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Pneumonia

Pneumonia is an acute inflammatory disorder of lung parenchyma that results in edema of lung tissues and movement of fluid into the alveoli. These impair gas exchange resulting in hypoxemia. Pneumonia can be classified in several ways. Based on microbiologic etiology, it may be viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoal, myobacterial, mycoplasmal, or rickettsial in origin. Based on location, pneumonia may be classified as bronchopneumonia, lobular pneumonia, or lobar pneumonia. Bronchopneumonia involves distal airways and alveoli; lobular pneumonia, part of the lobe; and labor pneumonia, the whole lobe. Pneumonia is a common illness affecting approximately 450 million people a year and occurring in all parts of the world. It is a major cause of death among all age groups resulting in 4 million deaths (7% of the worlds yearly total).Rates are greatest in children less than five and adults older than 75 years of age.It occurs about five times more frequently in the developing world versus the developed world. Viral pneumonia accounts for about 200 million cases. In 2008 pneumonia occurred in approximately 156 million children (151 million in the developing world and 5 million in the developed world) It resulting in 1.6 million deaths or 2834% of all deaths in those under five years of age of which 95% occurr in the developing world.Countries with the greatest burden of disease include: India (43 million), China (21 million) and Pakistan (10 million). It is the leading cause of death among children in low income countries.[30][11] Many of these deaths occur in the newborn period. The World Health Organization estimates that one in three newborn infant deaths are due to pneumonia.Approximately half of these cases and deaths are theoretically preventable, being caused by the bacteria for which an effective vaccine is available. Bacteria and viruses are the primary causes of pneumonia. When a person breathes pneumonia-causing germs into his lungs and his body's immune system cannot otherwise prevent entry, the organisms settle in small air sacs called alveoli and continue multiplying. As the body sends white blood cells to attack the infection, the sacs become filed with fluid and pus - causing pneumonia. A variety of parasites can affect the lungs. These parasites typically enter the body through the skin or by being swallowed. Once inside, they travel to the lungs, usually through the blood. There, as in other cases of pneumonia, a combination of cellular destruction and immune response causes disruption of oxygen transportation. One type of white blood cell, the eosinophil, responds vigorously to parasite infection. Eosinophils in the lungs can lead to eosinophilic pneumonia, thus complicating the underlying parasitic pneumonia.