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# Angle modulation

## COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Angle modulation is the process by which the phase

angle of a carrier is varied according to the message
signal.
Lecture # 8
Angle modulation is sub-classified into frequency
modulation (FM) and phase modulation (PM).
24th Feb 2007 In PM, the instantaneous phase deviation of the carrier is
proportional to the message signal.
Instructor In FM, the instantaneous frequency deviation of the
WASEEM KHAN carrier is proportional to the message signal.

## Phase Modulation Phase Modulation

Message signal
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If m(t) is the message signal, then instantaneous phase
deviation is 0.5

Amplitude
0
(t) = kpm(t)
-0.5
where kp is the phase deviation constant or phase sensitivity.
-1
Hence phase modulated carrier is written as 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Unmodulated and phase modulated carrier

## xPM(t) = cos(2 fc t + kpm(t)) Modulated

Unmodulated
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Amplitude

-1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Time(seconds)

## Frequency Modulation Frequency Modulation

If m(t) is the message signal, then instantaneous frequency xFM(t) = cos[ i(t)]
deviation is t
f (t) = kf m(t) x FM cos 2 f i ( t ) dt
and the instantaneous frequency is 0

## where kf is frequency deviation constant or frequency sensitivity and cos 2 fc kfm t dt

0
fc is carrier frequency.
d i t
Instantaneous frequency i (t ) 2 f i (t ) cos 2 f c t 2 kf m t dt
dt
t 0
Instantaneous phase = i (t ) 2 f i ( t ) dt
0 Here FM signal is generated using phase modulation.

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Frequency Modulation Frequency Modulation
f
Modulation index =
xFM( t )
f max

message signal.

## <<1 corresponds to narrowband FM (frequency

deviation is very small as compared to message signal
frequency)

## >>1 corresponds to wideband FM (frequency deviation

Message signal and modulated carrier is very large as compared to message signal frequency)

## Transmission bandwidth of FM signals FM Demodulation

An FM signal, theoretically, contains infinite number of The objective is to produce amplitude proportional to the frequency.
frequencies, but practically it is limited to a finite This can be accomplished by differentiating FM signal.
bandwidth; beyond this bandwidth content frequencies of
t
FM signal may exist with negligible amplitude. x FM cos 2 f c t 2 kf m t dt
0
Approximately the bandwidth of an FM signal is
Differentiating the above equation w.r.t time, we get
1
BT = 2 f +2fmax = 2fmax( +1) = 2 f 1 t
dxFM (t )
2 f c k f m(t ) sin 2 f c t k f m(t )
d (t ) 0

intermediate frequency (IF) first.
Differentiated FM signal varies in both amplitude and
frequency.

Tunable

## In the second stage, after necessary filtering, IF signal is demodulated to get

the baseband signal.
Envelope obtained due to variable amplitude is It is used for demodulating amplitude as well as angle modulated signals.
proportional to the message signal. Practically all radio and TV receivers are of superheterodyne type.
Tunable oscillator is used to tune a particular channel; as fLO varies, received
fRF changes accordingly (fIF remains constant).

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Announcements Course for First Sessional Exam
Quiz 5% Fourier transform
CTFT, DTFT, DFT, FFT
Two sessional exams 30% (15 + 15)
Analog modulation
Assignments 15%
Basics of modulation
Final exam 50% All types of analog amplitude modulation and
demodulation
Phase modulation
First sessional exam: 10th Mar 2007 Frequency modulation

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