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APPENDIX D APPLIED AERODYNAMICS STUDENT HANDOUT

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United States Army Aviation Center Fort Rucker, Alabama August 1998

STUDENT HANDOUT TITLE: APPLIED AERODYNAMICS FILE NUMBER: 1J/33/3K/41/48/4L/ 55/67/71/7A/7C/84-318-9

PROPONENT FOR THIS STUDENT HANDOUT IS: Aviation Training Brigade ATTN: ATZQ-ATB-AD-G Fort Rucker, Alabama 36362-5102 FOREIGN DISCLOSURE RESTRICTIONS: The materials contained in this student handout have been reviewed and determined to be public domain materials. This product is releasable to military students from all requesting foreign countries without restrictions

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TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE: At the completion of this lesson the student will: ACTION: Train Army Aviators in functional knowledge of rotary wing aerodynamics. CONDITION: STANDARD: While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. None Low None

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS: RISK ASSESSMENT LEVEL:

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS:

EVALUATION: Each student will be evaluated on this block of instruction by completing a one (1) hour criterion referenced test. A. ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #1: Explain Newtons laws of motion. While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. Provide instruction on Newtons laws of motion.

ACTION:

CONDITION: STANDARD:

Learning Step/Activity: 1.

Newtons laws of motion.

a. Law of inertia. Explanation--a body at rest will remain at rest, and a body in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by an outside force. The force with which a body offers resistance to change. EXAMPLE: It takes a greater force to start an object moving than it does to sustain the movement. As a helicopter transitions from hover to forward flight, the nose pitches down. This happens because the helicopter tends to remain at rest and the force applied at the mast to move the helicopter forward introduces a pitch-down moment of the nose. b. Law of acceleration. The force required to produce a change in the motion of a body is directly proportional to its mass and the rate of change in its velocity. (1) Acceleration is a change in velocity with respect to time. Acceleration can be either an increase or decrease in velocity or a change in direction of flight. mass. (2) (3) Directly proportional to force and inversely proportional to Expressed in the equation A = F/M

EXAMPLE: A heavily loaded helicopter will not accelerate as rapidly as one with less weight. Decreased thrust will give decreased acceleration.

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c. Law of action and reaction. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. If an interaction occurs between two bodies, equal forces in opposite directions will be imparted to each body. EXAMPLE 1: As a person steps from a boat to a dock, the boat moves away from the dock. The action is the person stepping to the dock; the reaction is the boat moving away from the dock. EXAMPLE 2: The engine producing a counterclockwise rotation of the blades results in a reaction of the fuselage to rotate clockwise. EXAMPLE 3: Firing a shotgun.

d. Application: A helicopter in flight is obeying these laws of motion, not individually, but collectively. It is the interaction between these various laws of motion and mechanical actions on the rotor system that causes the helicopter to fly and allows us to control and maneuver the helicopter. B. ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #2: Identify the description of vectors. While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. Provide instruction on vectors.

ACTION:

CONDITION: STANDARD:

Learning Steps/Activity: 2. Scalars and vectors.

a. Scalars are quantities that can be described by size alone such as area, volume, time or mass. b. A vector is a graphic representation of a quantity that must be described using magnitude and direction. Examples of vectors are acceleration, velocity, weight, thrust, lift, and drag. When graphically portrayed, vectors are very useful tools for describing aerodynamic forces. All forces can be depicted through the use of vectors. In aerodynamics, we are primarily concerned with the effects (results) of two or more forces acting on an airfoil or aircraft. A vector is graphically portrayed as a line segment drawn using any convenient scale with an arrowhead to indicate direction. c. Methods of solving vector problems.

(1) Vector addition (polygon). Most vector problems used in this class can be solved through vector addition.

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(a) Establish a point at which all forces are considered to be concentrated (point of origin). (b) From the point of origin, draw a vector corresponding to the direction and magnitude of one of the forces. (c) From the head of this vector, draw another vector corresponding to the direction and magnitude of another of the forces. (d) have been drawn. Continue adding additional force vectors until all forces

(e) Then draw a vector from the point of origin to the head of the last vector. This is the resultant force; the direction and magnitude that the object would move if subjected to all the forces simultaneously. NOTE: same. The vectors can be added in any sequence, the resultant will be the

(2) Parallelogram. A modification of vector addition. The parallelogram method of vector solutions can be used when two forces are acting on an object.

(a) Establish a point at which the forces are considered to be acting (point of origin). (b) From the point of origin, draw a vector corresponding to the direction and magnitude of one of the forces. (c) From the point of origin, draw a vector corresponding to the direction and magnitude of the other force. (d) Complete a parallelogram by drawing lines from the head of each vector parallel to the opposite side.

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(e) Draw a line from the point of origin to the opposite corner of the parallelogram. The length of this line indicates the magnitude of the resultant force in the direction indicated. (3) Triangular. Often used in solving navigation problems.

d. Solving for component forces. If a resultant force vector and a reference plane is known, it can be broken down into vertical and horizontal components. e. Use of vectors in the classroom. (1) Total aircraft.

(2)

Airfoil segment.

C.

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #3: Describe Bernoullis principle of airflow. While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203.

ACTION:

CONDITION: STANDARD:

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Learning Step/Activity: 3.

Provide instruction on Bernoullis principle.

Bernoullis principle of airflow.

a. General concept. Within any confined system, total energy remains constant. If one component of energy increases, there must be a corresponding decreases in other components. Total energy (in our case, total pressure) within the confined system is the summation static and dynamic pressure. b. Venturi tube (subsonic, incompressible flow).

(1) The volume of air passing any given point per unit of time is equal throughout the tube. This is known as mass flow rate. (2) The velocity of air (dynamic pressure) must increase if the same volume of air, per unit of time, is to pass through the constricted portion of the tube. (3) There must be a reduction in another component of energy (static pressure) if total energy is to remain constant. (4) The increase in velocity as air passes through the constriction results in a decrease in static pressure in the constriction. A decrease in velocity results in an increase in static pressure after air passes through the constriction and enters the large portion of the tube. c. Airflow around an airfoil.

(1) Velocity increases and static pressure decreases above and below the airfoil. Since the air has a greater distance to travel over the upper surface there is a greater velocity increase and pressure decrease over the upper surface than the lower surface. Air density remains constant. Due to the viscosity of air a thin boundary layer is formed on the airfoil. The boundary layer forms the transition between the airfoil and the air above. (2) The pressure differential above and below the airfoil results in approximately 75 percent of the aerodynamic force produced by the airfoil. This is an application of Bernoullis principle on the airfoil to produce a useful force--LIFT. (3) The remaining lift is a result of Newtons third law of motion, action-reaction. The downward deflection of the air as it leaves the

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trailing edge of the airfoil plus the downward deflection of air impacting the exposed lower surface of the airfoil produces the other 25 percent of the aerodynamic force. D. ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #4: Describe the properties of airfoils. While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. Provide instruction on properties of airfoils.

ACTION:

CONDITION: STANDARD:

Learning Steps/Activity: 4. Airfoils.

a. A surfaced body designed to produce a lift or thrust force when subjected to an airflow.

b.

Terminology.

(1) Leading edge--rounded portion that projects into the relative flow of air (relative wind). (2) flow of air. Trailing edge--tapered portion that trails from the relative

(3) Chordline--a straight line passing through the leading and trailing edges of an airfoil. (4) Chord--the measure of the chordline from the leading to thetrailing edge of the airfoil. (5) Camber--shape or curvature of the airfoil.

(6) Mean camber line--line drawn from the leading to the trailing edgesmidway between the upper and lower surfaces. (7) Span--length of the rotor blade from the point of rotation to thetip of the blade. (8) Rotor diameter--equal to two blade spans.

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(9) Center of pressure--point along the chordline where net lift is considered to act. Located at the 25 percent chord on symmetricalairfoils but moves with changes to the angle of attack on nonsymmetrical. (10) Aerodynamic center--the point along the chordline where there is no change to the pitching moment with changes the angle of attack. Located near the 25 percent chord on most subsonic airfoils. c. Types of airfoils. (1) Symmetrical.

(a) (b) (c)

Equal camber on each side of chord. Each half a mirror image of the other half. Mean camber line and chord line are coincident.

(d) Produces zero lift at zero angle of attack. (e) angles of attack. (2) Relatively constant center of pressure with varying

Nonsymmetrical (unsymmetrical)

(a) chordline. (b) (c)

Greater curvature above the chordline than below the Chordline and mean camber line are not coincident. Produces useful lift even at negative angles of attack.

(d) Produces more lift at a given angle of attack than a symmetrical airfoil. (e) airfoil. (f) Has a good lift to drag ratio. Has better stall characteristics than a symmetrical

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(g) chordline. E. (h)

Limited to low relative wind velocity--300 knots or lower. Excessive center of pressure travel up to 20 percent of

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #5: Explain the different airfoil angles in production of lift. While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. Provide instruction on airfoil angles.

ACTION:

CONDITION: STANDARD:

Learning Step/Activity: 5. Rotor blade angles. a.

Angle of incidence (pitch angle).

(1) The angle between the chordline of the airfoil and the plane of rotation of the rotor (tip-path plane). (2) Is a mechanical angle.

(3) Changed by collective and cyclic feathering. A change in the angle of incidence results in a change in the angle of attack which changes the coefficient of lift of the airfoil. b. Angle of attack.

(1) The acute angle formed between the chordline of an airfoil and the resultant relative wind. (2) Angle of attack is an aerodynamic angle. change with no change in the angle of incidence. (3) Effects of airflow. Angle of attack can

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(a) As the angle of attack is increased, there is a greater acceleration of air atop the airfoil resulting in a larger pressure differential between the top and bottom of the airfoil. force. (b) This results in the creation of a larger aerodynamic

(c) The force is tilted more to the rear because of a greater increase in induced drag. (d) If the angle of attack is increased beyond a critical angle, the laminar flow across the top of the airfoil will be disrupted, boundary layer separation will occur, and a stall will result. When the stall occurs, lift will decrease rapidly and drag will increase. F. ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #6: Explain rotor blade actions. While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. Provide instruction on rotor blade actions.

ACTION:

CONDITION: STANDARD:

Learning Step/Activity: 6.

Rotor blade actions and their contribution to rotary-wing flight. a. Rotation. (1) The circular movement of the rotor blades.

(2) Produces the basic (rotational) relative wind. Maximum speed is at the tip of the blade and decreases uniformly to the hub. b. Feathering--rotation of the blade about its spanwise axis. (1) Collective feathering.

(a) The changing of the angle of incidence equally and in the same direction on all of the rotor blades simultaneously. (b) Changes the angle of attack, which changes the coefficient of lift (CL), which changes the overall lift of the rotor system. (2) Cyclic feathering.

(a) Changes the angle of incidence differentially around the rotor system; e.g., a forward cyclic movement decreases the angle of incidenceat the 3-oclock position while simultaneously increasing the angle ofincidence by the same amount 180 degrees later in the rotor system (9oclock position). A forward cyclic movement has no affect on the angle of incidence over the nose and tail of the aircraft. Lateral cyclic changes the angle of incidence over the nose and tail. (b) Creates a differential lift in the rotor system by changing the angle of attack differentially across the rotor system. This used to control the attitude of the rotor system and is the primary means of

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compensating for dissymmetry of lift in cruise flight. Cyclic feathering causes the attitude of the rotor disk to change, but does not change the amount of lift the rotor system is producing. c. Flapping.

(1) Flapping is the up and down movement of the rotor blades about a flapping hinge. (a) No flapping is occurring when the tip-path plane is perpendicular to the mast. (b) Blades flap in response to changes in lift caused by changes in wind velocity or cyclic feathering. (2) Contributions.

(a) Helps to prevent dissymmetry of lift (will be discussed later in dissymmetry of lift). (b) Allows the rotor system to tilt in the desired direction in response to cyclic inputs. d. Hunting (leading and lagging).

(1) Blades in an articulated system lead ahead and lag behind their normal position in the rotor system. (2) Causes.

(a) Drag forces. In directional flight the pitch angle and the angle of attack of the blades are constantly changing. These changes in angle of attack cause changes in blade drag. To prevent undue bending stress on the blades and the blade root, the blade is free to move fore and aft in the plane of rotation. This is accomplished through a vertical hinge pin(drag hinge). (b) Coriolis force. This force also causes blades to lead and lag and is governed by the law of conservation of angular momentum. This law states that a body will continue to have the same rotational momentum unless acted upon by an outside force. The rotational (angular) momentum is determined by two factors: the distance of the center of gravity from the center of rotation and rotational speed. If the center of gravity move closer to the center of rotation, the rotational speed must increase, and if the center of gravity moves further from the center of rotation, the rotational velocity must decrease. 1. Sequence when blade flaps up.

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a. Center of gravity of the blade moves inboard toward the axis of rotation producing a smaller radius of travel. b. In accordance with the law of the conservation of angular momentum, the blade tends to speed up. c. The vertical hinge pin (drag hinge) allows the blade to speed up, causing it to lead a few degrees ahead of its normal position in the tip-path plane. d. imposed on the blade. 2. Sequence when blade flaps down. This absorbs the stress that would otherwise be

a. Center of gravity of the blade moves outboard away from the axis of rotation producing a greater radius of travel. b. In accordance with the law of the conservation of angular momentum, the blade tends to slow down. c. The vertical hinge pin (drag hinge) allows the blade to slow down, causing it to lag a few degrees behind its normal position in the tip-path plane.

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imposed on the blade. G.

d.

This absorbs the stress that would otherwise be

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #7: Identify the factors affecting lift. While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. Provide instruction on factors affecting lift.

ACTION:

CONDITION: STANDARD:

Learning Step/Activity: 7. Lift.

a. The component of the total aerodynamic force of an airfoil that is perpendicular to the resultant relative wind. b. Factors affecting lift. (1) CL L = CL S V2

(coefficient of lift).

(a) A dimensionless number, determined through wind tunnel tests, that denotes the lift producing capability of an airfoil. (b) (c) Values range from 0 to 2 or more. Factors that determine the value of CL include-1. Shape or design of the airfoil. 2. Angle of attack.

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(2) (3)

S (surface area)--measured in square feet.

-- rho (air density). (a) Measured in slugs of air per cubic foot. On a standard day, standard temperature, standard pressure at sea level, a cubic foot of air has a mass of .002377 slugs. NOTE: The slug is the British measurement of mass. To convert weight (in pounds) to mass (in slugs); divide the weight by the gravitational constant, 32.2 feet per second. (b) Factors affecting air density.

1. Pressure--density increases as pressure increases. Density decreases with altitude because pressure decreases. 2. increases. the air increases. 3. Humidity--density decreases as water vapor content of Temperature--density decreases as temperature

(4) V2 (relative wind velocity, feet per second)--lift increases with the square of wind velocity. (a) (b) Fixed wing aircraft--V equal to airspeed. Helicopter--V equal to rotational velocity at a hover.

c. Lift/drag ratio (L/D). Any airfoil operates at maximum efficiency at only one angle of attack. This angle of attack is determined by dividing CL by the CD for a number of angles of attack. The CL/CD ratio resulting in

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the largest quotient is referred to as L/Dmax. glide ratio of the airfoil.

L/D ratios also indicate the

d.

Example lift and drag problem.

e.

Resultant lift of the rotor system.

(1) The resultant lift of the rotor system is the summation of all the lift produced by all the individual segments of all of the rotor blades. (2) Resultant lift acts perpendicular to the tip-path plane.

(3) To maneuver the helicopter, the tip-path plane must be tilted in the desired direction of movement. H.. ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #8: ACTION: Describe the three types of drag.

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CONDITION: STANDARD:

While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. Provide instruction on the three types of drag.

Learning Step/Activity: 8. Drag. a. b.

The resistance to an objects passage through the air. Types of drag.

(1)

Induced. (a) (b) The drag incurred as a result of the production of lift. Parallel to and in the same direction as the relative Increases with increased angle of attack. Decreases with increased airspeed.

wind. (c) (d) (2)

Profile. (a) The parasitic drag of the rotor system.

(b) At a constant RPM, profile drag is relatively constant but does increase slightly with airspeed. At very high airspeeds, profile drag increases rapidly due to the onset of blade stall or compressibility. (c) (3) Profile drag increases as the number of blades increases.

Parasitic.

(a) The resistance offered by the fuselage and other nonlifting surfaces to the flow of air.

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(b)

Causes.

1. Form or shape of the helicopter--the more streamlined the helicopter, the less the parasitic drag. 2. Skin friction--the smoother the skin of the fuselage, the less the parasitic drag. (c) c. Increases rapidly with airspeed.

Total drag curve. (1) Summation of all the drag forces affecting the helicopter.

(2) Total drag is high at a hover, decreases to a minimum value at a particular airspeed, then starts increasing with airspeed. (3) The airspeed that results in the lowest total drag gives the following airspeeds. (a) (b) (c) (d) Minimum rate of descent autorotation. Maximum endurance airspeed. Maximum rate of climb airspeed. Best maneuvering airspeed (most cases).

(4) A line drawn from the point of origin tangent to the total drag curve gives the following airspeeds. (a) (b) I. Max glide distance in autorotation. Max range.

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #9: Explain blade coning. While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. Provide instruction on blade coning.

ACTION:

CONDITION: STANDARD:

Learning Step/Activity: 8. Coning.

a. As the helicopter develops lift during takeoff and flight, the blade tips rise above the straight-out position and assume a coned position. b. Primary forces involved. (1) Centrifugal force.

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(a) Centrifugal force is the force which tends to make rotating bodies move away from the center of rotation. (b) Centrifugal force adds rigidity to the rotor blade, causing it to assume a straight-out position. (2) Lift. As the collective is increased and lift develops, the blades respond by rising above the straight-out position.

(3) Resultant. The combined effects of centrifugal force and lift cause the blades to assume a coned position. The angle between the straightout position and the path flown by the blades is the coning angle. Some amount of coning is normal in all rotor systems; however, excessive coning can create problems.

c.

Causes of excessive coning. (1) Low RPM--loss of centrifugal force.

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(2) (3)

High gross weight--more lift required. High G maneuvers--more lift required.

(4) Turbulence--updrafts increase angle of attack, which increases CL ,which increases lift. d. Effects of excessive coning. (1) (2) J. Decreased rotor area and useful lift. Stress on blades and blade roots.

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #10. Identify balance of forces acting on a helicopter. While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. Provide instruction on balance of forces.

ACTION:

CONDITION: STANDARD:

Learning Step/Activity: 10. Balance of forces.

a. Unaccelerated flight. During unaccelerated flight, all opposing forces are equal in magnitude and in opposite directions. (1) Hover.

(2)

Forward flight.

(3)

Ascending/descending flight.

b. Accelerated flight. Any time opposing forces are not equal in magnitude, acceleration will take place. Acceleration will take place in the

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direction of the stronger force until the forces are again in balance. The acceleration can be in any direction, even in reverse (slowing down is a form of acceleration in the negative direction). K. ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #11: Explain the factors affecting relative wind in the main rotor While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. Provide instruction on relative wind in the main

ACTION: system.

CONDITION: STANDARD:

Learning Step/Activity: rotor system.

11. Relative wind--the airflow in relation to an airfoil at a given instant in time. a. Rotational or tangential relative wind.

(1) (2) (3) the hub. (4)

That wind created by the rotation of the rotor blades. Strikes the leading edge of the blade at 90 degrees. Will be constantly changing in direction during rotation. Will be maximum at the blade tip uniformly decrease to zero at

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(5)

Typical tip relative wind speeds. RPM 324 354 395 289 258 225 TIP SPEED MACH # KNOTS FT/SEC (STDTEMP) 480 388 428 430 429 418 813 656 723 726 725 706 M.72 M.58 M.65 M.65 M.65 M.63

ROTOR BLADE (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) UH-1H OH-58A/C OH-58D AH-64A UH-60A CH-47

b. Development of the induced flow. As the rotor system induces a downward flow of air through the rotor blades, it creates a downward component of relative wind that must be vectorally added to the rotational relative wind to obtain the resultant relative wind.

(1) At flat pitch, the air leaves the trailing edge of the rotor blade in the same direction that it moved on to the leading edge. No lift is being produced. (2) Increasing collective pitch of the blade creates an angle of incidence. Air is now striking the leading edge below the chordline, giving the air a greater distance to flow over the top surface than along the lower surface of the airfoil. Air leaves the trailing edge with a downward deflection. (3) Since the air is disturbed each time that a blade passes a point in space, the air is accelerated downward until it reaches a velocity that depends on the conditions around the rotor system (e.g., ground effect). (4) Momentum theory. According to Newtons second law of motion, the production of lift (F) requires that a mass (M) of air be accelerated (A) to a final downward velocity. (F = MA). The downward velocity which exists at the plane of rotation is called the induced flow velocity or average downwash velocity.

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(5) Wing tip vortices. In an attempt to equalize pressure between the bottom (high pressure area) and top (low pressure area) of the airfoil, a high velocity circular flow of air develops at the root and tip of each blade. While the root vortex is relatively small, the blade tip vortex is quite large. These vortices reduce the efficiency of the rotor system by about 6 percent.

(6) At a hover all blades have the same velocity of wind flow, same pitch angle, equal induced flow velocities, therefore are producing lift.

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c.

Effects of airspeed. (1) Advancing blade. (a) Airspeed is added to rotational relative wind speed. The greatest value will occur when the blade is at the 3-

(b) oclock position.

(c) Increases the velocity along the span of the advancing blade by a velocity equal to forward airspeed. Across the hub, where

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airspeed was zero at a hover, the airspeed is equal to the forward velocity of the aircraft. (2) Retreating blade. (a) (b) oclock position. blade. (c) (d) Airspeed is subtracted from rotational velocity. The minimum value will occur when the blade is at the 9Decreases velocity across the span of the retreating Produces three no-lift areas along the retreating blade.

(3) Blades over the nose and the tail are affected minimally by forward airspeed. flight. (4) Development of lift areas around the rotor system in forward (a) Retreating blade. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. (b) Reverse flow area. Negative stall area. Negative lift area. Positive lift area. Positive stall area.

The entire advancing blade is producing lift.

(c) Since lift varies with the square of the velocity, it appears that the advancing blade is producing more lift than the retreating blade. Additionally, there are three no-lift areas on the retreating blade. This apparent differential lift pattern is referred to as dissymmetry of lift.

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L.

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #12: Describe dissymmetry of lift. While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. Provide instruction on dissymmetry of lift.

ACTION:

CONDITION: STANDARD:

Learning Step/Activity:

12. Dissymmetry of lift. Differential velocity of wind flow across the advancing and retreating halves of the rotor system.

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a. The primary cause for dissymmetry of lift is differential velocity of wind flow across the advancing and retreating halves of the rotor system. b. This differential lift would cause the helicopter to be uncontrollable, so a means of compensating, correcting for, or eliminating this unequal lift pattern must be available. c. Corrections.

(1) Blade flapping (aerodynamic or design). The rotor system will compensate for dissymmetry of lift automatically, without pilot input, through blade flapping. (a) As the relative wind speed of the advancing blade increases, it gains lift and starts flapping up. It reaches its maximum upflap velocity at the 3-oclock position, where the wind velocity is the highest. The upflapping velocity creates a downward flow of air across the blade. This has the same effect as increasing the induced flow velocity. This upflap changes the relative wind in such a manner that the angle of attack is reduced, which decreases lift. (b) As the relative wind speed of the retreating blade decreases, the blade loses lift and starts flapping down. It reaches its maximum downflap velocity at the 9-oclock position, where the wind velocity is the lowest. The downflapping velocity creates an upward flow of air across the blade. This downflap changes the relative wind in such a manner that the angle of attack is increased which increases lift. rotor system. (c) The net result is an equalization of lift across the

(d) Due to phase lag the advancing blade reaches its maximum upflap displacement 90 degrees after its maximum upflap velocity. Because the maximum upflap velocity is at the 3-oclock position, the maximum upflap displacement is at the 12 oclock position or over the nose. Likewise, because the maximum downflap velocity is at the 9 oclock position, the maximum downflap displacement is at the 6-oclock position or over the tail. (e) When blade flapping has compensated for dissymmetry of lift, the attitude of the rotor system is tilted to the rear (blowback). This would cause a decrease in airspeed, so there must be another means available to compensate for dissymmetry of lift that allows the pilot to control the attitude of the rotor disk. This is accomplished through cyclic feathering. (2) Cyclic feathering.

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(a) At a hover, equal lift is produced around the rotor system. There is equal pitch and angle of attack on all the blades and at all points in the rotor system (disregarding compensation for translating tendency). The rotor disk is parallel with the horizon. (b) To develop a thrust force, the rotor system must be tilted in the desired direction of movement. (c) A forward cyclic movement decreases pitch and angle of attack at the 3-oclock position; therefore, lift at the 3-oclock position is decreased. The decrease in lift at the 3-oclock position causes the blade to flap down, reaching its maximum downflap velocity at the 3-oclock position. Due to phase lag, the blade reaches its maximum downflap displacement over the nose of the aircraft. (d) A forward cyclic movement increases pitch and angle of attack at the 9-oclock position; therefore, lift at the 9-oclock position causes the blade to flap up, reaching its maximum upflap velocity at the 9oclock position. Due to phase lag, the blade reaches its maximum upflap displacement over the tail of the aircraft. (e) After the rotor system is tilted forward with cyclic, a horizontal component of lift is created (thrust) and the helicopter gains airspeed.

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(f) Because of the airspeed, the blades start flapping to maintain symmetry of lift. (g) Because of phase lag, the greatest upflap would occur over the nose and the greatest downflap over the tail. (h) This would result in the rotor disk being tilted more aft (blowback) pitching the nose up, reducing the thrust vector, and reducing airspeed. (i) To prevent this, the aviator applies more forward cyclic to reposition the rotor disk when he senses the pitch-up of the nose. (j) This combination of flapping and cyclic feathering maintain symmetry of lift and the desired attitude to the rotor system and helicopter. (3) Helicopter design features to reduce flapping.

(a) Forward tilt to the rotor reduces flapping to a minimum during normal cruise flight. (b) Synchronized elevator/stabilator/horizontal stabilizer help to maintain the desired fuselage attitude to reduce flapping. (c) While both cyclic feathering and blade flapping are used to compensate for dissymmetry of lift, cyclic feathering is the primary means of compensating for dissymmetry of lift in normal cruise flight. (d) In the CH-47 helicopter, blade flapping alone compensates for dissymmetry of lift until the aircraft reaches approximately 70 knots forward airspeed, after which the longitudinal cyclic trim programs cyclic pitch inputs to the blades to compensate for dissymmetry of lift and to reduce bending forces on the mast. (e) Many helicopters have stability augmentation systems (SAS) which aid in aircraft stability and reduce the pilots work load. These systems sense changes from the trim condition and make mechanical control inputs to reduce excursions in pitch, roll, and yaw. M. ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #13: Describe translating tendency. While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. Provide instruction on translating tendency.

ACTION:

CONDITION: STANDARD:

Learning Step/Activity: 13. Torque reaction.

a. The fuselages reaction to the turning of the main rotor system is torque reaction.

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b. Newtons third law of motion states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. The engine power on most American-built single rotor helicopters causes the rotor system to rotate in a counterclockwise direction (as viewed from the top). The reaction is that the fuselage will rotate clockwise (to the right). The degree of the right yaw is directly proportional to the amount of power applied. c. reaction. (2) Amount of thrust controlled by the antitorque pedals. Correction for single-rotor helicopters. (1) Tail rotor which produces thrust opposite of the torque

d. Translating tendency (tail rotor drift). Aircraft will tend to translate (move) in the direction of tail rotor thrust (to the right).

(1) This is caused by trying to cancel a turning moment about the mast with a thrust force and a moment from the tail rotor.

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(2)

Corrected for by tilting the main rotor to the left by-(a) Rigging of the cyclic system.

(b) Application of left cyclic, the method used on most American-built helicopters. (c) Tilting the rotor mast to the left.

(d) Programmed mechanical inputs/automatic flight control systems (AFCS)/stabilization augmentation systems (SAS). (3) Effects on hovering attitude (underslung rotors).

(a) When left cyclic is applied to prevent the right translating tendency, the force of the main rotor system is applied to the left. (b) If the left force of the main rotor system is at a greater distance above the center of gravity than the right force of the tail rotor, a left rolling moment is produced. (c) (d) This will cause the helicopter to hover, left skid low. It will be more pronounced in a tail-low hover.

(e) In articulated systems, the tip-path plane is tilted to the left to provide the left force from the main rotor system. Centrifugal force acting on the offset hinging tends to align the hub of the rotor system with the tip-path plane, which then tilts the fuselage to the left, giving the same left-side-low hovering attitude. e. Correction for tandem rotor helicopters.

(1) The two rotor systems rotate in opposite directions which cancels out most of the torque effect. On the CH-47, the forward rotor rotates counterclockwise while the aft rotor rotates clockwise. (2) Because the aft rotor produces more thrust in level flight, there will be a slight tendency for the fuselage to rotate, or yaw, to the left. This can be corrected with right pedal which actually causes a right cyclic input to the forward rotor and a left cyclic input to the aft rotor.

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N.

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #14: Explain translational lift. While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. Provide instruction on translational lift.

ACTION:

CONDITION: STANDARD:

Learning Step/Activity: 14. Translational lift.

a. The additional lift obtained because of the increased efficiency of the rotor system with airspeed obtained either by horizontal flight or by hovering into a wind.

b. As airspeed increases, the helicopter starts running away from the major downwash causing the relative wind to become more horizontal. This results in the following: (1) Reduced induced flow velocity causes the angle of attack to increase with no increase in blade pitch. This results in an increase in lift and a decrease in induced drag. The reduction in induced drag results in a more vertical lift vector for each rotor blade. (2) Effective translational lift occurs at airspeeds 24 knots. Effective translational lift is that moment when the has outrun the major effects of downwash. There is very little of air through the rotor system, the tail rotor is operating in air, and induced drag is decreasing very rapidly. O. ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #15: Describe transverse flow effect. While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. between 16 and helicopter recirculation undisturbed

ACTION:

CONDITION: STANDARD:

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Learning Step/Activity: 15.

Provide instruction on transverse flow effect.

Transverse flow effect.

a. A condition of increased induced drag in the aft portion of the rotor system caused by the air having a greater downwash angle in the aft portion of the rotor disk. b. Causes.

(1) Forward tilt of the rotor disk and coning cause the blade over the nose of the helicopter to be more horizontal than the blade over the tail.

(2) Forward cyclic movement to tilt the rotor disk did not change the pitch angle of the blade over the nose or the tail. (3) The rotor system moves the air downward as it passes over the rotor disk. The aft portion has a greater time to act on the air, increasing its downward velocity. (4) The overall effect is that the air moving through the aft portion of the rotor disk has a greater induced flow velocity and a more vertical flow of air than the air passing through the forward portion of the rotor system. Therefore, the blade over the nose of the aircraft has a greater angle of attack and produces more lift than the blade over the tail of the aircraft. (5) The blade over the nose responds to the increased lift by flapping up. Due to phase lag, the maximum upflap blade displacement will occur at the 9-oclock position. (6) The blade over the tail responds to the decreased lift by flapping down. Due to phase lag, the maximum downflap blade displacement will occur at the 3-oclock position. c. Effects.

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(1) Because of the loss of lift in the aft portion of the rotor disk, and the 90-degree phase lag, the helicopter may have a right roll tendency which must be corrected with left cyclic. (2) The additional induced drag in the aft portion of the rotor disk causes a vibration as each blade passes through that position. It is most noticeable between 10 to 20 knots. d. Speed range. While there is a differential in the fore and aft downwash in the rotor system at any airspeed, the greatest differential occurs just prior to and after exit from the most noticeable effect of effective translational lift. P. ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #16: Explain autorotation. While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. Provide instruction on autorotation.

ACTION:

CONDITION: STANDARD:

Learning Step/Activity: 16. Autorotation.

a. If engine failure occurs during flight, the helicopter must have the capability of a controlled descent to the ground. b. Requirements. (1) The rotor system must be disengaged from the engine.

(2) The collective must be lowered so the angle of attack will not become so excessive that RPM will be lost. c. Types. (1) Minimum rate of descent.

(a) For each aircraft, there is an airspeed that will result in the minimum rate of descent. (b) (c) (d) (2) Values are determined by flight tests. Values are published in the operators manual. Values are very close to the airspeed for minimum drag.

Maximum glide distance.

(a) The airspeed that produces the greatest forward distance will be higher than that for the minimum rate of descent and the rate of descent will increase. (b) (c) Best glide distance is determined by test flights. Values are published in the operators manual.

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(d) d.

Values are very close to the maximum range airspeed.

Forces involved. (1) Stall region.

(a) (b) (c) (2)

That area inboard of the 25 percent radius. Operates above the critical angle of attack (stall angle). Contributes little vertical lift but some rotational drag.

Driving (autorotative) region.

(a) That region of the blade between approximately 25- and 70- percent radius. (b) Operates at comparatively high angles of attack.

(c) Total aerodynamic force is tilted slightly forward in the direction of rotation. (d) Inclination of the total aerodynamic force provides horizontal thrust in the direction of rotation which tends to increase RPM.

(3) radius.

Driven (propeller) region. (a) That portion of the blade outward from the 70-percent

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(b) Operates at a slightly less angle of attack than the autorotative region. (c) Because of the higher relative wind speed, this region provides most of the vertical lift opposing weight. (d) Inclination provides horizontal drag, opposite the direction of rotation, which tends to decrease RPM.

e.

Maintenance of RPM.

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(1) During autorotation, the rotational drag and thrust of the different regions equalize at some RPM, and a stable flight situation is produced. (2) The RPM at which this condition occurs depends on the setting of the collective pitch. (3) If any external forces attempt to upset the balance of forces between the regions, the balance will restore itself if the angle of attack is maintained or the pilot does not change the collective pitch setting. (4) pitch. (5) Low RPM can be increased by aft cyclic but at the expense of airspeed. RPM can also be increased through a turn, but rate of descent will increase rapidly. Q. ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #17: Explain ground effect. While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. Provide instruction on ground effect. Excessive RPM can be reduced by an increase in collective

ACTION:

CONDITION: STANDARD:

Learning Step/Activity: 17. Ground effect.

a. The increased efficiency of the rotor system due to the interference of the airflow when in proximity to the ground. b. Causes.

(1) The reduction of the velocity of the induced flow. Since the ground interrupts the airflow under the helicopter, the entire flow is altered. This reduces the downward velocity of the induced flow. The result is less induced drag and a more vertical lift vector. The lift needed to sustain a hover can be produced with a reduced angle of incidence and a lower power requirement because of the more vertical lift vector. (2) The reduction of rotor tip vortices. When operating in-ground effect, the downward and outward flow of air tends to restrict vortex generation. This makes the outboard portion of the blade more efficient and reduces overall system turbulence caused by ingestion and recirculation of the vortex swirls. c. Results. (1) (2) (3) d. The resultant relative wind becomes more horizontal. The lift vector becomes more vertical. The effective drag is reduced.

Effective altitudes.

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(1) The maximum altitude above the ground is one rotor diameter for any appreciable increase in efficiency. (2) Efficiency continues to increase with lower altitudes, with the greatest increase in efficiency occurring at the lowest possible altitude. e. Ground effect is most noticeable over hard flat surfaces and decreases over rough or soft terrain.

R.

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #18: Explain settling with power While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. Provide instruction on settling with power.

ACTION:

CONDITION: STANDARD:

Learning Step/Activity:

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18.

Settling with power.

a. A flight condition when collective inputs are ineffective in arresting a rate of descent due to an unsteady airflow about the rotor system. (1) Induced velocity during hovering flight. The magnitude of the induced flow velocity is greatest at the tips of the blades and decreases toward the hub. (2) Variations in induced flow velocity prior to vortex ring state.

(a) If the helicopter begins to settle, an upward velocity will be superimposed on the induced flow velocity. (b) Since the upflow is uniform across the rotor, its influence will first be felt at the hub. 3) Vortex ring state.

(a) If the helicopter continues to descend with insufficient airspeed, it will enter the vortex ring state. (b) There is a portion of positive thrust on the outer portion of the rotor and an area of negative thrust at the center. (c) develop. If not corrected, an extremely high rate of descent can

b. Necessary conditions. The following combination of conditions are likely to cause settling with power. (1) A vertical or near vertical descent at a high rate of speed. The actual rate would depend on the following variables: (a) (b) (c) Gross weight. Rotor RPM. Density altitude.

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(2) engine power. (3) c.

The rotor system must be using all or some of the available Loss of translational lift (airspeeds near zero).

Conductive flight situations.

(1) Attempting to hover out-of-ground-effect at or above the hover ceiling of the aircraft. (2) Attempting to hover out-of-ground-effect within the hovering ceiling of the aircraft without maintaining precise altitude control. (3) Steep power approaches in which the airspeed is permitted to drop nearly to zero. d. Symptoms. (1) (2) (3) (4) e. High rate of descent (minimum of 300 feet per minute). High power consumption. Loss of collective pitch effectiveness. Vibrations.

Corrective actions. (1) (2) (3) (4) Establish directional flight. Lower collective pitch. Increase RPM if decayed. Apply right pedal.

S.

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #19: Explain dynamic rollover. While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. Provide instruction on dynamic rollover.

ACTION:

CONDITION: STANDARD:

Learning Step/Activity: 19. Dynamic rollover.

a. A flight condition in which the rate of roll exceeds the control capability of the aircraft with one wheel or skid in contact with the surface, a rolling moment is developed and the critical rollover angle is exceeded. b. Reasons. (1) Environmental--slope, rough or soft surface, or crosswind.

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(2) Aircraft--high CG, narrow landing gear, semirigid rotor with limited flapping, and tail rotor thrust. Fully articulated rotor with large offset hinging. (3) Pilot--failure to control roll rate, abrupt increases or decrease of collective, failure to coordinate collective and cyclic inputs, and improper location of lateral CG. c. rates. (2) (3) T. Smooth control inputs. Coordinate collective and cyclic inputs. Avoidance procedures. (1) Maintain an uninterrupted visual reference to indicate roll

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #20: Describe mast bumping. While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. Provide instruction on mast bumping.

ACTION:

CONDITION: STANDARD:

Learning Step/Activity:

20. Mast bumping/droop stop pounding in the semirigid and articulated rotor systems. a. The static stops of the rotor hub on a semirigid rotor system come in contact with the mast. b. Causes--excessive flapping. (1) (2) (3) c. Low G conditions. Engine failure. Tail rotor failure.

Effects.

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(1) (2) d. cyclic. U.

Damage to mast. Main rotor separation.

Correction--recover main rotor thrust by smoothly applying aft

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #21: Explain retreating blade stall. While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. Provide instruction on retreating blade stall.

ACTION:

CONDITION: STANDARD:

Learning Step/Activity: 21.

Retreating blade stall. a. Explanation.

(1) The retreating blade is operating at a lower relative wind speed than the advancing blade. This coupled with the three no-lift areas on the retreating blade requires that the retreating blade operate at high angles of attack. (2) At some airspeeds, the blade will be operating near the critical angle of attack. When the blade can no longer compensate for dissymmetry of lift by increasing the angle of attack through cyclic feathering, the blade will flap down to aerodynamically compensate for dissymmetry of lift. (3) When the blade begins to flap down, the downflap velocity increases the angle of attack, exceeding the stall angle at the tip of the blade. As the blade continues to flap, the stall affects more of the blade and the stall spreads inboard.

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b.

Contributing factors. (1) High airspeed.

(2) Any other condition that would cause the rotor system to be operating at a high angle of attack would leave less latitude for overcoming dissymmetry of lift, and the stall would occur at a lower airspeed. These factors include: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) c. Symptoms. High gross weight. High density altitude. High G maneuvers. Turbulence (updrafts). Low rotor RPM.

(1) Abnormal 2:1 vibrations (two-bladed rotor) increasing in intensity as the stall progresses. (2) Pitch-up of the nose (pitching of the nose may not be as pronounced in a semirigid system as with a fully articulated system, and may in fact not present itself until mast bumping has occurred). (3) Tendency to roll toward the stalled side (left side on American-built helicopters). (4) (5) (6) Control feedback. Reduction of effective cyclic control. Loss of control (if corrective action is not applied).

d.

Corrective actions. (1) Lower collective. This action will accomplish three things.

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(a) (b) (c) (2) (3) (4) desired. V.

Reduce the angle of attack. Reduce the speed of the aircraft. Increase RPM.

Adjust controls for normal flight. Minimize maneuvering. Descend to a lower altitude if flight at a higher airspeed is

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE (ELO) #22: Explain advancing blade compressibility. While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). In accordance with FM 1-203. Provide instruction on advancing blade

ACTION:

CONDITION: STANDARD:

Learning Step/Activity: compressibility. 22.

Advancing blade compressibility.

a. The dominating factor in high-speed airflow is the speed of sound. Speed of sound is the rate at which small pressure disturbances will be propagated through the air. This propagation speed depends solely on air temperature. The following chart depicts the change in speed versus temperature. b. Because the velocity of air is changed as it passes over an airfoil, the airfoil does not have to be traveling at the speed of sound to experience the effects of compressible flow (supersonic flow). The velocity of air can change by as much as 25 percent at high angles of attack, an airfoil can easily have local supersonic flow at Mach .8 (eight tenths the speed of sound).

c. Effects. The coefficient of drag is increased, and a loss of lift is experienced. This results in the following: inboard. (1) Vibrations that get more and more severe as the region spreads

(2) High power required to maintain RPM because of the increase in drag and the loss of lift. (3) Pitching of the nose. The change in lift at the 3-oclock position results in the blade flapping over the nose (phase lag).

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(4) moments.

Structural failure of the blade due to tremendous pitching

d. Contributing factors include most conditions that result in a high angle of attack. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) High airspeeds. High gross weight. Low air density (high DA). High G maneuvers. Turbulence. High rotor RPM. Low temperatures.

e. Corrective actions. Any action that will decrease the angle of attack or airspeed will help the situation. Such techniques include: (1) (2) (3) (4) f. Decrease blade pitch by lowering collective if possible. Decrease RPM. Decrease severity of maneuvers. Decrease airspeed.

Development of subsonic/transonic/supersonic flow. (1) Subsonic flow (normal flow).

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(2)

Transonic/supersonic flow.

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APPENDIX E APPLIED AERODYNAMICS STUDY GUIDE

APPENDIX E

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APPLIED AERODYNAMICS STUDY GUIDE 1. Listed below are various applications of Newtons laws of motion. right of each example identify which of Newtons laws applies. a. b. moving. c. 2. torque effect. more force is required to start an object moving than to keep it greater load--lower acceleration. To the

What method of solving vector problems do the following diagrams depict? a. b.

3. During subsonic, incompressible flow, if the velocity of air over the top of an airfoil increases, the static pressure __________________. 4. Listed below are descriptions of airfoil sections..Match the description with the appropriate term. ____ a. ____ b. ____ c. ____ d. ____ e. rotation ____ f. ____ g. between leading edge mean camber line (6) (7) tapered edge line from leading to trailing edge, midway upper and lower surfaces lower camber upper camber span chordline trailing edge (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) rounded edge straight line from leading to trailing edge upper curvature lower curvature length of a line from blade tip to the axis of

5. The center of pressure moves with a change in angle of attack on a ______________ airfoil, but does not move on a ________________ airfoil.

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6. On which type of airfoil is the chordline coincident with the mean camber line?

7. The aerodynamic angle between the chord line of an airfoil and the resultant relative wind is the __________________________. 8. The mechanical angle between the chord line of an airfoil and the tippath plane is the ______________________. 9. The only cause of a stall is __________________________________. Match the appropriate action with (1) (2) (3) absorbs stress produced by blade flapping controls the overall lift of the rotor system controls the attitude of the helicopter and overcomes lift up and down movement of the blades as they rotate, aids in the compensation for dissymmetry of lift produces the basic relative wind

10. Listed below are rotor blade actions. its contribution to rotary wing flight. ____ a. ____ b. ____ c. dissymmetry of ____ d. rotation collective feathering cyclic feathering hunting

(4)

____ e.

flapping

(5)

11. What action occurs in the articulated system that does not take place in the semirigid system?

12. In an articulated system, when the blade flaps up, the center of gravity moves ____________ to the center of rotation, and the blade ______________. 13. The reaction to a change in cyclic pitch manifests itself ___________.

14. In an American-built single rotor helicopter, a forward cyclic movement results in the lowest pitch being applied at the _______oclock position. 15. What two factors affect the coefficient of lift of an airfoil? a.

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16. 17. 18.

b. Airfoil segment lift acts ______________ to the resultant relative wind. If the relative wind velocity is doubled, the lift increases by ______. What aerodynamic force acts perpendicular to the tip-path plane?

19. With other factors remaining constant, what combination of temperature, pressure, and humidity will result in the greatest amount of lift? a. b. c. temperature (high or low) pressure (high or low) humidity (high or low) ________________ ________________ ________________

20. The resistance offered by the flow of air because of the shape of the fuselage and the texture of the skin is ________________________ drag. 21. Induced drag is due to the production of ___________________.

22. The parasitic drag of the rotor blades is referred to as _____________ drag. 23. How do the following types of drag vary airspeed? a. b. c. d. 24. induced parasite profile total

What are the two primary forces involved in blade coning?

25.

List three causes of excessive blade coning. a. b. c.

26.

List two effects of excessive blade coning. a. b.

27. If the forces, weight, lift, thrust, and drag are not in balance, the helicopter will __________________________.

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28. As the collective pitch angle of the blade is increased an __________ flow is developed. This downward flow of air modifies the wind produced by rotation of the blades, yielding ____________________________________, the only wind that the airfoil recognizes. 29. An increase in the induced flow velocity (increases/decreases) angle of attack. 30. How will the following actions affect angle of attack? a. b. c. d. 31. 32. updraft downdraft upflap downflap

What is the cause of dissymmetry of lift? What compensates for dissymmetry of lift? a. b.

33. With a single main rotor turning counterclockwise, torque will cause the fuselage to rotate _______________ according to Newtons law of ___________. 34. How is the torque effect controlled in tandem rotor helicopters?

35. With a single main rotor American-built helicopter, which pedal turn (left or right) will require the most power and why?

36. Why do single main rotor American-built helicopters translate to the right? 37. When translating tendency is compensated for with cyclic, what happens to the hovering attitude of the helicopter? 38. The increased thrust (lift) of a rotor system experienced with forward airspeed is called ______________________________. 39. As airspeed increases, dissymmetry of lift will cause the nose of the helicopter to ___________________ unless the pilot applies ______________.

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40. The vibration that occurs in a rotor system because of the unequal drag due to unequal downwash in the fore and aft portion of the rotor is due to the ___________________________. 41. At what airspeed range is the vibration most noticeable.

42. If a complete loss of power occurs, what initial pilot reaction is normally required to prevent excessive loss of rotor RPM? 43. During autorotation, which portion of the rotor blade provides the thrust required to maintain RPM? 44. Which of the following factors determines the minimum rate of descent during autorotation? a. b. c. gross weight airspeed density altitude

45. During autorotation, the maximum glide distance airspeed is (higher/lower) than the minimum rate of descent airspeed. 46. How can low RPM be corrected for during an autorotation?

47. Ground effect results from a reduction in _______________________ and _________________________. 48. 49. Ground effect is most pronounced ___________________________. List three conditions necessary for settling with power. a. b. c. 50. List three flight situations conductive to settling with power. a. b. c. 51. List three factors that can aggravate settling with power. a. b.

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52.

c. What are the corrective actions for settling with power? a. b. c. d.

53. Dynamic roll-over occurs when you exceed the _____________________ of the aircraft with one wheel or skid on the ground. 54. List three design features that may cause increased susceptibility to dynamic roll-over. a. b. c. 55. What flight maneuvers are conductive to mast bumping? a. b. c. 56. If mast bumping is encountered during low G flight, what action should you take?

57.

List three symptoms of retreating blade stall. a. b. c.

58.

List six factors that contribute to retreating blade stall. a. b. c. d.

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e. f. 59. What is the corrective action for retreating blade stall?

60.

List three indications of advancing blade compressibility. a. b. c.

61. List seven factors that would contribute to or aggravate blade compressibility. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. 62. What is the corrective action for advancing blade compressibility effects?

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APPENDIX E APPLIED AERODYNAMICS STUDY GUIDE SOLUTIONS 1. a. b. c. 2. action/reaction inertia acceleration

a. triangle b. parallelogram Both are modifications of vector addition (polygon).

NOTE: 3. 4.

decreases a. b. c. d. e. f. g. (4) (3) (5) (2) (6) (1) (7)

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

nonsymmetrical, symmetrical symmetrical angle of attack angle of incidence exceeding the critical angle of attack a. b. c. d. e. (2) (3) (1) (5) (4)

11. 12. 13.

hunting or lead and lag nearer (inward), leads 90 degrees later in the direction of rotation

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14. 15.

three a. b. angle of attack shape of the airfoil

E-9

16. 17. 18. 19.

perpendicular four (quadruples) resultant lift (total lift) a. b. c. low high low

20. 21. 22. 23.

parasitic lift profile a. b. decreases increases rapidly

c. increases slightly with airspeed until approaching blade stall or compressibility after which it increases very rapidly 24. lift and centrifugal force

25. any three of the following: high gross weight, high G maneuver, low rotor RPM, or turbulence 26. a. b. 27. 28. 29. 30. blade stress decreased rotor area (decreased lift)

accelerate in the direction of the stronger force induced flow, resultant relative wind decreases a. b. c. increases decreases decreases

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d.

increases

31. The advancing blade has a greater relative wind velocity than the retreating blade. The difference in wind velocity results in the advancing blade creating more lift than the retreating blade (L=CL S V2). 32. a. b. 33. 34. cyclic feathering blade flapping

clockwise, action/reaction The rotors turn in opposite directions, canceling the torque reaction.

35. A left pedal requires more power. Now the tail rotor must produce thrust to overcome torque plus additional thrust to develop the turning force. 36. To counteract main rotor torque, the tail rotor produces thrust to the right. The helicopter then drifts in the direction of the tail rotor thrust. 37. If tail rotor is below the plane of the main rotor, the right thrust produced by the tail rotor, coupled with the left lateral thrust produced by the main rotor produces a left side low hovering attitude in a semirigid system. In a fully articulated system, offset hinging aligns the rotor hub with the plane of rotation of the main rotor, thus producing a left side low attitude. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. translational lift pitch up, forward cyclic transverse flow effect 10 to 20 knots reduce collective driving or autorotative (middle 45 percent of blade span) b. higher aft cyclic or a turn wing tip vortices, induced flow as close to the ground as possible and over smooth surfaces a. b. c. rate of descent 300 feet per minute or greater low airspeed (below ETL) power applied to the rotor system

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50. Any three of the following: steep slow approaches, formation landings, downwind approaches, hovering above the hover ceiling of the aircraft, hovering OGE within the hover ceiling of the aircraft without maintaining precise altitude control, masking, confined area operations. 51. a. b. c. 52. a. b. c. d. 53. 54. high gross weight high DA low rotor RPM establish directional flight lower collective pitch if altitude permits increase RPM is decayed apply right pedal

lateral control capability a. b. c. high CG narrow landing gear type of rotor system high speed contour flight masking and unmasking recovery from a pullup

55.

a. b. c.

56. 57.

load the rotor system a. b. c. rotor vibrations pitch-up of the nose left roll tendency high airspeed high density altitude high G maneuvers high gross weight low rotor RPM turbulence

58.

a. b. c. d. e. f.

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59. lower collective, regain control, decrease airspeed, reduce severity of maneuver, increase RPM, and descend to a lower density altitude 60. a. b. c. 61. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. rotor vibrations high power requirement pitching of the nose high airspeed high density altitude high G maneuvers high gross weight high rotor RPM turbulence low temperature

62. decrease collective, decrease airspeed, regain controlled flight, and decrease rotor RPM

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