FOCUS 4 SHOULD and OUGHT TO vs. HAD BETTER


examples You should go to school tomorrow. (I think its a good idea for you to do this.) You had better go to school tomorrow. (If you dont go, something bad will happen.) explanations You can also use had better to give advice. Had better is much stronger than should and ought to, but not as strong as must. In the examples opposite, had better suggests that there will be a negative result if you do not follow the advice.

You should see a doctor about that. (Its a good idea.) Had better also expresses more urgency than You had better see a doctor about that. (Its should. urgent.) You must see a doctor about that. (Its obligatory.) Teacher to student: If you want to pass this class, you had better finish all your assignments. Had better is often used in situations in which the Student to teacher: If you come to my country, you speaker has power or authority over the hearer. should visit Braov. In situations in which there is a power difference between speaker and hearer, had better sounds like an order or a command. Therefore, if you are not sure about the relationship between the speaker and the listener, it is always safe to use should or ought to.

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Exercise 4.6 Giving stronger advice: Complete the following pairs of sentences with should, ought to, or had better.
EXAMPLE:

Mother to daughter: You should wear a warm jacket, or youll catch a cold.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Parent to child: You ________________ eat your vegetables, or you wont get any desert! One friend to another: You ________________ eat vegetables if you want to be healthy. Teacher to student: You ________________ get a good grade on the final exam or youll fail this class. One student to another: I agree we ________________ study, but Im ready for a break. Worker to co-worker: To impress the boss, you ________________ wear a tie to work. Boss to worker: You ________________ be on time every day if you want to keep your job! Travel agent to tourist: You ________________ leave home early or youll miss your flight, because there is a lot of traffic at that time. One tourist to another: You ________________ visit the pyramids; they are a marvellous example of ancient architecture. Exercise 4.7 Write a sentence using should, ought to, or had better for each of the following situations:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Father to son: ____________________________________________________________ Student to teacher: ________________________________________________________ Doctor to patient: _________________________________________________________ Mechanic to car owner: ____________________________________________________ Exercise 4.8 Circle the best response in the following:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

You (should not/must not) smoke when you are in a movie theatre. While you are in Los Angeles, you (had better/should) try to visit Disneyland. In Romania, people under the age of 18 (should not/must not) purchase alcohol. Children (should/had better) wear helmets when they ride their bicycles. Look, the bus is coming! We (should/had better) run if we want to catch it. Everybody who comes into the United States (must/should) show a valid passport or I.D. Ive just spilled coffee on the new rug. I (should/had better) clean it up right away before it stains. Professor Katz gets really angry when students chew gum in class. You (had better/should) get rid of your gum before we get to class. Tourists visiting my hometown in the spring (had better/should) bring cameras, as its very beautiful at that time of the year. My brother is looking for a new girlfriend. He (must/should) take cooking classes, and maybe hell meet someone there. Exercise 4.9 Complete the following with should, ought to, must, or had better as necessary.

1.

Elena: Patsy:

How can I register to take the examination? First you ____________________ complete this application form.

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 2. Monica: Kate: 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Vlad: Advisor: Herbert: Eleanor: Claudia: Andrew: Doctor: Mother: Calvin: Mother: Carmen: Carol: Debbie: James: Louis: I want to make a good impression when I go to England, but Im not sure how to do that. I think you ____________________ take every opportunity to practice your English. Im sorry I havent been coming to class recently. You ____________________ start attending regularly if you want to stay in this program. I think Im getting the flu. You ____________________ go to bed and drink plenty of orange juice. Ive lost my credit card. You ____________________ report it immediately. You ____________________ take these pills four times a day. Time for bed! Just five more minutes. No! You ____________________ come here at once or else I wont read you a bed time story. Id love to visit Poland. Well, first of all, you ____________________ get a special visa. Ive got a sore throat. You ____________________ try not to talk too much. You ____________________ clean up your room immediately. If you dont, there will be trouble.

8. 9. 10.

FOCUS 5 SHOULD vs. COULD


examples You should see that movie. (I think it is a good idea for you to see it.) You could see that movie. (It is possible for you to see that movie if you want to.) explanations You can also use could to express opinions or to give advice. However, could is much weaker than should because it only expresses possible options or possibilities for action in a situation; it does not show that the speaker necessarily thinks this a good idea or that it is right. If you want to improve your Spanish you could We often use could when we want to suggest all take classes, you could listen to Spanish- the possibilities that are available to somebody, speaking stations on the radio, you could find a without saying which one we think is best. conversation partner, or you could take a vacation in Spain. Exercise 4.10 Look at the following situation and respond to the questions below: A woman went shopping. First she bought a large piece of cheese. Then she stopped at a pet store to buy a white mouse for her nephews birthday. Just as she was leaving the store, she saw an adorable black and white cat. She couldnt leave the store without it, so she bought the cat as well. Unfortunately, her car was parked a long way from the pet shop, and she could only carry one thing at a time. Also, there were no parking areas near the pet store, so she couldnt move her car, and
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there is nobody around to help her. Unfortunately, cats eat mice and mice eat cheese. This means that if she left the cat with the mouse, the cat would eat the mouse and if she left the mouse with the cheese, the mouse would eat the cheese. What should the woman do? What could she do in order to get everything to the car? Can you find more than one solution to the problem? Which is the best solution? She should __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Exercise 4.11 It is the week before the final exams and Victoria and Melanie are trying to decide what they are going to do today. Complete the following dialogue using should or could as appropriate. The first one has been done for you as an example. Victoria: Melanie: Victoria: Melanie: Victoria: Melanie: Victoria: Melanie: Victoria: Melanie: Victoria: Melanie: Victoria: We should study for the biology exam. I know we (1) ____________________, but its such a beautiful day. (2) ____________________ we go to the beach? We (3) ____________________ invite those cute guys who live in the next dorm. Sure, and we (4) ____________________ go swimming. Yeah, we (5) ____________________ play volleyball and get a great tan. I know we (6) ____________________ get some hamburgers and have a barbecue! But if we go to the beach I (7) ____________________ buy a new bathing suit, because mine is getting old. OK, you get a new bathing suit and Ill get the food. Well, if were going to have a barbecue, you (8) ____________________ get some more meat and we (9) ____________________ buy some charcoal. Wait, do you have any money? No. Im broke too. So, what (10) ____________________ we do? We (11) ____________________ study for the biology exam.

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FOCUS 6 SHOULD and OUGHT TO vs. COULD, HAD BETTER, and MUST
Although all these modal auxiliaries express opinions and give advice, they express different degrees of strength: WEAK could should/ought to had better must STRONG Exercise 4.12 For each of the following situations, use the words should (not), ought to, could, must, or had better (not) with the phrases given. There are many possible answers to each question. The first one has been done for you. David is getting a drivers license.
EXAMPLE:

have an accident He had better not have an accident while taking the road test.

1. 2. 3. 4.

bring a passport or birth certificate _______________________________________________________________________ fail the written test _______________________________________________________________________ be nervous _______________________________________________________________________ practice parallel parking _______________________________________________________________________ Angelica is registering for college classes. get her advisors signature _______________________________________________________________________ register early _______________________________________________________________________ find out about the instructors _______________________________________________________________________ Its my mothers birthday. remember to buy her a gift _______________________________________________________________________ bake a cake _______________________________________________________________________ remind my father _______________________________________________________________________

5. 6. 7.

8. 9. 10.

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11. 12. 13.

Ben and Sara are writing term papers. start researching immediately _______________________________________________________________________ type the paper _______________________________________________________________________ turn the paper in late _______________________________________________________________________ David is getting sick. call the doctor _______________________________________________________________________ get some rest _______________________________________________________________________ take some aspirin _______________________________________________________________________ Exercise 4.13

14. 15. 16.

For each problem of the following situations, use the modals to give advice to the person with the problem.
EXAMPLE:

Joes wife snores and keeps him awake at night. (should) He should make a tape recording of her snoring so that she will believe him. (could) Joe could sleep in another room.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Matthew plays the guitar. He wants to be a rock musician. (had better) ___________________________________________________________ (could) _________________________________________________________________ Bill got a speeding ticket. (should) ___________________________________________________________ (must) _________________________________________________________________ Christie has to tell her boyfriend she lost the necklace he gave her. (ought to) ___________________________________________________________ (could) _________________________________________________________________ Geraldine forgot where she put her car keys. (had better) ___________________________________________________________ (could) _________________________________________________________________ Davids water pipes broke and there is water all over the kitchen. (must) _________________________________________________________________ (had better) ___________________________________________________________ Lori lost her credit cards. (must) _________________________________________________________________ (should) ___________________________________________________________

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FOCUS 7 EXPRESSING DEGREE: TOO, ENOUGH, VERY Expressing sufficiency, insufficiency, and excess
examples There are enough closets. The apartment is big enough for both of us. explanations Enough expresses sufficiency; it shows you have as much as you need and that you do not need any more. Also, enough suggests a positive feeling about the situation. There are not enough windows in this Not enough expresses insufficiency; it shows you do not have all that is necessary or desirable for doing apartment. (I want more windows.) something. Not enough expresses a negative feeling The bedroom is not big enough. about the situations. (I want a bigger bedroom.) The rent is too high. (EXCESS: The rent is more than I want to pay.) The kitchen is too small. (INSUFFICIENCY: It is less than I want. I want Too expresses excess (more than you want or need) or something bigger.) insufficiency (less than you want or need), depending on This coffee is too hot. the meaning of the word that follows. In most contexts, too (I cant drink it.) suggests a negative feeling about the situation. He speaks too quickly. (I cant understand him.) She is too young to drink. (She cant drink alcohol here.) Exercise 4.14 Can you find an appropriate cause for the following problems? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. PROBLEM My feet really hurt. Im broke! I failed my math test. Ive gained a lot of weight recently. I never feel hungry at mealtimes. I cant sleep at night. I have a sore throat. This soup is tasteless. My neighbours are always angry with me. My teeth hurt. CAUSE a. You dont go to the dentists often enough. b. Maybe you shouted too much at the ball game. c. You didnt add enough salt. d. Perhaps your shoes arent big enough. e. You spend too much money. f. Your stereo is too loud. g. You dont get enough exercise. h. You eat too many snacks. i. You drink too much coffee. j. You didnt study enough.

Exercise 4. 15 The Ganter family has just moved to Nashville. They have three young children. They are looking for an older house for about $100,000, with at least four bedrooms, two bathrooms, and a large

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yard. Their realtor gave them the description of the following houses. What do you think the Ganters said about each house? Write enough, not enough, or too as appropriate in the blanks. Modern, beautiful home with all the conveniences: deluxe dishwasher, washer, dryer, side-byside refrigerator and freezer. Three bedrooms, one bath. Small lot. $100,000.
EXAMPLE:

There are not enough bathrooms.

1. 2. 3. 4.

It is _____________________ modern. There are _____________________ bedrooms. The yard is _____________________ large _____________________. It is not _____________________ expensive. Built in 1926, loaded with space! Large lot. Four large bedrooms, two bathrooms. Old-fashioned breakfast room and pantry off the kitchen. $75,000.

5. 6. 7. 8.

There are _____________________ bedrooms. There are _____________________ bathrooms. The yard is large _____________________. It is cheap _____________________. Spacious four-bedroom, two-baths, city house is right in the centre of action right on the Boulevard. Small yard easy to maintain with a pool. $ 125,000.

9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

The house is spacious _____________________. There are _____________________ bathrooms. The yard is _____________________ small. The street is _____________________ busy for kids. It is _____________________ expensive.

Enough and Not Enough


examples This house is big enough. He speaks clearly enough. We have seen enough. She ate enough. We have enough money. There are enough people here. Adjective + infinitive: She is old enough to vote. Adverb + infinitive: They studied hard enough to pass the test. Verb + infinitive: We earned enough to buy a new car. Noun + infinitive: I have enough chocolate to make a cake. explanations This house is not big enough. He does not speak clearly enough. We have not seen enough. She did not eat enough. We do not have enough money. There are not enough people here She is not old enough to vote. They didnt study hard enough to pass the test. We didnt earn enough to buy a new car. I dont have enough chocolate to make a cake.
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Enough follows adjectives, adverbs and verbs. Enough precedes nouns.

Enough can be used with an adjective, adverb, verb, or noun followed by an infinitive.

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Too
examples She is too young. They work too slowly. This tea is too hot to drink. We were too tired to stay at the party. The book was too difficult for him to understand. He walked too fast for the children to keep up. explanations Too precedes adjectives and adverbs. Too + adjective is often followed by an infinitive. Too + adjective is often followed by for + noun/pronoun + infinitive.

Exercise 4.16 Complete the following appropriately, using too, enough, or not enough as necessary. There are many different ways to make meaningful responses in this exercise. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: A: B: Why are you wearing so many sweaters? Because this room is too cold / isnt warm enough. Does your brother have a cat? No, hes only 14! Hes _______________________________________________. Why did they move? Theyre expecting a baby, and their old house ____________________________. Would you like some more pie? No, thanks. Its delicious, but I ________________________________________. Can you count on your support in next months election? Im sorry, but I _____________________________. I wont be 18 until next year. Whats wrong? My jeans _________________________________________. I cant get them on. Why dont you buy a new pair? I dont get paid until next week, so I ____________________________________. Waiter! Yes, sir? We cant eat this. It _________________________________________________. Let me help you carry that. Thanks. This suitcase ________________________________________________.

7. 8.

Too Much and Too Many; Too Little and Too Few
examples explanations Too + much is used with non-count nouns, whereas Jack has too much money. too + many is used with count nouns. Both too much There are too many students in this class. and too many express excess, and suggest a negative feeling about the situation. There is too little time to finish this. Too + little is used with non-count nouns and too + few The class was cancelled because too few is used with count nouns. Too few and too little express insufficiency, and therefore suggest a students enrolled. negative feeling about the situation.

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Exercise 4.17 Read the following and underline all the expressions or phrases that express the idea of insufficiency. Where possible, replace these with too little or too few as appropriate and change the verbs as necessary. My sisters wedding was a disaster. First of all, she decided to get married very suddenly, so there wasnt enough time to plan it properly. Nevertheless, about 50 of her friends came to the reception in her studio. Unfortunately, there wasnt enough room for everyone, so it was rather uncomfortable. She only had a few chairs, and out 96-year-old grandmother had to sit on the floor. My father had ordered lots of champagne, but there werent enough glasses, so many people didnt get very much to drink. In addition, we had several problems with the caterers. There wasnt enough cake for everyone, but there was too much soup! We also had problems with the entertainment. My sister loves Latin music, so she hired a salsa band; however, it was hard to move in such a small place, and my sister got upset when not enough people wanted to dance. I got into trouble too. I was the official photographer, but I didnt bring enough film with me, si now my sister is mad because she only has about ten wedding photographs and all of them are pictures of people trying to find a place to sit down!

was too little time Exercise 4.18 Complete the following story with too much, too many, too little, or too few. Robin: Mercedes: Robin: Mercedes: Robin: Mercedes: Robin: Mercedes: Good evening, folks, Robin here with another fascinating episode of Lifestyles of the Extremely Rich. Were here today with Ms. Mercedes Benz at her fabulous home, San Coupe, in California. Ms. Benz, may I call you Mercedes? Certainly, Robin. Mercedes, do you really have 12 bathrooms here at San Coupe? Well, yes, Robin. I do have 12 bathrooms. Do you think thats (1) _____________ bathrooms? No, of course not. But it must take quite a few servants to keep all those bathrooms clean. Youre right, I never have enough servants. There are always (2) _____________ servants around, and it takes (3) _____________ energy to manage all of them, but I get by somehow. Lets talk about the grounds surrounding San Coupe. How much land do you own? Well, Im just not sure how much land I own, but I know I have (4) _____________ grass to mow in one day, and I have three swimming pools. Unfortunately, I dont get enough exercise because I just bought two new cars, and now I have (5) _____________ time to do much swimming.
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Too vs. Very


examples explanations This writing is small.

We often see him.

Very adds emphasis, but too shows that something is excessive or more than She usually doesnt call This writing is very small. enough. In the second example, the writing us. is small, but we can read it; however, in the third sentence, I cannot read the writing. They will arrive tomorrow This writing is too small. Therefore, too suggests that you are unable around midnight. to do something, but very does not. Exercise 4.19 Complete the following with too, too + to, or very as appropriate. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. A: B: A: B: A: B: A: A: B: A: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: Are you really going to buy that motorcycle? Yes, Its very expensive, but I think Ive got enough money in the bank. Why arent you drinking your tea? I cant. Its _________ hot _________ drink. Can I borrow your truck when I move to my new apartment? Sure. Thanks! My car is _________ small _________ carry all my stuff. Can your turn your stereo down? Why? Its _________ loud! Weve been trying to get some sleep for about an hour. Do you need some help? No, thanks. This is _________ heavy, but I think I can manage by myself. What do you think of Pats new boyfriend? Hes _________ quiet, but I like him. We havent heard from you in ages. Im sorry. Ive been _________ busy _________ call. Did you like the movie? No, it was _________ long. Do you want to go home now? No, not yet. Im _________ tired, but I think Ill stay a bit longer. Hows the water in the pool? Its _________ cold! Im getting out right now. Did Brian have fun at the party? Yes. He seemed to enjoy it _________ much.

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12.

A: B:

Did Mary decide to rent that apartment? No, it was _________ small.

Exercise 4.20 Complete the following with very, too, too + to, enough, not enough, or too much/many/little/few as appropriate. Dear Tom and Wendy, Im writing to answer your questions about life in New York. In fact, this is quite hard to do because my opinions keep changing! My apartment is nice, but the rent is (1) very high. Luckily, I earn a good salary and I can afford it. The main problem is that the apartment just is (2) _________ big _________. I had to sell about half my furniture because I didnt have (3) _________ room for everything. I cant invite people for dinner because the kitchen is (4) _________ small _________ eat in! Luckily, the apartment has lots of windows, so all my plants are getting (5) _________ light. I live (6) _________ close to a subway station; it only takes me a couple of minutes to walk there. However, I never take the subway to work because its (7) _________ crowded. You wouldnt believe it! There are just (8) _________ people crammed in like sardines, and you cant breathe because there is (9) _________ air. I havent had the courage to ride my bike yet because theres just (10) _________ traffic. Mostly I walk everywhere, so the good news is that I am getting (11) _________ exercise! Despite all this, there are lots of wonderful things about living here. There are (12) _________ museums and art galleries to keep me happy for years! However, at the moment, I have (13) _________ time to enjoy them because my job is driving me crazy! Its impossible to get all the work done because there are (14) _________ projects and (15) _________ good people to work on them. As a result, I am (16) _________ busy to make new friends or meet people. I dont sleep (17) _________, and so I am always tired. Worst of all, I dont even have (18) _________ time to stay in touch with dear old friends like you! Nevertheless, Im certain things will get better soon. Why dont you come and visit? That would really cheer me up! Love, Mary

Tutor-assessed Task 2

Before doing this test, revise Grammar Digests , 2, 3 and 4. Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence. 1. Maureen needed some money yesterday, so she ________ to the bank. (A) didnt go (C) was going (B) has gone (D) went ________ Maureen was getting cash at an ATM, someone came up behind her and robbed her. (A) After (C) Before (B) As soon as (D) While

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 3. The thief ________ a T-shirt and blue jeans and had big tattoos all over his arms. (A) was wearing (C) wearing (B) weared (D) wore ________ she realized what happened, Maureen ran to a phone, called the police, and reported the crime. (A) As soon as (C) During (B) Before (D) While Luckily, she didnt have ________ money. (A) as much (C) too little (B) enough cash (D) very much But Maureen still didnt have ________ to buy gas she had to walk home. (A) cash enough (C) too much cash (B) enough cash (D) very cash Later, the police told Maureen that she hadnt been ________. The thief had been standing near the bank and she should have noticed him. (A) as careful (C) enough careful (B) careful enough (D) less careful The next day, someone ________ Maureens purse, with all of her identification and credit cards, in a trash can. (A) find (C) was finding (B) found (D) was found Thai food is hotter than Japanese food; by hotter, I mean ________. (A) as spicy (C) spicier (B) less spicy (D) the spiciest Its ________ for people who dont like spicy food. (A) as hot (C) hotter (B) hot enough (D) too hot It can be spicy hot like Indian food, but ________ as Indian food. (A) as greasy (C) more greasy (B) less greasy (D) not as greasy Thai cuisine is ________ and more exotic than heavy French food. (A) as light (C) lighter (B) less light (D) more light Like the French chefs, Thai cooks use ________ fresh herbs and spices (A) enough (C) too few (B) many (D) too many Sateh was originally Indonesian, but the Indonesian dish isnt ________ as the sateh from Thailand. (A) as spicy (C) quite spicy (B) less spicy (D) spicier

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15.

In my opinion, of all the worlds cuisines, Asian cooking is ________. (A) delicious (C) most delicious (B) more delicious (D) the most delicious Identify the one underline word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be grammatically correct. 16. North American food, on the other hand, is boring; I think its one of the blander, least A B C D imaginative cuisines. It uses too little spices and fresh herbs and too many canned and frozen ingredients. A B C D Other cooking around the world uses a much wider variety of herbs and spices than A B C the English are. D North Americans eat a lot of processed and frozen food, which has chemicals and is not as healthful than diets with more fresh, natural foods. A B C D They also eat at fast-food restaurants, which serve greasy food with a lot of calories. A Thats part of the reason that North Americans are much fatter and less healthy that B C D other nationalities. Not all North Americans eat fast food; some enjoy trying international food very A B much, but to prepare that food at home isnt enough convenient for them. C D Yes, some have started to change their attitude about food, but no enough the A B average North American still eats mashed potatoes, meat loaf, and Hamburger Helper. C D If North Americans borrowed more ideas from the cuisines of their various ethnic A B communities, they could have some of a most fascinating cooking in the world. C D Yesterday, while they were driving to work, Natasha and her husband, Yury, A B C were having an accident. D While Natasha stepped on the brake, the car that was driving behind them hit their car. A B C D
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 26. 27. 28. The man who was driving behind them was following too closely for to stop. A B C D As soon one of the neighbours saw the accident, he called the police. A B C D An ambulance came right away and was taking Natasha and Yury to the nearest A B C D hospital. Was Natasha and her husband wearing their seatbelts when the accident occurred? A B C D Yes, they were, and they feel very lucky that they werent hurt very much and that the A neighbours who saw the accident enough cared to call the police. B C D

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Reading Digest 5 Work for a Living

Exercise 5.1 A. Read the article quickly to find the answers to these questions: 1 Which company does Sandy work for? 2 What is her job called? 3 What does she have to do? 4 How long has she been in the food industry?

Chocolate tasting is like wine tasting you don't swallow


SANDY COLLYER

Would working as a Confectionery Selector for Marks & Spencer be a dream come true for chocoholics? Candida Crewe finds out. ONE DAY SANDY Collyer and a colleague of hers had to eat their way through almost 10 kilos of chocolates. It took them from 9am to 2pm. Afterwards they felt `very, very unwell'. But their chocolate marathon was not a binge. It was all in the course of duty. Sandy is one of the 11 people at Marks & Spencer who are responsible for chocolates and sweets. Her official title is Confectionery Selector. She has to sample chocolates everyday. That 10 kilos was unusual, she said. The technologist and I had to try out an entire fresh cream range from one of our suppliers before it went off. It was a very hot day which made things worse. Despite such excesses, Sandy is not overweight. How come? Chocolate tasting is like wine tasting, she told me, you don't swallow unless it's so good you can't resist. I think all of us in the office have become immune to chocolate. It no longer makes us put on weight. Perhaps, after 15 years in the business, Sandy has become immune to the temptations which, in her airy offices in the M&S headquarters in Baker Street, I found overwhelming. There were chocolates everywhere. Her chocolate enthusiasms began early. When I was little I, like every kid, wanted to work in the Mars Bar factory. When I began in confectionery I was just like a child in a sweet shop, eating everything. But that's worn off. I like chocolate, but I'm not a chocoholic. B. Now read more carefully and find words which mean: 1 having too much of a good thing 4 trying food C. Are these statements true or false? 1 Sandy samples 10 kilos of chocolates everyday. 2 She does not usually eat the chocolates she tastes.
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2 to try 5 well-ventilated

3 complete 6 too much

ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 3 She is the only chocolate taster at M&S. 4 She has not put on weight because of her job. 5 She has always wanted to work with food. VOCABULARY Exercise 5.2 Skills and qualities Look at the list of skills and qualities in the box. Which of them are the most important for your job? Skills Computer skills Typing skills Driving skills Telephone skills Interpersonal skills Artistic skills Language skills Mathematical skills Managerial skills Financial skills Qualities patient physically strong emotionally strong well-organised intelligent caring calm quick-thinking honest clean and tidy punctual Exercise 5.3 A. Answer these questions. 1 What qualities do top models need? 2 How do models find work? 3 How do models start their careers? 4 Do you think modelling is a good choice of career? B. Read the first part of the article and check your answers to questions 1-4 above.

Models in the making

How do you get into modelling? Marina Gask visits Select model agency's New Faces photo shoot and meets some of the girls who've made it ... Part One GETTING SORTED So just how do Select find their models? Crissie Castagnetti, Director of Select, says: 'At least 50 per cent of our models get spotted when we're out and about. Wherever I go, I'm constantly looking at faces. I just do it unconsciously. One time I spotted a girl eating a hamburger in a motorway cafe, and gave her our number! Another girl, Samantha, was only 13 when she sent us a picture her aunt had taken of her. Within six weeks she'd done work for The Face magazine and the cover of French Vogue. Another girl got spotted whilst queuing in a bakery, and another whilst shopping in Miss Selfridge with her mum!
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WHAT IT TAKES What exactly do Select look for? Sarah Leon, New Faces booker, says: 'Lots of girls just come to see us (no appointment needed), or send pictures in. We can usually spot whether or not a girl's got potential within the first five seconds, but we have to meet her in person to be absolutely sure. Obviously, she has to be the right height (a minimum of 1 m 70 cm), with good skin and even features. But once she's got all that, we're looking for a special "something" that makes her individual. Lots of girls plaster themselves in make-up for the pictures they send in, but that's more of a hindrance than a help. Casual clothes and no make-up is best. Part Two HOW THEY MADE THE BIG TIME The time: One rainy Saturday afternoon. The place: A posh studio in Farringdon, Central London. The event: Shooting Select model agency's New Faces 'catalogue', which gets sent to advertising agencies and magazines (like Sugar), so that people know which models are available for fashion shoots, etc. We thought we'd tag along and find out just exactly how you get to become one of modelling's new faces! Emma, 17, from Richmond, Surrey Emma thought she'd wait till she finished her 'A' levels before trying modelling, but fate stepped in when Select spotted her outside a nightclub! 'It's her sultry, exotic beauty that we noticed', says Crissie, director of Select. Since then, Emma's put her studies on hold for a year (she plans to be a lawyer), but she still finds time to continue training for the Olympic swimming trials, alongside the modelling! Sam, 20, from Wiltshire Sam was doing a degree in Computer Science when her sister persuaded her to enter a Levi's modelling competition with her. Sam got through to the finals, screened on TV, and although she didn't win, Select were so impressed that they offered her a modelling contract. 'Everyone was so shocked because I was always the quiet one!' laughs Sam. 'Five months on, things have been going so well that I've given up my course. Modelling's very rewarding, but I often get home too late and tired to go out. JO, 19, from Cambridgeshire '1'd gone to a fashion show in Glasgow with some friends, and got spotted by a talent scout who told me to find myself an agency in London,' says Jo. 'I had absolutely no plans to be a model - people always said I was too skinny! Jo's fresh prettiness and personality get her plenty of work, especially in Sugar magazine. Living mainly on burgers (tsk!), she'd give the whole modelling thing up tomorrow if she had to change her diet, and still plans to study psychology and French at university later. Sharing a flat with Sam makes the modelling life more bearable. Hannah, 15, from Islington When Hannah was 13, her mum's friend took some pictures of her and sent them to Select. 'She has beautiful hair and skin and a classic, timeless model look, says Crissie. Life's been chaotic for Hannah, the star of Wella's Shaders and Toners ad, since she started modelling 18 months ago. 'It's difficult to fit the work in around school work, especially with my exams coming up. It's really weird to be on a shoot in Paris one day, then in a French class at school the next! C. Read about the four models and write a name in each space to show which model(s) each of the statements refers to.
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA She is a keen sportswoman She was first seen on television She wants to study a language She was encouraged by a member of her family She had planned to try modelling later She has postponed her studies She is combining work and study She was discovered by the Select Agency She hadn't thought of being a model She has appeared in a television commercial 0 1 2 3 4 5, 6 7 8 9 10 ___ Emma ____ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

D. Match each of these multi-word verbs from the text with its equivalent. One has been done for you as an example. 1 to get into 2 to make it 3 to get sorted 4 to get spotted 5 to be out and about 6 to tag along 7 to put on hold 8 to get through E. Find words in the text which mean: 1 person whose job is to find new models 2 something which makes things more difficult 3 photographic sessions 4 which never looks old-fashioned 5 very thin 6 very confused 7 very strange 8 something which makes things easier (Part One) (Part One) (Part Two) (Hannah) (Jo) (Hannah) (Hannah) (Jo) to organise (yourself) to postpone to follow to enter(a new career) to pass (a test) to be noticed to travel to succeed (finally)

Exercise 5.4 Here is a part of the reading text about Sandy Collyer. Fill in each of the numbered blanks with one word. When you have finished, turn to the beginning of this unit to check your answers. Sandy was (1) __________ up in Essex. (2)_________ A-levels, she worked 3) _________ banking and hated it. Then, encouraged (4) __________ a friend in retailing, she (5) __________ to work at Harrods. 'I did my training there. I was a buyer (6) ____________ eight years - bread, patisserie, cakes - before moving (7) _________ confectionery where I found my niche. She enjoyed the challenge, the fast turn-over. In 1987 she (8) ___________ to Marks &Spencer. Her basic responsibility is (9) _____________ develop new lines and she is (10) ____________ charge of both product (11) __________ packaging. This involves a (12) ________ of travel (13) _________

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Britain and on (14) __________ Continent, overseeing production, doing comparative shopping and (15) _________ food fairs. Exercise 5.5 Read this letter and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct and some have a word which should not be there. If a line is correct put a tick ( ). If the line has a word which should not be there, write down the word. There are two example lines at the beginning. Dear John Thank you very much for your letter, which arrived this morning. It was lovely to hear you all about your new job. I am now writing for to ask you a favour. A friend of mine, Melanie, she is living in England at the moment. Melanie is studying at a language school in London. Her course finishes only in two weeks, but she would like to stay on in England to do her First Certificate exam. Do you know anybody who might needs a babysitter or someone to help out with a housework? Melanie is free each day after lunch and at the every weekends too, and she really needs to earn some extra of money to pay for her new course. My friend Melanie is a very nice, nineteen-year-old girl from Holland. She has experience of looking after your children and has worked as an au pair in Canada. She has made her own flat so she certainly doesn't need help with finding some accommodation in London. I'm sure you can help because you can know so many people. Thanks a lot. Love, Jill. 0 ____ ____ 00 ____ you __ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15. _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

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Grammar Digest 5 Phrasal Modals and Modals of Necessity: have to/have got to, do not have to, must/must not, should FOCUS 1 EXPRESSING OBLIGATION, NECESSITY, AND PROHIBITION
Examples You must have a passport.
OR OR

explanations Must, have to and have got to show that something is necessary and obligatory. Should shows that something is a good idea. Do not have to shows that something is permitted but isnt necessary. Must not is used to show that something is prohibited and absolutely not permitted.

You have to have a passport. You have got to have a passport. You should bring a camera. You dont have to bring a lot of clothes. You must not (mustnt) bring any food on the plane.

Exercise 5.1 Underline the sentences that have the same meaning. 1. a. When you visit India, you should have a visa. b. When you visit India, you have to have a visa. c. When you visit India, you must have a visa. a. Mark wants to go to graduate school, so he has to get a good score in his exams. b. Mark wants to go to graduate school, so he has got to get a good score in his exams. c. Mark wants to go to graduate school, so he must get a good score in his exams. Exercise 5.2 Here are some general statements about travelling abroad. Indicate whether they are true or false. T F T F T F T T T T T T T T
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F F F F F F F F

1. Before leaving on a trip to another country, you should get a travel book with information about that country. 2. You shouldnt carry all of your money in cash, and you shouldnt put all your money in one place. 3. To enter some tropical countries, you mustnt have vaccination and other shots to protect against tropical diseases. 4. When you check in at the airport, you dont have to pay extra is you have too much luggage. 5. Youve got to pack you camera and passport in your suitcase. 6. During the flight, you mustnt smoke in the non-smoking section. 7. When travelling abroad, you must learn to say please and thank you in the local language. 8. To drive in foreign country you have to have a drivers license. 9. You should be able o carry all of your luggage by yourself. 10. When youre in a foreign city, you mustnt ask about neighbourhoods that you should avoid. 11. If youre lost and you see a police officer, you should ask her or him for help.

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FOCUS 2 MODALS AND PHRASAL MODALS OF NECESSITY


examples explanations I must go now and he must go Must is a modal and does not change in form to agree with the too subject. Have to and have got to are phrasal modals. They are different from I have to go now and he has to modals because they contain more than one word and end in to. Phrasal modals change in form to agree with the subject. go too. I must go. Modal: She must go. must I have to go. Phrasal modal: Statements: She has to go. have to I have (Ive) got to go. Phrasal modal: She has (Shes) got to go. have got to Must I go? Modal: Must she go? must Do I have to go? Phrasal modal: Questions: Does she have to go? have to Have I got to go? Phrasal modal: have got to Has she got to go? Exercise 5.3 Complete the following conversation with the correct form of must, have to, or have got to, as indicated. Where no modal is indicated, answer with the correct pronoun and the auxiliary do. The first one has bee done for you as an example. Claudia and Andrei, two foreign tourists, are renting a car. Theyre asking the agent about driving in the United States. Andrei: Agent: Andrei: Agent: Claudia: Agent: Andrei: Agent: Claudia: Agent: (1) Do I have to (I + have to) have a drivers license? Yes, (2) ____________________. What about Claudia? She has an international drivers license. (3) ____________________ (she + have to) get another license? No, (4) ____________________. Se can drive here with an international license. What about seat belts? (5) ____________________ (we + have to) wear seat belts? Yes, you (6) ____________________ (must) wear seat belts. Its the law in most states. What (7) ____________________ (we + have to) do with that thing in the front seat of the car? What thing? Oh, thats the litter basket. Its for litter: garbage, paper, and things that you want to throw away. Cant we just throw it out the window? No, you (8) ____________________ (must [negative]) throw it out the window. There is a $500 fine for littering! You (9) ____________________ (have got to) keep everything inside the car.
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA Andrei: Agent: Claudia: Agent: (10) ____________________ (we + have to) drive on the left side of the road the way they do it in England? No!! You (11) ____________________ (must [negative]) drive on the left. Stay on the right. Are there any other laws that we should know about? Well, if youre going to turn right or left, you (12) ____________________ (have to) use your turn signal. On the highway, you (13) ____________________ (must) follow the speed limit, and if youre driving more slowly than the other cars, you (14) ____________________ (have to) stay in the right lane. The left lane is for faster traffic. Obey the laws, or the police will stop you.

FOCUS 3 ADVICE vs. NECESSITY


examples When drivers see a stop sign, they must/have to/have got to stop. explanations Modals and phrasal modals have many different meanings. In the opposite example, it is necessary for the drivers to stop, or they will break the traffic law. In order to express necessity, we use the modal must, or the phrasal modals have to and have got to. When you see a bus station, The modal should is not as strong as must, have to, and have got to. you should slow down. Should shows that something is a good idea and expresses advice but not necessity. At this point you might want to return to Grammar Digest 4 and revise. Exercise 5.4 Decide which of the following are necessary to do if you want to get a drivers license. Make five statements with five of the pieces of information you have found necessary. know how to drive take an eye test have a medical examination pass a driving test study the legislation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. practice before the test take a written test own a car drive on the right side of the road wear sun glasses

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

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FOCUS 4 HAVE TO vs. HAVE GOT TO


examples explanations Generally, have to is more neutral than have got Joe has got to follow a very strict diet because he to. In other words, have got to is very strong; use have got to when you want to emphasize that you has a serious heart condition. feel something is very important and very necessary. Exercise 5.5 Observe the statements for each situation below. For each one, decide which you would use, have to or have got to. 1. Your sisters four-year-old son takes a nap every day and goes to bed at 8:00 every night. But today he didnt take a nap, and its now 10:00 pm. She says to her son, You ____________________ go to sleep now. The last time your friend went to the dentist was four years ago. He doesnt think he has any problems with his teeth, but he feels he should probably go to the dentist for a check-up. He says, I ____________________ make an appointment to see the dentist sometime soon. You havent been reading the assignments for your history class, and you did very badly on the first two quizzes. You are afraid that youll fail the course. You tell your classmate, I ____________________ study every day if I dont want to fail my history class. Your roommate is making dinner. She has just put a loaf of bread in the oven. Suddenly she realizes that she doesnt have an important item that she needs for desert. She says, I ____________________ go to the store. If Im not back in ten minutes, can you take the bread out of the oven? It ____________________ come out at 7:00.

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Exercise 5.6 Fill in the blanks below with the correct form of have to or have got to, whichever you think is more appropriate.
EXAMPLE:

Its time for my yearly check-up. I have to remember to call the doctors office sometime this month.

1. 2. 3.

I burned my finger while I was cooking. The first-aid book says that I ____________________ hold my finger under cold water. She spilled hot oil all over her leg and foot. John ____________________ take her to the emergency room, now! What ____________________ (Irene) do for her first-aid class? She ____________________ practice CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation).
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. His face is blue! We ____________________ check his throat to see what hes choking on. There are jellyfish in the area. The lifeguards telling Tommy that he ____________________ stay out of the water today. Did that little girl drown? She stopped breathing. The lifeguard ____________________ start mouth-to-mouth resuscitation as soon as possible. I cut my finger, and its bleeding a little. What should I do? The neighbour, whos nurse, says that you ____________________ wash the cut, and then put a bandage on it. Theres something in my eye again! Oh, Lee. You ____________________ stop wearing so much eye makeup. The children ____________________ get their vaccinations before school starts.

FOCUS 5 EXPRESSING PROHIBITION: MUST NOT/MUSTNT


examples You mustnt smoke in here. You must not have any more! explanations When you want to show that something is not permitted or is prohibited, you can use must not or the contracted form mustnt. Must not and mustnt are often used as a strong command in situations where the speaker definitely wants the listener to obey.

Exercise 5.7 Some children are at a swimming pool with their grandmother. The lifeguard is shouting at the children, but theyre not paying attention. Their grandmother is repeating the lifeguards instructions. In the spaces below, write what she says, using must not or mustnt.
EXAMPLE:

Walk! No running! You mustnt run OR You must not run!

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

No diving in the shallow water! _______________________________________________________________________ Youre not allowed to go in the deep water until you pass a swimming test. _______________________________________________________________________ Dont take beach balls in the water. _______________________________________________________________________ No pushing! _______________________________________________________________________ Get that radio away from the pool. No radios in the pool area! _______________________________________________________________________ Obey the rules! Stop breaking the rules! _______________________________________________________________________ Get that do out of here! No pets allowed! _______________________________________________________________________ No eating or drinking in the pool area! _______________________________________________________________________ Stop hitting that little boy! _______________________________________________________________________

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FOCUS 6 NECESSITY, NO NECESSITY, AND PROHIBITION Must, have to, and have got to vs. do not have to
examples If you want change, you must buy something. If you want change, you have to buy something. If you want change, you have got to buy something. If you want change, you dont have to buy anything. explanations Must, have to, and have got to show that it is necessary to do something. Do not have to shows that it is not necessary to do something.

Must not vs. do not have to


examples explanations You have to have a valid passport to travel overseas. You must do it and You have to do it have the same You must have a valid passport to travel meaning overseas. However, You must not do it and You do not have to do it do NOT have the same meaning. There arent any classes on Saturday, so you You do not have to do it means it is not necessary dont have to come to school. for you to do it. You mustnt smoke in the movie theatre. You must not do it means it is prohibited. Exercise 5.8 Peter is an athlete. Every week his coach gives him a different training schedule. Read his current schedule and complete the sentences below, using have to, do not have to, and must not.
TRAINING SCHEDULE

Necessary Not Necessary Prohibited 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Mon lift weights run drink coffee

Tue run 15 miles swim eat meat

Wed cycle 50 miles lift weights eat diary products

Thu rest and eat high-calorie food take a sauna exercise

Fri run 20 miles cycle drink milk

Peter has to ___________________________________________________ on Monday. He doesnt have to ________________________________________________________. He must not _____________________________________________________________. _____________________________________________________________. (drink milk) _________________________________________________________________. (swim) ____________________________________________________________. (run 20 miles) ________________________________________________________. (rest/take a sauna)
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA Now make your own sentences about Peters training schedule. Do not use information from sentences 1-7. 8. _______________________________________________________________________. 9. _______________________________________________________________________. 10. _______________________________________________________________________. Exercise 5.9 Look at the chart below on basic etiquette, and complete the sentences that follow it, using have to, have got to, dont have to, and must not. Necessary Not Necessary Prohibited Necessary Not Necessary Prohibited
EXAMPLE:

Personal Hygiene use deodorant wear clean clothes daily wear perfume, cologne use too much perfume, makeup Tipping leave the water/waitress a 15% tip tip bad waiter/waitress leave a tip in a fast-food restaurant tip government officials (e.g. police, customs)

Formal Introduction smile shake hands say Nice to meet you be very serious kiss, hug

Informal Introductions smile say Hello shake hands kiss, hug

Table Manners Clothing wait to eat until everyone is wear conservative served clothes in business / law / religious services accept offers of food wear conservative clothes in other situations make noise with mouth go barefoot (except at when eating the beach)

When you meet someone at a classmates party, you dont have to shake hands.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

When you meet people for the first time, you ____________________ kiss or hug them. To make a good impression at a job interview, you ____________________ dress conservatively, and you ____________________ put on too much perfume. A good sense of humour is widely appreciated. Even in business, a person ____________________ be formal and serious all the time. For satisfactory service in a restaurant, it is customary to leave a 15% tip; but if the service is poor, you ____________________ tip the waiter. In order to be accepted in society, you ____________________ take a bath every day and use deodorant. You ____________________ go barefoot to a church, mosque, synagogue, or temple. A business executive ____________________ shake hands when he meets someone for the first time. On most college and university campuses, a student ____________________ dress up for classes; in fact its very casual. Direct eye contact is important for most people. You ____________________ look at them directly and smile when you meet them, or they might think youre dishonest.

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FOCUS 7 TALKING ABOUT THE PAST: HAVE TO and MUST


examples He has to exercise everyday, but he doesnt have to swim. He had to exercise last week, but he didnt have to swim. Present We have to go. We must go. Past We had to go. explanations When you refer to regular habits, you use the present tense. To talk about the past, change have and has to had. There is no past tense form of must when it is used to express necessity. When you want to express necessity in the past, use have to. Do not use must to talk about past necessity.

Exercise 5.10 Maggie is telling her friend John about a terrible job she had last year. Complete their conversation with must, have to, and do not have to in the present or in the past, as appropriate. Maggie: John: Maggie: John: Maggie: John: Maggie: John: Maggie: John: Maggie: John: Maggie: John: Maggie: John: My worst job was when I worked is a waitress last summer. What was so terrible about it? First, I (1) ____________________ get up at 5:00 am. Did you drive to work? No. I didnt have a car then, so I (2) ____________________ walk two miles. What time (3) ____________________ be at the restaurant? 6:00. 6:00. How awful! Did you wear a uniform? No, we (4) ____________________ wear a special uniform or anything, but the work was really hard. What about the present job? Oh, I love my present job. You see, I start work at 11:00 a.m., so I (5) ____________________ get up early, and the people are really nice. (6) ____________________ work on weekends? No, I (7) ____________________ work on weekends, but thats not so good. Why? My boyfriend (8) ____________________ work on weekends, so I never see him. Thats no problem find a new boyfriend!

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FOCUS 8 TALKING ABOUT THE FUTURE: MUST and HAVE TO


examples We will (well) have to repaint the house in a couple of years. We will not (wont) have to paint the house again in a couple of years. We must go to the bank tomorrow. You must not/mustnt park here tomorrow. I must call him next week. NOT: I will must call him next week. explanations To talk about necessity in the future, use will (not) before have to. You can also use must to talk about future necessity or prohibition. Do NOT use will with must.

Exercise 5.11 Complete the following, using will have to and wont have to in the appropriate places. Some people are pessimistic about life in the future because it will be necessary to do many different things. They think that we (1) ____________________ (change) our habits. For example, to protect the environment, we (2) ____________________ (develop) materials that do not cause pollution. In addition, we (3) ____________________ (drive) less, and we (4) ____________________ (try) to develop different methods of transportation. If we continue to use the automobile as much as we do today, in the future we (5) ____________________ (wear) oxygen masks to protect us from the polluted air. However, people are optimistic about the future because they think it wont be necessary to do many of the things we have to do today. For example, we (6) ____________________ (leave) home to shop because we will buy everything by computer. Furthermore, we (7) ____________________ (work) every day and also, we (8) ____________________ (cook) because we will use pills instead of food. future. 1. 2. 3. Add 3 other ideas of your own about things we will have to do or we will not have to do in the _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Exercise 5.12 Read the conversations below and complete the missing parts. Ann has just finished talking on the phone with Tom. When she hangs up the phone, her friend Bill wants to know about their conversation. Bill: Ann: Bill: Ann: You sound worried. Is Tom having problems? Toms landlord sold the apartment house, so Tom (1) ____________________ find another place to live. Oh, thats too bad. When (2) ____________________ (he) move out of his apartment? I think he (3) ____________________ move out by the end of the month.
CONVERSATION A

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Emily, a five-year-old, is playing in the street. Her mother, who is watching from the house, suddenly runs out to her. A big car zooms by. Emilys mother: Emily! You (4) ____________________ be more careful! Dont cross the street without looking for cars! Emily: But I didnt see the car! Emilys mother: You (5) ____________________ look in both directions before you cross the street. Outside the classroom, you hear a conversation between your teacher and Vlad, one of your classmates. Teacher: Vlad, Im afraid this is the last time Im going to tell you this. You (6) ____________________ hand in your homework on time. Vlad: I know, I know. But ... Teacher: No more excuses! You really (7) ____________________ try to keep up with the class if you want to pass.
CONVERSATION D CONVERSATION C

CONVERSATION B

Ron: Marion: Ron:

Its the end of the school year. Ron and Marion have just had their last class of the term. Its vacation time at last! We (8) ____________________ work for two months! Not me. My grades were very bad, so I (9) ____________________ study all through the summer. I know how that feels. I failed physics two years ago, and I (10) ____________________ read physics books all summer and my friends just went to the beach every day. They (11) ____________________ study at all.

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Reading Digest 6 Our World

Exercise 6.1 Think about the advantages and disadvantage of each of the following solutions to the problem of air pollution. Think about a big city in your country, or a city like London or Athens. 1 Increase tax on petrol. 2 Limit each family to one car. 3 Close the city centre to traffic. 4 Improve the bus services. Exercise 6.2 A. Read the article and underline the parts where these questions are answered: 1 What do the masks do? 2 Who is already using them? 3 Who should be wearing them? 4 What does the BLF predict? 5 Who is thinking about using masks? 6 Who doesn't the mask work for? 7 Who thinks the mask is not the solution? 8 What other solution is proposed? 5 Create special roads for bicycles. 6 Build underground railways. 7 Build bigger car parks. 8 Use electric cars.

Are you safe to go out without a smog mask?


by Cathy Scott-Clark Pollution at danger levels, say experts. SMOG masks which filter toxic gases out of the air we breathe could soon be a common sight on city streets, air pollution experts say. Space-age masks are already a frequent accessory for cyclists. But, with toxic ozone levels now rising at an alarming rate, experts say pedestrians should be wearing them too. The Clean Air Act of 1956 that followed the deaths of 4,000 people due to a London pea-soup smog has almost wiped out emissions of deadly sulphur dioxide. But concern is mounting over invisible "ozone smog", a poisonous cocktail created when car fumes such as nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide are heated by sunlight. Last week the British Lung Foundation (BLF) predicted that London could become as polluted as Los Angeles and Athens within 15 years. Dr Malcolm Green, BLF chairman, said if the current pollution levels continued, all city dwellers, who were outside for 20 minutes or more, would have to wear masks. Traffic wardens, cyclists, messengers and transport police should be wearing them already, he warns, particularly those prone to chest infections, asthma or bronchitis. "The reduction of air pollution must be our first priority, but this takes time. Masks are a sensible way of protecting the lungs." A Metropolitan Police spokeswoman confirmed that smog masks for officers and traffic wardens in London are now being considered.
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But Liz Marriot of the London Cycles Campaign says their use is limited. "Unless a mask makes a perfect seal on your face, it doesn't work. Where does that leave men with beards, people who wear glasses or someone with a big nose?" Curbed Friends of the Earth air pollution experts say wearing of masks is not a long-term solution. "Nobody wants a world in which people have to wear masks in the street," says campaigner Fiona Weir. "This is a new generation of pollution. Numbers of vehicles are constantly rising and ozone pollution is rising very, very rapidly car usage has to be curbed." Government success at ending the Fifties pea-soupers has led to complacency at the growing danger of toxic vehicle fumes which make up ozone, she claims. FoE is concerned that toxic ozone levels in Britain now regularly exceed World Health Organisation safety guidelines. B. Find words which mean: 1 poisonous 2 frightening 3 a mixture 4 part of the body (organ) 5 likely to suffer from 6 most important thing 7 where nothing can pass 8 reduced

C. For each of the following questions choose the best answer, A, B, C or D. 1 What does Dr Malcolm Green think? A London has as much air pollution as Athens. B Smog masks solve the problem of air pollution. C People working outside should wear a mask in London. D A mask is necessary after twenty minutes in London. 2 Why does Liz Marriot have doubts about the masks? A They do not work so well for cyclists. B The number of cars is always rising. C The masks do not fit everyone perfectly. D The masks do not work over a long time. 3 What do Friends of the Earth think? A People cannot be forced to wear masks. B World Health Organisation levels are too low. C A new generation of cleaner vehicles is needed. D People must use their cars less. VOCABULARY Prepositions Exercise 6.3 Put a preposition in each of the numbered spaces. Recently, the authorities (1) ____________ Athens were forced (2) ______________ ban all cars (3) __________ the city centre (4) __________ one day because (5) _________ the levels of air pollution.
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA Meanwhile, (6) ___________ California, a law has been passed saying that no car manufacturer will be allowed (7) ___________ sell cars (8) ___________ the state after 2008, unless (9) ___________ least two percent (10) _________ its sales are in Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs). This percentage will rise (11) __________ ten percent (12) _________ subsequent years. The only true ZEVs are electrically-powered cars that run (13) ____________ batteries and most car manufacturers are now working (14) ___________ electric models. Other US states have followed California's example which suggests that the electric car may be the car (15) _____________ the future. Exercise 6.4 A. Read the article and circle: a) 3 words connected with water b) 2 types of shop c) 3 illnesses d) 3 things made from wood e) 3 industries f) 3 ways in which people have been killed

Why we must fight the destruction

When rainforests are cleared and burned millions of tonnes of carbon dioxide are released into the atmosphere affecting climatic conditions and threatening us all with severe flooding, drought and crop failure. The rainforests contain at least half of the Earth's species. At the current rate of devastation an estimated 50 species worldwide become extinct every day. One in four purchases from your chemist is derived from the rainforests. Scientists are currently caught in a race against time to find rainforest treatments for cancer, AIDS and heart disease - before they are lost forever. Tribal people in the rainforests have been shot, poisoned and infected with disease to which they have no resistance - to make room for logging, mining and dams. If this destruction continues only nine of the 33 countries currently exporting rainforest timber will have any left by the end of the decade. Almost everyone will have part of the rainforests in their home, as DIY stores still supply and the construction industry still uses tropical hardwoods for doors, window frames and even toilet seats. What Friends of the Earth has done Friends of the Earth's Tropical Rainforest Campaign has been fighting to save the rainforests for ten years. In that time, we've achieved a great deal. We've forced the British Government - and even timber trade organisations themselves - to acknowledge just how short-sighted the devastation is. We have persuaded major international companies to stop industrial activities that harm the rainforests. And by mobilising consumer pressure, we have helped reduce imports of tropical timber into the UK by nearly a third. Please help us save the tropical rainforests now, before it's too late, There's still a lot more to do. With your help, we can build on our success.

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B. Match the words on the left with the definitions on the right. Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 timber 2 species 3 crops 4 decade 5 currently 6 a purchase a) plants grown for food b) wood used for making things c) something you buy d) a family of plants or animals e) a period of ten years f) at the moment

Exercise 6.5 Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the beginning (0).

The End of the dinosaurs

About 66 million years (0) __ ago ____ , seventy percent of all living creatures including the dinosaurs are (1) ____________ to have disappeared (2) ___________ the surface of the Earth. Scientists believe that this may (3) _________ been caused by a natural disaster on a very large scale. One possible explanation is (4) _________ the earth was (5) __________ by an enormous asteroid about six miles in diameter as it travelled through space. Side effects of this disaster could have been the destruction of (6) _________ ozone layer, acid rain, global warming and the pollution of the atmosphere (7) ___________ dust which blocked out the sun. Either one or a combination of these effects could have (8) __________ to the disappearance of the various species. Scientists are (9) ____________ searching for the site of the crater (10) ____________ the asteroid must have (11) __________ . This may be buried (12) ___________ more recent rocks, or be lost somewhere on the seabed. Wherever (13) __________ is, it seems probable that the dinosaurs died out (14) __________ a result of an environmental disaster lasting only a (15) __________ years. Exercise 6.6 A. You are going to read a newspaper article about a natural disaster. Choose from the sentences A-I the one which fits each gap 1-7. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0). A This in turn led to an explosion of violence which reduced the food supplies still further. B This gave them the false confidence that they could survive the much longer one which destroyed them. C But the colonists refused to change their social system. D History is not man-made, it is the planet itself which shapes our destiny. E But none of this would have produced a revolution if the country had not been faced with famine. F Instead of improving their agriculture, their rulers fought endless wars to win more land. G This led to a massive lowering of temperature for several years. H An intelligent civilisation will be safe from any but the most severe climatic change. I This in turn, produced two decades of war and, indirectly, two centuries of conflict in Europe.

Revolution that erupted from two volcanoes


Can a volcanic eruption on the other side of the world affect politics? According to two French volcanologists the answer is yes. Despite a distance of thousands of kilometres and a gap of six years,
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA they say that in 1783 eruptions of a volcano in central Japan and another in southern Iceland, helped set off the French Revolution. 0 1 Like the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in 1991, these eruptions blew large amounts of sulphurous ash into the atmosphere, partly blocking the sun's rays and temporarily cooling the climate. France in 1789 was already bankrupt because of a long war in America. The government was threatened by a plot to organise riots financed by an ambitious aristocrat who wanted to become king. 1 The result of the eruptions was several years of cold, wet weather in Europe. Two violent storms in 1788 and 1789 destroyed the harvest in many parts of the country, and the resulting shortage of corn was made worse by the Finance Minister's refusal to import corn from abroad on the grounds that the state could not afford it. 2 When the people of France saw wagons full of corn go through their village streets they said, There is plenty of corn, but not for us: it's for the king, the aristocrats, the rich who have plenty to eat while we go hungry.' And then the maddened people would throw the sacks of corn into the nearest river. Another volcanic eruption - in Indonesia in April 1815 - may have helped cause Napoleon's defeat at the battle of Waterloo. 3 1816 was called the `year without a summer'. Torrential rains marked the beginning of the Waterloo campaign, creating deep mud which for many hours prevented Napoleon from moving his big guns. The French revolution is one of many examples where a change of climate was the final blow to an already threatened society. The Little Ice Age, which started about AD 1400, threatened the Scandinavian colony in Greenland. 4 They might have survived if, instead of sticking to their aristocratic society, they had moved from farming to hunting, like the Eskimos who replaced them. At about the same period the great civilisation of the Mayas in Yucatan faced ever worsening droughts. 5 This had the opposite effect to that intended, since forcing people into the army meant they had to leave their land. The Bronze Age empire of Mesopotamia also collapsed from drought about 3000 years ago. People successfully survived two fairly short periods of drought. 6 What lessons can be drawn for the future? 7 The exceptionally violent eruption of Krakatoa in 1883, for example, caused no social disasters. Only societies which behave stupidly will fail when nature turns bad. B. Find words or phrases in the text which mean: someone who studies volcanoes for a short time financially ruined lived through a difficult period for the reason that made angry very heavy rain

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Exercise 6.7 Read the text below and decide which word A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0).

The Car of the future

A French company has recently published (0) ____ plans ____ for a revolutionary car of the future which will (1) __________ the nature of inner-city transport. The car of the future will (2) ___________ the good points of private and public transport, giving users the advantages of a private car, (3)_________ the cost of purchase or (4) __________ . The car will be (5) _________ by users on a pay-as-you-go basis. Drivers will simply (6) _________ up the a car at a special station, (7) _________ to a taxi-rank, and leave it at another station, (8) ________ for their destination. Here it will be cleaned ready for the next user. The electronically-powered car will be about half the length of (9) ________ mini cars and will improve traffic flow and (10) ___________ pollution in crowded cities. At present, most cars in towns (11) __________ only one person who spends most of his or her time looking for a parking (12) ____________ . A magic key personal remote control opens the car and contains the (13) __________ information to enable the car user's (14) ___________ to be prepared. In the car the magic key also works to programme the mobile phone, radio and heating (15) _________ to the driver's preference. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A plans A turn A conduct A without A maintenance A paid A take A just A convenient A nowadays A slice A bring A stop A necessary A receipt A service B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B programmes change concern lacking conservation let pick like useful current smash carry place needed bill system C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C projects switch connect short preservation hired lift same nearby already chop fetch point needful charge section D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D plots exchange combine subtracting protection lent put similar close actual cut drive site necessity cheque structure

Exercise 6.8 Read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. See the example at the beginning (0).

Lucky escape

Susan Hill was (0) ___ unaware ____ as she carried her handbag around for more than two months that it contained a bomb (1) ________ there before she bought the bag. The bomb was (2) _______ planted by animal rights (3) ________ in August when there were several minor

AWARE HIDE PROBABLE TERROR


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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA (4) ________ in local shops caused by fire bombs placed in leather bags. Susan (5) ________ the bag in October and used it (6) ___________ for two months. She only found the bomb when she was (7) _________ her bag after a Christmas shopping trip. She thought she had (8) ________ one of the gifts she had bought and after (9) __________ the side pocket for the first time, she (10) _________ the cassette-sized device inside. The police said that if it had gone off it could have caused a lot of damage and Susan could have been seriously injured. EXPLODE BUY REGULAR PACK LOSE ZIP COVER

Grammar Digest 6 Making Offers Requests and Permission: Can/Could, Will/Would, May FOCUS 1 HOW TO MAKE OFFERS Different ways to make offers
Examples Would you like some more coffee? Would you like to sit down? Would you like me to open the window? explanations Would you like + noun phrase There are several ways to Would you like + verb phrase make offers with Would Would you like me to + verb you like ? phrase Would you like Sally to open the This form is also useful window? when you make an offer Would you like (person) to + verb phrase Would you like someone to open the about someone else window? Exercise 6.1 Pierre has just become the new assistant manager of the Dew Drop Inn Caf. He is trying to make the atmosphere a little more polite and sophisticated, so he is listening to how the waitresses talk to the customers. Read the dialogue between Wanda, the waitress, and her customers, Phil and Emily. Then rewrite the dialogue using more polite forms. Wanda: Good morning. Where do you want to sit? Do you want a table by the window? Phil: Yes, that would be fine. Wanda: Do you want some coffee? Phil: Yes, please, two coffees. Wanda: Sugar or cream in that coffee? Emily: Sugar for me, please. Wanda: Theres your coffee. Do you want to order now? Phil: Yes, I guess we do. Wanda: What do you want?
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Emily: Ill have eggs and French toast. Wanda: How do you want your eggs? Emily: Fried, but not too well done. Wanda: Do you want me to tell the cook to make them over easy? Emily: Yes, please. Wanda: And you, Sir? Do you want eggs too? Phil: Yes, Ill have the cheese omelette. Wanda: Do you want anything else? Phil: Yes, some orange juice. Wanda: Heres your breakfast. Do you want some ketchup for those hash browns? Phil: Yes, please. Wanda: Do you want anything else? Phil: Just the check, please. Now rewrite the dialogue using more polite forms. Wanda: 1. ________________________________________________________________ Phil: Yes, that would be fine. Wanda: 2. ________________________________________________________________ Phil: Yes, please, two coffees. Wanda: 3. ________________________________________________________________ Emily: Sugar for me, please. Wanda: 4. ________________________________________________________________ Phil: Yes, I guess we do. Wanda: 5. ________________________________________________________________ Emily: Ill have eggs and French toast. Wanda: 6. ________________________________________________________________ Emily: Fried, but not too well done. Wanda: 7. ________________________________________________________________ Emily: Yes, please. Wanda: 8. ________________________________________________________________ Phil: Yes, Ill have the cheese omelette. Wanda: 9. ________________________________________________________________ Phil: Yes, some orange juice. Wanda: 10. _______________________________________________________________ Phil: Yes, please. Wanda: 11. _______________________________________________________________ Phil: Just the check, please.

Would you like ? vs. Do you want ?


examples Would you like a cup of tea? is more polite than Do you want a cup of tea Do you want me to help you with your homework? is more informal than Would you like me to help you with your homework? explanations Would you like ? is a polite way of asking Do you want .?. (Do you) want ? is an informal way of making an offer. Usually it is used with close friends and family.
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA Exercise 6.2 Change the following commands and questions into polite offers. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Come in. Sit down. Give me your coat. Want a chair? Let me get you an ashtray. Something to drink? Cream in your coffee? Want me to open that window for you? More coffee? ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Exercise 6.3 Read the descriptions of Mark and Cleopatras first date and another date a year later. Write out their dialogue using would you like or do you want, as appropriate. Marc Anthonys first line has been written for you as an example.
FIRST DATE

1. 3. 5.

Mark asks Cleopatra for a date 2. asks Cleopatra what kind of restaurant she 4. wants to go to asks what movie Cleopatra wants to see. 6.

Cleopatra accepts the offer says she prefers French or Italian tells him which movie she wants to see

Mark: Cleopatra: Mark: Cleopatra: Mark: Cleopatra:

(1) Would you like to go out with me this weekend? (2) _________________________________________________________ (3) _________________________________________________________ (4) _________________________________________________________ (5) _________________________________________________________ (6) _________________________________________________________
ONE YEAR LATER

7. 9. 11.

Mark asks Cleopatra if she wants to stay home and 8. watch the football game asks if she wants to order out for pizza 10. asks her if she wants to go bowling and eat at 12. the bowling alley instead

Cleopatra says she prefers to go country-western dancing says she prefers to eat Chinese food accepts

Mark: Cleopatra: Mark: Cleopatra: Mark: Cleopatra:

(7) _________________________________________________________ (8) _________________________________________________________ (9) _________________________________________________________ (10) ________________________________________________________ (11) ________________________________________________________ (12) ________________________________________________________

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FOCUS 2 POLITELY ACCEPTING AND REFUSING OFFERS


examples Offer Would you like something to drink? Offer Would you like me to help you? Offer Would you like some coffee? Polite acceptance Yes, please. Yes + appreciation Yes, please. Thats very nice/kind of you. explanations Using please along with yes is a polite way of accepting an offer. Extra phrases that show that you appreciate the offer make your acceptance sound even more polite. But this is not always necessary in informal situations. Using thank you or thanks along with no is a polite way of refusing an offer.

Polite refusal No, thank you. No, thanks. Offer Refusal + reason Polite refusals can also include a Would you like some coffee? No, thank you. Ive had enough. reason why the offer cannot be Would you like me to help you? No, thanks. Thats very nice of accepted. you, but I can manage.

Exercise 6.4 Look at the following responses. What was the offer that was probably made? Write it down in the blank. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Offer: __________________________________________________________________ Response: No, thanks. Ive had enough. Offer: __________________________________________________________________ Response: Yes, please. Its delicious. Offer: __________________________________________________________________ Response: Oh, no, thank you. Ive seen it already. Offer: __________________________________________________________________ Response: No, thanks. Im warm enough. Offer: __________________________________________________________________ Response: Yes, please. Its very heavy. Offer: __________________________________________________________________ Response: Thanks, Id love to. That sounds great. Offer: __________________________________________________________________ Response: Thanks, but Ive already got one of my own.

Exercise 6.5 For each of the following situations, write a short dialogue in which one person makes a polite offer (using Would like) and the other person either politely accepts or politely refuses the offer. 1. The English teacher, at the front of the classroom, is ready to show a video in class today. The switch to run the video player is right by Mike, at the back of the room.
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA Mike says: _____________________________________________________________ The instructor says: _______________________________________________________ The dinner at Mrs. Blacks home is almost finished. Mrs. Black notices that some of the guests ate their dessert cherry pie very quickly, and she thinks they might want another piece. Mrs. Black says: _________________________________________________________ A guest says: ____________________________________________________________ Alfredo has a seat at the front of the city bus. He notices that an old woman has just gotten on, but there are no more seats left. Alfredo says: ____________________________________________________________ The old woman says: ______________________________________________________ As Mary is about to leave for the post office, she sees that there are several envelopes on the desk, stamped and addressed by her roommate Judith. May says: _______________________________________________________________ Judith says: ______________________________________________________________ Just as Thomas starts to drive away to work, he sees that his neighbour Rob is walking down the sidewalk to the bus stop. Thomas knows that Robs office is not far from where he works. Thomas says: ____________________________________________________________ Rob says: _______________________________________________________________

2.

3.

4.

5.

FOCUS 3 REQUESTS AND PERMISSION: CAN/COULD, WILL/WOULD, MAY


Task. You are about to start house-sitting for a friend of yours. Your friend has left you a note with instructions about what to do while she is gone. Unfortunately, someone has spilled coffee on the note, and now it is difficult to read. Try to find the missing parts of the note from the choices below. Im glad youll be here to watch the house while Im gone! My neighbours think that this neighbourhood is not completely safe at night, so (A).................................................... The cats eat twice a day, (B)................................................................................................... I dont want them to stay out at night, so (C).......................................................................... The plants need to be watered twice a week. (D).................................................................... I left some bills to mail on the kitchen table. (E)..................................................................... My cousin from out of town said that he would call this week. (F)......................................... The rent check is on the kitchen table. Its due at the end of the week. (G)............................. I told the landlord about the broken light in the bathroom. If he calls, (H).............................. Thanks for everything, (I)................................................... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
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could you ask him to fix it as soon as possible? remember to lock the windows and doors when it gets dark. Thanks. so will you please give them water on Tuesday and Friday? See you next week! Would you mind mailing them for me tomorrow morning? please make sure they come in around 8:00. Would you take a message and tell him Ill be back on the 29th?

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8. 9.

so could you feed them in the morning and at night? Please mail it before Friday.

Making polite requests


examples explanations Questions using the modals can, could, will and would are ways of making polite requests. If you really want someone to say "yes" to a request, it is important to make the request polite. The modals could and would are more polite than the I left my notes at home. Could you please modals can and will. lend me yours? Providing some good background or reason for why you are making the request and using please are also ways to make requests sound more polite. In questions, please usually comes between the subject you and the verb. Could you please lend me your notes? I The reason for making the request can also come after the left mine at home. question Another way to make a polite request is to use the phrase Would you mind lending me your notes? Would you mind + verb + -ing. Exercise 6.6 Below are some situations in which requests are commonly made. For each situation, make a request using can, could, will, would, or please, as appropriate.
EXAMPLE:

Youre driving to a party with a friend. Youre not sure exactly where the party is, but you have a map in the glove compartment. You say to your friend: Would you please look for a city map in the glove compartment? Im not exactly sure where the party is.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Youre not sure which bus goes to the beach. You see a man waiting at the bus stop. You say: ________________________________________________________________________ After you find out which bus to take, you want to know how often it stops here. You turn to the man again and say: ________________________________________________________________________ When you come home from shopping, your arms are full of groceries. You see your neighbour standing next to the front door of your apartment building. You say: ________________________________________________________________________ You have to be at work a half hour early tomorrow. Your husband/wife always gets up before you and wakes you up. You say to him or her: ________________________________________________________________________ You are looking for your seats in a theatre. You know your seats are in the balcony, but youre not sure how to get there. You see an usher and you say: ________________________________________________________________________ Youve invited a friend to go on a picnic. You know she has a daughter the same age as your daughter. You want her to bring her daughter along. You say: ________________________________________________________________________ Its your turn to pick up the kids after soccer practice, but you have some work to finish at the office before you go home. You call up your spouse and say: ________________________________________________________________________

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 8. 9. Youre giving a dinner party. Suddenly you realize you are out of eggs and you need eggs for your dessert. You call u your neighbour and say: ________________________________________________________________________ Youre trying to find the immigration building. You know its nearby. You go up to a friendly looking woman and say: ________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 6.7 Below are some situations in which requests are commonly made. For each situation, make a polite request. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. You want to know what time it is. You find someone who is wearing a watch and you say: _______________________________________________________________________? When you pay for your groceries at the supermarket, you remember that you need some change. You hand the cashier a dollar and you say: _______________________________________________________________________? You have been waiting in line at the bank for 15 minutes, but you need to get a drink of water. You turn to the friendly-looking person standing behind you in line, and you say: _______________________________________________________________________? You are watching a movie in a theatre. The person in front of you is in the way. You want him or her to his or her position a little. You say: _______________________________________________________________________? Your teacher just showed the class a videotape. It is finished; your classroom is dark. Your instructor wants the student who is sitting near the light switch to turn on the lights, so she or he says: _______________________________________________________________________? There is a lot of noise outside your classroom. The teacher wants the student who is sitting near the door to close it, so she or he says: _______________________________________________________________________? A classmate is giving a presentation, but she is speaking very softly. You cannot hear her. You say: _______________________________________________________________________?

6. 7.

Making polite refusals


examples Request Can you lend me your notes? explanations Softening phrase + Reason Im sorry, but I need them to study for the test. OR: Im afraid I didnt take any notes. OR: Id like to, but I left mine at home too. If you need to refuse a request, the refusal is more polite when: 1) you say why you have to refuse the request, and 2) you use a softening phrase.

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Exercise 6.8 The following are some of the requests that Aunt Esther made, but Caro refused. Complete the following dialogue with a softening phrase and a reason. The first one has been done for you as an example. Aunt Esther: Caro: Aunt Esther: Caro: Aunt Esther: Caro: Aunt Esther: Caro: Aunt Esther: Caro: Aunt Esther: Caro: Aunt Esther: Caro: Aunt Esther: Caro: Aunt Esther: Caro: Oh, hello, dear. Im so glad to see you. Could you please set the table for me? Im running a little late. Im sorry, I cant. I dont know where the dishes are. Well, can you set the table while I stir the soup then? (1) _______________________________________________________________ I need a serving dish for the broiled eel. Will you get me that long thin platter? (2) _______________________________________________________________ Oh, Ive left the salt in the kitchen. Would you please get it for me? I really dont like fish without salt. (3) _______________________________________________________________ Would you please cut up the cactus for the kids, dear? (4) _______________________________________________________________ Can you lend me your fork, please? Ive dropped mine on the floor. (5) _______________________________________________________________ Well, dear, you didnt eat very much tonight. I suppose youre on a diet. Could you please bring me the chocolate fudge for dessert? (6) _______________________________________________________________ Well, will you help me with the dishes? (7) _______________________________________________________________ Im sorry you have to go so soon. Could you stay a little longer? (8) _______________________________________________________________

Responding to requests examples Request Can you lend me your notes? Can/Could you lend me your notes? Will/Would you lend me your notes? explanations Verbal Response Sure. You bet. Yeah, no problem. Id be glad to. Yes, I can. NOT: Yes, I could. Yes, I will. NOT: Yes, I would. To respond informally to requests, short answers are acceptable.

Could and would are usually not used in response to requests.

Exercise 6.9 Make polite requests for the following situations. Use can, could, will, would, or would you mind in these requests. What is the response? How is the request politely accepted or refused? 1. You have a toothache. Your dentist asks you to sit back in the chair, open your mouth, and point to the tooth that hurts. The dentist says: _______________________________________________________________________? What do you do or say? _______________________________________________________________________?
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 2. Your friend is helping you hang a picture on your wall. He is holding it up while you decide where it should go. You say: _______________________________________________________________________? What does your friend do or say? _______________________________________________________________________? At your first exercise class, the instructor asks you to use the wall to get your spine in a straight position. The instructor says: _______________________________________________________________________? What do you do or say? _______________________________________________________________________? Theres a place on your back that suddenly begins to itch. You ask your close friend to scratch it . You say: _______________________________________________________________________? What does your friend do or say? _______________________________________________________________________? But your friend is not quite getting the right place. So you say: _______________________________________________________________________? You are at a restaurant, and the people at the next table are smoking. You want them to stop, so you say: _______________________________________________________________________? What do they do or say? _______________________________________________________________________?

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Exercise 6.10 Hanna, a flight attendant, is on a flight with the Polite family. Mr. and Mrs. Polite and Peter and Polly Polite are always making requests of Hanna. Write Hannas positive responses to the Polite familys requests. Mrs. Polite Could you get me a pillow? Would you bring me some more sugar for my coffee, please? Can you show me where the bathrooms are? Mr. Polite Could I have another drink? Will you take away my food tray? Could you bring me a newspaper, please? Would you tell me where to catch my connecting flight to Boston? Peter Polite Could I have a deck of cards, please?
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Hanna 1. ______________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________ 4. ______________________________________________ 5. ______________________________________________ 6. ______________________________________________ 7. ______________________________________________

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Would you get me a blanket? Polly Polite Could I please have a Glamour magazine? Will you turn down the air? Its blowing my hair. Would you get me some earphones?

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10. _____________________________________________ 11. _____________________________________________ 12. _____________________________________________

Exercise 6.11 Place the following questions in the chart below, writing the number of each sentence in the appropriate box. The first one has been done for you. Something the speaker wants to do (request for permission) 1. Something the speaker wants somebody else to do (general request)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Could I smoke? Can you open the window? May I ask a question? Could you speak more slowly? Would you mind lending me your dictionary? Can I drive early? Would you tell me the answer? May we swim in your pool? Could you show us how to do it? Could I borrow your knife? Would you mind if I handed in my assignment a day late? Asking for permission

examples

Could I leave early? Can I smoke in here? May I ask a question?

Is it alright if I do this?

Would you mind in I asked you a question?

explanations When you want somebody to do something, you can make a request. When you want to do something, and you want to find out if it is permitted or allowed, you can request permission. In formal situations, may or could are used in questions to request permission. If the speaker thinks that the listener has a lot of authority or power, she or he uses may or could. As with requests, can is used in informal situations to ask for permission. If the speaker and the listener know each other well and / or have an equal amount of power, can is used. You can also politely ask for permission using Would you mind + if + simple past tense.
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA Exercise 6.12 Below are some situations in which permission is commonly asked. For each situation ask for permission using could, can, may, or would you mind if, as appropriate.
EXAMPLE:

You get a chance to meet your favourite singer. Ask for permission to take her picture. Would you mind if I took your picture?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

A young girl wants to spend the night at a friends house this weekend. She asks her mother for permission. ________________________________________________________________________ Gus is at a formal dinner party and needs to leave the table for a minute. He asks the hostess for permission. ________________________________________________________________________ You are at a friends house. You would like to smoke, but youre not sure if it is allowed, Ask permission to smoke. ________________________________________________________________________ Youve got a friend from Japan coming to visit. Youd like your friend to see what an American school is like. Ask permission form your teacher to bring your friend to school. ________________________________________________________________________ Your community organization is having a special summer program for children. Ask the owner of bakery for permission to put one of your posters about the program in the shop window. ________________________________________________________________________ You have a doctors appointment at 4:00. Ask your boss for permission to leave work early. ________________________________________________________________________ Your classroom is getting a little hot and stuffy. Ask your teacher for permission to open the window. ________________________________________________________________________ You find an interesting magazine at the library. Youre not sure of you can check out magazines. Ask the librarian for permission to check it out. ________________________________________________________________________ You park your car by an office building. You are not sure if parking is permitted. Ask the security guard for permission to park there. ________________________________________________________________________ Exercise 6.13 For each answer, what was probably the question?

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Question: _______________________________________________________________? Teacher to student: No, Id like you to hand it in on Friday. I announced the due date two weeks ago, so Im afraid I wont be able to make any exceptions. Question: _______________________________________________________________? Friend to friend: Sure, it is a little cold in here. Question: _______________________________________________________________? Lecturer to member of the audience: Sorry, but Im going to have to ask you to hold your questions until the end of my talk. Well have 15 minutes for questions.

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Question: _______________________________________________________________? Secretary (on phone): Yes, may I tell him whos calling? Question: _______________________________________________________________? 12-year-old kid (on phone): Yeah, just a moment, Ill get him. Question: _______________________________________________________________? Mother (to child): OK, you can have one more. But only one, because were going to eat soon and I dont want you to spoil your appetite. Question: _______________________________________________________________? Hostess to guest: Oh, of course, please help yourself. Im glad you like them. Question: _______________________________________________________________? Customer to salesperson: Yes, I want to look at the sweaters that are on sale. The ones that were advertised in the newspaper?

7. 8.

Responding to requests for permission


examples explanations Sure. OK. As with responses to requests, you can answer Yeah. requests for permission with short, positive Of course. phrases. No problem. If you need to refuse a request for permission, the refusal is more polite when you say why you have to refuse the request, and you use a "softening" phrase such as Sorry. Exercise 6.14 For each of the following situations, make general requests and requests for permission, and then respond to these requests. Decide how polite you need to be in each situation and whether can, could, will, would, may or would you mind is the most appropriate to use. There is more than one way to ask and answer each question. 1. 2 3. 4. 5. 6. You are at a friends house, and you want to use the phone. ________________________________________________________________________ Your teacher says something, but you do not understand, and you want her to repeat it. ________________________________________________________________________ Your friend has asked you to pick her up at the airport. You want to know if her flight is on time, so you call the airline. ________________________________________________________________________ You want to borrow your friends car. ________________________________________________________________________ Your brother is going shopping, and you remember that you need some film. ________________________________________________________________________ You are the first one to finish the reading test in class. You want to find out from your teacher is your are allowed to leave the room now. ________________________________________________________________________
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. It is very cold in class, and the window is open. ________________________________________________________________________ You see that your teacher is in her office with the door partly open. You want to go in to talk to her. ________________________________________________________________________ You are on the phone with the dentists secretary because you want to change your appointment time. ________________________________________________________________________ You are at a close friends house, and you would like a cup of tea. ________________________________________________________________________ Your friends have arrived at your house for dinner, and you want them to sit down. ________________________________________________________________________ You want to hold your friends baby. ________________________________________________________________________

Tutor-assessed Task 3

Before doing this test, revise Grammar Digests 2, 4, 5 and 6. Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed for the sentence to be grammatically correct. 1. I think that if a person lives in North America, she or he should learn how to swim. A When my parents were in college, they must to pass a swimming test in order to B C D graduate. But at most colleges nowadays, a student doesnt have to do that as a requirement for A B graduation. Youre right, I didnt had to do that when I was in college. C D Ought I learn to be safe around water? Yes, you should. You ought to take water A B C safety classes from the Red Cross. The first rule in water is that you shouldnt swim D alone. The second rule in water safety is that to save a drowning person, you mustnt try to A swim to him. You ought to throw something. You also could to reach for the drowning B C D person with something like a pole or towel.

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Children should learn about water safety. They have got to go near the water alone; an A B C adult should always by with them. D I have a toothache. What I should do? Well, you could take some aspirin, but it is A B C probably better to see the dentist. D I know I had better not be afraid to go the dentist, but I always get nervous sitting in A B C the dentists chair. D You must see the dentist right away! To avoid painful toothaches you could brush A B C your teeth and use dental floss. D You ought to visit a dentist twice a year and your children should so. A B C D I has been trying to get to South Mall for the last 10 minutes. Do you know what bus I A B C have to take? D You cant get a bus downtown from here. Do you like me to show you the way to the A B C D bus stop? Yes, would you please help me? I have been living here not long and I cant figure out A B C D the bus system. Yes, I would. You have to take either the number 3 or 16 bus. The bus stop is there, A B C across the street. D Thank you. I cant believe it. I have been stood on the wrong side of the street. A B C D Deb, Jim is in town. Would you mind if he comes to the party tonight? A B C D No, that would be great. Id love to have him come. I havent been seeing him for a A B C D long time. Is he all right?
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 17. He has worked hard lately, and I think hes under too much stress. A B C He could use some rest. D Do he been doing a lot of travelling for his job? A B C D Yes. He has been spending a lot of time on airplanes. Lately, he has been going to A B C D New York and Chicago several times. Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentences. 20. In North American classrooms, the students ________ stand when the teacher enters the room. (A) dont have to (C) not must (B) havent got (D) no should In some classes, students my eat, but they ________ smoke; its the law. (A) dont have to (C) mustnt (B) havent got (D) shouldnt However, students ________ stand up and walk around the class while the teacher is talking. (A) oughtnt to (C) shouldnt (B) have got to (D) will have to When I was a student, I ________ treat my teachers with more respect than students do nowadays. (A) didnt have to (C) had to (B) had got to (D) must have ________ do anything to prevent heart disease? (A) Have got I (C) Should I (B) Ought I to (D) Had better I The Hear Association gives some advice: you ________ eat healthy food, without too much fat or cholesterol. (A) should (C) had better not (B) must (D) could If you dont want to die of heart disease, you ________ have a low-fat diet, get more exercise, and get frequent check-ups from a doctor. (A) shouldnt (C) could (B) had better (D) had better not If you feel chest pains, you ________ see a doctor as soon as possible, or your life may be in danger. (A) could (C) must (B) had better not (D) ought to

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Finally, you ________ try to eliminate stress. (A) so not have to (C) couldnt (B) shouldnt (D) could Could you carry this notebook for me? Sure, I ________. (A) can (C) would (B) could (D) may What do you have in that box? What have you ________ on? (A) be work (C) being worked (B) been working (D) working This is my science project for school. Recently, I ________ the quality of water in different parts of the city. (A) have been testing (C) has been testing (B) will have tested (D) will test ________ me to carry something else? It might make things easier. (A) May (C) Would you like? (B) Couldnt (D) Could Thanks, Id appreciate that. I wouldnt want these to break. I ________ these samples for a week. (A) ve been studied (C) has been studying (B) had studied (D) ve been studying ________ lend me you calculator? I left mine at home. (A) May you (C) Would you like (B) Could you (D) Might you ________ but the batteries in my calculator have gone dead. I doesnt work. (A) Yes, (C) No problem, (B) Id like to, (D) Sure, I ________ my homework and now I want to check my answers. (A) have been finishing (C) have finished (B) will have finished (D) finish ________ to compare your answers with mine? That way we could both check our homework. (A) Do you like (C) May you like (B) Would you like (D) Could you like Thats a great idea. ________ you move your desk over here so we can compare answers? (A) May (C) Could (D) Do (D) Did

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Reading Digest 7 Finishing Touches

Exercise 7.1 A. Answer these questions. 1 Do you have any pets? 2 What sort of animals make good pets for teenagers, young families, old people, people living alone, people living in cities? 3 What sort of animals should people not be allowed to keep as pets? B. Read what 12-year-old David tells us about his pet water snake, Zoe, and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. If a line is correct, put a tick( ). If a line has a word which should not be there, write the word in the space on the right. There is an example at the beginning (0).

My pet snake
I got her from a reptile pet shop that when she was a year and a half old. She is called Zoe. I was going for to call her something like Venom, but then I thought it puts people off if you would give a snake a bad name, so I changed it to Zoe. A month before I got her, I read in about nine thick books about snakes and when keeping them as pets. I am very careful with her as if you should be with any pet. Snakes are never stop being a bit shy. She is a very strong swimmer and, although she does not actually live in water, I put her in the bath and she goes swims very well. She normally lives in a heated tank with glass sliding doors. But snakes need any hiding places, or they tend to get very much nervous, so we found a teapot for her where to sleep in. She has not bitten anyone yet, she is a really nice friendly snake. Exercise 7.2 A. Read this extract from a short story about pets and answer questions 1-3. 1 Who are these characters in the story? Anna Richard Kate Maria Griselda Melusina 2 What has happened ? How do each of these people feel about it? Anna Richard Kate Maria 3 What do you think is going to happen next? 0 00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 __ that ___ __ _____ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________

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The Cat woman

Although no note awaited her on the doorstep, no letter came and there were no phone calls, Anna knew the cat woman would come back on the following evening. Richard had advised her to go to the police if any threats were made. There would be no need to tell them she had been driving very fast. Anna thought the whole idea of going to the police bizarre. She rang up her friend Kate and told her all about it and Kate agreed that telling the police would be going too far. The battered red car arrived at 7 pm. Maria Jakob was dressed as she had been for her previous visit, but because it was rather cold, wore a jacket made of synthetic fur as well. From its harsh too-shiny texture there was no doubt it was synthetic but from a distance it looked like a black cat's pelt. She had brought an album of photographs of her cats for Anna to see. Anna looked through it - what else could she do? Some were recognisably of those she had seen through the windows. Those that were not, she supposed might be of animals now at rest under the wooden crosses in Maria Jakob's back garden. While she was looking at the pictures, Griselda, Anna's mother's cat, came in and jumped on to the cat woman's lap. They're very nice, very interesting,' Anna said. 'I can see you're devoted to your cats. They're my life. A little humouring might be in order. When is the funeral to be? I thought on Friday. Two o'clock on Friday. My sister will be there with her two. Cats don't usually take to car travel, that's why I don't often take any of mine with me, and shutting them up in cages goes against the grain, but my sister's two Burmese love the car, they'll go and sit in the car when it's parked. My friend from the Animal Rescue will come if she can get away and I've asked our vet but I don't hold out much hope there. He has his goat clinic on Fridays. I hope you'll come along. 'I'm afraid I'll be at work. 'It's no flowers by request. Donations to the Cats' Protection League instead. Any sum, no matter how small, gratefully received. Which brings me to money. You've got a cheque for me. No, I haven't, Mrs Yackle. 'Miss. And it's Jakob. J, A, K, 0, B. You've got a cheque for me for 799. 'I am not giving you any money, Miss Jakob. I'm very very sorry about your cat, about Melusina, I know how fond you were of her, but giving you compensation is out of the question. I'm sorry. The tears had come once more into Maria Jakob's eyes, had spilled over. Her face contorted with misery. It was the mention of the wretched thing's name, Anna thought. That was the trigger that started the weeping. A tear splashed on to one of the coarse red hands. Griselda opened her eyes and licked up the tear. Maria Jakob pushed her other hand across her eyes. She blinked. We'll have to think of something else then,' she said. 'I beg your pardon?' Anna wondered if she had really heard right. Things couldn't be solved so simply. 'We shall have to think of something else. A way for you to make up to me for murder. Look, I will give a donation to the Cats' Protection League. I'm quite prepared to give them - say 20.' Richard would be furious but perhaps she would not tell Richard. 'I'll give it to you, shall I, and then you can pass it on to them? I certainly hope you will. Especially if you can't come to the funeral.' That was the end of it then. Anna felt a great sense of relief. It was only now that she realised quite how it had got to her. It had actually kept her from sleeping properly. She phoned Kate and told her about the funeral and the goat clinic and Kate laughed and said, poor old thing. Anna slept so well that night that she did not notice the arrival of Griselda who, when she woke, was asleep on the pillow next to her face, but out of touching distance.

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA B. Read again more carefully. For questions 1-7, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text. 1 Why had Anna not phoned the police? A Because she had been driving fast. B She wasn't sure if the woman would come back. C She hadn't been threatened in any way. D It seemed an unnecessary thing to do. 2 'synthetic' refers to which aspect of Maria's coat? A the material C the condition B the colour D the style 3 Why did Anna look through the photographs? A She recognised some of the cats. C She didn't know how to behave. B She was very interested in them. D Maria made her look at them. 4 What invitation did Anna refuse? A To attend a goat clinic. B To visit the Animal Rescue. 5 Why does Maria ask Anna for 799? A As a donation to the Cats' Protection League. B Because Anna can't attend the funeral. C Because Anna has killed one of Maria's cats. D Because Maria's car has been damaged. 6 What is Kate's reaction to the story? A She doesn't take it seriously. B She is relieved that it is over. C She feels sorry for Anna. D She finds it frightening. C To go to a funeral. D To meet Maria's sister.

7 What does 'it' (last paragraph, in bold) refer to? A Anna's guilt. C Maria's demands. B Richard's anger. D Melusina's revenge. Exercise 7.3 You are going to read an article about parachuting. For questions 1-6 choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.

Parachuting changed my life

When Su Woods stepped out on to the tarmac of Thruxton airfield one sunny afternoon to make her first parachute jump, she was not only about to make her childhood dream come true, she was also leaving her old life for a new one. Achieving her ambition was to transform her life. Eight years later, Su and her husband Dennis own the parachute club where Su made her first jump, and where they met. Parachuting has changed my life enormously,' Su says: When I think back to the first day I came, watching all the experienced jumpers and free-fallers and feeling so nervous, I have to keep telling myself that the club's all ours. I've made 100 jumps now - that's quite a lot. But there are plenty of members here who are much more advanced than I am.

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It's so exhilarating you don't get frightened. Everything to do with parachuting in this country is so highly regulated. You can't just go up in a plane and jump out of it. You must have proper training. Safety precautions are rigorously enforced. At first, you have a static line attached to your parachute linking it to the aeroplane. As you fall free, the line pulls the parachute open. It's not until you've reached a certain standard that you're allowed to open your own parachute, so there's not really any danger. A feeling of fear at the thought of jumping out of a plane at 762 metres is only natural sometimes! When you're first told you're ready to go up, you get really nervous. You step out on to the platform, the instructor says "Go", and then you're in the air. It's so exhilarating, you can't imagine what you were afraid of. Even now, I get nervous when I go up for a jump. But as soon as you're coming down, peace all around you, the earth below, it's wonderful. Juggling her career as editor of an internal newspaper for a major British company with sorting out a new house, managing the parachute club and pursuing her favourite hobby, means that things like housework and washing up can get badly neglected. But then,' Su says, it's a question of priorities. I'd rather parachute than spend Saturdays cleaning the house. We try to travel the 40 miles from home to the club as often as we can and, of course, we're there all weekend. That's the best time. It's a very sociable place - families come to watch and take part, and we have a lot of charity jumps, which is nice.

1 What reasons did Su have for beginning parachuting? A It was something she had always wanted to do. B She had wanted to change her life completely. C She wanted to show her children what she could do. D She had married the owner of the club. 2 What happens when you start jumping? A You jump with the parachute already open. B You always jump with another person. C You are not allowed to open your own parachute. D You remain connected to the ground. 3 What does Su say about the emotions involved in parachuting? A You never get over the fear of falling. B You get very nervous before jumping out. C You are only nervous the first few times you jump. D You are more nervous with the instructor. 4 How has parachuting changed Su's life? A She has given up her job. B She now jumps for a living. C She now owns the parachute club. D She goes parachuting every day.

5 'juggling' (last but one paragraph, in bold) means A replacing. C combining. B resigning. D organising. 6 How does Su spend most of her weekend? A Looking after her family. B Doing work for charity. C Following her favourite hobby. D Organising the club's social life.

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA Exercise 7.4 You are going to read a magazine article about friendship. Choose from the list A-I the most suitable heading for each part of the article (1-7). There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0). A What's in it for me? B We've been through a lot together C Some straight talking D The end of a friendship? E Further disasters F A better sort of friendship G Giving her more space H I've had enough! I Doing what a good friend should

Is your friend hard work?


0 I Last month my friend Kate's boyfriend finished with her. Tears? She could have flooded rivers. But I'm a good friend, I know there are times in every girl's life when she really needs the firm but gentle shoulder of her best friend. So I spent a week confined with Kate in her bedroom. I endured hours listening to her misery, making steaming mugs of hot chocolate and watching her eat packet after packet of biscuits. By Saturday, she was beginning to feel better. Great, I thought. I was more than ready for a night out. Besides, it was just what Kate needed. 1 And then it happened; I was just getting ready to go out when Kate telephoned. I wouldn't be dancing that night. Kate had twisted her ankle and was in need of more tea and sympathy. The following week Kate failed a maths exam, and left her new coat on the bus. I provided all the support, encouragement and advice I could over these crises. Then, to cheer her up, I lent her my favourite purple velvet jacket ... and she splashed it with tomato juice. 2 Kind, patient, caring person that I am, there are limits to my tolerance. I'm not a bad friend, but there has to be more to friendship than being a full-time shoulder to cry on. Right? 3 We've all got a Kate. The friend who turns up in the middle of the night desperate to talk, the one who calls you, in tears, several times a day. She is the Walking Disaster, the friend to whom you can't say NO. Kate is what is known as a High Maintenance Friend. And, although I always think to myself poor Kate', I also can't help wondering, could she be playing some part in causing her own disasters? I mean, who else has six crises a day? OK, I'll admit that being the strong one in the friendship makes me feel great in some ways, but Kate's series of dramas also leave me feeling exhausted and resentful. What's more, when I have difficult times, Kate hardly knows about them. 4 When I started seeing more of my other friends, I hoped Kate would get the message and back off a bit. Instead she just got upset and made sulky little comments when I didn't call her back. Sometimes the only thing to do with such friendships is to end them. If you can live with the guilt, you may feel lots of relief in the long run. 5 So why don't I just get rid of this selfish so-called friend? Well, it's just not as easy as that. Kate and I go way back to primary school days. The thought of giving up our shared history is just too much to bear. Besides, she's fun -sometimes. Life without her is unthinkable. But life with her is hardly a bottomless bowl of Haagen-Dazs either.

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6 All I really wanted was to take the pressure off myself, so I decided that Kate and I needed a gentle heart-to-heart. It was risky - I didn't want my old friend to feel totally rejected, so I started out by making it clear how much I value her. 7 Then - deep breath - I explained that she needed more from me than I can give. I suggested that she talk to other friends as well as me when she needs support. The silence and Kate's frozen stare seemed to indicate that this could be the point where our friendship would end. The longer her silence lasted, the more I talked to fill the air, finally convincing myself that I was a really bad friend. Kate didn't call me for days after that, but when she did phone about a week later, she was the happy, fun Kate I know and love. Sure, I heard about the latest drama in her life, but not for hours. And she actually... asked questions about me! These days, Kate has a network of new friends, and the balance in our relationship is getting better. Now, when I see Kate, I really enjoy her company and she's happier too. No-one is saying that you should only love your friends when they're up, and cross the street to avoid them when they're down. But when you're doing all the giving and your friend is just taking, it's time to weigh it up. Remember you have a right to say NO! Exercise 7.5 Look at this letter that Gemma has written to her pen friend, Kate, and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. If a line is correct, put a tick ( ). If a line has a word which should not be there, write the word in the space on the right. Dear Kate I'm sorry if your best friend thinks you're so hard work, but let me give you some of advice. First, back off and give your friend a little more in space. Ask her about it her life, too. Let her know, you're there for when she really needs a sympathetic ear, but avoid rushing to the phone every one time you have a crisis. She doesn't have all this the answers! Then, spend time with other some friends, so she doesn't feel like you're lost without her. Relax yourself and try to have a good laugh sometimes. Life and friendship don't have to be with all problems, you know. Finally, don't worry every time your friend goes out with other people, and not as you. It doesn't mean she hates you! Remember that no-one can be spend all their time with just one person. Lots of love, Gemma 1 ____________ 2 ____________ 3 ____________ 4 ____________ 5 ____________ 6 ____________ 7 ____________ 8 ____________ 9 ____________ 10 ___________ 11 ___________ 12 ___________ 13 ___________ 14 ___________ 15 ___________

Exercise 7.6 You are going to read a newspaper article about the problems of young people who live in the country. Choose from the sentences A-I the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0). Jamie Summers is 13 and hates school holidays. As the end of term approaches he becomes increasingly depressed and even the prospect of a school camping holiday fails to raise more than a weak smile.
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A Long, lonely summer

ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 0 I He is one of thousands of young people for whom rural isolation means spending long periods alone with parents, seldom venturing beyond the village and having to rely on television and on their own imagination for entertainment. Home for Jamie is a large farmhouse on the edge of the Exmoor national park. During the summer, if it doesn't rain, he spends most nights in a tent on the hillside behind the farm. 1 Most of his classmates make similar journeys each day. For Jamie and many like him, school is their only social life. With little chance to meet school friends in the evening, at weekends or during the holidays - and few visits from other family members - his only chance for conversation with people other than his parents is the seven hours a day he spends in school. He never stays for after-school activities and can only go to school plays and discos with difficulty. Last year he missed collecting a prize because his father did not get home in time to drive him to the school. 2 Sometimes he travels 250 kilometres a day and worries about how long it will keep going. The family's story, a cautionary tale for town-dwellers tempted by the idea of rural life, is typical. They came from London to escape noise, pollution, crime and the bullying that Jamie received at school. The first winter they rented a house in a village where Jamie could walk to school. His mother, Maureen, soon made friends among other parents at the school gate and for a while life was exactly what she and Jamie had hoped for. 3 They moved to another village, from which Jamie began getting the bus to school. Then his father lost his factory maintenance job and they couldn't afford the rent. That was when they found the farmhouse in which they've lived ever since. Their nearest neighbour is the elderly farmer whose cattle graze in the surrounding fields. 4 In practice, he is mostly alone and doesn't know enough about nature to appreciate it. His mother worries if he wanders, because even in the country you can't be too careful'. 5 He is reluctant to visit friends because he can't invite them back. The pretty villages that attract tourists hold little interest for a teenager. One year, he went back to London to stay with his grandmother for part of the holiday. But she is too old now to cope with a teenager. Anyway, none of the people he started school with remembers or wants to know about him. It is not only newcomers from London who suffer the problems of isolation. Lonely farmhouses hidden away in folded valleys can be prisons for children. 6 With few youth clubs or other amenities and virtually no public transport, entertainment is a real difficulty. Better-off parents establish transport networks for taking children to school and village events, but in the holidays they may still go for days without seeing anyone of their own age except for brothers and sisters. Parents thinking about a move to the country should think carefully about their children's needs. For Laura, who moved from Sheffield to an isolated Devon cottage when she was fourteen, the contrast was so strong that she attempted suicide and now requires regular counselling. 7 Which is why, unlike many urban children, he is already looking forward to school starting again. ***

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Devon.

A The car, in fact, enables Jamie's father to do his job as an electrician across North and South

B He has an old bike, but the country lanes, with their high banks and blind corners, make cycling dangerous. Anyway where would he go? C But farming is a hard life that demands the involvement of the whole family and most children have their 'jobs' to do before and after school. D In theory, Jamie enjoys the many advantages of country life: fresh air, freedom from fear, friendly people who always have time to stop and chat. E Jamie hasn't reached those depths and doesn't want a return to city life - but neither can he face the loneliness of the summer holiday weeks. F But summer came and the owners needed their home for more profitable holiday lets. G Every day in term time, he walks to the crossroads outside the village and then travels eight miles by coach along narrow country lanes to the closest school to his home. H A recent survey of students at one rural school in North Devon found 'being able to meet friends' topped the list of improvements that youngsters wanted in their lives. I The problem is, Jamie knows that once the holidays start, he is unlikely to see another person his own age until school opens again in September. Exercise 7.7 Read the text below and decide which word A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). Romantic fiction is as old (0) __ C ___ love itself and still very (1) _______ alive and well. An amazing 41,000 Mills and Boon romantic novels are sold in the UK every day; that (2) _______ up to around 15 million copies a year. And (3) _______ being popular in the UK, these books have also been (4) _________ into 20 other languages and sold in over 100 different countries. Romantic fiction has changed over the years and Mills and Boon novels continually try to reflect contemporary (5) ________ . The company has also tried to give readers greater (6) ________ Mills and Boon (7) _________ over 5000 manuscripts a year from (8) ________ writers, but only a few join their list of (9) ________ authors. Now, if you've ever (10) ________ of writing for Mills and Boon, help is at (11) ________ . The company has produced a (12) ________ guide, And Then He Kissed Her..., which explains how to (13) _________ out to write a romantic novel. The booklet contains valuable (14) ________ that can be applied to almost any form of creative writing. So, if you've written a love letter but feel you could write a (15) ________ novel, get And Then He Kissed Her.... Happy Writing!

0 1 2 3

A than A than A adds A although

B so B greatly B makes B besides

C as C much C comes C moreover

D of D just D gives D whereas


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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A interpreted A attitudes A differences A receives A beginner A regular A hoped A work A unique A start A directions A whole Exercise 7.8 Read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0). B transferred B ways B selection B registers B training B common B wondered B hand B solitary B take B proposals B total C exchanged C habits C variety C remarks C hopeful C correct C considered C once C single C carry C suggestions C strong D translated D traditions D alternatives D realises D promised D routine D thought D last D lone D work D indications D thorough

Rows can be good for you

A row is simply expressing your own point of view (0) __ forcefully ___ and it's (1) ___________ that people quarrel in different ways. In some families, rows are tight-lipped affairs, with (2) _____________ covered up by a (3) _____________ that all is well. In others, it is more (4) _____________. My mother threw insults and crockery, while my father ignored the insults, (5) _____________ the crockery and produced (6) _____________ cups of tea when they eventually made up. But rows can lead to greater (7) _____________ and (8) _____________ in relationships often indicate development, which is fine as long as the (9) _____________is positive. It is only when there are lots of (10) _____________ rows with no clear motivation, or when rows leave you feeling tense, angry and sick that the alarm bells should start to ring.

FORCE SURPRISE ANGRY PRETEND DRAMA CATCH END UNDERSTAND ARGUE OUT REASON

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Grammar Digest 7 Past Habitual Used To, Still and Anymore Adverbs of Frequency Past Perfect, Before and After FOCUS 1 PAST HABITUAL Comparing past and present with used to
examples Tina Turner used to have short, wavy hair (but now she doesnt). explanations Used to shows that something was true or regularly happened in the past, but it does not happen now in the present.

T T T T T T T T T T

Exercise 7.1 Circle T if the statement is true, and F if the statement is false. F 1. People used to use candles and gas lamps because they didnt have electricity. F 2. Before electricity, people used to put a big block of ice in the icebox; today we use a refrigerator. F 3. Before electricity, people used to use batteries for power. F 4. Before the invention of the car, people used to ride the bus. F 5. People used to walk much more than they do now. F 6. There didnt use to be as much violent crime as there is now. F 7. People used to know much more about nutrition than they do now. F 8. Big families used to be much more common than they are now. F 9. People used to live longer than they do now. F 10. There didnt use to be a big drug problem.

Form: Used to
Used to does not change form to agree with the subject: statement I You used to work. We They She He used to work. It negative I You We They She He It question did not use to work. (didnt) did not use to work. (didnt) Did I you we they she he it use to work?

Did

use to work?

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA Exercise 7.2 Make statements with used to about the changes in Madonna and Bruce Springsteen. Use the words in parentheses. You can add other ides of your own. 1. Madonna a. (have a big nose) She used to have a bigger nose; she didnt use to have a small one. b. (be a dancer) _____________________________________________________ c. (be poor) ___________________________________________________________ d. (live in Michigan) _____________________________________________________ Bruce Springsteen a. (have straight hair) _____________________________________________________ b. (play football in high school) _________________________________________ c. (live in New Jersey) _______________________________________________ d. (sing about blue-collar life) _______________________________________________ Exercise 7.3 Using the words below, ask and answer questions with the correct form of used to.
EXAMPLE:

2.

You/have long hair? Did you use to have long hair? Yes, I used to have very long hair.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Where/you/live? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ When you were a little boy/girl, what/you/play? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ When you were in elementary school, what/you/do after school? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ When you were very young,/your parents/read to you? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ What bed habit/you/have? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ What/you/look like? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Who/be your best friend? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ You/live in the city? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

5. 6. 7. 8.

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9. 10.

Where/you/go on vacation? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ You/wear glasses? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

FOCUS 2 ANYMORE
examples Past Present Madonna used to live in Michigan, but she doesnt live there anymore. Madonna used to live in Michigan, but she doesnt anymore. Madonna doesnt live in Michigan anymore. (From this sentence, we understad that she used to live there.) Exercise 7.4 Fill in the blanks with the correct form of used to or anymore. My grandmother complains about how things have changed, and she says that life (1) _______________________ be better. Families arent families the way they (2) _______________________ be. Everyones divorced. If a husband and wife are having problems with their marriage, they dont stay together (3) _______________________. And mothers (4) _______________________ stay home and take care of their children, but not (5) _______________________. Everyones working. No one has time for children (6) _______________________. And the cars! No one walks (7) _______________________: everybody drives. We (8) _______________________ walk five miles to school every day, even in the winter. And in school, the children dont have to think (9) _______________________. In the maths class, for example, we (10) _______________________ add, subtract, multiply, and divide, using our heads. Kids dont use their heads (11) _______________________; they use calculators. Computers have taken control over our lives. In my day, we didnt (12) _______________________ have computers. We didnt even have electricity. My mother (13) _______________________ spend all day cooking in the kitchen. Nobody eats home-cooked food (14) _______________________. Food (15) _______________________ taste better. Its all chemicals and preservatives now. And people dont talk to each other (16) _______________________. Theyre too busy to talk, too busy to eat, too busy to think Life (17) _______________________ be simple, but it isnt (18) ___________________. explanations Anymore shows a change in a situation or activity that was regular or habitual in the past. It is not necessary to repeat the second verb phrase if it is the same as the first one. You can also use anymore without used to.

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Position of Anymore
examples I dont live in Braov anymore. They dont work here anymore. Alice doesnt live here anymore. We dont go there anymore. They never talk to me anymore. No one likes him anymore. explanations Anymore comes at the end of the sentence or clause. Anymore is always used with a negative.

Exercise 7.5 Rewrite the statements you wrote in Exercise 7.2, using anymore and used to as appropriate. (The conjunction but may be helpful in these statements.)
EXAMPLE:

Madonna doesnt have black hair anymore. Madonna used to have black hair, but she doesnt anymore.

1.

Madonna a. (have a big nose) _______________________________________________________ b. (be a dancer) _____________________________________________________ c. (be poor) ___________________________________________________________ d. (live in Michigan) _____________________________________________________ Bruce Springsteen a. (have straight hair) _____________________________________________________ b. (play football in high school) _________________________________________ c. (live in New Jersey) _______________________________________________ d. (sing about blue-collar life) _______________________________________________

2.

Exercise 7.6 Go back to Exercise 7.4 and underline all of the negative forms that are used with anymore. The first one is they dont stay together.

FOCUS 3 STILL
examples She lived in New Mexico 15 years ago; she lives in New Mexico now: She still lives in New Mexico. He smoked 20 cigarettes a day in the past; he smokes 20 cigarettes a day now: He still smokes 20 cigarettes a day. (From this sentence, we understand that he started this habit in the past and hasnt stopped.) explanations To show that someone or something has NOT changed, you can use still. Still means that the action or habit continues to the time of speaking.

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Exercise 7.7 Circle T if the statement is true, and F if it is false. T T T T T T T T T T F F F F F F F F F F 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. There used to be a country called the Soviet Union, but there isnt anymore. Theres still a country called Italy. Thomas Jefferson used to be President of the United States, and he still is. They still havent found Atlantis. Anthony and Cleopatra used to float down the Nile River, and they still do. They used to speak German in Ireland, and they still do. There used to be a wall separating East Germany from West Germany in Berlin, and there still is. Alaska used to belong to Russia, but it doesnt anymore. The Taj Mahal used to be in India, and it still is. There didnt use to be a country named Uzbekistan, and there still isnt.

Position of Still
examples 1. He still lives in New Orleans. 2. He is still crazy after all these years. 3. I will still love you. explanations Still is a midsentence adverb. It comes: before the main verb in 1. after the verb be in 2 or an auxiliary verb in 3.

Exercise 7.8 Complete the following with still or anymore as appropriate. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: Wheres Jeff? He doesnt live here __________________. Is Gary home yet? No, he is __________________ working. Have you finished writing your book? No, Im __________________ working on it. Do you want a cigarette? No, thanks, I dont smoke __________________. Where do you live? I __________________ live at home with my parents. Hurry up! Were going to be late. Im __________________ wrapping the gift. Hows your grandfather? Hes doing pretty well, even though he cant go out much __________________.

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FOCUS 4 ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY AND THEIR POSITION


examples Most frequently always usually often sometimes seldom rarely hardly ever never explanations

ask questions.

To show how often you do something, you can use an adverb of frequency.

Least frequently I usually get up at 6:00. He never calls me. She is always late. They are rarely happy. I will sometimes hear from them. I have seldom spoken to her. They never used to smoke. He always used to call her.

Adverbs of frequency may stand before the main verb. Or they may be positioned after the verb be. Adverbs of frequency are also placed between an auxiliary verb and the main verb. They are placed before used to as well.

Exercise 7.9 Look at the information in the chart below and answer the questions, using still, anymore, or an adverb of frequency. Be careful with verb tenses. always often/ usually sometimes seldom/ hardly ever never Before go dancing on weekends go out to eat travel read novels go to the beach Now stay home on weekends cook dinner clean the house do the laundry help kids with homework go to the beach go to baseball games read novels go out to eat go dancing travel

cook clean stay at home on weekends go to baseball games have children Carol used to be single. Last year she married George. George is divorced and has two children. The chart shows how Carols life has changed. 1. Before she got married, how often did Carol use to go dancing? _______________________________________________________________________

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Did Carol use to have children? _______________________________________________________________________ How often does Carol help the kids with their homework? _______________________________________________________________________ When she was single, what did Carol often use to do on her vacation? _______________________________________________________________________ How often did Carol use to cook and clean? _______________________________________________________________________ How often does Carol cook and clean now? _______________________________________________________________________ Does Carol still go dancing? _______________________________________________________________________ Does she still go to the beach. _______________________________________________________________________ How often does she go out to eat? _______________________________________________________________________ How often does she do the laundry? _______________________________________________________________________

FOCUS 5 PAST PERFECT Past perfect and simple past


examples When I got there, he had eaten all the cookies. (First, he ate the cookies; then, I got there; I didnt see him eat the cookies.) explanations When two actions or events both happened in the past, the past perfect describes the action or event which happened first; the simple past describes the action or event which happened second.

Exercise 7.10 Read about Jerry, and then fill in the time line with brief phrases describing Jerrys life. Include only the underlined verbs. The first one has been done for you. Jerry used to be a typical young man. Then five years ago, a car accident changed his life forever. The accident paralyzed him, and now hes in a wheelchair. After the accident, Jerry was in the hospital for a long time. He had a lot of operations. He had never been in the hospital before, and he had never seen so many doctors: surgeons, anaesthesiologists, neurologists He had never felt so much pain; he was sure the physical therapists were experts in torture. He had to learn to get around in a wheelchair, too. Before the accident, Jerry had played tennis and he had sailed. Now hes learning to play table tennis, and he still sails his boat on the lake. He also competes in races in his wheelchair. He had always had a dog, but after the accident, he needed a specially trained dog to help him around the house. Last year he got Bridget, a Black Labrador. As for his love life, Jerry had been engaged to a girl named Debbie. Hes still going to be married, but now hes engaged to Patty his physical therapist.

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA Before accident 1. He had never been in the hospital before. 2. ______________________ 3. ______________________ 4. ______________________ 5. ______________________ 6. ______________________ 7. ______________________ After accident 1. Jerry was in the hospital. 2. ______________________ 3. ______________________ 4. ______________________ 5. ______________________ Now 1. He's in a wheelchair. 2. ______________________ 3. ______________________ 4. ______________________ 5. ______________________

Form: had + past participle


statement I had arrived. You We (d) They She had arrived. He (d) It negative I had not arrived. You We (hadnt) They She had not arrived. He (hadnt) It question Had I you we they she he it arrived? short answer Yes, we had. No, she had not. (hadnt)

Had

arrived?

Exercise 7.11 A reporter is interviewing Jerry (see Exercise 7.10) for a feature story about the disabled. The reporter wants to know about Jerrys life before he was paralyzed. Using the words given below, write the reporters questions and Jerrys answers. Use the past perfect.
EXAMPLE:

your life / pretty normal? Had your life been pretty normal?

Yes, it had.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

How many times / you / be in the hospital / before the accident? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ What sports / you / play / before the accident? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ you / run in races? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Before Bridget, / you / have a dog? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ you / be engaged to Patty? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

Exercise 7.12 In the following pairs of statements, decide which event probably happened first. Write 1 beside the event you think happened first, and 2 beside the one you think happened second. The first one has been done for you.
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EXAMPLE:

My legs ached. 2 I played tennis. 1 5. 6. a. Brendas clothes were too tight. b. She didnt exercise for several months. a. Neville couldnt sleep. b. He drank several cups of very strong coffee. a. We studied hard for three weeks. b. We thought the test was easy. a. The brothers fell asleep immediately. b. They played soccer for several hours.

1. 2.

a. His car broke down. b. He took the bus. a. Charlotte was depressed. b. She failed the English exam. a. Tanya sat in the sun all afternoon. b. Her skin was very red. a. We didnt eat all day. b. We were really hungry.

3. 4.

7. 8.

Now join the two statements to make one sentence, using because to connect them; change one of the verbs in each sentence into past perfect. The first one has been done for you.
EXAMPLE:

My legs ached. 2 I played tennis. 1 My legs ached because I had played tennis.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Exercise 7.13 Combine the following pairs of statements to make one sentence, using the word in parentheses to connect them. Change one of the verbs into the past perfect.
EXAMPLE:

Allen had a fight with his wife. He slept badly last night. (because) Allen slept badly last night because he had had a fight with his wife.

1.

He slept late. Nobody set the alarm. (because) _______________________________________________________________________ Nobody did the laundry. Allen didnt have any clean underwear. (so) _______________________________________________________________________ Nobody went grocery shopping. There wasnt any coffee. (because) _______________________________________________________________________
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2. 3.

ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Allen forgot to go to the gas station. There wasnt any gas in the car. (because) _______________________________________________________________________ He was very worried. His boss warned him not to be late anymore. (so) _______________________________________________________________________ He didnt cash his pay check, so he used a credit card. He got to the gas station. (when) _______________________________________________________________________ He looked in the mirror and saw that he didnt comb his hair. He was driving. (While) _______________________________________________________________________ Allen found that he left his wallet at the gas station. He got to work. (As soon as) _______________________________________________________________________ He noticed there were no cars in the parking lot. He realized that he forgot it was Saturday. (when) _______________________________________________________________________

FOCUS 6 BEFORE, AFTER, BY, and BY THE TIME


examples first event second event They were before Christmas. married before I arrived. She left second event first event They were after Christmas. married after I arrived. She left He left before I got there. (It is possible to use the past perfect in this sentence, but it is not necessary: He had left before I got here. first event second event They were by Christmas. married by the time I got there. She had left explanations Before, after, by and by the time show the order of actions or events. Before introduces the event that happened second or more recently. After introduces the event that happened first. When we use before and after, it is not necessary to use the past perfect because they make the order of events clear. By (+ noun phrase) and by the time (+ verb phrase) introduce an event that happened sometime before the second or more recent event. By the time is often associated with the past perfect.

Exercise 7.14 In each of the following sentences, write 1 above the action that occurred first, and 2 above the action that was second. If there are three verbs, write 3 above the third action. Then check ( ) the sentences where it is necessary to use the past perfect to indicate the order of events. The first one has been done for you.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

1 2 Last night Mr. Wilson walked the dog and then let the cat out. He locked the doors, turned off the lights, and went upstairs. When he got upstairs, he realized that he had forgotten to take out the garbage. He went back downstairs and took out the garbage. When he went upstairs to brush his teeth, he heard a noise. By the time Mr. Wilson got to the door, the noise had stopped. He went back upstairs and heard the noise again. It sounded like someone crying. He went back downstairs, and again, before he reached the door, the noise had stopped. By that time, Mr. Wilson had gone up and down the stairs so many times that he was dizzy. He went to bed. The next morning when Mr. Wilson went outside to get the newspaper, he saw what had caused the noise the night before. He was surprised to see that the cat had had kittens!

Exercise 7.15 Answer the following questions about Mr. Wilson (see Exercise 7.14) with complete sentences.
EXAMPLE:

Did Mr. Wilson walk the dog last night? Yes, he walked the dog.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Had Mr. Wilson let the cat out when he went upstairs? _______________________________________________________________________ What was he doing when he first heard the noise? _______________________________________________________________________ What did Mr. Wilson do when he heard the noise? _______________________________________________________________________ Why did he first go back downstairs? _______________________________________________________________________ Did Mr. Wilson hear the noise before or after he went upstairs? _______________________________________________________________________ Why did he feel dizzy? _______________________________________________________________________ What had Mr. Wilson done by the time he locked the doors and turned off the lights? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ By the time he went to bed, how many times had Mr. Wilson walked up the stairs? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ What had caused the noise? _______________________________________________________________________

Exercise 7.16 Rewrite the following sentences by omitting the underlined words and using the word in parentheses. Underline the verb in each sentence where it is possible (but not always necessary) to use past perfect. The first one has been done for you.

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EXAMPLE:

First Sue listened to the weather report and then she decided to go for a bike ride. (after) After Sue listened to the weather report, she decided to go for a bike ride. OR Sue decided to go for a bike ride after she listened to the weather report.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Sue studied several maps, and then she decided on an interesting route for her bike ride. (before) She changed her clothes, and then she checked the tires on her bike. (after) She put fresh water in her water bottle, and next she left home. (before) She rode for several miles, then she came to a very steep hill. (after) She climbed to the top of the hill, and then she stopped to drink some water and enjoy the view. (before) She continued for ten more miles, and then she got a flat tire. (after) She fixed the flat tire quickly, and then she continued her ride. (before) It started to rain, and then she decided to go home. (after) Before she got home, she rode over 30 miles. (by the time) She took a long, hot shower, and finally she ate a huge plate of pasta. (after)

FOCUS 7 PAST PERFECT vs. PRESENT PERFECT


examples She was tired yesterday because she had taken a long bike ride. She is tired now because she has taken a long bike ride. explanations The past perfect contrasts two actions or events in the past. The present perfect connects the past with the present. It tells us that something happened sometime before now or that something started in the past and continues until now.

Exercise 7.17 Underline the mistakes in the following sentences and correct as necessary.
EXAMPLE:

had I wasnt tired yesterday because I have slept for ten hours the night before.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
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Nigel wasnt hungry last night because he had eaten a large fresh salmon for lunch. Jan is really confused in class last Tuesday because she hadnt read the assignment. Graham had gone home because he has a terrible headache today. Howard is a lucky man because he had travelled all over the world. Martha went to the hospital after she has broken her leg. Before he has left the house, George locked all the doors and windows.

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7. 8. 9.

Professor Westerfield always returns our papers after she had graded them. I didnt see you at the airport last night because your plane has left before I got there. Matthew and James were late because they have missed the bus.

Exercise 7.18 In the story below, use the appropriate verb tense (simple past, past progressive, past perfect, present perfect) for the verbs in parentheses. Some people attend all their high school reunions, but Al (1) _______________________ (go + not) back to his high school since he (2) _________________________ (graduate) ten years ago. Five years ago, he (3) _________________________ (make) arrangements to go to his five-year high school reunion, but two days before that reunion, he (4) _________________________ (break) his leg. He (5) _________________________ (paint) his house on a tall ladder when he (6) _________________________ (lose) his balance. So he (7) _________________________ (not + go) to his five-year reunion. Al (8) _________________________ (not + visit) his hometown for ten years and his wife, Marta, (9) _________________________ (never + be) there. Al and Marta (10) _________________________ (get) married about a year and a half ago and they (11) _________________________ (not + be) married long when some of Als high school friends (12) _________________________ (come) to visit them last year. So at least Marta (13) _________________________ (meet) a few of Als old friends, even though she (14) _________________________ (not + be) to his hometown.

Tutor-assessed Task 4

Before doing this test, revise Grammar Digests 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7. Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentences. 1. Roy had a heart attack last year. Before than, he ________ about his health. His doctor told him to change his lifestyle, and gave him a diet and exercise plan. (A) had never thought (C) never had been thinking (B) had thought never (D) never had thought He used to eat a lot of fast food and he ________ any fresh vegetables. (A) ate seldom (C) seldom used to eat (B) had eaten seldom (D) used to seldom eat Before his heart attack, Roy ________ a lot of salt and fired food. (A) did use to eat (C) used to eat (B) use to eat (D) was use to eat
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2.

3.

ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA 4. Roy quit smoking and drinking hard liquor. After he ________ for about three months, he started to feel a lot better. (A) had been quitting (C) had quit (B) has quit (D) used to quit After his doctor advised Roy to start an exercise program, he ________ to walk every morning before work. (A) began (C) begun (B) begins (D) had begun Its been one year since Roys heart attack, and he feels great. He ________ a cigarette anymore. (A) didnt want (C) still wants (B) doesnt want (D) wanted

5.

6.

Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be grammatically correct. 7. When I was a little boy, every Thanksgiving weekend my family and I were used A B C to visit my grandparents on their farm. D We lived in the city, so it had been very special for us, especially me and my sister, A B to be in the country and to help Grandpa Bob with the animals and Grandma Flo with C D the baking. By the time we got to the farm on Wednesday night, Grandma had baked her worldA B C famous homemade cinnamon bread and Grandpa had chose a turkey for Thanksgiving D dinner. Thursday morning we always used to get up early, toast a few slices of Flos A B C cinnamon bread for breakfast, and then go out to the garden to clean the best head of D pumpkin for the pumpkin pie. Then my sister and I used to play in the brightly coloured autumn leaves; we had made A B castles and mountains from the leaves, and then jumped and ran and laughed until Dad C called us. D

8.

9.

10.

11.

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12.

The three of us helped Grandpa with the cows and the chickens, but mostly we played A B with the cats and dog; we children used to do seldom very much real work. C D After we had played and worked so much, we were tired; my sister and I took a long A B C nap while Mom and Dad had continued to help with all the work in the kitchen. D Now Im married, I have my own family, and I live in the city still; my grandparents A died many years ago, so we dont visit the farm anymore. B C D I didnt use to cook, but now that Grandmas not here, she doesnt bake anymore that A B C wonderful cinnamon bread, so Ive learned to make it myself. D

13.

14.

15.

Write a short article for your old high school magazine, reporting on your life and habits and how they have changed (or not) over the years since you left high school. Also describe your present life and habits and compare these with your past. Try to include the following: something you used to do but dont do anymore something you used to do and still do something you didnt use to do but do now something you never do something you seldom do something you sometimes do something you often do something you usually do Dont forget to include changes (or not) in your physical appearance. We have begun the article for you: I left high school in _______ (year). As I look back on my life since then, I realize that some things gave changes, and some things have stayed the same. Let me start by telling you about some of the changes

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Answer Key
Reading Digest 1 Exercise 1.2. A 1C 2A 3B Exercise 1.2. B 1 borrow 2 debts Exercise 1.2. C 1 lend 2 itching Exercise 1.3 1C 2D 3A 4A 3 fulfilled 4 skilled (at) 3 scratching 4 gain 4B 7 c) 8 b) 5 itch 6 be taken as proof 5 win 6 borrow 7 squirm about 8 the context

Exercise 1.4. A 1 e) 3 f) 5 g) 2 d) 4 a) 6 a) *4 and 6 have the same meaning Exercise 1.4. B 1 been deceiving 2 pass himself off as 7 tricks Exercise 1.5 1 on 2 for 3 in out of Exercise 1.6. A 1 thanks 2 out 3 looks 4 fact./reality 4 by 5 on 6 at 5 than 6 addition 7 bigger 8 whether

3 cunning 4 cheats

5 take you in 6 betrayed

7 by/at 8 of 9 on 9 far 10 means 11 tell 12 dishonest 13 home 14 away 15 before 16 available 17 yours/one 18 last 19 wait/delay 20 without

Exercise 1.6. B 1 Yes, Im terribly sorry Im late. 2 It is the second time this has happened in the last two weeks. 3 I know. I hope youll forgive me. 4 Well, why are you late this time? 5 The boss asked me to work late again. 6 Well, why didnt you phone me? 7 I tried to but it wasnt possible. 8 What do you mean? Are you trying to tell me that there are no phones in your office? 9 Of course there are phones in the office but there is something wrong with them. Exercise 1.7. A 1 inspector 2 loser Exercise 1.7. C 1 a pressure-cooker 2 a paint-thinner 7 a carpet-sweeper 10 a bottle-opener 530 3 thinker 4 actor 5 sailors 6 visitors 3 a paint-remover 4 a hair-dryer 8 ant-powder/ant-killer 7 murderer

5 hair-restorer 6 a tin-opener 9 a cork-screw

LIMBA ENGLEZ Exercise 1.8. 1.B, 2 A, 3C, 4C, 5D, 6B, 7A, 8D, 9C, 10B, 11C, 12D, 13B, 14A, 15C, 16D, 17A, 18C, 19D, 20B Grammar Digest 1 Exercises 1.1 & 1.2 1. Mrs. James called the police when her husband died. 2. While she was waiting for the police to arrive, she placed a bar of soap on the bathroom floor. 3. As soon as Mark Sutton, the detective, heard about murder, he rushed to the James's house. 4. Mrs. James took him to the scene of the crime as soon as he arrived. 5. While Mark Sutton was searching the bathroom for clues, he became suspicious of Mrs. James's story. 6. He saw that Mr. James died while he was brushing his teeth. 7. When Mark Sutton charged Mrs. James with murder, she insisted she was innocent. 8. A crowd of news reporters tried to interview Mrs. James while the police were taking her to jail. Exercise 1.3 2. He met Paul McCartney while he was attending high school. 3. While he was studying at high school, he formed the Beatles. 4. He was performing in clubs in Liverpool when he signed he first recording contract. 5. He fell in love with Yoko Ono while he was living in London. 6. John was working for peace and writing new songs when he died. 7. One of his fans shot him while he was leaving his apartment. Exercise 1.4 1. went; 2. was waiting ... came; 3. got ... worked/were working; 4. saw ... were; 5. realised; 6. were waiting ... talked and laughed; 7. was ... did not want; 8. left ... made; 9. was leaving ... said. Exercise 1.5 2. When I got home, I put the groceries away. OR I put the groceries away when I got home. 3. As soon as I finished my homework, I made dinner. OR I made dinner as soon as I finished my homework. 4. While I was making dinner, my brother came home. OR My brother came home while I was making dinner. 5. When I asked my brother if he was hungry, he got upset. OR My brother got upset when I asked him if he was hungry. 6. While my brother was explaining why he was upset, I loaded his plate with food. OR I loaded my brother's plate with food while he was explaining why he was upset. 7. When he looked down at the food on his plate, he calmed down. OR He calmed down when he looked at the food on his plate. 8. As soon as he started to eat, he apologised to me. OR He apologised to me as soon as he started to eat. Task Past: 2. He stopped smoking. Present: 1. He drinks a glass of wine with dinner. 2. He weighs 185 lbs. From Past to Present: 1. glasses; 2. headaches. Exercise 1.6 Past: 3, 4, 10, 9. Future: 2, 11. Present: 7. Began in the past and continues now: 5, 6, 8.

Exercise 1.7 1. John hasn't eaten ants. 2. Has Helena been to Hong Kong? 3. Adam and Kristen have seen a penguin. 4. Have you ridden a camel? 5. I haven't caught any fish. 6. Lauren hasn't shot a gun. 7. I haven't had a pet snake. 531

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8. Have you gone to the Galapagos Islands? 9. Larisa and Dora have stood in line for more than an hour. 10. Have you done something crazy? Exercise 1.8 (1) has had; (2) has not had; (3) was; (4) broke; (5) isn't smoking; (6) stopped; (7) hasn't smoked; (8) is wearing; (9) has worn; (10) drinks. Exercise 1.9 2. Do you wear glasses? 3. When did you start wearing them? 4. Have you worn them for some time? 5. Do you smoke? 6. When did you stop? 7. Have you smoked since then?/ since that time? 8. Have you had these headaches for some time? Exercise 1.10 Donor: haven't eaten Interviewer: Have you given Donor: have given Interviewer: has it been Donor: haven't donated Interviewer: Have you had Donor: haven't had Interviewer: Have you been Donor: haven't been Interviewer: Have you travelled Donor: have gone; have lived Exercise 1.11 Since: that time; 1987. For: three weeks. Exercise 1.12 (1) since; (2) for two hours; (3) since; (4) since; (5) since; (6) since; (7) since; (8) since; (9) for Exercise 1.13 1. F; 2. F; 3. F; 4. F; 5. U; 6. F. Exercise 1.14 1. He has worked for the TV station for eight years. 2. They have been married since 1962. 3. She has known how to fix a car for a long time. 4. Since his car broke down, Tom has been riding is bike to work. 5. I have wanted to go to China for several years. 6. My brother hasn't smoked since he stopped smoking in college. 7. I have been afraid of bats since I was a child. 8. My mother has been in France since last week. 9. My sister has been running two miles every morning since she was 15 years old. 10. They have been going to Spain every summer for 12 years. Exercise 1.15 1. Have you liked ice cream since you were a child? 2. She has sung with the Milan Opera for three years. 3. He's been an accountant since 1985. 4. Our parents have played tennis since we went college. 5. Grandma hasn't driven since she turned 85. 532

LIMBA ENGLEZ 6. Have your aunt and uncle been in Italy for a week?/ since last week? 7. Nick has played football for two years. 8. Their house has been a wreck since the hurricane struck. 9. She has studied in the library for three hours. 10. It hasn't rained since 5 a.m. Exercise 1.16 (3) have known; (4) since; (5) met; (6) have worked; (7) for; (8) showed; (9) taught; (10) for; (11) quit; (12) haven't worked; (13) since; (14) started; (15) eat. Exercise 1.17 1. a) 2. d) 3. d) Reading Digest 2 Exercise 2.2 A Suggested answers: 1 What would you say if I told you I was thinking of going to live in London? 2 (as in the passage) 3 The writer had been offered a job in the head office in London of the bank he was working for and he had accepted it. 4 hurt/angry/upset/sad/disappointed. 5 He was probably tired of the small village he had lived in all his life and wanted to see something of the world. 6 He probably took the job and went to live in London. Exercise 2.3.A a) stand by b) stand for Exercise 2.3.B 1c 2b 3a Exercise 2.3.C 1 for 2 by 3 for Exercise 2.4.A 1 hoping/wanting/longing 5 test 9 country/field 13 time 17 arrange Exercise 2.5.A 1 scientific 2 romantic 6 chemist 7 loneliness Exercise 2.5.B 1 between 2 among 7 among 8 between 4d 4 up to 2 looking/searching 6 latest 10 apart 14 reason 18 with 3 artistic 8 happily 3 Among 3 especially/particularly 7 with/to 11 in 15 rest 19 fill 5 pianist 10 activities 5 between 6 Among 4 out 8 for 12 tired 16 member 20 off/away c) stand up to d) stand for

4 specialist 9 similarities 4 between

between = 2 people, things or points among = more than 2 people, things or points Exercise 2.7.A Negative prefixes for words in column B: im-, un-, dis-, un-, in-, irExercise 2.7.B 1 incapable 2 inaccurate 7 disloyal 8 disorderly 3 impossible 9 unlucky 4 impolite 10 unhappy 5 irresistible 11 insensitive 6 irregular 12 unreasonable 533

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13 unwilling Exercise 2.8.A 1 when 5 unless 6 If 14 displeased 2 unless 7 when 15 unpleasant 16 inconvenient 4 if 17 incorrect 18 uncertain

3 in case 8 Unless

Exercise 2.8.B had been able, would have passed, had known, could have borrowed, would have been, had not wanted, had not stopped, might have run, had done, would have failed, would you do/would you have done, were driving/had been driving, happened/had happened, would do/would have done, should have done, had been, would have done, would not have changed, had made Exercise 2.8.C 1 went/were going 6 would get Grammar Digest 2 Exercise 2.1 1. was; 2. began; 3. flew; 4. told; 5. has flown; 6. has met; 7. has seen; 8. went; 9. saw; 10. has done; 11. jumped; 12. rode; 13. hasn't been; 14. crashed; 15. had; 16. had; 17. fought; 18. won; 19. has been; 20. have. Exercise 2.2 (1) have walked; (2) have seen; (3) took; (4) went; (5) have seen; (6) went; (7) had; (8) have eaten; (9) tried; (10) have spent. Exercise 2.3 (2) have had/have; (3) worked; (4) have traveled; (5) have learn; (6) went; (7) worked; (8) helped; (9) moved; (10) lived; (11) looked after; (12) worked; (13) taught; (14) returned; (15) was; (16) left; (17) gave; (18) came; (19) took; (20) have worked; (21) have experienced; (22) have enjoyed. Exercise 2.4 2. I've gone; I went 3. I've ridden; I rode 4. Have ever you been; Have you ever been 5. I've ever been; I've been 6. I've studied; I studied Exercise 2.5 Answers will vary. 1. I have (never/haven't ever) found a wallet in the street. 2. I have (never/haven't ever) flown in a helicopter. 3. I have (never/haven't ever) fought in a war. 4. I have (never/haven't ever) broken a bone. 5. I have (never/haven't ever) given blood. 6. I have (never/haven't ever) known a person from Greenland. 7. I have (never/haven't ever) had a car accident. 8. I have (never/haven't ever) worn snow shoes. 9. I have never/haven't ever built anything./ I have built something. 10. I have (never/haven't ever) traveled to other countries. 2 had not come 7 had been 3 to get 8 went 4 had been 5 started

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LIMBA ENGLEZ Exercise 2.6 1. (a) I have never tried; (b) I have never done; (c) Have you ever washed; (d) I have tried; (e) Did you try; (f) I used. 2. (a) Have you ever read; (b) have; (c) read; (d) forgot; (e) won. 3. (a) Has he ever been; (b) came; (c) Has he gone; (d) he has never been; (e) has travelled; (f) Did you take; (g) he has never visited. 4. (a) Did you go out; (b) We went; (c) I have never been; (d) I have eaten; (e) Have you ever tried; (f) We had. Exercise 2.7 (1) have decided; (2) went; (3) picked up; (4) took; (5) read; (6) has traveled; (7) has never been; (8) read; (9) has been; (10) went; (11) stayed; (12) returned; (13) has changed; (14) have heard. Exercise 2.8 Has been washing; has been living; haven't been sleeping; have been sleeping; have been hiking and (mountain) climbing; have been swimming; has been hiking; has been going; have been having; has been bird-watching; have been having. Exercise 2.10 2. She has been chopping onions. 3. She has been studying for a test. 4. He's been drinking. 5. He's been swimming. 6. They have been playing in the yard. Exercise 2.11 Answers will vary on your imagination. 1. He has been kissing his girlfriend./He's been celebrating his birthday. 2. They have been shopping/spending money. 3. They have been hiking/walking for a long time. 4. She has been doing her homework/studying for a chemistry class. 5. She has been eating a hamburger with a lot of ketchup./She has been writing a letter with a red pen. 6. He has been playing with a cat/working in a circus or a zoo. Exercise 2.12 (1) haven't been doing; (2) have been making; (3) have been running; (4) have been playing; (5) have been playing; (6) Have you bee playing; (7) have been practicing; (8) Have you done; (9) haven't hit; (10) have caught; (11) has hit; (12) told. Exercise 2.13 2. have been writing; 3. has been raining; 4. have been working; 5. has been barking; 6. has been spending; 7. have been looking; 8. have been living; 9. have been studying; 10. have been trying. Exercise 2.14 A. 2; B. 2; C. 2; D. 1; E. 2; F. 1; G. 2; H. 2; I. 1; J. 1; K. 1. Exercise 2.15 Answers will vary. Exercise 2.16 (1) have been riding; (2) have been taking; (3) have not been going; (4) have been eating; (5) have been cooking; (6) have been feeling; (7) have you been doing; (8) have been dating; (9) have been sailing; (10) have been skiing; (11) have been talking; (12) has been happening; (13) have been studying. Exercise 2.17 (1) have/'ve been trying; (2) have been calling; (3) have/'ve been hoping; (4) Have you been waiting; (5) have you been; (6) have/'ve been standing; (7) has started; (8) started.

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Reading Digest 3 Exercise 3.1.A 1B 2D 3C Exercise 3.2 1 salary Exercise 3.3 1 Since 7 after 13 like 19 forgive Exercise 3.5.A 1 borrow 2 lend Exercise 3.5.B 1 mistake 2 fault 2 money 2 fault 8 having 14 broken 20 advice 3 lent 4A 3 pay 3 was 9 result 15 short 4 wages 4 going 10 up 16 would 5 cash 5 interfere 6 made 11 told 12 wish 17 reason borrowed

4 borrow 3 error

5 borrowing 4 mistake

6 lending 5 error/mistake

Exercise 3.6 1 I have already discussed a further loan with my bank manager. 2 He has offered/offered to lend me 2600. 3 Now it seems there is/will be no problem about buying the car. 4 I have not yet decided exactly which car to buy/I am going to buy. 5 However, one of my friends has suggested that I (should) buy a Fiat Uno. 6 She bought one several years ago and is/has been very satisfied with it. 7 Another friend suggested/has suggested that I (should) buy a Volkswagen. 8 He says/said he has had one for six years and it is still going very well. 8 I will let you know as soon as I have decided which car will be/is the best for me. Exercise 3.7 1 yet 2 already 3 still 4 yet 5 still 6 already 7 still 8 already

Exercise 3.8.A A: does, will be, misses, will have B: will he get, takes A: will be, is, may A: gets, can, is, put, has already eaten, will not be B: will he do, am, gets A: are not, arrives, will have to B: go, will leave, can Exercise 3.8.C 1 If I were you, I would apply for a job as soon as possible. 2 If I spoke perfect English, I would not need to take the exam. 3 If he were taller, he would be able to join the police. 4 You will/would be rich if you win/won the pools. 5 You will not be able to travel next week unless you get a visa. 6 If the weather is nice next weekend, they will go to the country. 7 Unless you hear otherwise, I shall/will come at 8.15. 8 If I were the Prime Minister, I would change a lot of things. 9 If the bus leaves/has left by the time I arrive, I will get a taxi. 10 If my headache does not go/has not gone away soon, Ill take an aspirin. Grammar Digest 3 Exercise 3.1 1. a. larger than; b. more dangerous than. 536

LIMBA ENGLEZ 2. a. more nervous than; b. more comfortable. 3. a. hotter than; b. spicier than. 4. a. more intelligent than; b. better than. 5. a. better than; b. more exciting than. Exercise 3.2 (1) larger; (2) cheaper; (3) more expensive; (4) bigger; (5) more comfortable; (6) more spacious; (7) closer; (8) more practical; (9) noisier; (10) cosier; (11) safer. Exercise 3.3 Answers may vary. 2. Brattleboro is less populated than Los Angeles./Los Angeles is more populated than Brattleboro. 3. Brattleboro is cheaper than Los Angeles./A one room apartment in Brattleboro is cheaper than one Los Angeles./Los Angeles is more expensive than Brattleboro./A one room apartment in Los Angeles in more expensive than one in Brattleboro. 4. Public transportation in Brattleboro is worse than in Los Angeles./Public transportation in Los Angles in better than in Brattleboro. 5. The winter is colder in Brattleboro than in Los Angles./The winter is wormer in Los Angeles than in Brattleboro. 6. It's more dangerous in L.A. than in Brattleboro./ Brattleboro is safer than Los Angeles. 7. Brattleboro is cleaner than Los Angeles./Los Angeles is dirtier than Brattleboro. 8. Brattleboro is quieter an Los Angeles./L. A. is noisier than Brattleboro. 9. Brattleboro is more relaxed than Los Angeles./ Los Angeles is busier than Brattleboro. 10. Answer will vary. Exercise 3.4 (2) more practical; (3) as economical as; (4) cheaper than; (5) safer than; (6) better than/as good as; (7) easier; (8) older; (9) as cool as; (10) as nervous as; (11) as concerned as. Exercise 3.5 1. John is taller than Mary. 2. Seoul is safer than Los Angeles. 3. Paul is as intelligent as Robert. 4. Mary is not as beautiful as Kim. 5. My test scores were much worse than Margaret's. 6. Lorraine's eyes are darker than mine/than my eyes. 7. Jeff is more handsome than Jack. 8. My parents' life was harder than mine. 9. Is New York as exciting as Paris? 10. Is Lake Ontario cleaner than Lake Erie? 11. The Hudson River is as polluted as the Volga River. 12. Mexico's capital city is more crowded than America's capital city. Exercise 3.6 Answers will vary. 1. Felicia's shoes are dressier than Bob's shoes. 2. Bob's/Felicia's shoes are more expensive than Felicia's/Bob's shoes. 3. Felicia's shoes are newer than Bob's shoes. 4. Bob's shoes are older than Felicia's shoes. 5. Bob's shoes are more casual than Felicia's shoes. 6. Bob's shoes are bigger then Felicia's shoes. 7. Felicia's favourite movies are more emotional than Bob's favourite movies. 8. Bob's favourite movies are more exciting than Felicia's favourite movies. 9. Felicia's favourite movies are more sensitive than Bob's favourite movies. 10. Felicia's favourite movies are sadder than Bob's favourite movies. 11. Bob's favourite movies are funnier than Felicia's favourite movies. 12. Bob's favourite movies are sillier than Felicia's favourite movies.

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Exercise 3.7 Sentences will vary. Exercise 3.8 1. harder than; 2. more safely than; 3. better than; 4. more gracefully than; 5. more patiently than; 6. more openly than; 7. more easily than; 8. more freely than; 9. more easily than; 10. more clearly than. Exercise 3.9 3. Sally thinks as creatively as Bill (does). 4. Sally communicates more openly than Bill./Bill doesn't communicate as openly as Sally (does). 5. Bill plans more carefully than Sally (does)./Sally doesn't plan as carefully as Bill (does). 6. Sally works with others as well as Bill (does). 7. Sally acts more calmly in emergencies than Bill (does)./Bill doesn't act as calmly in emergencies as Sally (does). 8. Bill solves problems more fairly than Sally (does)./Sally doesn't solve problems as fairly as Bill (does). 9. Sally writes as clearly as Bill (does). 10. Bill works faster than Sally (does)./Sally doesn't work as fast as Bill (does). Exercise 3.10 Possible questions: 1. Does Sally work as hard as Bill? 2. Does Sally draw better than Bill? 3. Does Bill think as creatively as Sally? 4. Does Sally communicate more openly than Bill? Exercise 3.12 1. T; 2. F; 3. F; 4. F; 5. T; 6. T; 7. T; 8. F Exercise 3.13 Answers will vary according to your views. Some examples: 2. Boys score higher on math tests than girls./Girls score as high as boys on math tests. 3. Girls run faster than boys./Boys run as fast as girls (do). Task 1. a; 2. b; 3. a; 4. c; 5. c;6. b; 7.c; 8. b; 9. b; 10. b. Exercise 3.14 1. the largest; 2. the most valuable; 3. the most widely spoken; 4. the hottest; 5. the tallest; 6. the most crowded; 7. the most expensive; 8. the wettest; 9. the most nutritious; 10. the hardest. Exercise 3.15 1. C; 2. E; 3. J; 4. I; 5. F; 6. D; 7. A; 8. B; 9. H; 10. K; 11. G. Exercise 3.16 1. The largest; 2. The most popular; 3. The most successful; 4. The heaviest; 5. The fattest; 6. The most prolific; 7. The longest; 8. The biggest; 9. The hottest; 10. The fastest. Exercise 3.17 Answers may vary, depending on your viewpoints. 2. one of the most/least exciting sports; 3. one of the proudest moments; 4. one of the least expensive hotels; 5. one of the worst things; 6. one of the best desserts; 7. one of the finest doctors; 8. one of the greatest Jazz musicians; 9. one of the most beautiful sculptures; 10. one of the most tragic deaths. Exercise 3.18 1. ___ is one of the most beautiful cities. 2. ___ is one of the most interesting places in ___. 3. ___ is one of the best restaurants in ___. 4. ___ is one of the most famous leaders .... 5. ___ is one of the most dangerous diseases .... 6. ___ is one of the most serious problems .... 538

LIMBA ENGLEZ 7. ___ is one of the most popular foods in ___. 8. ___ is one of the funniest shows .... Exercise 3.19 1. Mount Logan is the tallest mountain in Canada. 2. Della Falls is the longest waterfall in Canada. 3. Lake Superior is the largest lake in Canada. 4. Toronto is the biggest city in Canada. 5. The CN Tower is the tallest building in Canada. 6. Montreal is the oldest city in Canada. 7. The Prime Minister is the highest government official in Canada. 8. Alert, the Northwest Territories, is the town that is the farthest north. 9. Jacques Cartier was the earliest European explorer. 10. The United States is the biggest trading partner. Exercise 3.20 Sentences will vary. Superlative forms to be used are: 1. the silliest; 2. the sleepiest; 3. runs the most quickly; 4. the most helpful; 5. sleeps the most lightly; 6. the most pleasant; 7. the heaviest; 8. the busiest; 9. the saddest; 10. drives the most slowly; 11. the best musician; 12. the most graceful dancer; 13. has the bluest eyes; 14. works the hardest. Exercise 3.21 Sentences will vary. Superlatives forms to be used are: 1. the worst writer; 2. the shiest; 3. the least interesting; 4. the least busy; 5. the worst singer. Reading Digest 4 Exercise 4.1.A 1 shoplifting 6 forgery Exercise 4.1.D 1C 2D 3B Exercise 4.2.A Verb to steal to rob to burgle to commit an offence to mug to murder to forge to shoplift to kidnap Exercise 4.2.B 1 robbery 2 burgled, stolen 6 thief 7 robber Exercise 4.3.A 1G 2C 3I 4B 5H Noun (crime) theft robbery burglary offence mugging murder forgery shoplifting kidnapping 3 burglar 8 shoplifting 6A 7F 539 4 theft 9 forgeries Noun (person) thief robber burglar offender mugger murderer forger shoplifter kidnapper 5 mugger 10 offences 2 murder 7 mugging 4A 3 theft 8 robbery 4 burglary 9 kidnapping 5 assault 10 minor offences

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Exercise 4.3.B grab possessions portable pick up manufacturer show up to hand reliable link install delicate vulnerable

Exercise 4.4 460,000 cars reported missing each year 20 the average age of car thieves - car thefts and thefts from cars in relation to overall crime Exercise 4.5 1 the 7 with 13 where Exercise 4.6 1 of 9 to Exercise 4.7 1 networks 6 detection 2 in/over 8 Despite 14 which 2 the 10 by 2 information 7 developments 3 have 9 quick 15 at 3 to 11 4 12 them 3 criminals 8 invention 4 were 10 when 5 them 11 away 6 spent 12 Next

5 which 13 age 4 forgeries 9 powerless

6a 14 is

7 15 go

8 its

5 fingerprints 10 prevention

Grammar Digest 4 Exercise 4.1 1. B; 2. F; 3. D; 4. G; 5. H; 6. A; 7. E; 8. C. Exercise 4.2 Sentences will vary. 1. You should explain that your heritage is important to you. 2. You should take her to a game with you. 3. You shouldn't do things just "to be like the other kids". 1. You should sit down with your husband and tell him what's on your mind. 2. If you both have jobs, he ought to do half of the housework. 3. You should take turns making dinner and washing the dishes. 4. You shouldn't pick up or wash his clothes if he drops them on the floor. 1. First of all, you shouldn't listen to your friends, but decide what's important to you. 2. You ought to talk to someone at your local community college about careers in nursing. 3. You should try to talk to a nurse about his/her work. 4. You should definitely change jobs if you're very dissatisfied. Exercise 4.3 1. must; 2. should; 3. must; 4. shouldn't; 5. shouldn't; 6. must; 7. should; 8. should. Exercise 4.4 1. should; 2. must; 3. must; 4. should; 5. should; 6. shouldn't; 7. must; 8. must; 9. must; 10. must; 11. shouldn't. Exercise 4.5 1. You had better study hard ... 2. You had better wash your clothes ... 3. You'd better not eat unhealthy food ... 4. You'd better make me proud ... 5. You had better not fail any classes ... 6. You'd better pay the tuition money back ... 7. You'd better not stay out late. 8. You'd better remember how hard you worked to go to college ... 540

LIMBA ENGLEZ 9. You'd better stay out of trouble ... 10. You'd better leave now ... Exercise 4.6 1. had better; 2. should/ought to; 3. had better; 4. should/ought to; 5. should; 6. had better; 7. should/ought to; 8. should. Exercise 4.7 Here are a few suggestions: 1. You should be more careful with your allowance. I can't give you more money every time you need some. 2. Do you think I ought to major in chemistry? 3. You had better quit smoking if you want to live much longer. 4. You shouldn't drive this car on the motorway. It's too old to go that fast. Exercise 4.8 1. must not; 2. should; 3. must not; 4. should; 5. had better; 6. must; 7. had better; 8. had better; 9. should; 10. should. Exercise 4.9 1. must; 2. should/ought to; 3. had better; 4. should/ought to; 5. had better; 6. must; 7. had better; 8. must; 9. should; 10. had better. Exercise 4.10 Answers will vary, depending on your advice and opinions. Exercise 4.11 (1) should; (2) could; (3) could; (4) could; (5) could; (6) could; (7) should; (8) should; (9) should; (10) should; (11) should. Exercise 4.12 Sentences will vary greatly. 1. He must bring a ... to the Bureau of Motor Vehicles. Explanation: identification is required. Must implies that it is absolutely necessary. 2. He could fail the ... if he doesn't learn all the rules of the road. Explanation: It's a possibility, but not a certainty. 3. He shouldn't be nervous if his has studied enough for the test. Explanation: It's normal to be nervous before a test. 4. He ought o ... before the test. Explanation: it's a good idea to practice parallel parking. This is simple friendly advice. 5. Angelica must get ... . Explanation: this is required for registration. 6. She ought to ... . Explanation: It's a good idea to register early so she can get the classes she wants. 7. She should find ... . Explanation: It's not necessary, but it's a good idea. 8. I must remember to buy her ... . Explanation: It's no obligatory, and I am free to do what I choose, but I will feel terrible if I don't, so a strong model is used. 9. I could bake ... . Explanation: It's a possibility or option. 10. I'd better remind my father about it. Explanation: My mother would be seriously hurt if he forgot about it, so it's very important that I remind him. 11. They ought to start ... . Explanation: It's always a good idea. 12. They must type .... . Explanation: It's obligatory. The teacher will not accept hand written papers. 13. They mustn't turn... . Explanation: They are required to turn it in on time, or take a lower grade. 14. David ought to call ... . Explanation: It's a good idea, especially if he's not sure what's wrong. 15. He should get ... . Explanation: It's a good idea. 16. He could take ... if he has a headache or fever. Explanation: It's one possibility or option. Exercise 4.13 Answers will vary. Exercise 4.14 2. e; 3. j; 4. g; 5. h; 6. i; 7. b; 8. c; 9. f; 10. a.

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Exercise 4.15 1. too; 2. not enough; 3. not ... enough; 4. too; 5. enough; 6. enough; 7. enough; 8. enough; 9. enough; 10. enough; 11. too; 12. too, 13. too. Exercise 4.16 Answers will vary. 2. ... not old enough/too young. 3. ... was too small/wasn't big enough. 4. ... have had enough/have eaten too much. 5. ... am not old enough to vote/too young to vote. 6. ... are too tight (for me to wear). 7. ... is too salty. 8. ... is too heavy for me to carry. Exercise 4.17 wasn't enough room too little room foe everyone only had a few chairs had too few chairs weren't enough glasses were too few glasses didn't get very much to drink got too little to drink wasn't enough cake was too little cake for everyone not enough people wanted to dance too few people wanted to dance didn't bring enough film brought too little film only has about ten wedding photographs has too few wedding photographs Exercise 4.18 (1) too many; (2) too few; (3) too much; (4) too much; (5) too little; (6) too little; (7) too many; (8) too much; (9) enough; (10) too few. Exercise 4.19 2. too hot to; 3. too small to carry; 4. too; 5. very; 6. very; 7. too busy to call; 8. too; 9. very; 10. too; 11. very; 12. too. Exercise 4.20 (2) not/n't bit enough; (3) enough; (4) too small to eat in; (5) enough; (6) very; (7) too, (8) too many; (9) not/n't enough; (10) too much; (11) enough; (12) enough; (13) too little; (14) too many; (15) not enough; (16) too busy to; (17) enough; (18) enough. Reading Digest 5 Exercise 5.1.A 1 Marks & Spencer 2 Confectionery Selector 3 She has to sample chocolates everyday. 4 15 years Exercise 5.1.B 1 binge 2 to sample Exercise 5.1.C 1F 2T 3F Exercise 5.3.C 1 Sam 2 Jo 7 Hannah 8 Emma Exercise 5.3.D 1 to enter (a new career) 4 to be noticed Exercise 5.3.E 1 talent scout/booker 5 skinny 4T 3 entire 5T 3 Sam 9 Jo 4 Emma 10 Hannah 5, 6 Emma, Jo 4 tasting 5 airy 6 overwhelming

2 to succeed (finally) 5 to travel 2 hindrance 6 chaotic

3 to organise (yourself) 6 to follow 4 timeless 8 bearable

7 to postpone

3 fashion shoots 7 weird

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LIMBA ENGLEZ Exercise 5.4 1 brought 8 moved 9 to Exercise 5.5 1 for 8 every 15 can

2 after 10 in 2 she 9 of

3 in 11 and 3 10 very

4 by 12 lot 4 only 11 your

5 went 13 in 5 12

6 for 14 the 6 might 13 made

7 into 15 visiting 7a 14some

Grammar Digest 5 Exercise 5.1 1. b & c; 2. a & b & c. Exercise 5.2 True sentences: 1, 2, 6, 8, 9 and 11. Exercise 5.3 (2) you do; (3) Does she have to; (4) she doesn't; (5) Do we have to; (6) must; (7) do we have to; (8) mustn't/must not; (9) have got to; (10) Do we have to; (11) mustn't/must not; (12) have to; (13) must; (14) have to. Exercise 5.4 1. You must/have to/have got to know how to drive. 2. You must/have to/have got to take an eye test. 3. You must/have to/have got to take a written test. 4. You must/have to/have got to pass a driving test. 5. You must/have to/have got to drive on the right. Exercise 5.5 1. have got to; 2. have to; 3. have got to; 4. have to; has got to. Exercise 5.6 1. have to; 2. have got to; 3. does Irene have to; has to; 4. have got to; 5. has got to; 6. has got to; 7. have to; 8. have to; 9. have to/have got to. Exercise 5.7 1. You mustn't dive ... 2. You mustn't go in ... 3. You mustn't take ... 4. You mustn't push. 5. You mustn't bring/have ... 6. You mustn't break ... 7. You mustn't have/bring pets/that dog here. 8. You mustn't eat or drink ... 9. You mustn't hit... Exercise 5.8 Answers will vary. 1. Peter has to lift weights on Monday. 2. He doesn't have cycle on Friday. 3. He must not exercise on Thursday. 4. He must not drink milk on Wednesday. 5. He doesn't have to swim on Tuesday. 6. He has to run twenty miles on Friday. 7. He has to rest and eat high calorie food on Thursday, but he doesn't have to take a sauna. Exercise 5.9 1. must not/mustn't; 2. have to; must not/mustn't; 3. doesn't have to; 4. don't have to; 5. you have got to/have to; 6. must not/mustn't; 7. has to; 8. doesn't have to; 9. have to. Exercise 5.10 (1) had to; (2) had to; (3) did you have to;(4) didn't have to; (5) don' have to; (6) Don't you have to; (7) don't have to; (8) has to/must.

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Exercise 5.11 (1) will have to; (2) will have to; (3) will have to; (4) will have to; (5) will have to; (6) won't have to; (7) won't have to; (8) won't have to. Exercise 5.12 In some cases, several answers are possible. (1) has to/has got to; (2) does he have to; (3)has to; (4) must/have got to/have to; (5) must/have to/have got to; (6) have got to/must/have to; (7) have got to/must; (8) don't have to; (9) will have to/must; (10) had to; (11) didn't have to. Reading Digest 6 Exercise 6.2.B 1 toxic 2 alarming 5 prone to 6 priority Exercise 6.2.C 1D 2C 3D Exercise 6.3 1 in 2 to 9 at 10 of 3 in 11 to 4 for 12 in 5 of 13 on 6 in 14 on 7 to 15 of 8 to 3 cocktail 7 seal 4 lung 8 curbed

Exercise 6.4.B 1 wood used for making things 3 plants grown for food 5 at the moment Exercise 6.5 1 believed/thought/said 6 the 11 created/made Exercise 6.6.A 1A 2E 3G 2 from 7 with 12 under 4C

2 a family of plants or animals 4 a period of ten years 6 something you buy 3 have 8 led 13 it 5F 6B 7H 4 on the grounds that 4 that 9 still 14 as 5 hit/struck 10 which 15 few

Exercise 6.6.B 1 volcanologist 2 temporarily 5 maddened 6 torrential rain Exercise 6.7 1B 2D 9B 10 D Exercise 6.8 1 hidden 6 regularly 3A 11 B 4A 12 B 5C 13 A

3 bankrupt 7 survived 6B 14 B 7D 15 B

8A

2 probably 7 unpacking

3 terrorists 8 lost

4 explosions 9 unzipping

5 bought 10 discovered

Grammar Digest 6 Exercise 6.1 1. Where would you like to sit? Would you like a table by the window? 2. Would you like something to drink? 3. Would you like sugar or cream with your coffee? 4. Would you like to order now? 5. Would you like me to get you something to eat? 6. How would you like your eggs? 7. Would you like me to tell the cook to make them over easy? 544

LIMBA ENGLEZ 8. And you sir? Would you like eggs too? 9. Would you like anything else? 10. Would you like some ketchup for the omelette? 11. Would you like anything else? Exercise 6.2 1. Would you like to ...; 2. Would you like to ...; 3. Would you like to ... coat; 4. Do you want/ Would you like a chair?/Would you like me to get you a chair? 5. Would you like...; 6. Do you want/ Would you like ...; 7. Would you like ...; 8. Do you want/ Would you like me to ...; 9. Would you like more coffee? Exercise 6.3 First Date: (2) Yes, thank you. I'd like that very much. (3) What kid of restaurant would you like to go to? (4) I prefer French or Italian restaurants. (5) What movie would you like to see? (6) Well, I'd really like to see... One year later: (7) (Do you) want to stay home and watch the football game? (8) Well, I'd really rather go country-western dancing. (9) Do you want to order out for pizza? (10) No, I'd rather have Chinese food. (11) Well, do you want to go bowling and eat at the bowling alley instead? (12) Sure. Exercise 6.4 Answers will vary. 1. Would you like some more ... (coffee)...? 2. Would you like some more ... (soup/cake)...? 3. Would you like to see ... (a photograph of something/my new ...)? 4. Would you like a blanket?/Would you like me to turn up the heat? 5. Would you like me to help you with that?/Would you like me to carry that for you? 6. Would you like to ...? 7. Would you like to borrow ...? Exercise 6.5 Answers will vary. All offers include Would ... like ...? All positive responses should include Thank you or Yes, please. All refusals should include reason for refusing and/or Sorry, but ... or Thanks anyway .... Suggested offers: 1. Would you like me to turn the video on? 2. ... some more pie? 3. ... my seat?/ ... to sit here? 4. ... me to mail these for you? 5. ... a ride to work? 6. ... a ride? Task (A) 2; (B) 8; (C) 6; (D) 3; (E) 5; (F) 7; (G) 9; (H) 1; (I) 4. Exercise 6.6 Sentences will vary. 1. Would you tell me which bus goes to the beach, please? 2. Could you tell me how often it stops here? 3. Would you mind opening the door for me? I've got my hands full here. 4. Will you wake me up half an hour early, please? 5. Could you show us where our seats are, please? 6. Could you bring your daughter along as well? Our daughters won't get bored together. 7. Could you please pick up the kids? I have a lot of work on my hands and I'll be late. 8. Can you lend me some eggs, please? I've run out and I'm making a cake. 545

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9. Could you tell me where the immigration building is, please? Exercise 6.7 Answers will vary. 1. Could you please tell me what time it is? 2. Could I have change for this dollar, please? 3. Would you mind holding my place in line? 4. Could you please move your chair? 5. Would you turn on the light, please? 6. Would you close the door, please? 7. Could you please speak a little more loudly? Exercise 6.8 Sentences may vary. (1) I'd like to, but I don't know where the cutlery is. (2) I'm sorry, but I have no idea where the dishes are. (3) I'm afraid I can't help you, the salt is not in the kitchen. (4) I'm sorry, but you know I'm allergic to cactus. (5) I'd like to, but I've used mine already. (6) Sorry, I'm afraid you're on a diet too. You aren't supposed to eat chocolate. (7) I'm sorry, I'm running late, I have to go. (8) I'm afraid I have to be in bed, as I have to get up early tomorrow morning. Exercise 6.9 Sentences will vary. 1. Could you sit back in the chair, open your mouth and point to the tooth that hurts? Yeah, sure. 2. Can you move it a little more to the left/right? No problem. 3. Could you use the wall to get your spine in a straight position. OK. 4. Can you scratch my back? You bet. More to the left, please. 5. Would you mind not smoking? Yeah, no problem. Exercise 6.10 Answers will vary. 1. Sure, I'd be glad to. 2. Yes, I will. 3. Of course. 4. Certainly, no problem. 5. Yes, I will. 6. I'd be happy to. 7. Yes, I will. 8. Sure, why not. 9. I'd be glad to. 10. Yeah, I guess so. 11. Yes, I will. 12. Certainly, no problem. Exercise 6.11 Requests for permission: 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 11. General requests: 2, 4, 5, 7, 9. 546

LIMBA ENGLEZ Exercise 6.12 Questions will vary. 1. May I spend the night at Suzie's? 2. Could you excuse me for a moment? 3. Do you mind if I smoke? 4. Would you mind if I brought a friend to class? 5. May I put one of these posters in your window, please? 6. Do you mind if I leave work early today? 7. My I open the window a little, please? 8. May I check this out? 9. Can I park here? Exercise 6.13 Answers will vary. All requests and requests for permission include: Can ...?, Could ...?, Will ...?, Would ...?, May ...?, and possibly please or Would you mind ...? 1. Would you mind if I handed in my assignment late? 2. May I close the window? 3. Can I ask a question, please? 4. May I speak to .... 5. Can I talk to .... 6. Could I have a cookie? 7. May I have another .... 8. May I help you? Exercise 6.14 Answers will vary. All requests and requests for permission include: Can ...?, Could ...?, Will ...?, Would ...?, May ...?, and possibly please or Would you mind ...? Responses can be non-verbal or they can include short answers, such as Yeah, sure. If requests for permission are refused, they should include a reason and/or Sorry, but ... or another "softening phrase". 1. May I use the phone? 2. Could you repeat that, please? 3. Could you please tell me if Flight #125 is on time? 4. May I borrow your car? 5. Will you mind buying me some film? 6. May I leave the room now? 7. Can I/would you shut the window, please? 8. Can you spare some time to talk with me? 9. Could I please change my appointment? 10. Can I have some tea? 11. Would you like to sit down? 12. May I hold your baby? Reading Digest 7 Exercise 7.1.B 1 for 2 would 3 9 10 goes 11 Exercise 7.2.B 1A 2A 3D Exercise 7.3 1B 2C 3C 4 in 12 any 4C 4C 5C 5C 5 when 13 much 6A 6B 7A 6 if 14 where 7 are 15 yet 8 very

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Exercise 7.4 1E 2D Exercise 7.5 1 so 9 yourself Exercise 7.6 1G 2A Exercise 7.7 1C 2A 9A 10 D Exercise 7.8 1 unsurprising 6 endless Grammar Digest 7 Exercise 7.1 1. T; 2. T; 3. F; 4. F; 5. T; 6. T; 7. F; 8. T; 9. F; 10. T. Exercise 7.2 1. b. Madonna didn't use to be a singer; she used to be a dancer. c. She used to be poor. d. She used to live in Michigan. 2. a. Bruce Springsteen used to have straight hair. b. He used to play football in high school. c. In addition, he used to live in New Jersey. d. He used to sing about blue-collar life. Exercise 7.3 Answers will vary, but all will include used to/didn't used to + verb. Questions are: 1. Where did you use to live? 2. ... what did you use to play? 3. ... what did you use to do after school? 4. ... did your parents use to read to you? 5. ... did you use to have? 6. What did you use to look like? 7. Who used to be ...? 8. Did you use to live ...? 9. Where did you use to ...? 10. Did you use to wear glasses? Exercise 7.4 (1) used to; (2) used to; (3) anymore; (4) used to; (5) anymore; (6) anymore; (7) anymore; (8) used to; (9) anymore; (10) used to; (11) anymore; (12) used to; (13) used to; (14) anymore; (15) used to; (16) anymore; (17) used to; (18) anymore. Exercise 7.5 1. a. Madonna used to have a big nose, but she doesn't anymore. b. Madonna used to be a dancer, but she isn't anymore. c. Madonna used to be poor, but she isn't anymore. 548 3A 2 of 10 3F 3B 11 B 4G 5B 6F 5 for 13 as 6H 6C 14 C 7C 6 one 14 be 7E 7A 15 A 8C 7 this 15 8 some

3 in 4 it 11 with 12 4D 4D 12 A 5B 5A 13 A

2 anger 7 understanding

3 pretense 8 arguments

4 dramatic 9 outcome

5 caught 10 unreasonable

LIMBA ENGLEZ d. Madonna used to live in Michigan, but she doesn't anymore. a. Bruce Springsteen used to have straight hair, but he doesn't anymore. b. Bruce Springsteen used to play football in high school, but he doesn't anymore. c. He used to live in New Jersey, but he doesn't anymore. d. He used to sing about blue-collar life, but he doesn't anymore. Exercise 7.6 but not anymore; no one has time; no one walks; don't have to think; don't use their heads; nobody eats; don't talk; isn't. 2. Exercise 7.7 1. T; 2. T; 3. F; 4. T; 5. F; 6. F; 7. F; 8. T; 9. T; 10. F. Exercise 7.8 1. anymore; 2. still; 3. still; 4. anymore; 5. still; 6. still; 7. anymore. Exercise 7.9 1. She always used to go dancing on weekends./She used to go dancing very often. 2. No, she didn't (use to have children). 3. Yes, she sometimes helps them/the kids with their homework. 4. She often used to travel. 5. No, she seldom/hardly ever used to cook and clean. 6. Yes, she often cooks and cleans now. 7. No, she doesn't. (She never goes dancing anymore.) 8. Yes, she does./Yes, she still goes to the beach. 9. No, she seldom/hardly ever goes out to eat (anymore). 10. She does the laundry every day. Exercise 7.10 Before accident: 2. He had never seen so many doctors. 3. He had never felt so much pain. 4. He had played tennis. 5. He had sailed. 6. He had had a dog. 7. He had been engaged to Debbie After accident: 2. He had a lot of operations. 3. He had to learn to get around in a wheelchair. 4. He needed a specially trained dog. 5. He got Bridget. Now: 2. He's learning to play table tennis. 3. He sails. 4. He competes in races. 5. He's engaged to Patty. Exercise 7.11 1. How many times had you been in hospital before the accident? Never./I had never been in hospital. 2. What sports had you played before the accident? I had played tennis and (I had) sailed. 3. Had you run in races? No, I hadn't. 4. Before Bridget, had you had a dog? Yes, I had. 5. Had you been engaged to Patty? No, I hadn't./I'd been engaged to Debbie. Exercise 7.12 Events which happened first (designated number: 1): 1. a; 2. b; 3. a; 4. a; 5. b; 6. b; 7. a; 8. b. 549

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1. He took the bus because his car had broken down. 2. Charlotte was depressed because she had failed he English exam. 3. Tanya's skin was very red because she had sat in the sun all afternoon. 4. We were really hungry because we hadn't eaten all day. 5. Brenda's clothes were too tight because she hadn't exercised for several months. 6. Neville couldn't sleep because he had drunk several cups of very strong coffee. 7. We thought the test was very easy because we had studied hard for three weeks. 8. The brothers fell asleep immediately because they had played soccer for several hours. Exercise 7.13 1. He slept late because nobody had .../ Because nobody had set the alarm, he ... 2. Nobody had done the laundry, so Allen didn't have ... 3. There wasn't any coffee because nobody had gone .../ Because nobody had gone grocery shopping, there .... 4. There wasn't any gas in the car, because Allen had forgotten to .../ Because Allen had forgotten to go to the gas station, there .... 5. His boss had told him not to be late anymore, so he was ... 6. He realized that he hadn't cashed hi paycheck when he got .../ When he got to the gas station, he realized that he hadn't .... 7. While he was driving, he looked in the mirror and saw that he hadn't combed .... 8. As soon as he got to work, Allen found that he had .../ Allen found that he had left his wallet at the gas station as soon as .... 9. When he noticed there were no cars in the parking lot, he realized that he had forgotten.../ He realized that he had forgotten it was Saturday when he noticed there were .... Exercise 7.14 2. He 1/locked the doors, 2/turned off the lights, and 3/went upstairs. 3. When he 2/got upstairs, he 3/realized that he had 1/forgotten to take out the garbage. 4. He 1/went back downstairs and 2/took out the garbage. 5. When he 1/went upstairs to brush his teeth, he 2/heard a noise. 6. By the time Mr. Wilson 2/got to the door, the noise 1/had stopped. 7. He 1/went back upstairs and 2/heard the noise again. It 3/sounded like someone crying. 8. He 1/went back downstairs, and again, before he 3/reached the door, the noise 2/had stopped. 9. By that time, Mr. Wilson 1/had gone up and down the stairs so many times that he 2/was dizzy. He 3/went to bed. 10. The next morning when Mr. Wilson 2/went outside to get the newspaper, he 3/saw what 1/had caused the noise the night before. 11. He 2/was surprised to see that the cat 1/had had kittens! : 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11. Exercise 7.15 1. Yes, he had let the cat out. 2. He was going upstairs to brush his teeth. 3. He went (back) downstairs when he heard the noise. 4. To take out the garbage./ He first went back downstairs to take out the garbage. 5. After he went upstairs./ He heard the noise after he went upstairs. 6. He felt dizzy because he had gone up and down the stairs so many times. 7. He had walked the dog and let the cat out. 8. He had walked up the stairs four times. 9. The cat had./ The cat had caused the noise. Exercise 7.16 1. Sue (had) studied several maps before she decided .../ Before Sue decided ..., she (had) studied several maps. 2. She checked the tires on her bike after she (had) .../ After she (had) changed .... 3. She (had) put fresh water in her bottle before .../ Before she left home, she (had) put .... 550

LIMBA ENGLEZ 4. She came to a very steep hill after she (had ridden)/rode .../ After she (had ridden)/rode for several miles, she .... 5. She (had ridden)/rode to the top of the hill before she stopped .../ Before she stopped to drink some water and enjoy the view, she (had ridden)/rode ... 6. She got a flat tire after she (had ridden)/rode .../ After she (had ridden)/rode for ten more miles, she .... 7. She fixed the flat tire before she .../ Before she continued her ride, she .... 8. She decided to go home after it (had) .../ After it (had) started to rain, she .... 9. By the time she got home, she had ridden .../ She had ridden over 30 miles by the time .... 10. She ate a huge plate of pasta after she (had taken)/took .../ After she (had taken)/took along, hot shower, she ate .... Exercise 7.17 1. because he had eaten 2. Jan was really confused 3. Graham has gone home 4. Howard was a lucky man / he has traveled 5. she had broken her leg 6. Before he had left the house 7. after she has graded them / Professor Westerfield always returned 8. your plane had left 9. they had missed the bus Exercise 7.18 (1) has not gone; (2) graduated; (3) had made / made; (4) broke; (5) was painting; (6) lost; (7) did not go; (8) has not visited; (9) has never been; (10) got married; (11) had not been; (12) came; (13) has met; (14) has not been.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Badalamenti, Victoria i Stanchina Henner, Carolyn, 1997, Grammar Dimensions, Book One, Heinle and Heinle Eastwood, John, 1992, Oxford Practice Grammar, OUP Kenny, Nick, 1996, First Certificate Passkey, Macmillan Heinemann Murphy, Raymond, 1995, English Grammar in Use, CUP ONeill, R., Duckworth M. si Gude K., 1987, Success at First Certificate, OUP Riggenbach Heidi si Samuda, Virginia, 1993, Grammar Dimensions, Book 2, Heinle and Heinle Veres, G., Cehan Anca, si Andriescu I., 1998, A Dictionary of English Grammar, ed. II, Polirom, Iasi

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