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CHAPTER 1 1.0 Silviculture 1.0.1 General Botany 1.0.1.

1 A superior bamboo for planting on rocky mountains Regnum: Plantae Cladus: Angiospermae Cladus: Monocots Cladus: Commelinids Ordo: Poales Familia: Poaceae Subfamilia: Bambusoideae Tribus: Bambuseae Genus: Dendrocalamus Species: Dendrocalamus latiflorus

Giant timber bamboo. Latiflorus is very hardy and easy to grow; a preferred bamboo plantation species with delicious shoots and large, strong smooth timber. Very large leaves and classic form make it also highly ornamental. Our most vigorous growing bamboo; it handles strong wind and frost, and is suited to a range of sites with enough room for a plant that grows to 26 metres. This giant bamboo is native to southern China. Its dark green leaves can grow almost a foot and a half long and 3 to 4 inches wide. Bamboo is a common term for a large number of giant grasses that include many different species and varieties. There are two main types of bamboo. Runner types send out underground stems to varying distances and send up vertical shoots. These will grow in large thickets or groves if left
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alone. Runners are mainly found in temperate regions. Clump bamboos have underground stems that sprout vertical shoots much closer to their parent plants growing slowly outward. Clumpers tend to be tropical or subtropical. Bamboo has many uses worldwide from building materials to paper. Dendrocalamus latiflorus has wide range uses. It can be used as construction materials and woven into various production tools and living utensils, it is also provides materials for paper making and plastic industries. The shoot of Dendrocalamus latiflorus not only is full of nutrient, but also can prevent such disease as hypertension. It is suitable to be planted in the area with higher temperature and concentrated rain fall of nutrient, but also can prevent such disease as hypertension. It is suitable to be planted in the area with higher temperature and concentrated rain fall in summer. It grows rapidly in stone holes and on slopes and at foot of hills, therefore is a superior species for afforestation on rocky mountains and has the function of fixing soils. The suitable season for Dendrocalamus latiflorus to groe seedlings falls in mid Feb to late March when the highest survival rate can be obtained. One year old and one and half year old bamboos should be selected as mother bamboo for seedlings growing and buried with stock. Bamboo culms as well as shoots can be harvested after 4- 5 years.

1.0.2 Taiwanese Giant Bamboo

Common name: Taiwan giant bamboo, Mabamboo This is a medium-sized bamboo; 1425 m tall, internodes Thick walls, leaf 1540 x 2.57.5 cm, Internodes 2070 cm Inflorescence 80 cm long with many spikelets, Caryopsis 0.6 Vegetative propagation Culm cutting, layering, marcotting. DISTRIBUTION: Distributed wild in Myanmar and parts of Cultivated in South and South West China, Taiwan; it has

2070 cm, 820 cm diameter. long, wall thickness 0.53.0cm, 1.2 cm cylindrical to avoid.

neighboring countries, been introduced to the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, India, Vietnam, Japan and Meimung in China. CLIMATE AND SOILS: Mostly subtropical, up to 1000 m, frost resistant, tolerates 4C. It grows on rich soils in the humid tropics, with high rain fall. CURRENT RESEARCH: Work is underway on improvement for shoot production, Germplasm collections in Yunnan, China, including Taiwan. Cyctology 2n=72. UNTAPPED POTENTIAL: It can be more widely cultivated CONSERVATION STATUS: Limited work done, good on sandy loam soils. collection in Xishuangbanna area. Both wild and cultivated, two cultivars recognized USES: Structural timber, medium quality, commercially Sweet, edible, very good quality. Other uses include valuable species, shoots are production of quality furniture, chopsticks, crafts, basketry, and construction, paper pulp, thatching and ornamental. Leaves
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Used for cooking rice. Cultivars Meimung provides strong

structural timber, suitable for good quality furniture and superior edible shoots. Taiwan giant bamboo ( Dendrocalamus latiflorus ) is the most important commercial and native bamboo species in Mainland China. The vertical distribution of Taiwan giant bamboo is from sea level up to 1000 meters. The main use of these bamboo species are shoot production and culms utilization. The properties of the culms are determined by its unique anatomical structure in the vertical and horizontal direction of culms wall, such length, diameter, thickness and their distribution of vascular bundle and fiber. The Taiwan giant bamboo is used in bamboo raft, provincial furniture, tools for farm, fishing or pasturage and handicraft articles. The residual materials of these bamboo culms were generally used for religious paper making. This giant bamboo is native to southern China. Its dark green leaves can grow almost a foot and a half long and 3 to 4 inches wide Light culms have dark green stripes. Latiflorus is very hardy and easy to grow; a preferred bamboo plantation species with delicious shoots and large, strong smooth timber. Very large leaves and classic form make it also highly ornamental. Our most vigorous growing bamboo; it handles strong wind and frost, and is suited to a range of sites with enough room for a plant that grows to 26 meters. Sympodial bamboos have higher demands for temperature and humidity, and in China they are mainly distributed to the south of the
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Nanling Mountains and in the Sichuan basin. Different species have different requirements for humidity and temperature. For example Dendrocalamus latiflorus require annual average temperatures of 1820C, average January temperatures of about 6-8C and annual precipitation of more than 1400 mm. The plantation should be located on foothills and river banks under 200-300 meters above sea level. A relatively level site is required with deep, loose, fertile sandy loam. Dry and barren, rocky or very clayey soil is not suitable for sympodial bamboos.

1.0.2.1 Distribution of Dendrocalamus latiflorus

CHAPTER 2 2.0 Anatomical Characteristic Taiwan Giant Bamboo is the typically economical bamboo species of pachymorph and leptomorph type rhizomes in Taiwan. The numbers of vascular bundle per square mm decreases from the outer part to the inner part of culm wall and maintain one to two bundles after 4 to 5 mm from the outer part. The largest vessel diameter of Taiwan Giant Bamboo occurs in the 10th internode and the top of culm respectively. The shortest fiber length in the cross section is in the epidermal zone, while in the longitudinal direction the smallest value is found between the 10 th and 18th internode. Within one internode, the shortest one shows in the node and longest is in the middle part of the internode. The highest percentage of fiber displays in the outmost part of the culm and the lowest is near the innermost. The sample culms were collected from the Experimental Forest of National Taiwan University in central Taiwan, approx. elevation 800-1000 m. While the age of bamboo is not related to DBH and height, the wall thickness has significant influence on the anatomical structure. Five hundred bamboo culms of each species were investigated to determine the mean diameter, which is 8.3 cm; one-four year old healthy bamboo was collected depending on the mean diameter. To studying fiber length, pieces of culm were macerated by using 1:5:4 hydrogen peroxide: acetic acid: distilled water mixture at room temperature. Separated fibers were thoroughly mixed and stained with 5% saframin-O. Length measurements of 50 unbroken fibers were taken from each internode. The culm wall was microtome in transverse, tangential and radial directions in 10 to 20um thicknesses. The image analysis system for personal computer was used to
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measure the fiber length, diameter of vessels, density of vascular bundles and other anatomical properties.
2.1

Epidermal Tissue

The epidermal tissue is the outermost layer of cells and with some other high molecular weight material. The main functions of the epidermis are water retention and shielding the DNA of the cells from ultraviolet light. Cutin is completely indigestible. No known substance can metabolize it. Thus, it provides an excellent protection against fungi and bacteria (Mauseth, 1988). There are two kinds of cells in the epidermis. The long shaped cells are vertical arrangement. The diameter in radial is about 4-8 um and the length in longitudinal of cells is 12-42 um. The short cells are interspersed among long shaped cells. There are two kinds of short cells, the cork cells and the silica cells. The cork cells are roughly square shaped in tangential section. It appears triangle shaped in radial section of epidermis. The silica cells are flat or small circle shaped in tangential view, and appear triangle shaped in radial section. However the bottom side is on the outer wall of epidermis, just opposite to cork cells. The silica cells contain large amounts of silicon dioxide which serves to strengthen the epidermal layer and to prevent damage from the environment. This layer serves the same function in bamboo that bark serves in dicotyledons. 2.1.1 Stomata and guard cells The stomata are distributed evenly all over the epidermis to control inflow and outflow of water and carbon dioxide. The guard cells together with the adjacent cells are distinct in size, shape or cell contents. They are termed the subsidiary cell, and are arranged in paracytic type.
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This is one of the five most common types (Mausethm 1988). The guard cells and subsidiary cells are arranged vertically parallel to the epidermis. Therefore the epidermis of the bamboo culm is also arranged vertical. The stomatal cavity on the epidermis of one year old Taiwan giant bamboo is formed by the build up of wax. The structure of stomatal cavity can reduce moisture losses at normal air diffusion levels, because the interior surface area of the cavity increases the surface area available for moisture diffusion. The stomata are found on all parts of the plant body, especially the leaves and stems. The ad axial surfaces of leaves typically have about 100 stomata/sq.mm; in many deciduous trees the density can be ten times as high. Very low densities occur in certain cloud forest plant. Opening and closing of the stomata are controlled by changing the water potential of the cells by potassium ions. The basic type of guard cells occurring in bamboo is dumb bell shaped. The wall adjacent to the pore is thicker than the opposite wall. The opening of these stomata is cause by swelling of the adjacent guard cells which arch into a crescent shape. A more recent hypothesis has proposed that the orientation of the micro fibrils in the ventral wall, when the dorsal wall swell outward, the micro fibrils allow it to pull ventral wall with it to open the stoma, (Palevitz & Hepler, 1976). The guard cells and pore are together called stoma, and the stoma together with the subsidiary cells called the stomatal complex. Transmission between these two cell types depends on the difference of potassium ions, hydrogen ions and sugars.
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2.2

Fiber

2.2.1 Length 2.2.1.1 Radial direction The fiber length was measured at every one millimeter from the epidermal layer to the pith peripheral layer. The shortest fiber length occurred in the first millimeter of the outer culm wall. The fiber length increases toward the middle part of the culm wall. At the distance about 5-7 mm from the epidermal layer, the fiber length increase from 1.619 mm to between 2.028 and 2.759 mm. the fiber length decreases from the middle part to the inner part of the culm wall. 2.2.1.2 Axial direction The length increases from the base of the culm and reaches maximum at the 10-14th internode and decreases to the top of culm. The average fiber length is 2.247 mm at the base internode and the maximum fiber length occurs at height range 3.77- 5.60 m above ground level. 2.2.1.3 Single internode The fiber length at the lower node of second internode above the ground is 1.522 mm; the upper node of the same
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internode is 1.385 mm and 1.251 mm. In the middle part of internode, the maximum fiber length reaches to 2.491 mm. 2.3 Ground Tissue 2.3.1 Cortical parenchyma The cortical parenchyma is located between the epidermal and the vascular bundle, tissue layer. It contacts with the culm parenchyma without an evident boundary. The shape of the parenchyma cells change, especially with respect to the size, from cortical to inner culm. The cortical parenchyma cell of this bamboo appears circle shaped in cross section. The average diameter of outer cortical parenchyma is about 9.1 um and average diameter of inner cortical parenchyma is about 14.3 um. The rows of cortical parenchyma differ in this bamboo. The former has 6-8 rows and the latter has 9-11 rows. Cortical parenchyma cells are characterized by thick walls with a polylamellate structure. There are 5-7 lamellate. The inner part of cortical parenchyma cell wall has 7-9 lamellate, decreasing from the outer cortical parenchyma to the inner. The cells showed different shapes viewed from a radial section appearing square or short rectangular. The pits of cortical parenchyma occur both of longitudinal wall and also in the end wall. The diameter of the pit aperture is about 0.4-0.6 um; sometimes the inner aperture is larger than the outer. There is intercellular space in cortical parenchyma. 2.3.2 Culm parenchyma

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The vascular bundles are scattered in this ground tissue. The total culm comprises about half of the culm parenchyma with some variation according to species. The culm parenchyma is small in the outer parts of the culm wall and become large towards the pith cavity. Diameter ranges from about 10-65 um. The culm parenchyma cells are almost cylindrical and mostly vertically clongated. Another type of cell is short cylindrical ones interspersed in between. The mean cell wall thickness is 1.2 um. The parenchyma cell in vascular bundles and ground tissue are characterized by a polylamellate wall, which consist of alternately wide and narrow lamellate. The number of lamellate is about 3-11 layers (Hsieh, 1985); some of them can reach 15 lamellate (Parameswaran & Liese 1976). The width of the wide lamellate is about 0.1-0.45 um; the narrow ones about 0.05 0.25 um. 2.3.3 Parenchyma of pith periphery There is complete pith in the early development of bamboo shoots consisting of thin walled parenchyma. The process of cell division and enlargement around the pith cause the cell of pith to form a cavity. The parenchyma of pith periphery is oriented in the tangential direction. The shape from culm parenchyma to pith periphery, changes gradually; the culm parenchyma is circle shaped and the parenchyma of pith periphery nearly rectangular in cross section. The radial length of parenchyma in the pith periphery is 12-30 um and longitudinal height is about 8-22 um. The wall thickness of

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parenchyma in the pith periphery is about 1.5 timers greater than that found in ground tissue culm parenchyma. This study showed the parenchyma of pith periphery is small but possessed a thick wall. The percentage of cell wall is higher than the parenchyma in the culm. Therefore, the specific gravity is also higher in this area (Wu & Hsieh, 1990) 2.4 Membrane tissue of pith cavity There is a thin fibrous layer inside the pith cavity, located between the pith cavity and the parenchyma cells. The membrane layer is consists of many strips of fibrous wall overlapping each other. The function of the membrane tissue over the parenchyma of the pith periphery is to prevent the exposure of cells like the function of the cuticle layer and wax over the epidermis. The environment of the pith cavity is milder than the environment of the outside surface of bamboo, so the structure of the membrane does not demand materials such as cutin and wax. 2.5 The Thickness of the Culm Wall 2.5.1 Whole culm wall The average thickness values of the culm wall at the seconds internode above the ground was 14.0 millimeters; the thickness decreasing from the base to the top of the culm. In the 22th internode, the figures were 3.8 mm. The average culm diameter of Taiwan giant bamboo is smaller but larger for the culm wall thickness in the base of culm. 2.5.2 Epidermal layer

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The epidermal layer of bamboo culms is called Bamboo green, it mean the green part of bamboo at the outer part of culm wall which does not contain the vascular bundle layer. The thickness of this layer is 38um. The thickness decreases to 53um at the 22th internode and the trend continues to the top of the culm wall. The ratios of decrease are 36.14% and 42.25% at the 22th internode. 2.5.3 Parenchyma of Pith Periphery The thickness of parenchyma of pith periphery at the inner part of culm wall is called Bamboo yellow, it mean the yellow part of bamboo culm without vascular bundle layer. The average thickness of this layer is 314um at the middle part of the second internode above the ground. It decreases to 188um for the former and 505um for the latter at the top part. The percentages of the epidermal layers and the pith peripheral layers to the whole culm thickness increase from the base to the top of the culm and the latter is significantly greater than the former, irrespective of the epidermal layers or the pith peripheral layer. 2.6 Vascular Bundles 2.6.1 The tangential length The vascular bundles occur inside the cortical layers. The tangential length is small near the outer part of the culm wall and increases toward the inner part of the culm wall and reaches maximum length at the inner most part of the vascular bundles layer. The size of vascular bundles is greater at each internode, and its about two to three fold at the inner most part of the vascular bundle layer.

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The average tangential lengths of one to four year old is 547.340.6 um, 536.260.6 um, 509.943.2 um and 438.796.4 um. The average tangential length is 517.3 um. The variation along the longitudinal direction of the culm was increase from the base to the 6th internode and then decreases to the top of the culm. 2.6.2 Density The density is the number of vascular bundle occurring in one mm unit area, and varied from the epidermal layer toward the pith peripheral layer. At the first millimeter inside the epidermal layer, there are significantly high densities of vascular bundles with 8-10. The density decreases rapidly at the second millimeter, 2.5-3.5. The size of vascular bundles at the second millimeter is larger than the first millimeter and the rest can be deduced accordingly. From the middle part of culm wall of the second internode above the ground, the number of vascular bundles decreases to about 1-2 toward the inner part of the culm. According to the average density of each height internode, one or two vascular bundles occur at distance about 5mm from the epidermal layer. 2.6.3 Diameter of vessels 2.6.3.1 Radial direction The average diameters of 6th, 14th and 22nd internodes are 18.8 um, 15.0 um and 15.2 um respectively at the outer part. The average diameter increases to 164.6 um, 151.4 um and 132.0 um at the middle part of the culm wall and increases further to 205.0 um, 202.4 um and 176.4 um at the inner part of the culm wall.
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2.6.3.2

Axial direction Along the culm axis, the largest average diameter of

vessels is 124 um at the 6th internode above the ground. The average diameter decreases from 6th internode to the top of the culm. 2.7 Wax and Cutin The main functions of the epidermis of the culm are water retention and protection. Therefore, the epidermis of the culm must have water proof walls. Bamboo achieves this effect by depositing a layer of the hydrophobic material cutin on the outer epidermal wall. The mixture of cutin plus epidermis wall material is called the cuticular layer. It is distributed evenly between epidermis and waxy layer. The cutin is a complex, high molecular weight lipid polyester that results from the polymerization of certain fatty acids. The cutin can be separated into three classed based on the nature of the fatty acids monomers in the angiosperm (Holloway, 1982):

cutins that contain mostly fatty acid that are 16 carbons long; cutins with mostly 18 carbons long fatty acids; and cutin that contains more or less equal amounts of both type of fatty acids. The cutins of the gymnosperms and the cryptogams seem to lack the 16 carbon long monomer.

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The pure cutin on the outer epidermal wall is known as the cuticle proper. It is sometimes separated from the fibril material of the epidermal wall by a larger of pectin (Mauseth, 1988). The cuticular layer tends to have a fibrillar proganization, due at least in part to the presence of cellulose fibrils. The cuticle proper may be homogeneous and amorphous, lamellate or reticulate (Mauseth, 1988). The thickness of the cuticular layer may be affected by the habitat. The cuticular layer is usually thin but can be as much as 0.5um thick in xerophytes. The cuticle proper can frequently be 5 um or more in thickness. Wax is a universal adjunct to the outer wall of the epidermal wall. Wax is not a specific compound but rather an extremely heterogeneous polymer that results from the interaction of very long-chain fatty acid (up to 34 carbons), aliphatic alcohols, alkaline in the presence of oxygen. There are two kinds of wax:

epicuticular wax cover on the surface of the cuticle proper, and intercuticular wax, which occurs as particles within the cutin matrix. The intracuticular waxes are mostly composed of short chain (18 carbon) monomers, rather than long chain monomers. The scanning electron microscope was used in this study to investigate

the epcuticular wax on the epidermal wall. The wax on the epidermal wall polymerizes into plates, rods, granules, or other forms. The irregular arrangement of rods and platelets makes them effective sunscreens, most light striking their surfaces will be reffected away from the tissues. The wax of Taiwan giant bamboo formed stomatal cavity around the stoma, and the waxy layer over laps irregularly all over the outer epidermal wall except the stomatal pore.

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CHAPTER 3 3.0 Fertilizer Based on earlier research (Kleinhenz and Midmore 2002) and the response curves of percentage leaf nitrogen (% leaf N) to N application rate, fertilizer N was added to ensure that % leaf N was maintained at close to 3%. Application of fertilizer at these and even higher rates invariably allowed clumps to achieve high shoot yields, consistently hastening not only the onset of shoot production, but also the rate of emergence and number of shoots. Even organic fertilizer showed a small, but consistently positive response. In Australia, withholding N fertilizer led to significantly lower % leaf N than in fertilized treatments, the latter receiving an average 700 kg N/year. Leaf N declined during the shoot season, perhaps due to a within-clump dilution effect with the rapid growth of new culms and leaves during that period. Withholding N fertilizer also led to smaller (and unmarketable) shoots (in Queensland), but (in NT) shoot size was not affected when N application was reduced to one-quarter of the calculated rate, but shoot number and yield decreased. In the Philippines, without irrigation (in Bukidnon), withholding N fertilizer had a depressive effect on shoot production, both number and size, but the magnitude varied between years. Without fertilizer, shoot numbers were reduced (in Ilocos Norte), and (in Capiz) shoot emergence and yield were reduced by lack of N fertilizer, but mortality was significantly lower than in other treatments.
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Quite clearly, the rates of N required to maintain % leaf N at c. 3% are uneconomic for shoot production; a lower leaf N concentration is called for, specific to species and grower expectation, although even so it is unlikely that in the Philippines copious amounts of fertilizer will be applied simply for shoot production.

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CHAPTER 4 4.0
Introduction of Bamboo Shoots

Bamboo shoots are a traditional vegetable for many people, especially for oriental peoples, and bamboo shoots are becoming more and more popular. However, the availability of fresh edible bamboo shoots is very limited for much of the year and in many places of the world generally lasts for only one to four months. In many parts of the world bamboos are not grown for shoots due to unsuitable socio-economic and ecological environments For example, Australia has approximately 1.5 million people, or 8% of the population, from an ethnic Asian background. Until recently it was not realized that Australia is now consuming somewhere between 4, 000 and 12, 000 tones of imported canned bamboo shoots each year. The demand for shoots is even larger in the USA and some other countries. 4.0.1 Preliminary study on seed selection for shoot stands

The study of excellent seed selection for shoot stand by introduction of hybrid, tissue culture and cottage is carried out. Result shows that the better hybrid seed of Dendrocalamus latiflorus has changed. Tissue culture for Dendrocalamus latiflorus seedling has been done. There is remarkable difference for individual growth.The no 17 clone is propagation is the fastest, with and induced growth rate of 50%. The cottage by secondary branches with artificially promoted sprouts is also done. The survival rate is 60%.
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In China Dendrocalamus latiflorus shoot is a kind of high cellulose and nourishing food, which contains sugar, protein, fat, phosphorus, calcium and iron etc. its characteristic are long bamboo shoot period, high yield and delicious taste. The shoot can be eaten freshly or processed into tinned food as well as pressed into dried shoot. Both products of the bamboo shoot sells on domestic or foreign markets, which are the goods in great demand on international markets at present. Bamboo culm of Dendrocalamus latiflorus can be employed in construction. The bamboo leaves are large and can be used to make hat, mat roof of boat and packing materials, the sheaths of shoot can be used to make shoes. The distribution of Dendrocalamus latiflorus, its biological characteristic, staple species and the technical gists of bamboo cultivation, bamboo shoot digging, regeneration and way of utilization are introduced in this article. It is pointed out in the article. It is pointed out in the article that the output of Dendrocalamus latiflorus has been decreasing year after year and cannot meet the needs of market at present, because Dendrocalamus latiflorusresources in China is not cleared up, the management of bamboo forest is extensive and the economic benefit is sought lopsidedly in bamboo shoot digging. The above problems must be solved. 4.0.2 Shoot stand and plant sodology

There are 7000 mu of Dendrocalamus latiflorus in Yongchun Country, but most of them are for shoot production and other are for timber. Good management method are outlined both for shoot and wood production. These include cultivation technique, young bamboo selection, digging, transplanting methods, afforestation density, srand structure
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( stand organization, density of stocking, thickness of stock, age, leaf area index and distribution stock), tending management (fertilizer timely, digging shoots and retaining bamboos, rrational cutting and insect control). 4.1 Irrigation and Rainfall Supply of water to bamboo just before and during the shoot season has been recognized as an enhancing factor for the onset and continued production of shoots from running (monopodial) species of bamboo (Kleinhenz et al. 2003), and data from the currently reported experiments confirm this for clumping (sympodial) bamboo species. In the Philippines, irrigation increased the number of emerged shoots, with the effect being greatest if combined with fertilizer application. In the Australian, withholding irrigation was confounded by a complete absence of clump management, the combined effect of which was to significantly reduce the number and size of shoots that emerged. However, the major irrigation factor under investigation in Australia was that of testing the need for irrigation during the dry, winter season. In Australia, the water-use efficiency of shoot production was raised by 28% by omitting irrigation during winter, and in the Northern Territory (NT; the other Australian project site) year-round irrigation was also shown not to be important for shoot production, provided it was supplied just before the anticipated shoot seasona date characteristic to each species for reasons that remain a mystery. At one of the sites in the Australia, the number of shoots was even greater in the treatment without winter irrigation than in the treatment supplied with irrigation throughout the year.

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Although irrigation rates were planned to supply water equivalent to that used through pan evaporation, drought in Australia and in Philippines, together with logistical difficulties at the latter site, reduced the quantities of water supplied. In the Australia, irrigation was likewise supplied at a rate calculated to supply that equivalent to pan evaporation which, in hindsight, may have been less than optimal for bamboo. At one site, in Philippines, where rainfall normally exceeds 100 mm per month, no irrigation treatment was imposed. In 2 of the 5 years, monthly rainfall did drop below 100 mm, but the time of shoot emergence was not markedly affected. Shoots began to emerge annually in June in Philippines, at least 2 months after the driest months of the year. 4.2 Management of a Bamboo Plantation for Shoots 4.2.1 Intercropping It has been shown that inter-cropping in newly established bamboo stands increases productivity and economic returns from the land. The crops suitable for intercropping in bamboo stands will depend upon local conditions and may involve beans, watermelon, maize, cassava and green manure crops. Crops that are heavy feeders, such as buckwheat and sesame seed, are not recommended. Crops should not be planted too close to the bamboo plants otherwise their growth may be disturbed, with taller crops planted about 1 meter away. Inter-cropping with sun-loving plants will not be possible when the stand canopy is closed about 1 to 2 years after planting.

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4.2.2 Weeding and soil-loosening Weeds should be controlled effectively to avoid their competition with bamboos for soil moisture and nutrients. In young stands without intercropping, weeding is done in June or July and repeated in August or September of each year. Weed control in mature stands may be achieved in a single operation in July or August. Soil-loosening in bamboo plantations is important, as maintaining a good soil structure in the stand will help the growth of shoots and the root system, as well as improve water conservation. Soil loosening is done once or twice a year from November to February and involves surface tilling to a depth of 15 to 20 cm. 4.2.3 Fertilizing and earthing up The result of soil chemical analysis shows that bamboo plants will consume 500-700g N, 100-150 g P and 200-250 g K from the soil per 100 kg of bamboo shoots produced. Accordingly, the nutrient requirements of plantations yielding 15, 000 kg fresh shoots per hectare per annum can be met by applying 75-105 kg N, 15-22.5 kg P and 30-37.5 kg K per hectare each year. Chemical fertilizers are usually applied two to four times during the shooting stage at intervals of one or two months. It is applied in 10-15 cm deep drills that are prepared about 50-60 cm around the clump. Alternatively, 37, 500 kg organic fertilizers such as barnyard manure or bean cake and rape cake can be used. Application in the drill is best done in combination with soil loosening in the winter months. When green manure is employed as fertilizer, it can be applied at 75 tones per
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hectare, and can also serve as a protective layer to reduce evaporative moisture loss. The edible parts of newly germinated bamboo shoots are very tender and delicate with light yellowish sheaths, but they turn tough with green sheaths after they emerge from the soil. This procedure can be delayed, thus improving the quality of edible part, by earthing up the base of the clump to a depth of 20-30 cm at the beginning of shooting. In order to stimulate development of shoot buds, the soil cover should be removed to expose the bud to high temperature and light in next March or early April. 4.2.3.1 A study on the wilt disease of Dendrocalamus latiflorus :Identification of the pathogen , bionomics & control

The wilt disease of Dendrocalamus latiflorus is a new disease recorded in Nanping, Fujian. The symptoms of disease, identification, inoculation, biological characteristics of the causal organism, bionomics and control method of the wilt disease have been well studied. The causal organism of wilt disease ( fusarium semitectum) formed white coloured colonies on PSA medium. After incubation of 7 10 days at 25 degrees centigrade, a great amount of macroconidia was produced and no ascus was formed after 20 days. The conidia and asci are produced under natural condition. The sexual phase belongs to the Nectria ditissima of the Ascomycotina. The optimum temperature for mycelia growth is between 23 35 degrees centigrade and optimum Ph is between 5 6. The high relative humidity is necessary for the germination of
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conidia. The results of experiments have shown that the pathogen of wilt disease was overwintering in soil, and disseminated by winds and rains to infect the wounded stems of D. latiflorus. The primary infection occurred from the first ten days of March, the peak infection and step infection occurred from the second ten days of April and the last ten days of May respectively. The cold injury was an important factor to induce infection. The field efficacy test indicated that selection of plantation land and of cold resistant species had a satisfactory effect in the control of the wilt disease od D. latiflorus. 4.2.4 Shoot harvesting and culm retaining Dendrocalamus latiflorus produce shoots from May to October with most production in July to August. Edible shoots should be harvested before they become tough. Any delay will result in loss of quality and quantity. Generally, the initial shoots and most of those produced in the summer are harvested, but those produced towards the end of the shooting period will be selected and retained as mother culms. The operation of shoot harvesting varies with size of shoots for processing different products. The elongated shoot at 1.3-1.5 m in height, which is used for processing fermented dry shoots, is simply cut down at the ground level after removal of the soil cover. Processing of all other shoot products requires younger shoots harvested at a height of about 30 cm. The practice of harvesting involves removing soil around the shoot, cutting it off from the rhizome and finally returning soil to the harvesting

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hole. The basal part of the shoot can be retained intact and shoot buds on it may develop as shoots in the present or coming year. Shoots produced around August and September should be retained as mother culms to maintain a reasonable culms-density in the stand. Over-harvesting will result in a decline of both quality and quantity of shoots in coming years and even cause serious degeneration of the stand. Three or four shoots well distributed within the clump are normally retained to develop per clump annually. Culms of over three years of age are harvested every winter to keep the stand at reasonable age-structure and density of culms. 4.2.5 Bamboo shoot stand and their development in Zhangzhou City

The favorable conditions and the status of shoot production and its development in Zhangzhou are mainly described in the paper, and the measure for bamboo shoot development in the future are also provided. Bamboo is originally produced in tropical and subtropical zones. The city belongs to tropical Hangzhou area in South Asia where the natural conditions are suitable for bamboo growth. It is a good places for bamboo shoot development. There are 21.3 thousand ha of bamboo forest and the main species are Ph. Pubsences, Dendrocalamus latiflorus and Bambusa oldhami. In a long period, the farmers did not pay more attention to shoot production, and the bamboo forest management, due to lack of unified management of shoot products and lack of technical knowledge for shoot protection. For this reason, not only the economic value of bamboo shoot is reduced, but also a lot of fresh raw material has been wasted. Now, the technologies for seedling reproduction have been greatly improved.
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The main methods are: stump and rhizome transplant method for moso, and new sowing and breeding methods are also used. Layering and cottage methods are adopted for Dendrocalamus latiflorus and Bambusa oldhami, those are also called branch layering method, culm cottage and branch cottage method. The breeding technology of tissue culture is also used by some units. For developing Zhangzhou shoot production, a base for earning foreign exchange should be established. the potentialities of increasing output should be tapped and the per unit area output should be increased. Moso, Den. latiflorus, B. oldhami should be mainly developed; for the new shoot stands, large scale intensive planting should be carried out; the management units for shoot marketing should be established; and new type shoot production should be carried out by steps.

27

4.3

Processing of Shoots Fresh shoots contain about 90% water and 3% of the protein required by

the human body. Bamboo shoots contain 17 kinds of amino acids and are especially rich in saccharopine, speramic acid and glutamic acid. Over 2.5% of the shoot is carbohydrate that can be absorbed by the human body and shoots also contain about 0.5% lipids. List of main nutrient components of moso bamboo shoot in Anji county of Zhejiang Province Nutrient Component Moisture ( g ) Protein ( g ) Fat ( g ) Carbohydrate Total carbohydrate Oligose Sucrose Glucose Fructose Trace Elements Cr Co ( mg / Kg ) Cu Ni Zn Fe Mg Mn P ( mg / 100 g ) Ca ( mg / 100 g ) (mg / 100 g) Winter Bamboo Shoots 88 3.07 0.7 6.72 Spring Bamboo Shoots 92 2.15 0.5 5.6 0.35 18.36 0.07 0.09 0.44 0.12 0.05 0.02 0.619 3.17 0.758 0.385 3.41 1.75 5.91 2.34 48.6 28.66 1.71 0.91 44 5.8

64 1.9

4.4

Shoot Production Starting in the 1990s, bamboo in Australia was originally planted with a

view to producing bamboo shoots to offset the importation of canned produce


28

(Midmore 1998), and later to expand into rewarding export markets identified in Asia (Collins and Keiler 2005). In contrast, in the Philippines, bamboo is harvested mainly as a timber substitute, with only localized cultivation and use of shoots as a vegetableindeed; local ordinances often prohibit shoot harvests (Virtucio and Roxas 2003). Management factors that influence shoot production (Kleinhenz and Midmore 2001) fall mainly under irrigation, fertilizer, mulch and thinning regimes.Species has an overriding effect on shoot size, number and timing of production and, although it was not studied as an experimental factor, some tentative conclusions are drawn from the experimental data published in this volume. Bamboo shoots have been an important source of food since early civilization. In China, succulent shoots of many bamboo species have been traditionally used as a vegetable for more than 2,500 years. Although bamboo shoots have been consumed for their delightful flavor for thousands of years, their nutritional and medicinal values have been discovered only recently. There are about 1,250 bamboo species around the world but only about 500 species are known to have edible shoots. Of this number, only a few produce good-quality edible shoots. In Yunnan, China, 10 elite bamboo species have been selected for commercial bamboo production. In a related study, Maoyi (1998) selected and recommended the following as the highest-priority species for edible shoot production:

D. asper (giant bamboo), B. blumeana (kawayan tinik) and D. latiflorus (machiku).

Nine selected edible shoot-producing species that grow in the Philippines and other countries (Source: Virtucio and Roxas 2003)
29

Genus and species Bambusa B. bambos

Geographical distribution (countries)

Burma, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam

B. blumeana

China, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam

B. oldhamii B. species 1 (D. merrillianus) Dendrocalamus D. asper D. latiflorus

Australia, China, Philippines, Taiwan Philippines (endemic)

Australia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand Australia, Burma, China, Indonesia, Japan, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam

Gigantochloa G. atter G. levis Thyrsostachys Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines

T. siamensis Burma, China, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand In the Philippines, the rampant practice of unrestricted shoot extraction has long been identified as one of the major causes of depleting bamboo stands of commercial species. This practice still remains a major problem since relevant technologies of clump management for shoot production have yet to be developed. Clump management regimes to allow for both culms and shoot harvest have to be developed for selected species that produce edible shoots.
30

4.4.1 Fermented dry Dendrocalamus latiflorus shoot noodles, selling and its benefit Fermented dry Dendrocalamus latiflorus shoot noodles, also called lactic dry D. latiflorus shoot noodles is well known as health food and highly appreciated in Japanese market meanwhile In China for its huge edible shoots which are sweet and very delicious. The vegetables fiber is moderate and its digested after mentation, and also it has anti cancer early property. Fujian Province is abound with Dendrocalamus latiflorus resources. The Dendrocalamus latiflorus shoots are also more fully developed and utilized. It is estimated that the whole province has 200 to 300 thousands mu of Dendrocalamus latiflorus resources. The period from April to October is the growth and harvest season for shoots. If the shoots can be collected well in time, they can be made into shoot products needed in Japanese market. The processing procedures require to use the middle part of the shoot, after removing the hard nodes. After boiling and fermentation ( usual fermentation time is half to one month ), the shoots are reprocessed into 4 to 5 cm long and 2.8 mm wide dry shoot noodles. At present, the production of fermented dry Dendrocalamus latiflorus shoot noodles has already been developed in the regions of Quangzhou, Zhangzhou, and Fuzhou.

On the other hand, Bamboo forest is a part of Taiwan forest resources. The commercial bamboo forest area is about 133,014 ha in the province. The mixed forest with broad leaved trees and Dendrocalamus

31

latiflorus is 51,489 ha, being 9.9% of the forest area in the province (1,364,700 ha). There were 10.292 culms in 1980. The area of forest producing bamboo shoot is 225,175 ha, that for producing bamboo skin is about 70 ha. The export value of culms and wares is about 401.8 thousand yuan in new Taiwan currency in the same year, 201.5 thousand yuan for bamboo wares export (50.15%), 167.2 thousand yuan for shoot and processed product export, 22.4 thousand yuan for bamboo stem export, 2.9 thousand yuan for root, strip and weaving article export. 4.4.2 A study on semichemical pulp of Taiwan bamboo With 3 year old bamboos (Phyllostachys makinoi,

Dendrocalamus latiflorus and Bambusa dolichoclada) as materials, pulping by cold caustics soda, kraft process and neutral sulfite sodium semi chemical process is carried out, separately. The test results are : The yield of pulp by cold soda is 72% - 86%, 55.3 78.5%

by kraft process, and 55.6 69.1% by neutral sulfate sodium process, but the yield of the former is 45 50% higher than that by chemical process. The strength of pulp by cold caustic soda is lower, the

strength of pulp by kraft process and neutral sulfite sodium process is closer and neutral sulfite sodium process is closer to kraft wood pulp. Neutral sulfite sodium semi chemical pulp is easier to bleach.

72 80% GE of pulp brightness can be reached by chloride


32

alkali extraction hypochlorite bleaching. The long fibre wood pulp

can be substituted, and cultural papers can be made. But cold caustic soda and kraft semi chemical pulp is difficult to bleach. Corrugating core paper, inside paper board and package papers can be made by unbleached pulp.

4.4.3 Study on fractionating cooking of Taiwan bamboo pulp Sample are 3 year old bamboos (Phyllostachys makinoi, Dendrocalamus latiflorus and Bambusa dolichoclad, B. blumeana). Remove non fibrous matter with different alkali charge and temperature by fractionating cooking treatment, reducing fiber loss and increasing yield of pulp. The test methods is : 1. Use boiling water cook the materials by alkali solutions 2. Cook with diluted alkali solution and concentrated solution 3. When compared with common simple sequence alkali process, the highest yield first method is 45.92% - 54.16%^, 40.5 53.7% by the second methods, 39.81 50.06% by the third. The third stage bleaching, the brightness of pulp by three different methods reach80% GE. Physical strength of unbleached pulp is close to that by kraft process. The pulp strength is little reduced after being bleached, it also can be compared with that of Taiwan broad leaved wood by kraft method, especially high crackability. In comparison with other two methods, the first methods gives low alkali charge, high yield and has high strength. It is more economics for papermaking.
33

4.5

Storage and Processing of Shoots 4.5.1 Principle and methods of storing and preserving of bamboo shoots The purpose of storage and preservation is to maintain the color, smell and taste of the natural bamboo shoot, to reduce rotting and increase its selling price. After harvesting, a bamboo shoot is still a living organism. The components of the shoots will change throughout storage and these changes are influenced by temperature, moisture, microorganisms and the means of storage. Maintaining moisture in the shoot is one of the vital factors for preserving the fresh character of bamboo shoots. If significant moisture is lost the shoot will lose its fresh, plump outward appearance and quality will deteriorate. At the same time, enzyme activity will increase and hydrolysis of carbohydrates will occur. As a result, the shoots will start to rot. The carbohydrates in bamboo are mainly glucose, fructose and sucrose and these are the basis of respiration. Carbohydrates will be consumed gradually with increasing period of storage. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease the respiration rate and the consumption of carbohydrates during storage. Under oxygen deficient conditions (when the oxygen content is less than 2%) anaerobic respiration occurs. Alcohol, acetaldehyde, carbon monoxide and a little heat are released. Due to the accompanying release of heat energy the temperature of the stored heap of bamboo shoots will increase during storage and the shoots will rot very easily.

34

Therefore, when bamboo shoots are heaped up in a processing mill, they should be sheltered from sunlight to prevent color and quality changes. Suitable low temperatures can control moisture transpiration of bamboo shoots and damage by microorganisms. Mechanical damage can induce high respiration and invasion of microbes, and hence cause rotting of bamboo shoots. As the respiration rate is related to moisture, temperature, humidity, and the activity of enzymes the main ways of keeping bamboo shoots fresh during the storage period are as follows: 1. Store bamboo shoots in a cool and moist place in order to decrease respiration rate. The temperature in storage should be maintained at about 5C and the relative air humidity at about 85%. The temperature must not be so cold such that the cells freeze. 2. Add some salt to control enzyme action. 3. Place bamboo shoots in cans and kill bacteria by high temperature treatments.
4. Store bamboo shoots under oxygen insulation conditions to control

the activity of microorganisms. 5. Add chemical preservatives to preserve cooked shoots. 4.6 The Different Shoots Between Dendrocalamus asper, Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa oldhamii And Dendrocalamus latiflorus The agronomy / silvicultural trials were conducted on four bamboo species. These differed in their responses to the imposed treatments not only because of their genetic make-up but also because of their relative ages. The mature Dendrocalamus asper (giant bamboo) produced few shoots, on average c. 1 shoot per standing culm, but they were large if harvested for consumption (reaching 4.5 kg).
35

In contrast, the young (37 years old during the trial) Bambusa blumeana (kawayan tinik) produced very few shoots, although the poor soil or some other factor may have had an overriding effect, as average shoot number per clump did not increase during the 5-year course of the experiment. Even older clumps of the same species produced few shoots per culm, only 8 of 65 treatment year combinations produced more than 7 shoots per clump. The commonly recognized, smaller-shoot-producing species Bambusa oldhamii, with clumps close to 10 years of age, produced on average over 20 shoots per clump in the optimal treatments. This was unlike Dendrocalamus latiflorus, aged 3.5 and 4 years at commencement of the experiments, which produced many shoots early on but fewer as the clumps aged (on average c. 40 shoots per clump in the first year, c. 30 in the second and c. 10 in the third year). However, the proportion of market able shoots increased over time.

CHAPTER 5 5.0 Culms Production


36

Culms or poles as they are commonly known are the major commercial and subsistence bamboo product in that country. In contrast, with minor exceptions, in Australia the culms present a logistical headache, for although imported culms command a high price (Midmore 1998) locally produced culms are not widely marketed because of their virtually non-existent quality control. Indeed, when thinning bamboo clumps in order to optimize shoot production, culms may be variously converted into mulch, burnt, or used as a low-quality timber replacement around the farm. Quite simply, the scale of production does not merit their entry into energy generation (Sharma 2005) or other mainstream economic activities. As for shoot production, species has an overriding influence on culms production, in terms of both numbers and size. Although this was not an experimental factor, we can draw some useful cross-species comparisons, as we can for the other experimental factors. The assessment of bamboo resources relative to national culms requirements reveals that they are inadequate for sustained yield (as discussed above). Given the worsening status of current timber resources, there is a need to increase the areas planted to bamboo as potential substitutes for wood-based products. There are available technologies for bamboo plantation development and management of commercial species. These technologies are considered mature and are employed in various regions in the country.

5.1

Culms Thinning Practice

37

In general in Australia, treatments at all sites that had high numbers of young culms (1 and 2 years old at the time of shoot emergence) led to high shoot numbers. Indeed, in the high rainfall site, shoots selected for culms production at the beginning of the shoot season themselves produced edible shoots near the end of the same shoot season. In the drier environment of Australia, shoot production was greater when all early shoots were removed for sale, leaving only late-season shoots for culms production possibly minimizing the effect of apical dominance that may inhibit later shoot emergence. Weight per harvested shoot was not affected by thinning regime, or by the spatial arrangement of standing culms (widely spaced versus narrow spacing within a clump). In the Philippine, treatments with more young culms raised the productivity index (the number of shoots produced per standing culms) and, in the rained (in Bukidnon), the standing culms density (SCD) of 10-10 (ten 1-yearold and ten 2year-old culms) gave more shoots than the 6-6 treatment. Leaving all shoots to grow into culms caused congestion in the clumps, and constrained production of shoots in later years. For this reason, some minimal annual thinning of culms or shoots is necessary if clumps are to continue to produce shoots (and culms) on a sustained basis. The effect of culms thinning treatment on culms biomass was closely related to the effect of species, and was tightly linked to culms thinning practices. With younger (3.57.0-year-old) clumps of D. latiflorus thinning treatments did not affect individual weight of culms; most likely because complete canopy closure had not occurred. Hence, culms yield was a reflection of the number of culms harvested. Culm yield ranged from 3.53.7 to 6.8 t/ha/year for the treatments with SCD of 4-2-2, 2-2-2 and 4-4-4, respectively.

38

5.2

Irrigation

In Australia, withholding irrigation during the dry season increased culms water-use efficiency (WUEweight of culms per unit of irrigation and rainfall) by 25% over the fully irrigated treatment, although culms biomass was not reduced and the difference between full and temporal irrigation in WUE was not significant. Withholding irrigation altogether reduced biomass yield by 40%, but that was confounded by also withholding fertilizer. Further north (in NT), the same effect of withholding winter irrigation was evident at one of the sitesculms yield was reduced by 24% compared to full irrigation. Irrigation throughout the year at only 50% of pan evaporation reduced culms yield by 15%, not as great as withholding all irrigation during the dry season. At another site, on a lighter soil, the 50% irrigation treatment did not affect culms yield, although culms WUE (this time based upon weight of culms per unit of irrigation) was double that of the 100% irrigation treatment. In the Philippines (in Capiz), neither lack of irrigation nor irrigation supplied only just before and during the shoot season reduced culms yield compared to the fully irrigated treatment (although both treatments had higher culms WUEs than the irrigated control). In the other site with irrigation treatments (in Ilocos Norte), culms that experienced the reduced irrigation treatments were thinner and their biomass lower.

CHAPTER 6 6.0 Afforestation Techniques for Bamboo Shoot Plantations


39

6.0.1 Nursery site preparation The nursery should be selected on the lee side of gently sloping hills in a sunny location with good drainage and with water resources nearby for ease of irrigation. The soil should be loose and fertile sandy loam or loam, with acid, slightly acid or neutral reactions. The groundwater level usually should be less than one meter. Rocky, sandy, clayey or heavy saline-alkali soils should not be selected as nursery land. Before raising seedlings, the land requires overall soil preparation i.e. loosening soil to increase the ability of preserving fertility and humidity, weeding, and sterilizing for eliminating soil pest. Overall soil preparation can create favorable conditions for bamboo seedling growth and development. The soil in the nursery should be deep ploughed and carefully prepared before freezing in winter or after defrosting in spring. The best time for ploughing is the beginning of winter. Remove roots and rocks and rake the soil level. After deep ploughing, the nursery soil should be made into a seedbed. This is usually 1 metre wide and 15-20 cm high and its length can be determined according to the terrain. It is necessary to apply sufficient manure or plant ash as a base fertilizer for improving bamboo seedling growth and root development.

6.0.2 Planting season

40

Taiwan Giant Bamboo can be planted throughout the year. But the best time for planting is in the dormant season i.e. from January to March or in the rainy season in the summer. Planting in high temperatures and drought seasons requires intensive management techniques and requires more labour. 6.0.3 Comparative experiment research for afforestation on D. latiflorus

Comparative tests of different afforestation methods for D. latiflorus show that survival after stem and twig cutting is 100 percent. Mother bamboo afforestation reaches 43.3 percent. The sprouting rate is different too after 3 years of afforestation like 2.13 for sliced stem sprouts and 1.97% for mother bamboo sprouts. One sprouts of mother bamboo afforesting costs are as high as 7 yuan, and other two kinds of sprouts cost 0.5 yuan. Their cultivation techniques and management methods are simple too 20-30 ft. (6-9 m)

6.0.4

Control text on afforestation with different seedlings of Dendrocalamus latiflorus

A test for three years bin succession showed that the survival rate of afforestation was 100% by burying culm and using shoot cutting of Dendrocalamus latiflorus, and it is 2.3 times higher than that of transfer of mother bamboo. The number of germinating shoots and their average diameter of various afforestation methods were different, but none of them reached high level. The growing speed of the bamboos cultivated with seedlings of buried culm and shoot cuttings was not slower than that of transfer method of mother bamboo. However, the cost of afforestation per mu is reduced from 280 yuan to 20 yuan.
41

6.1

Field Propagation and Nursery Techniques There are two ways of propagating bamboos: sexual and asexual

propagation. Bamboos seldom flower and even when they do only a few mature seeds are produced. Hence raising plants from seed is only possible occasionally. Thus the most common and practical method of raising plantlets is by asexual propagation. This involves the use of offsets, Culm (or branch) cuttings, stumps with rhizomes, and rhizomes themselves for direct afforestation or for plantlet preparation in a nursery and then planting out. Culm or branch cuttings are the most widely used method for sympodial bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus). Raising seedlings of sympodial bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus) by seeds generally involves sowing individual seeds in shallow holes dibbling in trenches with 5-8 seeds per hole. Cover the seeds with a layer of 3-5 cm soil, place a layer of straw on top and water them in. When the seedlings are about 10 cm high they can be transplanted in groups of two or three. One to two year old seedlings can be used for establishing the shoots plantation. There are several methods of vegetative propagation. Culms can be buried whole. They then develop new plantlets at each node. Alternately one and two-noded culm cuttings can be used. Other methods include layering and offset planting. Select healthy and strong propagules 1-2 years old with plump buds and no diseases or pests for propagation. Propagation should be done generally from February to April (in China) before culms start assimilating nutrients and before the their buds have germinated.

42

6.1.1 Study on rapid propagation in vitro of Dendrocalamus latiflorus

The tests with seeds of Den. latiflorus through artifical pollination and with stems of young seedlings, using MS as essential culture medium composed of growth regulars in different concentration, pH 6.5 at lightintensity about 1600 Lx, for 9 10 hours of daily supplementary illumination under a temperature 22 30C showed that bud proliferation increased by 2,3 times a month, rootability of tube seedlings reached 93.9%, average survival rate of buds after transplantation was over 80%, and rootibility of seedlings out of tube reaced over 66.0%. flowering of 5 months tube seedlings was observed and its causes were discussed. 6.2 Bamboo Processing 6.2.1 Current low-level utilization The agriculture sector is still the biggest user of bamboo (for fish pens, banana props, poultry houses, and other low-value uses). Other users include the furniture and handicraft sectors, but relatively few businesses in these sectors choose to use bamboo for their craft because of Uncertainty of supply The high cost of collection and transport of culms because of the scattered locations of the bamboo sources.

6.2.2 Issues in promoting high-value utilization

43

Issues being faced by the industry in moving toward high-value utilization of bamboo include substitution, cost, and image positioning, distribution, and technology level. Since the bamboo industry is essentially a substituting industry, the following strategic directions should be pursued (FOSTER Asia 1997): Industry positioningin providing substitute products, the bambooprocessing industry must target a critical mass of users and aim to supply popular products that all households can use for construction, dcor and other applications essentially be privately led with government initiatives that will enable it to take off and become sustainable approximate the extent and scope of distribution prevalent in the wood industry and rationalize the channels of distribution Re-engineer its technology to an extent that will enable individual enterprises to compete with wood-based products domestically and internationally. industry structurethere is a need to support small-to-mediumscale enterprises producing construction-related products such as laminated bamboo, composite and structural materials so that these enterprises can eventually become globally competitive. market positioningamong the emerging high value applications of bamboo, natural fibre composites and laminated bamboo are the most promising; it would be practical for the sector to Target construction-related requirements.
44

Technologyproposed

technologies

for

acquisition

or

development include 6.3 laminated bamboo for walls and structures bamboo composites such as panel boards, wafer boards structural bamboo such as hollow boards Flooring and roofing tiles.

Bamboo Production 6.3.1 Bamboo inventory A systematic and accurate record of natural and plantation stands of

commercial bamboos at regional and national levels is lacking. 6.3.2 Taxonomy Bamboo taxonomy is still a major problem in the Philippines. Local names of many species vary with location, which often creates confusion about the true identity of a given species. For example, the common name botong refers to Gigantochloa levis in Iloilo province, but Dendrocalamus latiflorus in the regions of Davao and Northern Mindanao. In other provinces, G. levis is known as bolo in Laguna and buho in Batangas. In addition, two commercial bamboo species have yet to be studied for their scientific name at the species level. The first, bayog, was formerly identified as Dendrocalamus merrillianus, but an international bamboo taxonomist changed the genus Dendrocalamus to Bambusa. Its species name has yet to be verified. In the second case, while laak has

45

been tentatively named Bambusa philippinensis, the species name is still being verified. 6.3.3 Growth and yield Growth and yield data for some species as a function of geographical location and site quality have yet to be generated. Species included in this group are Dendrocalamus asper (giant bamboo), G. levis (bolo), D. latiflorus (machiku) and B. oldhamii (Oldham bamboo). 6.3.4 Clump management Stands of climbing bamboos are dwindling. These bamboos constitute about 78% of the natural stands that are being utilized for handicraft and other purposes. Propagation and management of regeneration for clump yield sustainability have yet to be studied. One of the major causes of depletion of commercial bamboo stands is the rampant, unregulated harvesting of edible shoots. Clump management regimes to allow for both culms and shoot harvest have to be developed for selected species that produce edible shoots. 6.4 Bamboo-Processing Enterprises There are four levels of bamboo-processing enterprise, namely: backyard; small scale; medium scale; and large scale. Relative to their potential, these enterprises were characterized and evaluated by FOSTER Asia (1997) as follows:

Backyard. This level of the enterprise operates in the house with household members as workers. It has been estimated that the average
46

annual sales of backyard enterprises do not exceed PHP500, 000 (equivalent to around US$11,300) per business. In terms of number, the majority of the bamboo processing undertakings and ventures in the Philippines belong to this category.

Small scale. The bamboo-processing ventures belonging to this category operate in the vicinity of houses and are located mainly in urban areas. Small-scale enterprises usually have small shops, and use both hand tools and some equipment in production operations. The assets of these businesses do not exceed PHP1 million, with estimated annual sales of PHP12 million.

Medium scale. This level of bamboo processing operates with a standard plant, usually located in an urban area. Its assets are close to PHP5 million. Usually, enterprises belonging to this category have the capability and expertise to produce good-quality products, design their own products and sustain volume production. They can export products directly to other countries. There are very few business ventures in this category and most of them are located in Metro Manila.

Large scale. This category of bamboo-processing enterprise operates with automated plant equipment. It employs skilled workers and produces products of export quality. Another study (Ramirez 1999) showed that the majority of bamboo enterprises in the Philippines had very low capitalization. Ramirez inferred that such enterprises could not afford improved technologies and hence maximum efficiency in bamboo processing was not being attained.

6.5

Supply And Demand


47

In 1997, the annual demand for bamboo was estimated at about 50 million culms (poles) per year. The existing bamboo stands of about 46,000 ha yield only about 36 million culms per yearhence there was a supply deficit of 14 million culms. The annual demand has been projected to increase to between 113 million and 132 million culms per year by 2015 (OIDCI 1997). With this demand projection, and current supply rates (c. 800 culms/ha), the supply deficit would require additional bamboo plantations of 150,000 166,000 ha by 2015. This is in the absence of any productivity gains to be made following research to increase yields. The percentage distribution of the raw material production is distributed to various industries/sectors as follows: furniture and handicraft (40%); fish pens, housing and construction (25%); vegetables and fruit industries (10%); and other uses (25%).

48

REFERENCES
Collins R. and Keiler S. 2005. The Australian bamboo shoot industry: a supply chain approach. RIRDC Report 05/022. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation: Canberra, 92 pp. Kleinhenz V. and Midmore D.J. 2001. Aspects of bamboo agronomy. Advances in Agronomy 74, 99153.

Kleinhenz V. and Midmore, D.J. 2002. Improved management practices for culinary bamboo shoots: local and export markets. RIRDC Report 02/035. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation: Canberra, 64 pp.

Midmore D.J. (ed.) 1998. Bamboo for shoots and timber. RIRDC Report 98/32. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation: Canberra, 66 pp.

Midmore D.J. and Kleinhenz V. 2000. Physiological studies on edible bamboo. Asian Foods Newsletter 6, 68.

Midmore D.J., Walsh K.B., Kleinhenz V., Milne J.R., Leonardi J. and Blackburn K. 1998. Culinary bamboo shoots in Australia: preliminary research 49

results. RIRDC Report 98/45. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation: Canberra, 44 pp. Sharma A. 2005. Agroforestry systems for municipal effluent disposal. PhD thesis, Central Queensland University, Australia. Virtucio F.D. and Roxas C.A. 2003. Bamboo production in the Philippines. Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, Department of Environment and Natural Resources: College, Laguna, 202 pp. Bello E.D. and Espiloy Z.B. 1995. New products and applications of bamboo. Paper presented at the National Symposium on the Sustainability of the Bamboo Industry, College, Laguna, 2021 December 1995. Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau: College, Laguna. FOSTER Asia (Foundation for Sustainable Techno - Environmental Reforms in Asia) 1997. Bamboo processing industry. Consultancy report conducted for the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) and the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and National Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). Ganapathy P.M., Zhu H.M., Zoolagud S.S., Turcke D. and Espiloy Z.B. 1996. Bamboo panel boards: a state of the art report. International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR): Beijing, 145 pp. Maoyi F. 1998. Criteria for selection of superior bamboo varieties, propagation and plantation establishment. In Bambooconservation, diversity, ecogeography, germplasm, resource utilization and taxonomy: proceedings of a training course cum workshop, Kunming and Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China, 1017 May 1998, ed. by A.N. Rao and V.R. Rao. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Regional Office for Asia, the Pacific and Oceania (IPGRIAPO): Serdang, Malaysia. At:<http://www.bioversityinternational.org/publications/ Web_version/572/>. Accessed 5 June 2008. 50

OIDCI (Orient Integrated Development Consultants, Inc.) 1997. Master plan for the development of bamboo as a renewable and sustainable resource. Prepared for the Cottage Industry Technology Center. Department of Trade and Industry: Metro Manila.

Ramirez. A.R. 1999. A critical analysis of the governance system for bamboo forests in the Philippines. PhD thesis, University of the Philippines Los Baos (UPLB): College, Laguna.

Rojo J. 1999. Bamboo resources of the Philippines. Pp. 6570 in Ang kawayan. Proceedings of the First National Conference on Bamboo, Iloilo City, 13 August 1996, ed. by E. Navera, S.M. Pablico and S.C. Malab. Cottage Industry Technology Center: Marikina, Metro Manila.

Virtucio F.D. and Roxas C.A. 2003. Bamboo production in the Philippines. Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, Department of Environment and Natural Resources: College, Laguna, 202 pp.

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APPENDIX I

The structure of wax on the epidermis was granule

52

The structure of stomata and guard cells.

The tissue arrangement and shape in the outer part of culm wall. 53

The tissue arrangement and shape in the middle part of culm wall.

The tissue arrangement and shape of pith periphery in the inner part of culm wall. 54

Three-dimensional structure of Taiwan giant bamboo.

55

Oblique perforation plate in the metaxylem vessel of Taiwan giant bamboo.

Simple perforation in the metaxylem vessel of Taiwan giant bamboo.

56

Part of perforation between scalariform and reticulate type in the metaxylem vessel of Taiwan giant bamboo.

The ring thickening formed in the protoxylem of Taiwan giant bamboo.

57

The sieve cells and companion cells of the vascular bundle near the pit periphery.

Thicked wall fiber in the inner of fiber sheat of Taiwan giant bamboo.

58

Thin wall fiber in the fiber strand of vascular bundle of Taiwan giant bamboo.

The septate fiber of Taiwan giant bamboo.

59

The structure of epidermis and cortical parenchyma of Taiwan giant bamboo.

The structure of radial section in the outer part of culm wall of Taiwan giant bamboo.

60

The enlargement of several layers in the radial section of epidermal tissue showed structure of stomal complex of Taiwan giant bamboo.

The structure of cortical cells showed the new cell wall formation after cell division of Taiwan giant bamboo.

61

The structure of culm parenchyma cells in longitudinal section of Taiwan giant bamboo.

The structure of culm parenchyma cells in cross section of Taiwan giant bamboo.

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The structure of parenchyma of pith periphery in cross section of Taiwan giant bamboo.

The structure of parenchyma of pith periphery in longitudinal section of Taiwan giant bamboo.

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The structure of parenchyma of pith periphery of tangential section of Taiwan giant bamboo.

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The structure of thin membrane over the surface of pith cavity of Taiwan giant bamboo.

APPENDIX II
Recommended Afforestation Models for Bamboo Shoot Plantations

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Afforestation Model for Moso (Phyllostachys pubescens) and Dendrocalamus latiflorus shoot plantations Economic Analyses of the Recommended Afforestation Models of Newly Established Bamboo Shoot Plantations

Economic Analyses of the Afforestation Models (1 USD = 8.3 CNY) APPENDIX III

NEW STRAITS TIMES, 2 FEBRUARY 2003

Bring on the bamboo


Bamboo is a natural forest resource whose commercial potential in Malaysia has yet to be fully realized. Its used is still associated with traditional rural society. But theres more to it than just raw material for fish traps or lemang container.

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BAMBOO PARQUET: Dr. Azmy Mohamed with samples of bamboo floor parquet.

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DWARFED: Bamboo clusters such as this species from Myanmar can reach height of 15 meters or more

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