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Banbury Mixer OEE Analysis

(A TPM Approach) Ceat Tyres, Bhandup Plant, Mumbai

ravi Ravi Agarwal IndianTechnology, GandhinagarGandhinagar g e Institute of technology, Indian Institute of 0|Pa Gandhinagar

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Acknowledgement
A summer project is a golden opportunity for learning and self development. I consider myself very lucky and honored to have so many wonderful people lead me through in completion of this project. My grateful thanks to Mr. D.Samantray ( Engineering Dept., Ceat Tyres, Bhandup Plant, Mumbai) who in spite of being extraordinarily busy with his duties, took time out to hear, guide and keep me on the correct path. I do not know where I would have been without him. A humble Thank you Sir. Ms. Mansi Nagar, (HR Department) monitored my progress and arranged all facilities to make life easier. I choose this moment to acknowledge her contribution gratefully. I would also like to Thank Mr. S.G.Patwardhan, who were there constantly to help me and make this project successful. Last but not the least there were so many who shared valuable information that helped in the successful completion of this project. Ravi Agarwal (IIT Gandhinagar)

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Executive Summary
The report studies the TPM methodology in detail and uses it to calculate and improve OEE of Banbury Mixer No.2 at Ceat Tyres, Bhandup Plant, Mumbai. Methods of analysis include plotting OEE trends on daily basis and Shift-wise for April-June, 2011. Further analyses include plotting of energy utilized and wasted on daily basis for the aforementioned period. Also graphs for the available time and plan given for production are plotted to have a proper understanding of the utilized time in production. Based on the above plots and analyses, a detail abnormality analyses has been done identifying their causes, effects and preventive measures using TPM methodology. The report finds that the current position of the machine is not positive. Average OEE being around 56% with world standard being 85% explains it clearly. The major areas of weakness require further investigation and remedial action by management. Improvement techniques an effective approach to TPM methodology. Its detail understanding by the company officials and its proper implementation step-by-step. This report also investigates the fact that the analysis conducted has some limitations. Some of them are: The data reported in the log books and the planning Departments sheets is assumed to be correct. Since there is no record of quality data for the concerned machine, the quality factor is assumed to be 100%.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION A OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE............................................................................................................... 5 SECTION B COMPANY PROFILE ...................................................................................................................... 6 B.1 B.2 B3 COMPANY HISTORY........................................................................................................................................ 7 PRESENT STATUS ............................................................................................................................................ 7 VISION AND MISSION........7

SECTION C BANBURY MIXER ........................................................................................................................... 8 C.1 C.2 C.3 MIXER CONSTRUCTION ................................................................................................................................ 11 HOOPER ASSEMBLY...................................................................................................................................... 11 MIXER BODY ASSEMBLY.............................................................................................................................. 11

SECTION D TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE (T.P.M) .................................................................... 12 D.1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 TPM CONCEPT ............................................................................................................................................. .16 TPM history..16 Eight Pillars of TPM.....16 Overall Equipment Effectiveness (O.E.E)....26 Benefits.....30 Implementation.....31 Organisation Structure for Implementation......33 Difficulties Faced in Implementation...34 Cost of Implementating TPM...34 Right Ingredients for a successful TPM ..35

SECTION E DATA ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................................... 36 E.1 E.2 E3 E4 O.E.E TRENDS .............................................................................................................................................. 37 ENERGY TRENDS .......................................................................................................................................... 44 Planning v/s Reality..46 Abnormality Analysis...48

SECTION F CORRECTIVE MEASURES .......................................................................................................... 52 F.1 F2 F.3 KAIZEN ......................................................................................................................................................... 54 STANDARD57 ONE POINT LESSON ...................................................................................................................................... 58

SECTION G CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................ 61 SECTION H BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................................ 62 SECTION I APPENDICES ................................................................................................................................... 63

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Objective and Scope


The objective of this project is to calculate and improve OEE of Banbury Mixer No.2 at Ceat Tyres, Bhandup Plant, Mumbai. In each and every manufacturing process, different machines have different functions. OEE is a common tool to measure every machines performance on a common matrix. It clearly tells how the machine is performing and how it should perform ideally considering all the factors. The analysis of OEE for any machine clearly presents its complete picture and highlights the main areas of concern and improvement. Looking at the global scenario, research has moved a step forward and now OEE analysis has become a common approach. Now the focus has been shifted to improve the performance of the whole process or line instead of concentrating only on a single machine. So, an effective model and strategy to improve the performance of the plant as a whole is the need of the hour.

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Company Profile

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On the road since 1958, CEAT has run up to be one of the best tyre manufacturers in the business. It not only make trailblazing tyres, but also market tubes and flaps. More than 3000 Cr annual turnover, an impressive list of clients and OEMs, various awards and certificates are statistics that speak for the company.

Corporate History: CEAT International was first established in 1924 at Turino in Italy and manufactured cables for telephones and railways. In 1958, CEAT came to India, and CEAT Tyres of India Ltd was established in collaboration with the TATA Group. In 1982, the RPG Group took over CEAT Tyres of India, and in 1990, renamed the company CEAT Ltd.

Present Status: Over 6 million tyres produced every year Operations in Mumbai and Nasik plants Exports to USA, Africa, America, Australia and other parts of Asia Network of 34 regional offices, 7 Zones, over 3,500 dealers and more than 100 C&F agents Dedicated customer service, with customer service managers in all four divisional offices, assisted by 50 service engineers.

Vision & Mission: Vision: "CEAT will at all times provide total customer satisfaction through products and services of highest quality and reliability." Mission: "To nurture an exciting and challenging work environment with fairness and transparency."

Tyre Range:Company caters to various segments which includes tyres for heavy duty trucks and buses (T&B), ligh t commercial vehicles (LCVs), passenger cars (PC), earthmovers and forklifts (Specialty segment) and 2wheelers.

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Banbury Mixer

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The Banbury Mixer is a brand of internal batch mixer. The "Banbury" trademark is owned by Farrel Corporation. Internal batch mixers such as the Banbury mixer are used for mixing or compounding rubber and plastics. The original design dates back to 1916.The mixer consists of two rotating spiral shaped blades encased in segments of cylindrical housings. These intersect so as to leave a ridge between the blades. The blades may be cored for circulation of heating or cooling. Its invention resulted in major labor and capital savings in the tire industry, doing away with the initial step of roller-milling rubber It is also used for reinforcing fillers in a resin system.

Design and Construction:-

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Mixer Construction:-Basic functional components of the heavy-duty internal mixer include the
mixer body, the hopper assembly, and the bedplate. The hopper assembly consists of the following: 1. The hopper is loaded with raw stock and compounding ingredients. 2. The hydraulically operated floating weight forces the material into the mixing chamber and maintains pressure on the material during the mixing cycle. The chamber assembly and the rotors do the actual mixing. They are contained in the mixer body. The discharge door is an integral part of the chamber assembly. It forms the bottom portion of the chamber and allows batch discharging. The bedplate support the latch assembly, which locks the discharge door closed during the mixing cycle.

Hopper Assembly :-To locate the hopper components

refer to FIGURE 2-2 HOPPER ASSEMBLY. The hopper consists of the floating weight assembly with a pneumatic cylinder and the feed hopper. The following paragraphs describe each of these. 2.2.1 Floating Weight Assy:The floating weight assembly is mounted to the piston rod. It consists of the piston, the piston rod and the weight cylinder. Hydraulic pressure allows the weight to be raised above the hopper-charging door. The operator then loads material into the mixing chamber and lowers the weight, forcing the material into the mixing chamber. An internal Rod Position Indicator (RPI) indicates the position of the weight. The position of the weight stop pins is shown in FIGURE 2-2 HOPPER ASSEMBLY. The pins support the floating weight in the fully raised position during maintenance. 2.2.2 Feed Hopper:Materials are fed into the feed hopper. See FIGURE 2-2 HOPPER ASSEMBLY, it consists of the hopper side plates, the charging door, the back door and the hopper cover. A single hydraulic cylinder operates the charging door. Open charging door only when the operator is loading materials into the mixer. Close before lowering the floating weight and leave closed during mixing and batch discharge. Bolts hold the hinged rear door closed. The rear door is equipped with hinges allowing the entire door to be pivoted open for maintenance. All screws holding the door closed must be removed to allow the door to open. Weight stop pins on each side plate support the floating weight in the fully raised position during maintenance. Manual stops in each side plate hold the charging door in the open position during maintenance. 2.2.3 Tell-Tale Rod Ram Position Indicator :-The hopper is equipped with an external tell-tale rod to visually indicate the position of the floating weight during the mixing cycle.

Mixer Body Assembly:- When bolted together the sides and end frames will form a structure that
can resist the extremely high mixing forces. The mixing cavity is formed by cylindrical interior surfaces of the chamber sides, the door top, the rotor end plates (which fit into the end frames), and the floating weight in the down position. The cavity encloses the rotors, which are the active elements in mixing. The mixer body has a drive end and a water end. The drive end refers to the driven end of the rotors; the water end refers to the opposite end, or the end into which the heating or cooling (normally water) media are introduced. The throat is a rectangular opening at the top of the mixer formed by the sides and the end frames. It is lined with replaceable throat and wear plates, as shown in FIGURE 2-3 MIXER BODY ASSEMBLY. 11 | P a g e

Total Productive Maintenance (T.P.M)

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TPM concept
TPM stands for Total Productive Maintenance and builds a close relationship between Maintenance and Productivity, showing how good care and up-keep of equipment will result in higher productivity. It is a philosophy of continuous improvement that creates a sense of ownership in the operator(s) of each machine as well as in their supervisor. It is a process of maintenance management that empowers the organization with a progressive, continuous philosophy of enabling all manpower resources to work together to accomplish the mutual goal of manufacturing efficiency. Modern manufacturing requires that the organizations, that want to be successful and to achieve world-class manufacturing, must possess both effective and efficient maintenance. One approach to improve the performance of maintenance activities is to implement a Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) system. Today, the competition has increased dramatically. Customers focus on product quality, delivery time and cost of product. Because of these, the company should introduce a quality system to improve and increase both quality and productivity continuously. Total productive maintenance (TPM) is a methodology that aims to increase the availability of existing equipment, hence reducing the need for further capital investment. Investment in human resources can further result in better hardware utilization, higher product quality and reduced labour costs. According to Roberts (1997), the TPM program closely resembles the popular Total Quality Management (TQM) program. Many of the tools such as employee empowerment, benchmarking, documentation, etc. used in TQM, are used to implement and optimize TPM. Williamson (2000) suggest that Total Productive Maintenance is the equipment and process improvement strategy that links many of the elements of a good maintenance program to achieve higher levels of equipment effectiveness. The five key elements or pillars of TPM include: 1. Improving equipment effectiveness by targeting the major losses. 2. Improving maintenance efficiency and effectiveness. 3. Life-cycle equipment management and maintenance prevention design. 4. Training for everyone involved 5. Involving operators in the daily, routine maintenance of the equipment.

Improving Equipment Effectiveness:This goal, which insures that the equipment performs to design specifications, is the true focus of TPM. All remaining goals for TPM are valueless unless they support improving equipment effectiveness. The focus must be that nowhere in the world can another company have the same asset and make it produce more than your company can produce. If it does, then it is better at managing its assets than your company and will always be the lower cost producer or provider. The equipment must operate at its design speed, produce at the design rate, and produce a quality product at these speeds and rates. A major problem occurs because many companies do not know the design speed or rate of production for their equipment. In the absence of knowing the design criteria, management will set arbitrary production quotas. A second major problem develops over time when small problems cause operators to change the rate at which they run equipment. As these problems continue to build, the equipment output may only be half of that for which it was designed. This inefficiency then leads to the investment of additional capital in equipment, trying to meet the required production output.

Improve Maintenance Efficiency and Effectiveness :This goal focuses on insuring that maintenance activities that are carried out on the equipment are performed in a way that is cost effective. Studies have shown that nearly one-third of all maintenance activities are wasted. Therefore, this goal of TPM is important to lowering the cost of maintenance. It is important for all to understand that basic maintenance planning and scheduling are

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crucial to achieving low-cost maintenance. The goal is to insure lean maintenance, with no waste in the maintenance process. A secondary goal is to ensure that the maintenance activities are carried out in such a way that they have minimal impact on the up time or unavailability of the equipment. Planning, scheduling, and backlog control are again all important if unnecessary maintenance downtime is to be avoided. At this stage, maintenance and operations must have excellent communication in order to avoid downtime due to misunderstandings. Developing an accurate database for each piece of equipments maintenance history is also the responsibility of the maintenance de-partment. This history will allow the maintenance department to provide accurate data for decisions related to the plant or facility equipment. For example, the maintenance department can provide input to equipment design and purchase decisions, assuring that equipment standardization is considered. This aspect alone can contribute significant financial savings to the company. Standardization reduces inventory levels, training requirements, and start-up times. Accurate equipment histories also helps stores and purchasing not only reduce downtime, but also avoid carrying too much inventory.

Early Equipment Management and Maintenance Prevention:The purpose of this goal is to reduce the amount of maintenance required by the equipment. The analogy that can be used here is the difference in the maintenance requirements for a car built in 1970 compared to a car built in 2000. The 1970 car was tuned up every 3040,000 miles. The 2000 car is guaranteed for the first 100,000 miles. This change was not brought about by accident. The design engineers carefully studied the maintenance and engineering data, allowing changes to be made in the automobile that reduce the amount of maintenance. The same can be true of equipment in a plant or facility. Unfortunately, most companies do not keep the data necessary to make these changes, either internally or through the equipment vendor. As a result, unnecessary maintenance is performed on the equipment, raising the overall maintenance cost.

Training to Improve the Skills of All People Involved:Employees must have the skills and knowledge necessary to contribute in a TPM environment. This requirement involves not only the maintenance department personnel, but also the operations personnel. Providing the proper level of training insures that the overall equipment effectiveness is not negatively impacted by any employee who did not have the knowledge or skill necessary to perform job duties. Once employees have the appropriate skills and knowledge,their input on equipment improvement needs to be solicited by senior management. In most companies, this step only takes the form of a suggestion program. However, it needs to go well beyond that; it should also include a management with an open doors policy. Such a policy indicates that managers from the front line to the top are open and available to listen to and give consideration to em-ployee suggestions. A step further is the response that should be given to each discussion. It is no longer sufficient to say That wont work or We are not considering that now. In order to keep communication flowing freely, reasons must be given. Therefore, managers must develop and utilize good communication and management skills. Otherwise, employee input will be destroyed and the ability to capitalize on the greatest savings generator in the company will be lost.

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Involving Operators (Occupants) in Routine Maintenance:This goal finds maintenance tasks related to the equipment that the operators can take ownership of and perform. These tasks may amount to anywhere from 10-40% of the routine maintenance tasks performed on the equipment. Maintenance resources that were formerly engaged in these activities can then be redeployed in more advanced maintenance activities such as predictive maintenance or reliability focused maintenance activities. It must be noted: the focus for the operations involvement is not to downsize the maintenance organization. Instead, the focus is to free up maintenance resources for the more technical aspect of TPM.

Cost-Benefit of These Goals:The questions now raised are: Are these goals all worth it? What are the benefits that have been achieved? These questions are answered positively and quickly because results are as follows: Productivity 100-200% increases 50-100% increase in rates of operation 500% decrease in breakdowns Quality 100% decrease in defects 50% decrease in client claims Costs 50% decrease in labor costs 30% decrease in maintenance costs 30% decrease in energy costs Inventory 50% reduction on inventory levels 100% increase in inventory turns Safety Elimination of environmental and safety violations Morale 200% increase in suggestions Increased participation of employees in small group meetings According to Environment protection Agency (2006), TPM engage all levels of an organization to maximize the overall effectiveness of the equipment. This method further tunes up existing processes and equipment by reducing mistakes and accidents. Whereas maintenance departments are the traditional center of preventive maintenance programs, TPM seeks to involve workers in all departments and levels, from the plant-floor to senior executives, to ensure effective equipment operation. Autonomous maintenance, a key aspect of TPM, trains and focuses workers to take care of the equipment and machines with which they work. TPM focuses on preventing breakdowns (preventive maintenance), "mistake-proofing" equipment to eliminate product defects and/or to make maintenance easier (corrective maintenance), designing and installing equipment that needs little or no maintenance (maintenance prevention), and quickly repairing equipment after breakdowns occur (breakdown maintenance). TPM is focused primarily on keeping machinery functioning optimally, minimizing equipment breakdowns and associated waste by making equipment more efficient, conducting preventative, corrective, and autonomous maintenance, mistake-proofing equipment, and effectively managing safety and environmental issues. The ultimate goals of TPM are zero equipment breakdowns and zero product defects. The other important goal is the total elimination of all six major losses, including breakdowns, equipment setup and adjustment losses, idling and minor stoppages, reduced speed, defects and rework, spills and process upset conditions, and startup and yield losses.

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TPM history
TPM is an innovative Japanese concept. The origin of TPM can be traced back to 1951 when preventive maintenance was introduced in Japan. Nippondenso was the first company to introduce plant wide preventive maintenance in 1960. With the automation of Nippondenso, maintenance became a problem as more maintenance personnel were required. So the management decided that the routine maintenance of equipment would be carried out by the operators. (This is Autonomous maintenance, one of the features of TPM). Thus, Nippondenso which already followed preventive maintenance also added Autonomous maintenance, done by production operators. The maintenance crew went in the equipment modification for improving reliability. The modifications were made or incorporated in new equipment. This lead to maintenance prevention. Thus preventive maintenance along with Maintenance prevention and Maintainability Improvement gave birth to Productive maintenance. The aim of productive maintenance was to maximize plant and equipment effectiveness to achieve optimum life cycle cost of production equipment. By then Nippondenso had made quality circles, involving the employees participation. Thus all employees took part in implementing Productive maintenance.

Eight Pillars of TPM

P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8

5S JISHU HOZEN (Autonomous Maintenance) Kaizen Planned Maintenance Quality Maintenance Training Office TPM Safety, Health and Environment

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Pillar 1:- 5S

TPM starts with 5S. Problems cannot be clearly seen when the work place is unorganized. Cleaning and organizing the workplace helps the team to uncover problems. Making problems visible is the first step of improvement. SEIRI - Sort out :-This means sorting and organizing the items as critical, important, frequently used items, useless, or items that are not need as of now. Unwanted items can be salvaged. Critical items should be kept for use nearby and items that are not be used in near future, should be stored in some place. For this step, the worth of the item should be decided based on utility and not cost. As a result of this step, the search time is reduced.

SEITON - Organise :-The concept here is that "Each items has a place, and only one place". The items should be placed back after usage at the same place. To identify items easily, name plates and colored tags has to be used. Vertical racks can be used for this purpose, and heavy items occupy the bottom position in the racks. SEISO - Shine the workplace :-This involves cleaning the work place free of burrs, grease, oil, waste, scrap etc. No loosely hanging wires or oil leakage from machines. SEIKETSU - Standardization :-Employees has to discuss together and decide on standards for keeping the work place / Machines / pathways neat and clean.This standards are implemented for whole organization and are tested / Inspected randomly. SHITSUKE - Self discipline :-Considering 5S as a way of life and bring about self-discipline among the employees of the organization. This includes wearing badges, following work procedures, punctuality, dedication to the organization etc.

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PILLAR 2 - JISHU HOZEN ( Autonomous maintenance ) :This pillar is geared towards developing operators to be able to take care of small maintenance tasks, thus freeing up the skilled maintenance people to spend time on more value added activity and technical repairs. The operators are responsible for upkeep of their equipment to prevent it from deteriorating. Policy :1. Uninterrupted operation of equipments. 2. Flexible operators to operate and maintain other equipments. 3. Eliminating the defects at source through active employee participation. 4. Stepwise implementation of JH activities.

JISHU HOZEN Targets:1. Prevent the occurrence of 1A / 1B because of JH. 2. Reduce oil consumption by 50% 3. Reduce process time by 50% 4. Increase use of JH by 50% Steps in JISHU HOZEN :1. Preparation of employees. 2. Initial cleanup of machines. 3. Take counter measures 4. Fix tentative JH standards 5. General inspection 6. Autonomous inspection 7. Standardization and 8. Autonomous management. Each of the above mentioned steps is discussed in detail below:1. Train the Employees :- Educate the employees about TPM, Its advantages, JH advantages and Steps in JH. Educate the employees about abnormalities in equipments. 2. Initial cleanup of machines :Supervisor and technician should discuss and set a date for implementing step1 Arrange all items needed for cleaning On the arranged date, employees should clean the equipment completely with the help of maintenance department. Dust, stains, oils and grease has to be removed. Following are the things that has to be taken care while cleaning. They are Oil leakage, loose wires, unfastened nits and bolts and worn out parts. After clean up problems are categorized and suitably tagged. White tags is place where problems can be solved by operators. Pink tag is placed where the aid of maintenance department is needed. Contents of tag is transferred to a register. Make note of area which were inaccessible. Finally close the open parts of the machine and run the machine.

3. Counter Measures : Inaccessible regions had to be reached easily. E.g. If there are many screw to open a fly wheel door, hinge door can be used. Instead of opening a door for inspecting the machine, acrylic sheets can be used. To prevent work out of machine parts necessary action must be taken. Machine parts should be modified to prevent accumulation of dirt and dust. 18 | P a g e

4. Tentative Standard : JH schedule has to be made and followed strictly. Schedule should be made regarding cleaning, inspection and lubrication and it also should include details like when, what and how. 5. General Inspection : The employees are trained in disciplines like Pneumatics, electrical, hydraulics, lubricant and coolant, drives, bolts, nuts and Safety. This is necessary to improve the technical skills of employees and to use inspection manuals correctly. After acquiring this new knowledge the employees should share this with others. By acquiring this new technical knowledge, the operators are now well aware of machine parts. 6. Autonomous Inspection :New methods of cleaning and lubricating are used. Each employee prepares his own autonomous chart / schedule in consultation with supervisor. Parts which have never given any problem or part which don't need any inspection are removed from list permanently based on experience. Including good quality machine parts. This avoid defects due to poor JH. Inspection that is made in preventive maintenance is included in JH. The frequency of cleanup and inspection is reduced based on experience.

7. Standardization : Upto the previous stem only the machinery / equipment was the concentration. However in this step the surroundings of machinery are organized. Necessary items should be organized, such that there is no searching and searching time is reduced. Work environment is modified such that there is no difficulty in getting any item. Everybody should follow the work instructions strictly. Necessary spares for equipments is planned and procured. 8. Autonomous Management : OEE and OPE and other TPM targets must be achieved by continuous improve through Kaizen. PDCA ( Plan, Do, Check and Act ) cycle must be implemented for Kaizen.

PILLAR 3 - KAIZEN :"Kai" means change, and "Zen" means good ( for the better ). Basically kaizen is for small improvements, but carried out on a continual basis and involve all people in the organization. Kaizen is opposite to big spectacular innovations. Kaizen requires no or little investment. The principle behind is that "a very large number of small improvements are move effective in an organizational environment than a few improvements of large value. This pillar is aimed at reducing losses in the workplace that affect our efficiencies. By using a detailed and thorough procedure we eliminate losses in a systematic method using various Kaizen tools. These activities are not limited to production areas and can be implemented in administrative areas as well.

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Kaizen Policy :1. Practice concepts of zero losses in every sphere of activity. 2. relentless pursuit to achieve cost reduction targets in all resources 3. Relentless pursuit to improve over all plant equipment effectiveness. 4. Extensive use of PM analysis as a tool for eliminating losses. 5. Focus of easy handling of operators. Kaizen Target :Achieve and sustain zero loses with respect to minor stops, measurement and adjustments, defects and unavoidable downtimes. It also aims to achieve 30% manufacturing cost reduction. Tools used in Kaizen :1. PM analysis 2. Why - Why analysis 3. Summary of losses 4. Kaizen register 5. Kaizen summary sheet. The objective of TPM is maximization of equipment effectiveness. TPM aims at maximization of machine utilization and not merely machine availability maximization. As one of the pillars of TPM activities, Kaizen pursues efficient equipment, operator and material and energy utilization, that is extremes of productivity and aims at achieving substantial effects. Kaizen activities try to thoroughly eliminate 16 major losses.

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PILLAR 4 - PLANNED MAINTENANCE :It is aimed to have trouble free machines and equipments producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction. This breaks maintenance down into 4 "families" or groups which was defined earlier. 1. Preventive Maintenance 2. Breakdown Maintenance 3. Corrective Maintenance 4. Maintenance Prevention With Planned Maintenance we evolve our efforts from a reactive to a proactive method and use trained maintenance staff to help train the operators to better maintain their equipment. Policy :1. Achieve and sustain availability of machines 2. Optimum maintenance cost. 3. Reduces spares inventory. 4. Improve reliability and maintainability of machines. Target :1. Zero equipment failure and break down. 2. Improve reliability and maintainability by 50 % 3. Reduce maintenance cost by 20 % 4. Ensure availability of spares all the time. Six steps in Planned maintenance :1. Equipment evaluation and recoding present status. 2. Restore deterioration and improve weakness. 3. Building up information management system. 4. Prepare time based information system, select equipment, parts and members and map out plan. 5. Prepare predictive maintenance system by introducing equipment diagnostic techniques and 6. Evaluation of planned maintenance.

PILLAR 5 - QUALITY MAINTENANCE :It is aimed towards customer delight through highest quality through defect free manufacturing. Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner, much like Focused Improvement. We gain understanding of what parts of the equipment affect product quality and begin to eliminate current quality concerns, then move to potential quality concerns.Transition is from reactive to proactive (Quality Control to Quality Assurance). QM activities is to set equipment conditions that preclude quality defects, based on the basic concept of maintaining perfect equipment to maintain perfect quality of products. The condition are checked and measure in time series to very that measure values are within standard values to prevent defects. The transition of measured values is watched to predict possibilities of defects occurring and to take counter measures before hand. Policy :1. Defect free conditions and control of equipments. 2. QM activities to support quality assurance. 3. Focus of prevention of defects at source 4. Focus on poka-yoke. ( fool proof system ) 5. In-line detection and segregation of defects. 6. Effective implementation of operator quality assurance. 21 | P a g e

Target :1. Achieve and sustain customer complaints at zero 2. Reduce in-process defects by 50 % 3. Reduce cost of quality by 50 %. Data requirements :Quality defects are classified as customer end defects and in house defects. For customer-end data, we have to get data on 1. Customer end line rejection 2. Field complaints. In-house, data include data related to products and data related to process Data related to product :1. Product wise defects 2. Severity of the defect and its contribution - major/minor 3. Location of the defect with reference to the layout 4. Magnitude and frequency of its occurrence at each stage of measurement 5. Occurrence trend in beginning and the end of each production/process/changes. (Like pattern change, ladle/furnace lining etc.) 6. Occurrence trend with respect to restoration of breakdown/modifications/periodical replacement of quality components. Data related to processes:1. The operating condition for individual sub-process related to men, method, material and machine. 2. The standard settings/conditions of the sub-process 3. The actual record of the settings/conditions during the defect occurrence.

PILLAR 6 - TRAINING :It is aimed to have multi-skilled revitalized employees whose morale is high and who has eager to come to work and perform all required functions effectively and independently. Education is given to operators to upgrade their skill. It is not sufficient know only "Know-How" by they should also learn "Know-why". By experience they gain, "Know-How" to overcome a problem what to be done. This they do without knowing the root cause of the problem and why they are doing so. Hence it become necessary to train them on knowing "Know-why". The employees should be trained to achieve the four phases of skill. The goal is to create a factory full of experts. The different phase of skills are Phase 1 : Do not know. Phase 2 : Know the theory but cannot do. Phase 3 : Can do but cannot teach Phase 4 : Can do and also teach. Policy :1. Focus on improvement of knowledge, skills and techniques. 2. Creating a training environment for self learning based on felt needs. 3. Training curriculum / tools /assessment etc conductive to employee revitalization 4. Training to remove employee fatigue and make work enjoyable. Target :1. Achieve and sustain downtime due to want men at zero on critical machines. 2. Achieve and sustain zero losses due to lack of knowledge / skills / techniques 3. Aim for 100 % participation in suggestion scheme.

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Steps in Educating and training activities :1. Setting policies and priorities and checking present status of education and training. 2. Establish of training system for operation and maintenance skill up gradation. 3. Training the employees for upgrading the operation and maintenance skills. 4. Preparation of training calendar. 5. Kick-off of the system for training. 6. Evaluation of activities and study of future approach.

PILLAR 7 - OFFICE TPM :Office TPM should be started after activating four other pillars of TPM (JH, KK, QM, PM). Office TPM must be followed to improve productivity, efficiency in the administrative functions and identify and eliminate losses. This includes analyzing processes and procedures towards increased office automation. Office TPM addresses twelve major losses. They are: 1. Processing loss 2. Cost loss including in areas such as procurement, accounts, marketing, sales leading to high inventories 3. Communication loss 4. Idle loss 5. Set-up loss 6. Accuracy loss 7. Office equipment breakdown 8. Communication channel breakdown, telephone and fax lines 9. Time spent on retrieval of information 10. Non availability of correct on line stock status 11. Customer complaints due to logistics 12. Expenses on emergency dispatches/purchases How to start office TPM ? A senior person from one of the support functions e.g. Head of Finance, MIS, Purchase etc should be heading the sub-committee. Members representing all support functions and people from Production & Quality should be included in sub committee. TPM co-ordinate plans and guides the sub committee. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Providing awareness about office TPM to all support departments Helping them to identify P, Q, C, D, S, M in each function in relation to plant performance Identify the scope for improvement in each function Collect relevant data Help them to solve problems in their circles Make up an activity board where progress is monitored on both sides - results and actions along with Kaizens. 7. Fan out to cover all employees and circles in all functions.

Kobetsu Kaizen topics for Office TPM : Inventory reduction Lead time reduction of critical processes Motion & space losses Retrieval time reduction. Equalizing the work load Improving the office efficiency y eliminating the time loss on retrieval of information, by achieving zero breakdown of office equipment like telephone and fax lines. 23 | P a g e

Office TPM and its Benefits :1. Involvement of all people in support functions for focusing on better plant performance 2. Better utilized work area 3. Reduce repetitive work 4. Reduced inventory levels in all parts of the supply chain 5. Reduced administrative costs 6. Reduced inventory carrying cost 7. Reduction in number of files 8. Reduction of overhead costs (to include cost of non-production/non capital equipment) 9. Productivity of people in support functions 10. Reduction in breakdown of office equipment 11. Reduction of customer complaints due to logistics 12. Reduction in expenses due to emergency dispatches/purchases 13. Reduced manpower 14. Clean and pleasant work environment.

P Q C D S M in Office TPM : P - Production output lost due to want of material, Manpower productivity, Production output lost due to want of tools. Q - Mistakes in preparation of cheques, bills, invoices, payroll, Customer returns/warranty attributable to BOPs, Rejection/rework in BOP's/job work, Office area rework. C - Buying cost/unit produced, Cost of logistics - inbound/outbound, Cost of carrying inventory, Cost of communication, Demurrage costs. D - Logistics losses (Delay in loading/unloading) o Delay in delivery due to any of the support functions o Delay in payments to suppliers o Delay in information S - Safety in material handling/stores/logistics, Safety of soft and hard data. M - Number of kaizens in office areas. How office TPM supports plant TPM :Office TPM supports the plant, initially in doing Jishu Hozen of the machines (after getting training of Jishu Hozen), as in Jishu Hozen at the 1. Initial stages machines are more and manpower is less, so the help of commercial departments can be taken, for this 2. Office TPM can eliminate the lodes on line for no material and logistics.

Extension of office TPM to suppliers and distributors :This is essential, but only after we have done as much as possible internally. With suppliers it will lead to on-time delivery, improved 'in-coming' quality and cost reduction. With distributors it will lead to accurate demand generation, improved secondary distribution and reduction in damages during storage and handling. In any case we will have to teach them based on our experience and practice and highlight gaps in the system which affect both sides. In case of some of the larger companies, they have started to support clusters of suppliers.

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PILLAR 8 SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT :Target :1. Zero accident, 2. Zero health damage 3. Zero fires. In this area focus is on to create a safe workplace and a surrounding area that is not damaged by our process or procedures. This pillar will play an active role in each of the other pillars on a regular basis. A committee is constituted for this pillar which comprises representative of officers as well as workers. The committee is headed by Senior vice President ( Technical ). Utmost importance to Safety is given in the plant. Manager (Safety) is looking after functions related to safety. To create awareness among employees various competitions like safety slogans, Quiz, Drama, Posters, etc. related to safety can be organized at regular intervals.

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Overall Equipment Efficiency (O.E.E.)


If you cant put a number on it, you cant measure it and, if you cant measure it,you cant manage it! OEE is a way to monitor and improve the effectiveness of our manufacturing processes (i.e. machines, manufacturing cells, assembly lines). OEE is simple and practical. It takes the most common and important sources of manufacturing productivity loss, places them into three primary categories and distills them into metrics that provide an excellent gauge for measuring where you are - and how one can improve! OEE is frequently used as a key metric in TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) and Lean Manufacturing programs and gives you a consistent way to measure the effectiveness of TPM and other initiatives by providing an overall framework for measuring production efficiency.

OEE Factors:Where Do We Start? OEE analysis starts with Plant Operating Time; the amount of time your facility is open and available for equipment operation. From Plant Operating Time, you subtract a category of time called Planned Shut Down, which includes all events that should be excluded from efficiency analysis because there was no intention of running production (e.g. breaks, lunch, scheduled maintenance, or periods where there is nothing to produce). The remaining available time is your Planned Production Time. OEE begins with Planned Production Time and scrutinizes efficiency and productivity losses that occur, with the goal of reducing or eliminating these losses. There are three general categories of loss to consider - Down Time Loss, Speed Loss and Quality Loss.

Availability:-It takes into account Down Time Loss, which includes any Events that stop
planned production for an appreciable length of time (usually several minutes long enough to log as a trackable Event). Examples include equipment failures, material shortages, and changeover time. Changeover time is included in OEE analysis, since it is a form of down time. While it may not be possible to eliminate changeover time, in most cases it can be reduced. The remaining available time is called Operating Time.

Performance:-It takes into account Speed Loss, which includes any factors that cause the process to operate at less than the maximum possible speed, when running. Examples include machine wear, substandard materials, misfeeds, and operator inefficiency. The remaining available time is called Net Operating Time. Quality:-It takes into account Quality Loss, which accounts for produced pieces that do not meet quality standards, including pieces that require rework. The remaining time is called Fully Productive Time. Our goal is to maximize Fully Productive Time.

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Six Big Losses

Defining the Six Big Losses:-One of the major goals of TPM and OEE programs is to
reduce and/or eliminate what are called the Six Big Losses the most common causes of efficiency loss in manufacturing. The following table lists the Six Big Losses, and shows how they relate to the OEE Loss categories.

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Addressing the Six Big Losses:-

Now that we know what the Six Big Losses are and some of the Events that contribute to these losses, we can focus on ways to monitor and correct them. Categorizing data makes loss analysis much easier, and a key goal should be fast and efficient data collection, with data put it to use throughout the day and in real-time. Breakdowns:-Eliminating unplanned Down Time is critical to improving OEE. Other OEE Factors cannot be addressed if the process is down. It is not only important to know how much Down Time your process is experiencing (and when) but also to be able to attribute the lost time to the specific source or reason for the loss (tabulated through Reason Codes). With Down Time and Reason Code data tabulated, Root Cause Analysis is applied starting with the most severe loss categories. Setup and Adjustments:-Setup and Adjustment time is generally measured as the time between the last good part produced before Setup to the first consistent good parts produced after Setup. This often includes substantial adjustment and/or warm-up time in order to consistently produce parts that meet quality standards. Tracking Setup Time is critical to reducing this loss, together with an active program to reduce this time (such as an SMED Single Minute Exchange of Dies program). Many companies use creative methods of reducing Setup Time including assembling changeover carts with all tools and supplies necessary for the changeover in one place, pinned or marked settings so that coarse adjustments are no longer necessary, and use of prefabricated setup gauges. 29 | P a g e

Small Stops and Reduced Speed:-Small Stops and Reduced Speed are the most difficult of the Six Big Losses to monitor and record. Cycle Time Analysis should be utilized to pinpoint these loss types. In most processes recording data for Cycle Time Analysis needs to be automated since cycles are quick and repetitive events that do not leave adequate time for manual data-logging. Startup Rejects and Production Rejects:-Startup Rejects and Production Rejects are differentiated, since often the root causes are different between startup and steady-state production. Parts that require rework of any kind should be considered rejects. Tracking when rejects occur during a shift and/or job run can help pinpoint potential causes, and in many cases patterns will be discovered.

Benefits
The main benefits of TPM are as follows: Increased productivity and OEE (Overall Equipment Efficiency). Rectify customer complaints. Reduce the manufacturing cost by up to a great extent. Satisfy the customers needs by almost 100 % (Delivering the right quantity at the right time, in the required quality). Reduce accidents. Follow pollution control measures. Higher confidence level among the employees. Keep the work place clean, neat and attractive. Favorable change in the attitude of the operators. Achieve goals by working as team. Horizontal deployment of a new concept in all areas of the organization. Share knowledge and experience. The workers get a feeling of owning the machine.

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Implementation
Announcement to introduce TPM Introductory Education Campaign for workforce TPM promotion (Special Committee) EStablish basic TPM policies and goals Preparation and Formulation of amster plan

Preparation

Invite Customers, affiliated companies and subcontractors. Kick-off

Develop an equipment management system Develop a planned maintenance program Develop an autonomous Maintenance program Increase skills of Production and maintenace personnel Implementation Develop an Early Equipment management system

Perfect TPM implementation and raise TPM levels

Stabilisation

The 12-step process is designed to implement TPM: Accomplish TPM acceptance; Create TPM support from management, unions and employees; Create enthusiasm and positive expectations for TPM; Develop a realistic custom installation plan; and Accomplish world-class results in a timely manner. Step 1: Announcement of top management decision of implementing TPM: - Top management needs to create an environment that will support the introduction of TPM. Without the support of management, skepticism and resistance will kill the initiative. Detailed TPM articles including TPM objectives should be clearly stated in companys newsletter, newspaper and magazine. Step 2: TPM education Program and collection of information: - This program will inform and educate everyone in the organization about TPM activities, benefits and its objectives. For managers: offer seminars/retreats according to level, For general workers: provide slide presentation. This step of implementing TPM also consists of collection of information about TPM and to understand how it works. TPM coordinator must understand what TPM is, how it works, its proper implementation sequence, the amount of effort that will be required, how it can be benefited for the plant, how long it will take to implement etc. Information resources include TPM conferences, TPM seminars, TPM books, magazines, the Internet, and conversations with consultants. (McBRIDE, 2004) 31 | P a g e

Step 3: Establish an organizational structure: - This group will promote and sustain TPM activities once they begin. Team-based activities are essential to a TPM effort. This group needs to include members from every level of the organization from management to the shop floor. This structure will promote communication and will guarantee that everyone is working toward the same goals. Step 4: Formulate basic TPM policies and goals: - Analyze the existing conditions and set the goals that are Result oriented, Specific, Measurable, Attainable and Realistic. Then predict the results. The established TPM policies and goals should be very much clear to everyone involved in TPM implementation. Step 5: Master plan for TPM deployment and its presentation: - After establishing TPM policies and goals, a detailed proposed master plan for implementation of TPM is prepared and proposal is presented to management. This activity can be carried out by a consultant, plant personnel, or both. Consultant involvement typically begins with a plant visit to observe production operations, learn about the equipment (type, function, condition, problems and losses etc.), study maintenance operations (structure, size and tasks etc.), gauge orderliness and cleanliness in the plant, and talk to employees to determine their motivation and attitude. The consultant then can develop and conduct the TPM presentation to management, including questions and answers, and covers the following: (Hartmann, 2000) TPM overview (What is TPM?). What TPM can do for the plant, its Expected costs and benefits? Sequence of its implementation. Customized implementation strategy. How management and the union must support TPM. How to get organized for implementing TPM. The presentation also can be made by plant personnel covering the same points with examples and impressions from seminars, conferences, and plant visits. The presentation should end with a recommendation to install TPM. Normally, management will make a positive decision at this point. This decision must include a commitment to strongly support TPM, carry out the necessary training and the feasibility study, appoint a TPM coordinator, and create the TPM steering committee. This plan will identify what resources will be needed and when for training, equipment restoration and improvements, maintenance management systems and new technologies. Step 6: Feasibility study & its presentation: - According to Hartmann (2000), every successful TPM installation has been preceded by a good feasibility study. The results of the feasibility study, will establish a base line, against which TPM results and progress can be measured and also helps in setting the realistic goals, based on the data obtained. A feasibility study typically includes two to six teams (five to nine members each). It will include overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) observations and calculations for 40 to 100 percent of important equipment. The study will evaluate the condition of these equipments and the required current & future maintenance activities. Skills of plant personnel, cleanliness or orderliness of the plant, and plant culture (attitude, motivation, and management style) will be studied also. Then Feasibility study results are presented. Both management and the union should be present in the presentation. The presentation should propose an installation strategy and identify a pilot installation. It should conclude with a recommendation that TPM is to be installed. At this point, management will make a second and final commitment to install TPM. Now, at this stage, almost everybody has had some exposure or heard about TPM during the execution of the feasibility study. The OEE results are typically much lower than management thought, creating a strong motivation to get going and improve the productivity of equipment and the quality of product. The feasibility study presentation meeting can be regarded as the TPM kickoff. Step 7: Pilot installation: A TPM pilot installation should cover between 10 and 25 percent of plant equipment, not just a few selected machines. There should be a minimum of six TPM teams to insure survivability of the installation. Areas appropriate for pilot installations are: where major 32 | P a g e

improvement is needed (too many breakdowns, delays, or idle time, or low capacity or productivity) and where quick success is likely. A good feasibility study is required for all pilot areas. All employees in the pilot areas must receive TPM training. Clear goals and deadlines must be established and team meetings must be held on schedule. Step 8: Plant-wide installation: TPM coordinators of most companies wait too long before expanding the TPM installation over the whole plant. There is no need to wait for final results of the pilot installation. A good and well thought out staggered expansion plan is important, as is a detailed installation plan for each additional area. Expansion initiatives should begin every 3 months (6 months maximum) using the same priorities and decision criteria as for pilots. Step 9: Introduction audit: According to Hartmann (2000), to insure good progress and a proper and successful installation, audits have proven to be very valuable. There are two types of audits: the first audit is fairly simple and checks if the TPM fundamentals are done correctly (teamwork, organization, tasks, PM development, etc.) and whether the program is on schedule. They are typically carried out 6-12 month after launch by internal or external specialists. Step 10: Progress audit: It is usually the last step before the certification. This audit will point out existing deficiencies (and opportunities) to bring TPM to a successful conclusion. The theoretical part of the audit will be done in the office with the team going over a lot of data followed by a practical part out in the plant around the equipment. The progress audit comes 18-30 month after launch to determine if and how: Preventive maintenance is carried out by the TPM teams. Equipment improvement activities have been executed according to schedules. Increase in OEE has been reached. The improved equipment condition has been accomplished and documented. The planned levels of skill have been accomplished. Step 11: Certification: The certification process is gaining more and more importance, because certificate is used to show to the customer that equipment and product quality have been improved and standard procedures are in practice to maintain the equipment to the highest levels. The International TPM Institute certification process is based on a strict set of certification requirements. Step 12: TPM Award: The final and most rewarding step of a TPM installation is achieving the TPM Award. The award testifies that your plant is world-class: highly productive, produces only top quality product, maintains its equipment in top shape, and has a culture based on teamwork.

Organizational structure for implementation:The results of TPM implementation depends upon the organization structure. Improper organization structure can lead to the failure of TPM implementation. A typical organizational structure for TPM implementation is as shown in following figure. For this purpose, a person should be made responsible for implementing TPM, i.e. a plant manager should be appointed as TPM coordinator. The coordinator will look over the whole TPM implementation process. According to McBRIDE (2004), TPM requires effective leadership from the top. That is the part of the meaning of "total" in Total Productive Maintenance. Without effective leadership that links TPM efforts to the business and holds the people accountable, for performing highly specified work, the equipment performance and reliability will continue to decline and TPM initiatives will be short-lived. Many of todays business leaders have risen through the ranks when maintenance was only responsible for "fixing things not for preventing problems. Viewing maintenance as a non-valueadding support function, many business leaders often subject the maintenance department to severe cost-cutting; this usually results in higher costs due to decreased equipment effectiveness. TPM is not like a standard project, which normally has a starting, and an end that seldom exceeds one year. Rather, TPM is a long range living program which can take more than few years to implement and enjoy the lasting benefits when the whole organization has become strategy focused, instead of evaluating one new program after another, before implementing TPM thoroughly. 33 | P a g e

Difficulties faced in implementing:Implementing TPM is not an easy task as it seems to be. A great infrastructure and commitment of all personnel from top level management to bottom level is required. According to Hartmann (2000), at least every second attempt of installation of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), results in failure. ChoyDS( 2003), concluded that implementing TPM is a dramatic organizational change that can affect organization structure, work-floor management system, employee responsibilities, performance measurement, incentive systems, skill development and the use of information technology. No wonder the success rate of such large-scale change is less than 30% for most organizations and thats why, the TPM is difficult to implement. A lot of problems have to be faced, while implementing it. Some of them are as follows: Sufficient resources like people, money, time, etc. and assistance are not provided. TPM is not a quick fix approach, it involve cultural change to the ways to do the things. Incomplete understanding of the methodology and philosophy by middle management. Many people treat it just another program of the month without paying any focus and also doubt about its effectiveness. Workers show strong resistance to any change. Many people considered TPM activities as additional work or threat.

Cost of implementing TPM:One of the most frequent concerns among the manufacturing plant owners is: What is the cost of implementing TPM? (Mora, 2002). The answer is: Cost of implementing TPM, is a formula where the components are already in plant: Maintenance programs in place. Age of the equipment. Pace to be taken.

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Some plants have excellent programs in place and have kept the equipment in very good shape, so the cost for implementing TPM in these plants will be lower than for those who have a bad program or none in place. Old equipment sometimes will face the high cost of parts if attainable. If a fast paced implementation is required, the cost per year will be higher. Facing reality: The cost of implementing TPM is not important. Compare it to a necessary surgery.

Right ingredients for a successful TPM:All implementers want the implementation projects to be a success. So, following are the factors that keep TPM from succeeding (Mora, 2002).

1. Positive Factors: Top management cooperation: It is the concrete factor that makes the efforts of TPM implementation a great success. Training programs: TPM discipline, while technical, is more cultural. Everyone in the organization must receive sufficient information on TPM. Therefore training programs/seminars should be arranged weekly/monthly for all levels of organization. Statements for boost up: Vision and Mission Statements should include the concepts like: Workers are the single most valuable asset in the company, all employees are company associates, or all employees are responsible for success etc. Management must be ready to complete the move all the way from the old image of "power from authority" to "respect and admiration from true leadership". A Preventive Maintenance program existence: It is necessary to have a good Preventive Maintenance program in place, to have clear identification of each piece of equipment and have some history. Complete information about equipment performance: To begin a project, research for all possible information about the actual, expected and designed performance of project is done. It is strongly recommended to establish a very good communication with the "owners", i.e. the operator of the machine, the area supervisor(s) and/or manager(s). Good communication skills of the TPM coordinator: TPM coordinator is the key person in the success of the TPM implementation. The mission of TPM coordinator is not only to train the implementer teams, but also to educate everyone else in the plant. Coordinator has to become an expert in TPM culture and explain it to anyone in organization. Full time worker(s) assigned to TPM tasks: The TPM philosophy require continual dedication and training. One/two full time persons are required to attend a minimum of one seminar each year on TPM. Follow up: Once a project is delivered back to the "owners", it is understood that TPM has just begun for that particular machine or system. The other 99% of the success will depend on the permanent communication that the coordinator establishes with the operators. This follow up builds up the confidence that the customers feel towards the project.

2. Negative Factors: Middle management: It is found that middle managers, supervisors, even some people at top, feel threatened in their positions by these changes. These people must be shown the advantages of sharing the knowledge and responsibility with the production operators. Maintenance Technicians: For years, maintenance has been considered as a repairing force. Now the focus must be on maintaining the equipment in normal operating conditions, thus preventing the failure. Many of the technicians feel that keeping some technical secrets, make them more valuable or their jobs more secure. This is not true. Under the new way of conducting business, the more the operators get involved in the maintenance tasks, the better the technicians can apply their expertise to higher level operations. 35 | P a g e

Data Analysis

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1. O.E.E. Trends:O.E.E is calculated the following way: Availability(A)- First, availability of machine was calculated i.e The time machine is available after subtracting planned and unplanned downtime from 24 hours. Then this time is divided by Total time i.e. 24 hours. Process Efficiency(P)- Secondly, Process efficiency was calculated by calculating the actual production time and dividing this time by the available time. Quality(Q)-Lastly, quality was calculated by dividing the unmixed batches by the total number of batches.

O.E.E= A*P*Q
Assumptions: Cycle time for some compounds was not available, so they are assumed to be 100 sec as average. A shifts detail Batch-wise Data was not availble in the planning departments report. So, the average cycle time for that shift was taken to be 100 sec per batch and 7 changeovers on an average for that shift. Since there is no record of the quality data of Banbury-2, the quality is assumed to be 100%.

Inference:-

The maximum O.E.E. during the three months is around 72% .The world standards is 85%. The O.E.E. for the month of April, 2011, is less scattered and concentrated between 60% to 70%.It shows good sign and focused improvement could lead to better results. During the month of May, 2011, O.E.E. went as low as to around 29%.The deviation is much high which clearly highlights uneven production and improper maintenance. During the month of June,2011, O.E.E. is quite varying and hasnt shown any great improvement considering chamber change as a major source of abnormality removal. The Average OEE for the complete three month period is around 59% and the world standard is 85%. The shift-wise plots for all the three months clearly point out that Shift 1 has the minimum O.E.E. The other shifts are considerably high than Shift 1 with Shift 3 being the highest. It should be noted that most of the department is present during Shift 1.

Below are the O.E.E trends for the April-June, 2011. The O.E.E. is analyzed both ways i.e. on Daily Basis and on Shift-wise Basis.

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2. Energy Trends: Here, daily usage of energy and daily wastage of energy are shown for April-June, 2011. The data is taken from daily and monthly reports of SCADA. Data from June 21-June23 is unavailable as the Banbury was not operated due to chamber change. There are no assumptions in this reporting as the data given by SCADA is plotted directly.

Inference: The graphs clearly show that during June and April, energy wastage was high.

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3. Planning v/s Reality : Here the plan given by the planning to the workers is analysed on the basis of available and time utilised from April-June, 2011. The following graphs show the Total time i.e. 24 hours, the time needed to execute the batches as per planning department and time taken actually. The difference betweeen the Red and the blue line show the machine downtime. The difference between the Blue and the Green line show the difference between the ideal time needed for operation and time taken actually.There is no account for such a huge difference as the workers sole motive is to complete the plan given in the available time. The change and set-up time is assumed to be 60 sec without any analysis of it, just by relying on some external standard. The loading and unloading time is assumed to be 40 sec without considering any other factors. An important point to note is at the process loss time is also included in the machine downtime which comes under the Process Efficiency Factor.Also the Process loss time is calculated from the SCADA time which is incorrect as it should be calculated by taking the Ideal cycle time into account as given by the Technology Department.

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4.

Abnormality analysis:-The following analysis is done with the help of SPARSH


team. I was a member of the team and worked with them. The team prepared a list of around 300 abnormalities which were then analyzed as follows :-

Abnormalities
Typical Engineering abnormalities 16%

Abnomalities due to Basic Faults 84%

This Pie-chart categorizes the abnormalities into broad two categories i.e. Typical engineering abnormalities and Abnormalities due to Basic faults. The proportion of the latter one clearly highlights the main area of concern and points to the sole fact of Getting the basics Right.

1.

Abnormalities due to basic faults:-

Abnormalities due to Basic Faults


Unwanted and Non-Urgent 22% Unsafe Place 16% Unfulfilled Basic Condition 52%

Contamination OF resources 10%

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Causes

Ignorance and Lack of Awareness 29%

No Standard 71%

Effect of abnomalities

Hindrance in Operation 23%

Accidentprone 39%

Wastage and Pollution 10%

Breakdownprone 28%

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Corrective Measures
OPL 9% Kaizen 11%

Make Standard 80%

As shown by the Pie-charts clearly, Out of a total of around 300 abnormalities, 84% are because of poor housekeeping and irresponsible attitude. Grouped under 4 main categories these include Unfulfilled basic condition, Contamination Of Resources, Unsafe Place, Unwanted and Non-urgent. This does not even include any specific technical flaw or error. Only 16% abnormalities are due to some specific technical problems which need some special knowledge. Collectively abnormalities under these four categories lead to most of the breakdowns, accidents, wastages and also prove to be a hindrance in operation as indicated by the above graphs. All these problems ultimately lead to increment in machine downtime and hence huge production loss. The Bar graph showing the causes for these clearly show that No standard and irresponsible attitude are the major reasons for all these problems Irresponsible attitude includes Lack of Awareness, Improper Maintenance etc. while No standard includes reasons like Improper routing of cables, poor housekeeping, improper provisions for oil collection.

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2. Typical Engineering abnormalities:-

Typical Engineering Abnomalities


Inaccessible Places 3%

Minor Flaws 97%

The above graph shows the trends in Engg. Losses. These include mainly two types of abnormalities i.e. Minor Flaws and Inaccessible Places which compromise of the problems like dirty parts, broken guards, choked up lines and broken up parts. The causes for these type of abnormalities are some technical problems some minor flaws in the process which have been occurring since long and are not taken care of and lead to major breakdowns at times.

Corrective Measures

Kaizen 45% Standard 55%

The above Pie-chart show the corrective measures which can be then implemented as One Point Lesson (O.P.L) to convey it properly to the whole Manufacturing Plant.

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Corrective Measures

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Initially a detailed Why-Why analysis needs to be done. Why-Why Analysis is a basic,


fundamental tool in the development of the Root Cause Analysis (RCA), so it is essential that each Leader in the implementation of TPM know this technique and transmit it to his/her work teams. It is helpful In finding the Root-cause of the abnormality. In categorizing it into the basic seven abnormality types. In finding the corrective measure for a permanent solution by making a Standard, One Point Lesson or a Kaizen.

Following is the sample of a Why-Why analysis sheet:-

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The main Improvement techniques can be basically categorized into three approaches: Kaizen Standards OPL

1. Kaizen:"Kai" means change, and "Zen" means good ( for the better ). Basically kaizen is for small improvements, but carried out on a continual basis and involve all people in the organization. Kaizen is opposite to big spectacular innovations. Kaizen requires no or little investment. The principle behind is that "a very large number of small improvements are more effective in an organizational environment than a few improvements of large value. It is aimed at reducing losses in the workplace that affect our efficiencies. By using a detailed and thorough procedure we eliminate losses in a systematic method using various Kaizen tools. These activities are not limited to production areas and can be implemented in administrative areas as well.

Major Kaizens at Ceat Plant:-The following are the major Kaizens to be done here:
Broken guards over machine parts to be replaced. Ergonomically and Unsafe work surroundings to be improved and properly Redesigned. Improper design for cable routing to be properly designed. Proper calibration of Pressure Gauges and other important parts of Banbury mixer.

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Kaizen sheet other documents format:-

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2. Standards:-This is one of the most important technique of implementing TPM and sustaining it.It is done by making the important and basic needed improvements as standards by documenting them. It ensures that from next time onwards, these problems are easily solved by using the documents as standards for solving it.It can be done through One Point Lessons (O.P.L) too which is explain in detail in the next technique. Major Standards that need to be made at Ceat Tyres, Bhandup Plant are as follows: Standard for Proper Routing of cables. Standard for avoiding slagging of cables. Standards stating removing of open cables. Standards for regular cleaning and improved housekeeping. Standards for identification of parts properly to avoid hindrance in operation. General Standards:-The following are the general standards:1. General Design Features: All unnecessary parts are eliminated achieving a minimum number of components to achieve an optimal equipment function. Reduce noise equipment operation. Minimize painted surfaces. Smoothest, cost justified surface finish. Equipment components and spare parts are selected from current set of equipment and spare parts. 2. Safety: All equipments fail safe on loss of utilities. Visible lockouts prevent all possible equipment operation. Minimum operator bending, stretching, reaching to routine work, adjustment and maintenance. 3. Cleanliness: Sources of contamination from all machine auxiliary systems to be eliminated. Sources of contamination from incoming raw materials to be eliminated. Sources of contamination from machine in contact with raw materials to be eliminated. Sources of contamination from environment eliminated. Minimum number of surfaces. Minimum horizontal surface area. All holes file and flush. Minimize the number of angles less than or equal to 90 degrees. Minimize the total area of equipment contact with floor. Minimize ladders, platforms and rails. Cable, conduit and piping routed for easy cleaning. No open channel for equipment frames. Round tubing preferred over non-round tubes. Eliminate all in accessible areas by equipment to equipment contact. Provide easy to clean tools when necessary. 4. Visual control/inspection: Easy access to all sections of equipment. Minimum instrumentation necessary to maintain the minimum necessary adjustments. All control devices clearly marked for intended function. Visual indication of normal operation range on all instrumentation displays. Positions clearly indicated for devices with multiple carry operation. 57 | P a g e

Directions of travel of belts and chains to be indicated. Visible thermal labels on heat sensitive equipments. Early visible detection of high wear items. Flow arrows on all pipings and tubings. Equipment internal components can be visually inspected. Belt tension visibly indicated. Color-coded change parts. Plugged condition of air and liquid filters visible. Piping and tubing color coded for content.

5. Lubrication: Lubrication points easily accessible and easily identified. Lubrication type and quantity marked for lubrication points. Minimum selection of types of lubrication. Properly identify the type of lubricating equipment or tools. 6. Fastening: Minimum selection on types of fasteners. Critical fastening torque specifications indicated. Nut located on top for nut-bolt pairs. Minimize use of nut-bolt pairs, thread bolt directly into equipments. Grade of fastener consistent with type of service. Extend 3-4 threads past nut. 7. Quality: Unnecessary adjustment points eliminated. No tools required for adjustment. Consumer benefits related to quantitative product features. Equipment settings are easily established and do not change. Equipment settings changes are easy to restore. Visible and lockable adjustment points. 8. Maintainability: No tools required for equipment adjustment. Minimum or no tools required for maintenance. Minimize the tools for special use. Equipment components cannot be installed correctly. Easy to handle covers. Routine maintenance without equipment disassembly. Control logic limited to essential machine operation. 3. One Point Lesson (O.P.L):- A One Point Lesson is a 5 to 10 minutes learning tool, which normally take less than 15 minutes to write. It is a lesson on a single topic/point, on one sheet of paper. It normally consists of 80% diagram and 20% words all produced by hand. It is generally prepared by supervisors or group leaders and sometimes by operators. Pictures, charts, and graphics are emphasized rather than words. The OPL discusses a single topic or action being shared. The OPL is developed and researched by the employee doing the work to share learning with other employees doing the work. The creating employee at the workstation or during team meetings presents OPLs. The following are the significant themes for the effective development and use of one-point lessons:1. One-point lessons contain a single theme to be learned. 2. The information being shared should fit on one page. 3. OPLs contain more visual information than text. 58 | P a g e

4. Any text should be straightforward, easy to understand, and to the point. 5. When delivering the OPL, explain the need for the knowledge 6. Design OPLs to be read and understood by the intended audience in 5-10 Minutes. 7. Those who learn the OPLs continue to teach others. 8. OPLs are delivered at the workstation. 9. OPLs are retained for reference. One-point lessons can share information on basic knowledge (fill in knowledge gaps and ensure people have knowledge needed for daily production), examples of problems (communicate knowledge or skills needed to prevent and resolve problems), or discussion of improvements to equipment or methods (communicate how to prevent or correct equipment abnormalities). Types of OPL:1. Basic information sheet: essential basic information practical know-how and know-how of methods: Maintenance activities as e.g. filter changing. Small repair works. Setting of machine functions. Cleaning and checking. Lubricating. Reason for quality loss. 2. Problem case study sheet: teaches how to prevent recurrence of an actual equipment problem. 3. Improvement / Kaizen lessons study case: describes the approach and key measures in a successful improvement case study.

Major OPL to be implemented at Ceat Tyres, Bhandup plant are: Guarding the machine parts by aligning them properly. Damaged things to be immediately reported and replaced. After finishing the job, tools and materials should be put back to their original places. Proper arrangement of cable routing and avoiding cable slagging. Open cable should be immediately removed. Proper way of collecting oil to prevent oil spillage and improve housekeeping.

Below given is a picture of an OPL sheet. This is how the basic structure of the sheet should be

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Conclusion
As the report states that implementing Total Productive Maintenance is not a difficult task. However, it requires some customized training in order to succeed. The results of implementing an effective program in terms of increased plant efficiency and productivity are outstanding. It should be realized that a TPM implementation is not a short-term fix program. It is a continuous journey based on changing the work-area, then the equipment so as to achieve a clean, neat, safe workplace through a "PULL" as opposed to a "PUSH" culture. Significant improvement can be evident within six months, however full implementation can take many years to allow for the full benefits of the new culture created by TPM. Apparently, successful TPM implementation can achieve better and lasting result as compared to other isolated program because there is an ultimate change in people (knowledge, skills, and behavior) during the progress. The O.E.E trends clearly show the present status of manufacturing and resource utilization. The average O.E.E being around 59% with the world standard at 85% possess a serious question on the manufacturing facility, a 60 year old plant. The abnormality analysis clearly highlights the basic problems and points to the ultimate solution of an effective Total Productive Maintenance. At this crucial point of global competition, the implementation of TPM not a matter of liking it or following the fashion. While TPM was in the 60's, just an innovative thing, today it has turned into a survival strategy. TPM is capable of bringing a machine back to original condition and even better. The cost of postponing a decision of implementing TPM that has to make sooner or later, can be excessive.

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Bibliography
Planning Department , Ceat Tyres Bhandup Plant, Mumbai Engineering Department, Ceat Tyres, Bhandup Plant, Mumbai TPM concept and implementation approach o By Sorabh Gupta o P.C. Tewari o Avadhesh Kumar Sharma Banbury Mixer Manual, HF mixing Group,Inc CSM, Bake-Mark, BMW TPM management training, Pico Rivera Total Productive Maintenance and Maintenance management, Factory Strategy Group, LLC Total Productive Maintenance, Partners for creative Solution, Inc Total productive Maintenance, Workshop for East Midlands quality club Progress @ TPM, Official Newsletter TPM club India, December 2006 Overall Equipment Effectiveness, Shire Systems Limited Overall Process Effectiveness Model for Tyre manufacturing Industry, P. Nelson Raja, S.M. Kannan www.realibilityweb.com www.leanmanufacturingcoaching.com www.wikipedia.com www.google.com

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Appendices

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