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CHAPTER 1

Introduction to Data and Network Communications

1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Data and Network Communications OBJECTIVES After completing this chapter, the student

OBJECTIVES

After completing this chapter, the student should be able to:

discuss the history of data communications and networking.

define basic data communications terminology.

have an overview of a data communications system and its basic underlying characteristics.

define the parts of a two-point communication model.

realize the benefits of an open systems concept of communications modeling.

define the character types represented in a binary character code.

identify different data types, rates, and binary data formats.

OUTLINE

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Data Communications System

1.3 Communication Links

1.4 Character Codes

1.5 Digital Data Rates

1.6 Serial Data Formats

1.7 Encoded Data Formats

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Now that we are fully absorbed by the Information Age and spending more time commu- nicating and gathering information through the Internet, it has become necessary to have a working knowledge of the technology behind the scenes. We are faced with terms like baud rate, modems, cellular phones, TCP/IP, ATM, ISDN, etc., and trying to make deci- sions about our communications needs involving the systems that these terms apply to. In

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order to develop a useful working understanding of this technology requires you to have a good understanding of the background technology and basics of data communications.

alphanumeric

printable characters in a character code, comprised of alphabet, numerical, and punctuation characters.

character code

binary code representing alphanumeric, formatting and data link characters.

continuous wave keying (CWK)

form of data transmission that uses the presence of a sine wave to represent a logic 1 and the absence, a logic zero. A form is used in Morse code where the duration of the signal represents a dot or a dash and the absence of the signal indicates no information is being sent.

mark

logic 1.

space

logic 0.

baud rate

digital information transfer rate.

bits per second

rate at which raw serial binary data is sent and received.

bps

bits per second.

Historical Perspective

The transfer of data in digital form began around 1832 with the advent of Morse code, a systematic code that represents the printable characters of a language using a form of bi- nary data. These characters are letters, numbers, or punctuation marks and are called alphanumeric as a class. Combinations of dashes (long signals) and dots (short signals) were used to code each character. A collection of these combinations is known as a char- acter code. For Morse code to work, a signal or electrical current is placed onto an inter- connecting line between a sender and a receiver when a switch of the key is closed by the sender. Short key closures created dots while longer closures produced dashes. The form of data modulation using a sine wave voltage as the signal is called continuous wave keying (CWK) because the signal itself is a continuous audio oscillation that is placed on or off the line by use of the key. The switching on and off of a direct current (DC) in place of the audio signal is also referred to as keying. In the latter case, an electromag- netic relay is energized in the presence of the current and released when the key or switch opens and removes current from the line. The length of time the relay is energized deter- mines if a dash or dot has been sent. Morse code served as a primary means of communicating information across vast distances for a considerable amount of time. With the invention of the telephone in 1876 and the creation of the telephone company system a year later, quicker means of transfer- ring data evolved. By 1881, long distance trunk lines connected major cities in the eastern United States, eventually resulting in the birth of Atlantic Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) in 1885. The early use of the telephone system and its principal use today is for voice communication. However, it was soon discovered that binary data could be con- verted to voice signals and sent over the telephone lines. Different methods had to be de- veloped to generate the data and voice signals from the sender and interpret them at the receiving end. One of those developments was an early type of printer/keyboard, created by the Teletype Corporation, which employed electromechanical relays to replace the ac- tion of the key. Instead of continuing with dots and dashes, these teletype machines used the presence or absence of a 20 ma current to represent binary data. The presence of the 20 ma current signifies a logic high or “one” state often called a mark and the absence of current, a logic low or “zero” state called a space. The current either energized or re- leased a relay as described above. These teletype machines combined with equipment that allowed them to be interfaced to the telephone system, provided the machinery for the development of Teletype and Telex systems in the 1930s. Teletype machines were slow, noisy, and consumed large amounts of power. The Teletype system used in the United States sent and received data at a baud rate of 110 bits per second (bps). Baud rate is a measure of the rate at which binary data are transmit- ted and received. Part of the basis for a baud rate is the number of binary digits or bits are sent within one second. This measure is called the bit rate and the measurement is known as bits per second or bps. Differences between baud rate and bit rate occur because they

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raw binary data

digital data bits without any interpretation of meaning or use.

throughput

rate at which information is transferred from one point to another.

symbol

an electrical parameter used to represent one or more data bits.

define different but related information. The bit rate is a measure of raw binary data, which is the flow of binary bits with little concern to the actual content that they repre- sent. Baud rate, on the other hand, is more of an information flow-through rate that fac- tors in consideration about actual information data and noninformation overhead data. Baud rate is a closer measure of information throughput, or the effective informa- tion data transfer rate from sender to receiver. Bit and baud rates are mathematically re- lated with the result, for instance, that 110 bps baud rate actually translates to a binary bit rate of about 100 bps. It is easy to confuse baud and bit rate at lower data rates since they are both measured in bits per second. As we get into higher data rates later on, we translate information rate into symbols per second or sps. A symbol is any element of an electrical signal that can be used to rep- resent one or more binary data bits. The rate at which symbols are transmitted is the sym- bol rate in SPS. This rate may be represented as a systems baud rate in much the same manner that bits per second can be interpreted as a baud rate. The tendency in studying data communications and, to a lesser extent, its application in the field, is to dismiss the differences between baud rate and bit or symbol rate. Many authors and working professionals use the terms interchangeably. For many low-speed applications the differences between them are insignificant. Thus 300 and 1200 bps modems originally used with personal computers were frequently referred to as 300 or 1200 baud modems. There is no problem here, since at these rates, one symbol is pro- duced for each data bit, resulting in very similar numbers for bit, symbol, and baud rates. One note, some 1200 baud modems use a type of modulation scheme that produces two bits per symbol. In that case, there is certainly a difference between bit and symbol rates. Until the distinction becomes significant in a particular area under discussion, this text will consider bit and baud rate as being similar. This is not to minimize the differences, but a good many concepts are unaffected by them. Analysis of data transfer efficiency, rates, and bandwidth limitations is specified using baud rate. In those contexts the differ- ence is critical. The Telex system, used in Europe, was slower yet, ambling along at a mere 50 bps rate. These speeds were dictated by the need to operate the relays allowing them suffi- cient time to switch on and off. Additionally, since these machines were electromechani- cal in nature, they were highly prone to mechanical failures and constant adjustments and maintenance. At about the same time, Marconi had invented radio transmissions and work was under way to establish wireless communications. The first amplitude modulated (AM) radio broadcasts as a commercial endeavor was radio station KDKA in Pittsburgh in 1921. By 1934 the United States government stepped in to regulate the growing additions to the nation’s airwaves and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) was born.

The Computer and Data Communications

Parallel work moving communications toward today’s information highway involved the computer, for without it we would still be keying in a lot of data by hand. The idea of doing math calculations using binary numbers had been toyed with by the telephone com- pany’s research arm, Bell Labs, for a number of years before a teletype machine was

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interfaced to one of these electronic calculators in 1940. What emerged from this mar- riage was the electronic computer. Data could be entered in from the teletype machine keyboard, processed by the calculator, and the results printed out on the teletype printer. Like the teletype machines, the calculator portion was derived from more relays because the binary system could easily be represented by a closure (logic 1) or open (logic 0) state of the relay. The first computers, the ENIAC Mark I and II were huge systems occupying many rooms and consuming large amounts of power to operate them. The next big break came in 1947 with the invention of the transistor. Many functions of the relays had been replaced by vacuum tubes. These devices were improvements over relays since they no longer had movable parts, but they still consumed a lot of power. In addition, the vacuum tube, which required a filament element to produce heat to “agitate” electrons into movement, required air conditioned rooms to dissipate the heat they gener- ated. The transistor provided all kinds of relief—no moving parts, much less heat created, small in size, and less expensive to make. It was what the computer world was waiting for. Several different events in the 1950s impacted the future of data communications. One was the production of the first computer by International Business Machines (IBM)—big blue was launched. IBM became the leading producer of mainframe computers in the world, setting standards for many others to follow for years. The next big impact was her- alded throughout the world as Russia launched the first satellite, Sputnik 1, in 1957. Today the greatest percentage of our daily communications is carried by communications satellites covering the globe. A less heralded event than Sputnik I, but one with as much influence on how we communicate, occurred in 1958 with the first coast-to-coast microwave radio link in Canada. Also that year, America entered the space race by launching Explorer 1, begin- ning many years of space insanity and rapid technological advancements. Integrated circuits arrived in 1959 along with the first mini-computer, the PDP-1, based on the UNIX operating system. An operating system (OS) is a computer program that is used to configure the computer so that it can be used. Operating systems also pro- vide utility programs that allow users to perform basic tasks by typing commands directly on the computer’s command line. Communication satellites were launched into operation beginning in the 1960s. During this period small solid-state lasers are developed along with fiber optic cables that are used to carry the light generated by these small lasers lead- ing to communications by light waves.

modem

unit that converts between digital data and analog data.

The Telephone System

Up to the year 1968, if a vendor wanted to connect communications equipment to the tele- phone company’s system, they had to rent the interface equipment from the telephone company. Many of these companies felt that this was unfair and led to a monopolizing of the phone system by AT&T. In response to the pressure from these companies, the gov- ernment, through the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), produced Rule 67. This was a voluminous document, which clearly specified what a company had to do to be allowed to directly connect equipment to the phone company network. Despite the numer- ous rules and specifications detailed in that ruling, a number of manufacturers did proceed to develop and market modems for the purpose of allowing two computers to send and re- ceive data over the telephone lines. A modem is a device that converts between the serial

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digital data form produced by a computer to a form of analog signal that can be sent through the telephone voice circuits. On the receive side of the communications line, a modem reverses the process, returning the analog data back to serial digital data.

Microprocessors and PCs

There is no doubt that the information age would never have emerged without the appear- ance of the microprocessor in the early 1970s. INTEL is credited with producing the first line of commercial microprocessors, starting with the 4004 and 8008. Over the years the industry has dutifully tracked INTEL’s progress as each new microprocessor generation brought new and more powerful computers for our use. However, INTEL’s processors were not the ones used to launch the personal computer into existence. Instead, an off- shoot company, called ZILOG founded by three ex-INTEL engineers, developed the Z80 microprocessor used by an electronic hobby outfit called Radio Shack that resulted in the TRS-80 personal computer. The TRS-80 used a language called Basic, which was written by a pair of professors at Dartmouth College as a teaching language. Programs were en- tered by hand from the keyboard and later through an audio cassette interface.

Networking

At about the same time as the TRS-80 was introducing the world to personal computers, the first data local area network (LAN), called ETHERNET was deployed to interconnect mainframes with terminals throughout a building. It was not long afterwards that Com- puserve, one of the first of many bulletin board services, arrived to bring information into home owner’s personal computers via telephone lines and modems. In 1975 Bill Gates started Microsoft and in 1976 Steve Jobs and Stephen Wozniak began Apple. The computer industry was off and running. IBM entered the PC battles in 1981 and began to dominate the market as it had with mainframes. Apple remains its chief competitor, and in 1983, brought out the first graphic user interface (GUI) with the LISA computer. Microsoft responds with Windows 1.0 in 1985, which was a poor system in comparison. To round off the beginnings, add the inclusion of NETWARE 286 by NOVELL for interconnecting personal computers into a local area network (LAN). Data rates for transmission have been on the rise. Early modems connected to per- sonal computers ran at 300 bps. By 1987, 9600 bps modems were available. Networks, too, improved rapidly. Novell revised Netware for the 386 microprocessor-based IBM PC with NETWARE 386 in 1989. A fiber optic network, fiber distributed data interface (FDDI), came into being to handle faster data transfers. Networking across the telephone system gets a boost in 1990 from the Integrated Services Digital Network, or ISDN, which carries voice, binary data, and video information on the telephone lines. Today, we have advanced versions of Windows that are adapted to network use and are vastly improved over the earlier versions. A number of companies are vying for the pieces of the network pie, making all kinds of super programs available to the endusers as a result. Not to be dismissed is the impact of the Internet on everyone’s life. If nothing more, the amount of advertisement that ends with an Internet address is staggering. Every magazine has a “web site.”

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The Internet

The Internet, which we have ignored to now, has been an ongoing system during this en- tire time period. Developed in the late 1950s as a network to share research information between military and university researchers. By 1984, it serviced approximately 1,000 users. As network technology improved, the number of users increased tenfold by 1988. When the system was opened wide for any users, its use escalated well beyond the projec- tions anyone had to over one million users in 1992, up to 3 million in 1994 and 6 million a

year later. What lies behind the popularity of the Internet is the access to all kinds of infor- mation at a reasonable cost to the user. You can shop on the Internet, make airline reserva- tions, get educated, just plain chat, look up all kinds of information, entertain yourself with all kinds of amusements, and exchange ideas with people of like interests. The Internet is Highway 1 of the information super highway—welcome to the information age.

A more concise timeline list of events that impacted on the data communication and

network industry is offered in Appendix F at the back of the book. A lot of additional items are included that were not discussed in the brief coverage in this section.

Section 1.1 Review Questions

1. What is an early data communications system that uses continuous wave modulation?

2. What do mark and space tones represent?

3. What is used as a measure of serial data rate?

4. What function does a Modem provide?

5. What is the first data local area network (LAN)?

1.2 DATA COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

node

entry point into a network.

primary station

controlling station in a network.

remote or secondary station

non-controlling station in a data link.

line control unit

controls the interface of peripheral devices to the data terminal.

Data Communications Link

The components of a basic communications link between two endpoints, or nodes, is il- lustrated in Figure 1-1. A node is any connection point to a communications link. For this two-point network, the node points are the primary station and the remote or secondary station at the other end of the communications link. Station refers to any section of hard- ware whose purpose is to communicate with another piece of communications hardware

at a different location. Data link refers to the process of connecting or linking two stations together.

A primary station is responsible for establishing and maintaining the data link be-

tween it and a secondary station. Data sent from one station to another usually originates in parallel binary form from one or more peripheral devices connected to that station through a line control unit. This unit supplies the interface to the communications station and control of peripheral devices including, but not limited to, computer terminals, print- ers, keyboards, facsimile (FAX) machines, and data display terminals.

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DTE

DCE

Transmission

DCE

DTE

Primary

UART

RS232C

Originate

Medium

Answer

RS232C

UART

Secondary

   

Originate

       

Answer

         

Station

 

Telephone Lines

 

Station

 

Modem

Coaxial Cable

Modem

 

Line

Twisted Pair

Station

Control

 

Fiber Cable

 

Controller

Unit (LCU)

Radio Waves

(STACO)

(free space)

Microwave Link

     

Satellite Link

Main

Personal

Peripherals

Personal

Peripherals

Frame

Computer

Computer

FIGURE 1-1 Communications Link

parallel data

all the bits of a data word transferred at the same time.

words

fixed number of data bits.

serial

digital data transferred one bit at a time.

Communication stations may also be part of mainframe, personal workstation sys- tems or access points (nodes) for networks. Note that the information supplied by the pe- ripherals or networks could be anything from a series of keyboard characters to a stream of digitized video. This information is converted from its natural form into digital form by the peripheral and is presented as groups of parallel binary data to the system. Parallel data are a group of digital bits that are available at the same time, often referred to as digital or binary words. 1 An individual communications path is required for each bit, al- lowing data to move quickly, transferring a complete word each time. However, the need for multiple data paths is impractical and costly for long distance transfers. Instead, it is preferable to send data along a single data path between two stations. In order to do this, the parallel data need to be converted into serial form, with one bit of data sequentially following another. While parallel data allows many bits to be sent at once, serial data re- quires each bit to be sent separately.

1 The conventional definition of word, as pplied to digital information, is a fixed number of binary bits indicating a selected size of information. Thus a computer system using a 32-bit data bus operates using 32-bit words. With the advent of 16-bit and 32-bit microprocessors, manufacturers have taken liberties with the term word. For example, Motorola’s user manuals for the 68000 family microprocessor specifically defines word as having 16 bits of data and a long word as containing 32 bits. However, as it develops, Motorola, like other makers of microprocessors, is not consistent. In the user manual for its newer processors, word is redefined as containing 32 bits! In addition, INTEL, the manufacturer of the X86 line, uses double word to denote a 32-bit binary word. This is mentioned so that students who may be studying microprocessors concurrently with a course on data communications are made aware of the conflicting use of the term word. In this text the term refers to its original meaning, that is, binary data in a fixed number of bits.

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EXAMPLE 1-1

Compare the time it takes to send the following short message from one station to another, first as an 8-bit or byte parallel data and then as serial data. The transfer rate is 1 ms per transfer.

2C3B in hexadecimal, which is 0010110000111011 in binary

SOLUTION

As byte parallel data, there are two groups of 8-bit words for this message, 2C or 00101100 and 3B or 00111011. It takes two transfers, or 2 ms, to send the data in that form. In comparison, sending the 16 bits of data serial at 1 ms per transfer, results in 16 ms of total time required to complete the transmission.

universal asynchronous receiver transmitter (UART) and universal synchronous/ asynchronous receiver transmitter (USART)

devices used to interface between DTE (parallel) and DCE (serial) data.

data terminal equipment (DTE)

the hardware responsible for controlling communications.

protocol

a set of rules for successful data transfers.

data communications equipment (DCE) or data circuit terminating equipment (DCE)

data communication equipment or data circuit terminating equipment.

modulator-demodulator

(modem)

unit that converts between digital data and analog data.

medium

the transmission path for data.

UARTS

Devices that perform the parallel-to-serial conversion (and vice versa at the receiving sta- tion) are the universal asynchronous receiver transmitter (UART) and the universal synchronous/asynchronous receiver transmitter (USART). The conversion process and the rates at which parallel data are sent to the UART or USART and the rate at which serial data are sent and received are controlled by the computer system to which the UART or USART is connected. UARTs and USARTs, which are discussed in detail in Chapter 5, are produced in medium scale integrated circuit packages. They perform other tasks besides parallel-to-serial conversion that are required for the successful transfer of information.

DTE and DCE Equipment

The computer system, communications station, UART, and line control unit (LCU) are grouped together and classified as data terminal equipment (DTE), as shown in Figure 1-2. The computing system of the DTE contains software needed to establish and control the communications link between the primary and secondary stations. An applica- tions program used by the DTE, called a protocol, defines a set of rules that determine the requirements for the successful establishment of a data link and the transfer of actual infor- mation between the stations. Protocols exist at many levels of an overall network or com- munications system. While they can become quite sophisticated, their basic premise never changes. They are always used to set the requirements for moving information between two or more node points within a network or system. Protocols at the lowest level are dis- cussed in Chapter 4, while higher-level protocols are presented in several later chapters. Applications programs also direct control information to the line control unit and UART to allow data flow from the peripheral currently serviced by the LCU to the UART and out to the data communications equipment, or data circuit terminating equipment, both known by the acronym DCE. In the two point system of Figure 1-1, the DCE is a modulator-demodulator (modem). This device is used to convert the serial data stream into a form that can be used by the connecting medium to transfer data over

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Applications

Program

Processor

COMMUNICATIONS 9 Applications Program Processor Control UART Control Data D a t a Control Line Control

Control

UART

Control

Data

Data

Control

Line Control Unit (LCU)

Control

Printer

Data

Peripherals

Modem

(DCE)

Interface

FIGURE 1-2 Data Terminal Equipment (DTE)

long distances. One common medium is the existing telephone lines that normally carry voice calls. In order to be able to use the telephone system, the serial data needs to be con- verted to audio range signals. Several types of modems, discussed in detail in Chapter 4, perform this conversion using a number of methods dictated by the rate at which the data needs to be transmitted. One such method changes logic 1 (mark) and logic zero (space) levels to audio signals of two different frequencies. Thus when a logic 1 is sent, the mark signal or tone is sent and a logic 0 generates the space tone. The receiving modem at the secondary station converts these tones back to binary logic states, which are, in turn, sent to the UART or USART for conversion to parallel data used by the receiver’s computer system. The medium between the primary and secondary stations can be as simple as a coax- ial or twisted pair cable as used by local area communications networks. Telephone lines are another example of the use of twisted pairs of wires for local connections between phone users and phone switching stations. The telephone company, as well as other carri- ers, have long adopted the use of radio transmission at many levels to complete commu- nication links. These include microwave, cellular, and satellite transmissions.

Hardware Interfaces

Interconnecting data terminal equipment to data communication equipment so they will work harmoniously is complicated because different manufacturers produced varied types

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of devices. A need for a standard interface between the DTE and DCE units is crucial. One example of a commonly used interface standard, the RS232C, was written by communi- cations engineers for the Electronics Industries Association (EIA), which is one of many organizations responsible for establishing standards for a variety of electronics and elec- trical applications. RS stands for recommended standard, which means there is no enforc- ing authority to assure the proper use or complete compliance with the specifications of the standard. Enforcement of its use falls to the consumer, who benefits by not purchas- ing those systems that do not include the standard and buying those that do. Encompassed in the standard are functional, electrical, and physical specifications for users wishing to connect DTE to DCE equipment. This standard and others are examined in detail in Chapter 4.

Section 1.2 Review Questions

1. Which DTE block interfaces the communication function with peripheral devices?

2. What is the term that denotes a fixed group of binary bits?

3. Which system block converts parallel data to serial data form?

4. What is the overall function of an RS232C interface?

5. What functional unit makes up the DCE?

simplex

transmission of data in one direction only.

1.3 DATA COMMUNICATION LINKS

Data communications links are configured to satisfy particular requirements for a given system. The simplest link is the one used in the previous discussion. It contains a single primary and a single secondary station connected to node end points of the link. The primary station initiates (or originates) the communication link and main- tains control over that link until all data transfers are completed. The answering sta- tion is the secondary. Both stations must use the same protocol, data rates, and data codes for data to be correctly sent and received. The actual method of sending and re- ceiving data is further divided into three types—simplex, half duplex, and full duplex illustrated in Figure 1-3. A system or a particular data transmission can be configured to send and receive data in one direction only (from primary to secondary, for example as shown in Figure 1-3a). This transmission is referred to as a simplex transmission. This type of data transfer link can be performed by the system of Figure 1-1, if, for example, the primary would always transmit data to the secondary and the secondary would not be required to respond or send anything in return. Simplex transmissions are useful in environments where large quantities of data are sent without acknowledgement of the reception. The data can be sent fast and continuously. An example application of a simplex system would be an in- ventory dump from a warehouse to a company’s central offices. Once the inventory was taken and entered into a computer, the files containing the inventory data can be sent to

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Simplex a Half Duplex b Full Duplex c Full-Full Duplex d
Simplex
a
Half Duplex
b
Full Duplex
c
Full-Full Duplex
d

FIGURE 1-3 Communicaton Directions

the accounting department. This data can be transferred or “dumped” late at night when the system would be less occupied. Since no one is working in the accounting department at the time, there would be no immediate acknowledgement of receipt of the inventory data. Ideal use for a simplex transmission. Of course, if an error should occur, there would be no way for the secondary to inform the primary that it happened.

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half duplex

ability to send and receive data but not at the same time.

full duplex

ability to transmit and receive data simultaneously.

full-full duplex

ability to transmit data to one station and receive data from a different station simultaneously.

There are two basic methods of bidirectional data transfer, half duplex and full du- plex. Half duplex allows transmission of data in both directions between primary and sec- ondary stations, but restricts these transfers to one direction at a time as shown in Figure 1-3b. The primary might begin by sending a message from its transmitting circuits to the secondary’s receiving units, which receives and stores the data. After the message is completely sent, the secondary can reply with a message of its own from its transmitter to the primary’s receiver. Full duplex differs from half duplex in that both stations can transmit to each other and receive each other’s messages simultaneously as illustrated in Figure 1-3c. One way to achieve this is for the primary and secondary to transmit binary data using two differ- ent sets of audio tones for logic 1 and 0. For instance, the primary might send data using 1250 Hz and 1750 Hz signals for mark and space while the secondary would use 2050 Hz and 2750 Hz. The receive portions of both stations’ modems would be tuned to the appro- priate set of tones in order to differentiate between those it sent and those it received. A fourth, but lesser-used form of communication is known as full-full duplex. Like full duplex, data can be sent and received simultaneously. The difference is that in a full- full duplex system, data is sent to one location and received from a different location. See Figure 1-3d as an illustration of the process.

Section 1.3 Practice Questions

1. Which type of transmission sends data in one direction only?

2. Which type of transmission sends and receives data simultaneously?

1.4 CHARACTER CODES

Basic to every system deployed and used today is the transfer of information via a digital code. Text characters—alphabetic, numeric, punctuation, formatting, attribute, etc.—use selected combinations of 1s and 0s in a fixed binary word size, which is tabulated into a set known as a character code. Besides data communications applications, binary char- acter codes are used wherever a digital processor or computer is used to interpret letters, numbers, and directed functions. A common example most students are familiar with is the personal computer keyboard and display screen. As the user types on the keyboard, a processor within the keyboard converts the key press into a binary code and signals the computer. When text is to be sent to the screen, the text is converted from the characters we read and are familiar with to the same binary code used by the keyboard. Coding became more sophisticated by replacing the series of dots and dashes used in the Morse code with combinations of binary data bits formulated into a character code. One of the earliest of these character codes is a 5-bit word code known as the Baudot code, named for the same engineer who is responsible for developing baud rate as a measure for digital data transfers. This code was used in the European Telex communica-

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tions system in the late 1940s through the early 1970s. It is presented here for historical perspective, but since it is no longer in use, we shall bypass details about it.

extended ASCII

8-bit character code representing alphanumeric graphic, and link control characters.

formatting characters

characters responsible for the appearance of text, like line feed, carriage return, etc.

data-linking or control characters

characters used to establish and maintain a communications link between two stations.

UNICODE

16-bit extension of the ASCII character code.

extended binary coded decimal interchange code

8-bit IBM character code.

ASCII

A parallel communication system, known as the teletype system performed similar func- tions in North America. The character code used by this system is the more familiar ASCII code. ASCII is an acronym for American standard code for information inter- change. The original ASCII code used a 7-bit binary word to represent the printable char- acters, formatting characters, and data-linking, or control code, characters used by data communication systems today. Somewhere in the 1980s, the code was expanded to an 8-bit word size. Known as extended ASCII, this code also includes the Greek symbols used in mathematics, special alphabet characters used by different languages, such as the umlaut on German vowels, and other speciality characters (smiling faces, rudimentary graphics, etc.). The complete extended ASCII chart is presented at the back of the book in Appendix B. Its size makes it inappropriate to reproduce in this chapter. Instead, Table 1-1 lists the original ASCII set to allow us to explore some of its components. The table shows the characters (ASCII) and hexadecimal (HEX) representation of the 7-bit binary codes for each ASCII character. The table in Appendix B also includes the decimal equivalent of each ASCII hexadecimal code. By looking on the table, you can find the alphanumeric characters you would expect—alphabetic, numeric, and punc- tuation characters. The remaining characters are classed into two groups—formatting and data-linking or control characters. Formatting characters are responsible for how text appears on the page and includes line feed (LNFD), carriage return (CRET), horizon- tal and vertical tabs (HTAB, VTAB), form feed (FMFD), etc. Data-linking or control characters are those used by protocols to establish and main- tain a data link. They include characters for indicating the beginning of a transmission (STX—start of text), ending a transmission (EOT—end of transmission), acknowledge (ACK), delimiter (DLE), device control (DC1–DC4), etc. A further extension to the ASCII code set has been formulated under the name of UNICODE. Besides the basic extended ASCII set, this 16-bit character code embraces the use of foreign letters and special symbols such as the German umlaut. Since the code includes a total of 65,536 possible characters, a table for it is not included with this text.

EBCDIC

The chief character code competition for ASCII came from Big Blue—IBM (Interna- tional Business Machines, which has its own character code used, primarily, for its main- frame computers. This code, known as EBCDIC (pronounced EB—CE—DIC) for extended binary coded decimal interchange code, is listed in Table 1-2. EBCDIC is an 8-bit binary code that represents the same set of characters that the original 7-bit ASCII code did, but in a different sequence. This text will use the ASCII code throughout in ex- amples, discussion, questions, and problems.

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CHAPTER 1

TABLE 1-1

ASCII Character Code

Binary codes are shown in their hexadecimal (HEX) equivalent

HEX

ASCII

HEX

ASCII

HEX

ASCII

HEC

ASCII

00

NULL

20

Space

40

@

60

01

SOH

21

!

41

A

61

a

02

STX

22

42

B

62

b

03

ETX

23

#

43

C

63

c

04

EOT

24

$

44

D

64

d

05

ENQ

25

%

45

E

65

e

06

ACK

26

&

46

F

66

f

07

BELL

27

47

G

67

g

08

BKSP

28

(

48

H

68

h

09

HTAB

29

)

49

I

69

i

0A

LNFD

2A

*

4A

J

6A

j

0B

VTAB

2B

+

4B

K

6B

k

0C

FMFD

2C

4C

L

6C

l

0D

CRET

2D

4D

M

6D

m

0E

SHOUT

2E

.

4E

N

6E

n

0F

SHIN

2F

/

4F

O

6F

o

10

DLE

30

0

50

P

70

p

11

DC1

31

1

51

Q

71

q

12

DC2

32

2

52

R

72

r

13

DC3

33

3

53

S

73

s

14

DC4

34

4

54

T

74

t

15

NACK

35

5

55

U

75

u

16

SYNC

36

6

56

V

76

v

17

ETB

37

7

57

W

77

w

18

CAN

38

8

58

X

78

x

19

ENDM

39

9

59

Y

79

y

1A

SUB

3A

:

5A

Z

7A

z

1B

ESC

3B

;

5B

[

7B

{

1C

FLSP

3C

<

5C

\

7C

:

1D

GPSP

3D

=

5D

]

7D

}

1E

RDSP

3E

>

5E

^

7E

~

1F

UNSP

3F

?

5F

7F

DEL

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INTRODUCTION TO DATA AND NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

15

TABLE 1-2

EBCDIC Character Code

Binary codes are shown as their hexadecimal (HEX) equivalents.

HEX

EBCDIC

HEX

EBCDIC

HEX

EBCDIC

HEX

EBCDIC

HEX

EBCDIC

00

NULL

20

DIGSEL

50

&

91

j

D0

}

01

SOH

21

STSIG

5A

!

92

k

D1

J

02

STX

22

FLSEP

5B

$

93

l

D2

K

03

ETX

24

BYPASS

5C

*

94

m

D3

L

04

PNOFF

25

LNFD

5D

)

95

n

D4

M

05

HZTAB

26

ENDBLK

5E

;

96

o

D5

N

06

LWRCASE

27

ESC

5F

97

p

D6

O

07

DELETE

2A

STMESS

60

98

q

D7

P

09

RLF

2D

ENQR

61

/

99

r

D8

Q

0A

Repeat

2E

ACK

A1

~

D9

R

0B

VERTAB

2F

BELL

A2

s

E2

S

0C

FMFD

32

SYNC

6B

,

A3

t

E3

T

0D

CARET

34

PNON

6C

%

A4

u

E4

U

0E

SHFTOUT

35

RCDSEP

6D

A5

v

E5

V

0F

SHFTIN

36

UPCASE

6E

>

A6

w

E6

W

10

DLE

37

EOT

6F

?

A7

x

E7

X

11

DC1

3C

DC4

7A

:

A8

y

E8

Y

12

DC2

3D

NACK

7B

#

A9

z

E9

Z

13

DC3

3F

SUB

7C

@

C0

{

F0

0

14

Restore

40

Space

7D

C1

A

F1

1

15

NewLine

4A

7E

=

C2

B

F2

2

16

BckSp

4B

.

7F

C3

C

F3

3

17

Idle

4C

<

81

a

C4

D

F4

4

18

Cancel

4D

(

82

b

C5

E

F5

5

19

EndMed

4E

+

83

c

C6

F

F6

6

1A

UnitBkSp

4F

|

84

d

C7

G

F7

7

1C

IntF1Sep

85

e

C8

H

F8

8

1D

IntGpSep

86

f

C9

I

F9

9

1E

IntRcSep

87

g

1F

IntUnSep

88

h

 

89

i

Note: Unused codes have been omitted from this chart.

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CHAPTER 1

EXAMPLE 1-2

Compare the ASCII and EBCDIC codes for the capital letter E.

SOLUTION

From Table 1-1, we find the ASCII code for the letter E is a hexadecimal 45, which is 1000101 as a 7-bit binary code. The EBCDIC code for E, from Table 1-2, is C5, which is 11000101 as an 8-bit binary code.

NOTE

The extended ASCII code for E has the same hexadecimal value as the standard ASCII code, but the binary equivalent contains an additional 8th bit: 01000101.

Section 1.4 Review Questions

1. What are the three types of characters represented by the ASCII character code?

2. What are the word sizes for ASCII and extend ASCII codes?

3. What is the extended ASCII code for OK?

1.5 DIGITAL DATA RATES

Digital information in serial form is transferred at a distinct data rate. It takes time to send information, one bit at a time, from one place to another. Data are sent serially to reduce the number of transmitting lines or paths to a single pair (electrically active and a return line). As mentioned earlier in the chapter, the rate at which digital information is sent or received is called the bit rate, whose unit is bits per second (bps). When other methods are used to send data using groups of bits in each transmission, a different measure of data rate is required. This measure is known as symbols per second (sps), where a symbol represents the bit group. Symbols can be either in binary or any other format. Sometimes they are an analog signal that uses different frequencies or phases to represent groups of data bits. What is most significant for the field of data com- munications is that a symbol can be created through various processes from a group of bi- nary bits. As an example, the ASCII code, instead of being represented as a 7-bit code, could be set up to use a different voltage level for each character. In other words, 1.2113 volts could indicate the letter C and 1.2114 volts a letter D. We are not concerned with the practicality of such a system, but since there is a unique 7-bit binary code for each of the characters in the ASCII set, there could also be a unique voltage to represent each character. There would then be a correlation between the ASCII binary codes and those voltage levels as well. That is, 1000011, the binary ASCII code for the letter C is equiva- lent to 1.2113 volts and 1000100 for a D is equivalent to a 1.2114 volt level. The bottom line is that 7 bits can be used to generate a single symbol (in this case a voltage level) for

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each character. The single symbol can be sent as one entity, which is faster than sending the equivalent 7 individual bits. Given the same rate of transmission, 1,000 bits per second and 1,000 symbols per second, we can compare the time it would take to send a single ASCII character using the voltage example in the preceding paragraph. The time of transmission in both cases is the reciprocal of the rate, or 1 millisecond (ms) per bit or per symbol. Sending the data in digital form requires sending seven consecutive bits for a single character, which means it takes a total of 7 ms to send the letter D in binary. When the seven bits are used to form a single voltage symbol, then only that one symbol is sent, taking only 1 ms time.

EXAMPLE 1-3

Compare the rate of transmitting the letter C as both a 7-bit binary stream transmitted at 4900 bps and as an equivalent 7-bit group symbol.

SOLUTION

Sent as serial binary data, the letter C is transmitted at 4900 bps. As a symbol, the rate of transmission is one seventh of that data rate, or 700 sps, to achieve the same transfer rate of 4900 bps. Conversely, if the 4900 bps rate is maintained to send the symbols at 4900 sps, seven times as much data can be sent in the same time it takes to send data at 4900 bps.

Section 1.5 Review Questions

1. What is the symbol rate for a 2400 bps second system that generates one symbol for every 3 bits?

2. What is the advantage of using symbols rather than bits to send data?

synchronous

serial data that requires a synchronizing clock signal between sender and receiver.

asynchronous

serial data that does not require a synchronizing clock or signal between sender and receiver.

1.6 SERIAL DATA FORMATS

Whether data are sent as bits or symbols, it is transmitted serially in one of two forms, synchronous or asynchronous.

Synchronous Data

Synchronous data require a coherent clocking signal between transmitter and receiver, called a data clock, to synchronize the interpretation of the data sent and received. The data clock is extracted from the serial data stream at the receiver by special circuits called clock recovery circuits.

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CHAPTER 1

Direction of

Transmission

tn t0 MSB LSB 1000101 Synchronous E a tn t0 MSB LSB Stop Stop 1000
tn
t0
MSB
LSB
1000101
Synchronous E
a
tn
t0
MSB
LSB
Stop
Stop
1000
1
0
1
Start
Framing
Bits

Asynchronous E

b

Framing

Bit

FIGURE 1-4 Comparing Data Formats for ASCII E

Once the clock is recovered at the receiving end, bit and character synchronization can be established. Bit synchronization requires that the high and low condition of the bi- nary data sent matches that received and is not in an inverted state. Character synchro- nization implies that the beginning and end of a character word is established so that these characters can be decoded and defined. Overall synchronization is maintained by the clock recovered from the message stream itself. Figure 1-4a shows how a synchronous binary transmission would send the ASCII character E (hex 45 or 1000101). The least significant bit (LSB) is transmitted first, fol- lowed by the remaining bits of the character. There are no additional bits added to the transmission.

framing bits

bits that denote the beginning and end of a character.

Asynchronous Data

Asynchronous data formats incorporate the use of framing bits to establish the beginning (start bit) and ending (stop bit) of a data character word as shown in Figure 1-4b. A clocking signal is not recovered from the data stream, although the internal clocks of the transmitter and receiver must be the same frequency for data to be correctly received. To understand the format of an asynchronous character, it is first necessary to be aware of the state of the transmission line when it is idle and no data is being sent. The idle condi- tion results from the transmission line being held at a logic 1, high state, or mark condi- tion. The receiver responds to a change in the state of the line as an indication that data has been sent to it. This change of state is indicated by the line going low or logic 0,

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19

caused by the transmission of a start bit at the beginning of the character transmission as shown in Figure 1-4b. Data bits representing the code of the character being sent follow next ending with one or two stop bits. The stop bits actually specify the minimum time the line must return to a logic 1 condition before the receiver can detect the next start bit of the next character.

Transmission Efficiency

Notice that the synchronous data uses just the seven bits required for the E character’s code while the asynchronous stream needs 10 bits (one start, seven data, and two stop bits). The synchronous stream is more efficient than the asynchronous because it does not require the overhead (framing) bits that the asynchronous stream needs. Efficiency is a mark of perform- ance calculated as a ratio of data or information bits to total bits as shown in Equation 1-1.

efficiency =

data bits

total bits

100%

(1-1)

EXAMPLE 1-4

Compare the efficiency of sending the synchronous and asynchronous E character.

SOLUTION

Since all of the synchronous bits are data bits, the efficiency of sending the synchronous E is 7/7 x 100% = 100%. The asynchronous, on the other hand, has a much less efficiency: 7/10 × 100% = 70%.

preamble

used by synchronous data streams to establish character synchronization.

A more efficient stream of data takes less time to be transmitted simply because there are less bits to be sent. However, the overall efficiency of a transmission relies on more than the efficiency of individual characters within a message. For asynchronous data, the entire message will retain a 70% efficiency because no additional bits or over- head are required to send the data. Bit and character synchronization are built into the framing bits. Synchronous data, on the other hand, requires a preamble message, which is a set pattern of binary ones and zeros used to facilitate clock recovery, so the data to be bit and character synchronized before data can be correctly received. This adds additional bits to be sent and reduces the overall efficiency of the transmission. Despite this added burden, synchronous transmissions remain more efficient than asynchronous ones.

EXAMPLE 1-5

Compare the efficiency of sending a 256-byte message synchronously and asynchronously. The synchronous transmission requires an 8-byte preamble for clock recovery.

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CHAPTER 1

SOLUTION

Using the same asynchronous configuration as in Example 1-6, the efficiency of transmitting the 256 bytes asynchronously remains 70%. The total number of bytes in the synchronous message is 256 data plus 8 preamble, or 264 bytes. Thus the efficiency of the synchronous messages becomes:

256

data

100

%=

97

%

264

total

The synchronous transmission is still more efficient than the asynchronous one despite the required additional overhead of the 8-byte preamble.

Section 1.6 Review Questions

1. What is used by asynchronous data streams to establish bit and character synchronization?

2. Which serial data type is more efficient?

3. What is used by synchronous data streams to establish character synchronization?

1.7 ENCODED DATA FORMATS

Besides different character codes and data types (synchronous and asynchronous), digital data can be transmitted or coded into different electrical signal formats. Each of the following forms has its own advantage and/or use. They are illustrated in Figure 1-5. Each data signal format, sent as a serial stream of data may be interpreted as generating a square wave whose frequency varies according to the changing bit pattern. Depending on the signal format type, the frequency of the “square wave” usually gets lower as the num- ber of consecutive ones or zeros increases. The highest frequency condition generally oc- curs with alternating ones and zeros. This is referred to as the worse case condition, be- cause it produces the highest fundamental frequency for the square wave and determines the bandwidth required of the system that sends the data using a particular format.

unipolar non-return-to- zero (UNZ)

basic raw digital data.

Raw Data Form

For instance, the first data form is technically known as unipolar non-return-to-zero (UNZ). It is your basic raw serial binary ones and zeros. Unipolar indicates that the logic 1 level is always one polarity (as shown in Figure 1-5a, this polarity is +V). Non-return- to-zero indicates that the logic 1 does not return to 0V midway through the bit time as some others will. By observing the waveform created by the data, it appears as a square wave with a varying time period (and, hence, frequency). Notice that the shortest time pe- riod occurs when the data is made up of alternating ones and zeros (on the left side of the

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21

10100111

0110011

+V 0V
+V
0V

Unipolar Non-Return-To-Zero (UNZ) [Note: Bipolar Non-Return-To-Zero (BNZ) is the same as UNZ except 0 is –V instead of 0V.]

a +V 0V Unipolar Return-To-Zero (URZ) b +V 0V –V
a
+V
0V
Unipolar Return-To-Zero (URZ)
b
+V
0V
–V

Bipolar Non-Return-To-Zero Alternate Mark Inversion (BNZ-AMI)

c

+V 0V –V
+V
0V
–V

Bipolar Return-To-Zero Alternate Mark Inversion (BRZ-AMI)

d +V 0V Manchester (Biphase) e +V 0V Differential Manchester f
d
+V
0V
Manchester (Biphase)
e
+V
0V
Differential Manchester
f

FIGURE 1-5 Binary Data Forms

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CHAPTER 1

data stream). The fundamental frequency of the “square wave” is shown as a dotted sine wave. Since it takes two bits of data to form the “square wave,” you can see that the fre- quency of the fundamental sine wave of the worst case (alternating ones and zeros) is one-half the bit rate. The remaining formats are shown in relation to this UNZ form.

EXAMPLE 1-6

What is the fundamental frequency of the sine wave of the worst case state of a UNZ serial data stream sent at 1,000 bits per second (bps)?

SOLUTION

The time period for one bit at 1,000 bps is 1 ms. Two bits use a total of 2 ms. The worse case square wave occupies two-bit periods as shown in Figure 1-5a. The frequency of the fundamental sine wave of that square wave is 1/(2 ms) or 500 Hz.

unipolar return-to-zero (URZ)

binary code format.

Return-to-Zero Form

Figure 1-5b shows the same data stream coded as a unipolar return-to-zero (URZ) for- mat. With return-to-zero forms, the logic one is returned to a 0V level midway through the data period. Notice that worst case condition now occurs with consecutive ones (about midway through the data stream in the figure). Notice also that the fundamental frequency is twice that of the UNZ format. The advantage, for synchronous data streams of the return-to-zero form, is that there are transitions or changes of state for consecutive logic 1 data bits that are not there in non-return-to-zero formats. These transitions aid in clock recovery for synchronous receivers.

EXAMPLE 1-7

Compare the fundamental frequencies for the worst case conditions of the UNZ and URZ formats.

SOLUTION

As illustrated by the dotted sine waves in Figure 1-5, the fundamental sine wave for the URZ is twice the frequency as that for the UNZ format.

bipolar non-return-to- zero alternate mark inversion (BNZ-AMI)

binary code using alternating voltage levels for logic 1 data.

polarity violation

data error control for alternate mark inversion data streams when two consecutive data bits appear with the same polarity.

Bipolar Forms

The bipolar non-return-to-zero alternate mark inversion (BNZ-AMI) shown in Figure 1-5c is encoded with the polarity of the logic 1s alternating between +V and –V. This format adds a built-in automatic error checking capability into the transmission of data. As long as the logic 1 levels continue to alternate polarity, it is assumed that the data is good. If two consecutive logic 1 bits appear at the same polarity, then a polarity violation has occurred and the data is believed to be corrupted.

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Figure 1-5d takes the bipolar convention one step further by returning to zero at the center of every logic 1 bit period. This form is called bipolar return-to-zero alternate mark inversion (BRZ-AMI). The addition of the capability of returning to zero adds more transitions between +V, –V, and 0V levels and aids in recovering clock signals for syn- chronous data transmissions.

Manchester Encoded Forms

The last two coded formats are special cases specified in networking protocols. They are known as Manchester and differential Manchester encoding. They both add a built-in clock capability at the center of each data bit period. Here’s how they are formulated. For Manchester encoding, a data bit is split into two parts. The first half of the data bit period is the inverse of the data level—a one appears as a zero level and a zero appears as a one level. At the midway point the level is inverted. This midway transition occurs at the middle of each data bit time and becomes the recovered clock signal at the receiver. Man- chester encoding has the advantage of facilitating easy clock recovery. One problem with Manchester encoding is that the interpretation of the data is dependent on the level of the first-half of the data period. Differential Manchester moves the detection of the data level to the leading edge of a data bit time. It accomplishes this by using a comparison of the data levels at the begin- ning of a data bit to determine if that bit is a one or a zero. If there is a change of state at the beginning of the data bit period, then the data bit is a zero. If there is not a change of state, then the data bit is a one. Compare the Manchester formats in Figure 1-5. Use the UNZ of Figure 1-5a as the reference data stream for each of the other coded formats. Notice for Manchester how each first-half of the data period is the inverse of the data level. Check the differential Manches- ter at the beginning of each data bit. Notice that a logic zero causes the differential data to change state while a logic 1 in the UNZ form does not cause a change of state in the differ- ential code. Both forms provide a clock transition at the midpoint of each data bit.

EXAMPLE 1-8

Show the Manchester and differential Manchester codes for the bitstream of the extended ASCII character message for OK.

SOLUTION

The ASCII code for OK (hex 4F4B), starting with the LSB of O on the left is:

1111001011010010

Manchester inverts the first half and changes state midway through the bit time (see Figure 1-6). Differential Manchester causes the state to change at the beginning of bit if it’s a zero and not change if it’s a one and then changes state midway through the bit time (see Figure 1-7).

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CHAPTER 1

0

F

4

K

B

4

1111001011010010

AM Page 24 24 CHAPTER 1 0 F 4 K B 4 1111001011010010 FIGURE 1-6 Manchester

FIGURE 1-6 Manchester Encoding OK

4 K B 4 1111001011010010 FIGURE 1-6 Manchester Encoding OK FIGURE 1-7 Differential Manchester Encoding OK

FIGURE 1-7 Differential Manchester Encoding OK

Section 1.7 Review Questions

1. How does return-to-zero and non-return-to-zero binary data forms differ?

2. How can bipolar alternate mark inverted data be used to detect corrupted data?

3. What is the purpose for the logic transition in the middle of every Manchester encoded bit?

SUMMARY

This chapter began by following the history of the development of data communications from Morse code to the Information Highway. Along the way we saw the development of networking and its influence on today’s communication means. After the historical per- spective, we examined a basic communication model to get a feel for a two-point com- munications link. Basic terminology such as DTE, UART, modem, medium, duplex, etc., was defined in relationship to this model.

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Binary data comes in many formats and since the bulk of data communications in- volves serial data transfers, we explored the difference between asynchronous and syn- chronous data as well as several forms of digital encoding used by networks. Much of this preliminary information will reappear in subsequent chapters that deal with many aspects of data and network communications.

QUESTIONS

Section 1.1

1. List five significant events that affected the development of network communi- cations.

2. Explain how Morse code can be considered a binary code.

3. List four companies that are at the forefront of network communications.

4. Define in your own terms what the information highway means to you.

Section 1.2

5. Which of the following units are part of the DTE and which are part of the DCE?

a) UART

b) modem

c) line control unit

d) computer

6. Give the basic purpose of each of the following units

a) line control unit

b) UART

c) RS232C

d) modem

7. Explain the difference between a primary and secondary station.

8. What is a medium? Give three examples of a medium.

Section 1.3

9. What type of system transfers:

a) data in one direction only?

b) both directions simultaneously?

c) both directions one at a time?

d) two directions simultaneously but from different stations?

Section 1.4

10. Define character codes.

11. What types of characters are represented in a character code? Define each char- acter type.

12. Give an example of each type of character represented by a character code.

13. What are the ASCII and EBCDIC hexadecimal equivalent of the binary codes for each of the characters below:

a)

B

c)

!

e) STX

g) carriage return

i) SYNC

b)

f

d)

line feed

f)

Ν)

h) EOT

Section 1.5

14. A system converts EBCDIC characters into symbols and transmits the symbols at 8848 sps. Each symbol represents a single EBCDIC character. What is the bit rate of the stream?

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CHAPTER 1

15. Compare the time it takes to transfer 256 bytes of data using an 8-bit parallel sys- tem versus a serial system. Both transfer data at a rate of 1200 transfers per second.

Section 1.6

16. Describe the parts of an asynchronous character data stream.

17. How does synchronous data differ from asynchronous data? Give a benefit for each data type.

18. Show the binary data stream for the asynchronous ASCII message Do it! using 1 start and 1 stop per character for framing. Place least significant bits of each character on the left and begin the message with the first character (D).

19. Show the binary synchronous EBCDIC data stream for the message This time? using two SYNC characters as a preamble. Place least significant bits of each character on the left and begin with the first character (T).

20. What is the efficiency of a 256-ASCII character message using asynchronous data with two (2) stop bits?

21. What is the efficiency of a 256-EBCDIC character message using synchronous data with two SYNC characters for a preamble?

Section 1.7

22. What is the difference between UNZ and URZ data formats?

23. What function can be done directly using bipolar alternate mark inversion that

can not be done with unipolar data formats?

24. What is the fundamental sine wave frequency for a data transmission using UNZ data format? Compare this to the fundamental sine wave of a BRZ-AMI format.

25. Show the binary format for the ASCII synchronous message GO with no pream- ble, using Manchester and differential Manchester formats.

DESIGN PROBLEMS

1. Another type of character code is the automatic request for retransmission (ARQ),

which uses 7 bits per character. It is unique in that each code contains exactly three (3) logic 1 bits and four (4) logic 0 bits. The code is used to aid in error detection. Design such a code that represents uppercase letters, numbers, and basic punctuation (?,.!’”), and space characters. How does this code actual assist in detecting transmission errors?

2. It is desirable to transmit messages at a rate of 9600 bps onto a system whose

bandwidth is 50 to 2700 Hz. Select the parameters for such a system. They should in- clude the type of binary data format; synchronous or asynchronous transmission; number of bits per symbol; simplex, half duplex, or full duplex; character code used; and any other information you feel is pertinent. Justify each of your choices.

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INTRODUCTION TO DATA AND NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

27

ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS

Section 1.1

1. Morse Code

2. Logic 1 and 0

3. Baud rate

4. convert digital data to analog data

5. Ethernet

Section 1.2

1. Line control unit (LCU)

2. word

3. UART or USART

4. interconnect DTE and DCE

5. modem

Section 1.3

1. simplex

2. full duplex

Section 1.4

1. alphanumeric, formatting, data link

2. ASCII: 7-bits Extended ASCII: 8-bit

3. 4F48

Section 1.5

1. 800 sps

2. faster transfer rate

Section 1.6

1. framing or start bit

2. synchronous

3. preamble

Section 1.7

1. Return to zero data causes a logic 1 data bit to be returned to a zero state at the midpoint. Non-return-to-zero data does not.

2. Alternate mark inversion uses polarity violation to detect the possibility of cor- rupted data.

3. The transition in the center of Manchester encoded data is used as a clock signal.

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