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# Control Engineering EMM 4423

Lectures

References
(a) Hishamuddin Jamaluddin, Mohd Shafiek Yaacob and Robiah Ahmad, Introduction to Control Engineering , 1st Edition, UTM Press, 2011 (b) N.S.Nise, Control System Engineering, 5th edition,John Wiley&Sons,Inc (c) R.C.Dirf and Bishop, Modern Control Systems.11th edition,Pearson International Edition,2008. (d) M.Gopal, Control Systems:Principle and Design, 3rd edition, McGrawHill,2008 (e) K.Ogata,Modern Control Engineering, 3rd edition, Pretice Hall, 1997.

Assessment
Test 1 (20%) Test 2 (20%) Assignment / QUIZ / LAB(10%) Final Examination (50%)

Syllabus

Week 1 (Introduction) Week 2-3 (Mathematical Modelling of dynamic systems) Week 4 (Block drigram manipulation, signal flow graphs and Masons rule, introduction to Matlab/Simulink) Week 5 (Introduction to time response analysis) Week 6 (Classification of control System, 1st and 2nd order systems and performance of feedback control system) Week7 (Steady state errors, final value theorem, controller action(PID) and application of Matlab/Simulink) Week 8 (Semester break) Week 9 (Definition,characteristics equations, Routh stability criterion, Introduction to root locus method) Week 10-11 (Root Locus plot ) Week 12-13 (Introduction to frequency response analysis) Week 14-15( Design of control system)

Control systems are important and are present almost everywhere in our daily lives. Examples of man-made control systems: CD player, radio antenna, rockets/missiles, robots, oven, room air condition. Examples of God-created control systems : level of adrenalin in the human body, entry of light through the human eye, holding and carrying things using hand, human riding a bicycle

Controlled variable the quantity/condition that is measured and controlled (normally controlled variable is the output of the system) Manipulated variable the quantity/condition that is varied by the controller so as affect the value of the controlled variable

Plants a piece of equipment/set of a machine functioning together, which perform a particular operation
Process progressively continuously operation that consists of a series of controlled action to achieve a particular result. Systems a combination of components that act together and perform a certain objective

Disturbance a signal that tends to adversely affect the value of the output of the system. There are two types of disturbance;

internal disturbance generated within the system external disturbance generated outside the system and is an input

Automatic control system a control system that is selfregulating without human intervention
Process control system an automatic regulating system in which the output is a variable such as temperature, pressure, flow, liquid level or pH is called process control system

A Control System consists of subsystems and processes (or plants) that are interconnected to control the system output.

For a system having one or more components, it is easier to represent the components or the subsystems using block diagrams where the signal transfer can be visualized clearly.
3 main characteristics of Block Diagrams:

1.
2. 3.

Fundamental blocks
Components/subsystems Signals

## Fundamental blocks Input Desired response

Components/ subsystems

## Each block may have one or more inputs.

The input and output signals may have the same form or they may be changed into a different form depending on the function of the component or subsystem.

Block Diagrams
Components/subsystems
Summing junction
-allows 2 or more signals to be added/subtracted. The +, - sign indicates whether the signals are added or subtracted. V1 + V2 V=V1-V2

Take-off point
V

-allows a signal to be taken from any components output. Assume that it does not load any components output (the signals are not changed).

Block Diagrams
Components/subsystems (others)
Controllers, plants Actuators Sensors

Amplifiers

## Signals in Control Systems

Input/reference [r(t), R(s)]
Output [c(t), C(s)] Error [e(t)=r(t)-c(t)] Feedback, disturbances/noise

Block Diagrams
Noise 1
Input

R(s)

+ Input Transducer

Summer

Noise 2

Plant

Controller

+ Plant

Output

C(s)

Error (E(s))

Output Transducer

## Control Systems Categories

This control function or the interference to the process is introduced by an organization of parts (including operators in manual control) that, when

## connected together is called the Control System.

Depending on whether a human body (the operator) is physically involved in the control system, they are divided into Manual Control and Automatic Control. Due to its efficiency, accuracy and reliability, automatic control is widely used in chemical processed.

## Manual Control Systems

First start with a simple manual control system, to examine how control is introduced, how the control system is constructed and how it works. A diagram of the system is shown below.
To begin with the shower is cold. To start the heating process the valve in the hot water line is opened.

The operator can then determine the effectiveness of the control process by standing in the shower.
If the water is too hot, the valve should be closed a little or even turned off. If the water is not hot enough then the valve is left open or opened wider.

## Control Systems Functions

It can be seen that this control system, completed by the operator, possesses the following functions: Measurement This is essentially an estimate or appraisal of the process being controlled by the system. In this example, this is achieved by the right hand of the operator. Comparison This is an examination of the likeness of the measured values and the desired values. This is carried out in the brain of the operator.

## Control Systems Functions

Computation This is a calculated judgment that indicates how much the measured value and the desired values differ and what action and how much should be taken. In this example, the operator will calculate the difference between the desired temperature and the actual one. Accordingly the direction and amount of the adjustment of the valve are worked out and the order for this adjustment is sent to the left hand from the brain of the operator. If the outlet water temperature is lower, then the brain of the operator will tell the left hand to open the steam valve wider. If there is any disturbance, or variation of flow rate in water to the shower inlet, some adjustment must be made to keep the outlet water temperature at a desired value.

## Control Systems Functions

Correction This is ultimately the materialization of the order for the adjustment. The left hand of the operator takes the necessary actions following the order from brain. Therefore, for a control system to operate satisfactorily, it must have the abilities of measurement, comparison, computation and correction. Of course, the manual operation has obvious disadvantages e.g. the accuracy and the continuous involvement of operators. Although accuracy of the measurement could be improved by using an indicator, automatic control must be used to replace the operator. In industry, it is automatic control that is widely used.

## Automatic Control Systems

Based on the above process, we can easily set up an automatic control system as shown in the next figure.

## Automatic Control Systems

Firstly, we can use a temperature measurement device to measure the water temperature, which replaces the right hand of the operator. This addition to the system would have improved accuracy. Instead of manual valves, we use a special kind of valve, called a control valve, which is driven by compressed air or electricity. This will replace the left hand of the operator. We put a device called a controller, in this case a temperature controller, to replace the brain of the operator. This has the functions of comparison and computation and can give orders to the control valve. The signal and order connections between the measurement device, control valve and controller are transferred through cables and wires, which replace the nerve system in the operator.

## Control Systems Hardware

Examining the automatic control system, it is found that it contains the following hardware. Sensor - a piece of equipment to measure system variables. It serves as the signal source in automatic control. Controller - a piece of equipment to perform the functions of comparison and computation. Control Element - a piece of equipment to perform the control action or to exert direct influence on the process. This element receives signals from the controller and performs some type of operation on the process. Generally the control element is simply a control valve.

## Control Systems Principle

Associated with a control system are a number of different types of variables. First we have the Controlled Variable. This is the basic process value being regulated by the system. It is the one variable that we are specially interested in - the outlet water temperature in the example above. An important concept related to the controlled variable is the Setpoint. This is the predetermined desired value for the controlled variable. The objective of the control system is to regulate the controlled variable at its setpoint. To achieve the control objective there must be one or more variables we can alter or adjust. These are called the Manipulated Variables. In the above example this was the input hot water flow rate. Conclusively, in the control system we adjust the manipulated variable to maintain the controlled variable at its setpoint. This meets the requirement of keeping the stability of the process and suppressing the influence of disturbances.

## Control Systems Type

In control system engineering, there are two types of configurations - open loop control system - closed control system

## Figure: Block diagrams of control systems: a. open-loop system;

b. closed-loop system

## Open Loop Control Systems

Open Loop Control Systems (OLCS): The output signal of an OLCS is not fed back to influence the control action.
Noise 1 Input R(s)

Noise 2

Input transducer

Controller

+ Plant

+
Output C(s)

The control action of an OLCS depends only on the input signal. OLCS are not capable of filtering disturbances/noise. Examples: toaster, washing machine, studying time, electric fan.

## Open Loop Control Systems

Open loop control system a control system in which the control/regulating action is independent of the output (output has no effect on the control action) In other words; the output of open loop control system is not compared with the reference input Input transducer is functioning to converts the form of the input to that used by controller. The controller is functioning to drives the process/plant The input can be called reference/set point and the output can be called

controlled variable Disturbances also called as input to the system and affect the

output/controlled variable. Open loop controlled system cannot compensate the disturbance and do not correct for the disturbance signal . Example : Washing machine operated on time basis, does not measure the output signal (cleanliness of the clothes)

## Open Loop Control Systems

In general, any control systems that operated on a time basis is open loop control system Another example of open loop control system:___________________ Open loop control system is easier to build because system stability is not a major problem Advantages & Disadvantages of open loop control system; Advantages: simple construction easy maintenance no stability problem convenient when output is hard to measured & not economy to produced Disadvantages: the output may different from desired input if there is calibration error causes by disturbance/changes re-calibration is required from time to time to maintain the required output

## Closed Loop Control Systems

Input

R(s)

Input transducer

Summer

Noise

Noise 2

Controller -

+ Plant

Output

C(s)

Error (E(s))

Output transducer

The output signal of a Closed Loop Control System (CLCS) is fed back to influence the control action and improve overall system performance.

## Closed Loop Control Systems

Closed loop control system control system in which the control/regulating action is influence by the output In other word; the output is fed back to the input reference for comparison The actuating error signal (differential between input and the output signal) is fed back to the controller to reduce the error and bring the output of the system to desired value Input transducer is functioning to converts the form of the input to that used by controller. Output transducer/sensor is functioning to measure the controlled variable/output response and convert into the form used by controller (example ; potentiometer, thermistor, tachometer, and etc.)

## Closed Loop Control Systems

at the 1st summing junction, the output and disturbance which fed back via feedback path is compared with the input reference where the output signal is subtracted from the input signal. The result called actuating signal/error. The controller will make correction and drive the plant/process if any error/actuating signal generated. If no error, plants response is already the desired response. Example : Room temperature control by measuring the actual room temperature and comparing it with reference temperature (desired temperature), the thermostat turns the heating/cooling equipment on/off in such way to ensure the room temperature at comfortable level.

## Feedback Control Systems

Feedback control systems are often referred to as closed loop control system. A system that maintains a prescribed relationship between output and input and using the difference by comparing them is called feedback control system . There are numerous example of closed loop/feedback control system and not limited to engineering but can be found in various non-engineering fields.

OLCS vs CLCS
The differences between open and closed-loop system are shown in table below;
Open Loop System Does not have the feedback path. Low accuracy. Sensitive to noise, disturbances and changes in the environment. The system cannot compensate and correct disturbance Simple and inexpensive Closed Loop System Have the feedback path. Greater accuracy Less sensitive to noise, disturbances and changes in the environment. The system can compare the output response with the input and make a correction if there is any difference Complex and expensive

## Control Systems Example

Car Speed Control The car speed is controlled by pressed or depressed the accelerator pedal, which is, controls the fuel quantity to car engine. Figure below shows the equivalent block diagram for car speed
i/p reference (desired speed) controller (human driver) car engine o/p response (actual speed)

transducer (speedometer)

## The following term can identify from the block diagram;

Process/plant engine car Controller human driver Sensor/transducer speedometer Input reference desired speed (example: 110 km/h) Controlled variable actual speed Manipulated variable fuel quantity

The controller (human driver) is measure the car speed through speedometer. If the speed of the car exceed than desire speed (example 110 km/h), the driver will depressed the accelerator pedal.
Car speed control is classified as closed loop/feedback control system

## Control Systems Example

Liquid Level Control Figure below shows the block diagram of simple liquid level control
error /actuating signal Input referrence (water in) actual level controller control valve liquid tank

## actual level level sensor

The objective of this control system is to maintain/control the liquid level in the tank at desire value

## Control Systems Example

From the block diagram, the following term can be identifying;
Controlled variable liquid level Manipulated variable liquid flow Transducer level sensor Process/plant liquid tank

The fluid level in the tank cannot be directly controlled. It can be controlled only by changing/manipulating the water flow into the tank The differences between input reference (set point) and output signal generate an error / actuating signal.
If the error signal is positive, it indicates to controller that actual level is lower than desired level. Than its drive controller to open the control valve to allow a higher flow rate into the tank If the actual level is higher than desired level, the control valve turn close to reduce the inflow rate

The liquid level control can classify as closed loop/feedback control system.

## Control Systems Design: Analysis & Objectives

Control systems are dynamic: it responds to the input by going through a transient phase before settling to the steady state phase. Normally, we would like the steady state signal to be the same as the input signal.
transient response steady state

## Three main objectives in the design of control systems are:

1.
2.

Transient response: Transient response is the case when the plant is changing from one steady state to another, when there are changes in the input signal. Example: elevator.
Stability: A system that can produce a consistent/steady output is a stable system. An unstable system is harmful to the plant and may cause serious accidents.

3.

Steady state response: Steady state response only exists for stable systems. An important characteristic for design is the steady state error. Example: an elevator that does not stop at the same level at the floor may cause serious accidents to its passengers.

## Control Systems Design: Analysis & Objectives

7 Floor G 1 2 3 4 5 6

Time, s