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INTRODUCTION The Brisbane River is the main tributay of the, it begins at the thingo and empties into the

southern region of moreton bay. The estuary gives its slogan the river city, as it snakes right through the heart. Since colonisation, the Brisbane river has been subject to much development and exploitation. THE PROBLEMS Capelin 1990 states that The health of a river is determined by the condition of its catchment. This promotes the notion that management should not be focused on just the river itself, however areas which effect the estuary through natural processes, which involves the catchment. It is thought that prior to European settlement (Holmes 1990), aborigines occupied the land for over twenty thousand years. (Dobson 1990) explains that exploitation of the river with detrimental effects also occurred pior to european settlement, however he says this may be negligible compard to the extent of degradation causing land change since colonisation. (Holmes 1990) investigates this further with supporting archelogical evidnece, explaining that Indigenous occupation prior to the 1800s had a significant impact on the estuary and its surrounding land. However, here stressed is the signinfcant difference between the two methods of environmental modification (pre and post European settlement). The former, while contributing to the extinction of some flora and fauna, promoted the survival of others. Similarly, indigenous land management strategies like burning acted to modify the environment to support the population, while promoting new life. On the other hand, modern technology as well as rural and urban development causes modifications detrimental to species which are counter-productive in terms of long-term human survival. It is with this observation and many like it that the issue of sustainability arises. Land and agricultural

Dredging Erskine (1990), defines degradation of a river bed as the extensive and progressive lowering of the river bed over time due to the sediment extraction rate exceeding the rate of sediment supply. Sediment transportation is beneficial to riverine environments, however when activities such as dredging disrupt the equilibrium between supply and deposition, it can have serious environmental consequences. The dredging of the Brisbane river began in 1862 (Hoffmann 1983) with two primary goals. Because estuaries are a natural highway for sorting and deposition of sediment, they are ideal sources for gravel and sand mining (Erskine, 1990), from which substances are used to produce construction materials like conrete. It is also carried out for navigational purposes, with the aim of increasing the depths of navigation channels, allowing vessels access to the upper reaches of the river. This project has included the cutting-back and quarrying of particular points and bends and the subsequent widening of the channel in that area. Such areas include Bulimba Point,

Kinellan Point, Kangaroo Point and Gardens Point. (Dobson,1990) (Inset Figure from Dobson) Environmental Impacts of Dredging The effect that dredging has had on the estuary has been as well documented as the dredging itself. While complete commercial and navigational dredging of the Brisbane river ceased in 1997, however there is no doubt that the profile of the river has been modified indefinitely. But there also has been an environmental downside. The erosion of riverbanks, and the deepening of the river has led to the conversion of what was once a short saltwater estuary to a tidal estuary over 60 km long, and salt-water mangroves once confined to Hamilton Reach have appeared as far upstream as Goodna. Neil (1998) talks of some geographical effects of dredging by explaining the upstream migration of saltwater mangroves approximately 64 km from the rivermouth, as opposed to only 9km in the 1840. An increase in depth of the river bed, and a widening of the river from subsequent dredging operations has converted what was once a short saltwater estuary to one which is now under tidal influence more than 60 km upstream. Sediment management must consider the sediment balance and its role in
the hydrological and hydraulic processes within each river. Sediment cannot be unrestrictedly taken out of the river system without negative consequences for a plethora of systems that depend on its functioning (Batalla, R. et al.)

Current and Potential Management

Management Future Management of the Brisbane River (Hegerl, E.J.) 1990 reviews the priority issues that require management. They include Nutrient loadings in river water Toxic Chemicals in the river system Tubidity Levels Sand and Gravle Supplies Flood Mitigation Navigation Dredging Green corridors (Restoration of riparian vegetation)

Hegerl, E.J., 1990. Future Management of the Brisbane River. In: The Brisbane River: A Source Book for the Future, 1990 (Davie, P., Stock, E.,Choy, D.L.) pp 421 427. Aus. Littoral Society Inc. and Queensland Museum, Brisbane

Erskine, W. 1990. Environmental Impacts of Sand and Gravel Extraction on River Systems, In: The Brisbane River: A Source Book for the Future, 1990 (Davie, P., Stock, E.,Choy, D.L.) pp 421 427. Aus. Littoral Society Inc. and Queensland Museum, Brisbane
Victoria Department of sustainability and environment, Freshwater Ecosystems Biodiversity management issues 2001, Parks Flora and Fauna Division

Land Use, Land Capability and Land Management, Capelin, M. 1990 In: Source Book for the Future, 1990 (Davie, P., Stock, E.,Choy, D.L.) pp 217 224 Aus. Littoral Society Inc. and Queensland Museum, Brisbane Silenced Rivers: The Ecology and Politics of Large Dams, by Patrick McCully, Zed Books, London, 1996 Some Aspects of the History of the Brisbane River, Mcleod, G.R. 1990 Physical/Engineering Aspects of the Estuary Dobson,J. 1990 Flow Modification and Flow Management Scenarios in the Brisbane River Catchment A. Arthington & T. Mosisch In: Tibbetts, I.R., Hall, N.J. & Dennison, W.C. edc (1998) Moreton Bay and Catchment School of Marine Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane. Pp. 143-152 Loneragan, NR. BUNN, SE. 1999 River flows and esturine ecosystems; implications for coastal fisheries. Aust.j.ecol. in press Control of Exotci Pest Fishes: An Operational Strategy For Queensland Fresh Waters, Department Of Primary Industries, Queensland, 2001 McKay, R.J & Johnson, J. 1990 Freshwater and Estuarine Fishes. In: Source Book for the Future, 1990 (Davie, P., Stock, E.,Choy, D.L.) pp 153 166 Aus. Littoral Society Inc. and Queensland Museum, Brisbane Wetzel, R.G. (1990) Land-water interfaces: Metabolic and limnological regulators Verh. Int. Verein. Limnol. 24 6-24 The Environment Shaped by Humans: An Overview (Holmes, J.) 1990 20 000 Years of Human Impact on the Brisbane River and Environs (Hall, H.J) 1990 Some Apects of the History of the Brisbane River (Mcleod, G.R.) 1990
The importance of sediment and sediment processes for river basin management (Batalla, R. et al.) European Sediment Research Network, London. http://www.sednet.org/download/WG4_riverbasin.pdf

Dredging banned on river Griffith C. Published 27 Oct 1996 in The Sunday Mail
Moreton Bay and its Catchment: Seascape and Landscape, Development and Degredation, Neil, D.T. In: Tibbetts, I.R., Hall, N.J. &

Dennison, W.C. edc (1998) Moreton Bay and Catchment School of Marine Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane. Pp. 3-54