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E. ClasenYoung

California

4846 Rancho Grande

Del Mar, CA 92014

VolumeII, number one September

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Suzanne L. Schott on Burke C. Brandon Crocker on Third World Poverty Ann Watson Reports Also: Midge Decter,JeffreyHart

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Page 2--CaliforniaReview--September

By Midge Decter

Thetitleof my talkcanhardlyevenbe calleda

rhetoricalquestion.Everyonein this roomknows theWestisin danger.Whyelse,indeed,arewe hereif notto takecounselaboutthatveryfact?Thetruthis

we haveallcome,evenif by separateroutes,to the

samesenseof urgency.Speakingformyself,I would sayitis a terriblesenseofurgency,bredintheideaI cannotshakeloose:thatwe haveneverbeencloserto losingthatwhichit hasbeenouruniquehistorical privilegeto be theguardiansof.I mean,of course, nothingelsethanourveryfreedom.Thatfreedomis nowadaysthreatenedin many ways. Again,I need notlistthemallin thiscompany. Thereis,forinstance,no needto speakhereof Sovietweaponsand thealmostuninterrupted,bra- zenencroachmentsof Sovietideology.Anyreading of one’smorningpaperis a sufficientreminderof both. Nor do I aim to speak of the adequacyor inadequacyof thepresentadministrationm respond- ingto thoseencroachments.WhereI live,at least-- whichlatelyfeelsto me as if it is on theshuttle betweenNew York and Washington-- we have been speakingof littleelsefor nearlya yearnow.Our disappointmentis in inverseratioto ourhighhopes -- thefirstin decades-- of a yearago.Butthereare dangersto freedomthattheReaganAdministration, or anyotheradministration,cando nothingabout, fortheystemfromout-relationto lifeandreality-- anditis oneofthesethatI wishto ,allattentionto today. httheend,I believeitisa farmoreintractablearid possiblyfarmoredivisivedangerthaneitherthe aggressivenessof ourenemyor theso farless-than-

forcefulresponsesof our governmentto it. The dangerI antreferringto is thatcontainedin a sim- ple, deadly,corrosivequestion.This question, spokenor unspoken,is in theairallaroundus.It infusesour cuhure,it dogsthe educationol our children,andit seeps,unh’sswe areeternallyvig- ilant,intotheverymarrowof ourI),mes.It is lil,eralquestion,hmdamentally,but callingour- selvesconservativeswillnot.hy itself,t)rote(t fromitssimple,deadly,corrosiveeffectson ourpri- vatespiritsandon ourpubliccouduct.Thequestion

I mean is expressedin two shortwordsthat,put

togetherandcombinedwiththeinterrogative,might nowadaysjustbe the two mostpotentwordsin the Englishlanguage.Theyart’."Sowhat?"As in,John h,vesMary-- so what?As in,a preciousconstitu- tionalprincipleis beingviolated-- so what?As whenthe novelor fihnor playor musiccurrently beingtoutedas a profoundmasterpieceby ourcuhu-

ralstandardbearersisactuallya pieceof meritricious junk -- so what? One could nowadaysapply this formulationin immediatelyrecognizableways to justabouteveryareaof life-- private,communal, national,international;to sex,to familyobliga- tions,to cuhuraistandards,to ourdentandson pub- litofficials,to ourreadingof theirdemandson us,

md tooursense,orlackofsense,of responsibilityto

Is theWestin Danger?

theworldat large. TheWestEuropeansareon a courseof surrender- ingthemselvesvoluntarilyto theuhimateinroadsof Sovietization?Well,letthem.We cansurelydefend ourownborders.Electionsthatdo not producethe desiredresuhscanbe negotiatedawayin theservice of publicrelationsor socialconvenience?Well,is that not the way the worldreallyworks anyway? Why kid ourselves?Each wedding we now attend feelsnotlikea sacramentalinitiationintothetides andcurrentsof man’sfruitfulsojournon earth,but

ratherlikea throwof thedice?Well,afterall,we ¯ havea newsetof socialrelationsreplacingtheold. Butthereis one areaof oursocialattitudesin whichthecynicismanddespairof "Sowhat?"seems to me to havebecomemost particularlypervasive andthreatening.Thisarea,I suppose,is affectedby thepresentgovernment’sfailureto act.Butthespeed andease,withwhichit tookoverirathefirstplace must tell us somethingwe cannotdeny aboutthe deepersicklyconditionof ournationalethos.

I am speakingahoutthenearobliterationof what

we referto in theshorthandol publi(discussionas theideaof meritanditssubstitutionby theideaof groupor classentitlement.Thissubstitutionis not, andneverhasheen,as itsproponentsclaim,an issue ofjusticeor even,as manyof itsopponentsclaim,an issueofinjustice.It is,andalwayshasbeen,a matter of cynicism,plainandsimple.Wearefacinga prob- lemcausedby the maldistributionof achievements andawards?Verywell,then,we shall-- by fiat-- declarethenatureof achievementnullandvoid.And do notdeceiveyourselves;affirmativeactionis not only a matter of employment and educational accreditation.Tomorrow,as we see,it willtouchthe

electoralprocessitself;indeed,itis alreadydoingst), andfromthereit willtoucheverything.Thatis why a strokeof Reagan’spen.thoughit wouldulakea verygreatdifleren(e,willnothy itselfsufficeto rid us of thisspiritual(ancer.A basi,princil)ledis- mantledwill.likeHuml)tyDumpty,notso easilytit’ puttogetheragain.Andthebasicprincipleheregoes deeperthanequalityof opportunity,thoughthisin itselfis theonetrulyrevolutionarydiscoveryof the modernworld-- ournation’sdiscovery,by virtueof whichwe havebeenthe one benignlyrevolutionary nationin modernhistory.Nevertheless,theprinci- plegoesdeepereventhanthat.Itis,likethequestion thattmderminesit,a hlindinglysimph’principle:

that realitycountsfor something.That it has weightThatit hasmeaning,andwillnotbe denied.

I havesaidthataffirmativea(tion,themostperfect

exampleof "So what?",is not reallya matterof employmentand education.WhatI was referringto is theunderlyingmessageof thispolicy,a message takento heartalloverthissociety;thateverythingis a fraud,a racket,a deal,an arrangement.Workis nothing;standingis everything.Whatone needsin thislife-- antithereis notan issueof a women’s magazine,for instance,that does not somewhere

carryan articleor a passageof an articlepointing thisout-- is notambition,energy,training,and that one indispensableand completelyincommen- surabletraitforsuccesscalled,whereI comefrom, "moxy."One does not needthesethings.What one

needsis a n%work-- old-boy,old-girl,or racial. Lookat anylistof grantsawardedby majorfoun- dations.Lookat anylistof literaryor journalistic prizes,of honorarydegrees,of appointmentsto boards,of awardsthatcarrygoldplaques,andyou willseethe workof a committeewhichby nowdoes not need to calculatepercentages,for theyare imprintedon theverynervoussystem.Doesallthis matter?Thereis thatinsidiousquestionagain.It matters -- nothing more. Take something,for example,thatmightnotsoundveryimportant.Each favorablereviewof a book the reviewerhimself kr~owsto be badbut is the workof a woman,or a black,or a homosexual,or justan enemyof ordinary life(andwe seesucha review,somewhere,everyday) is a blowat thepropositionthatthereis goodand bad, worthyand unworthy,healthyand unhealthy; in short,a blow at the propositionthatlife is weightyand has consequences.Eachblow at this propositionproducesanotherdivorce,another desertedchild,anotherdecisionto abortthefetus thatamniocentesisrevealsto be imperfect,another impulseto pulltheplugon a sickparent,another homosexual,anothermugging. Am I beingextreme?All this from affirmative action?Yes.Allthisfromthesamesenseof lifethat madeaffirmativeactiona feasiblepolicy.Allthis,in otherwords,from"So what?"But what,you might ask,doesthishaveto dowiththefactthat300SS-20’s arepointedat Europe;thata newSovietfleetsails thesevenseas;thatourEuropeanalliesare,without sayingso,consideringthepossibilityof surrender andthatin orderto wheedlethemintoreconsidering we disastrouslysend negotiatorsto Geneva or Vienna;that the Sovietshave launchedthe most massivepropagandacampaignira threedecadesto disarmus and thatwe havehad to standby sheep- ishly as this campaignhas swept acrossour own shoresand thrownourpopulaceand ourpoliticians intodeepconfusion?Theansweris -- everything.It haseverythingto do withthesethings.ThoseSoviet missiles,ships,andliesarebeingarmedin allthe moredeadlyfashionby ourown decay.We havenot -- notyet-- appliedourso dangerousquestionto theprospectof Sovietconquest,butwe are coming close.I do notthinkin theendwe woulddo so -- but "intheend"istoolate.

A few years ago, the New YorkTimes carrieda

storyaboutan antidraftdemonstrationat Princeton University.I thinkit wasantidraft.The occasion wasforgettable,blendedintoso manyotherslikeit. What was unforgettable,however,was the news photothataccompaniedthestory.It wasof a young man-- healthy,vital,privileged,tanned,no doubt,

by thesunsof skiingin Vermontandbeachingin the

VirginIslands.He wascarryinga placard-m which was scrawledthe motto."Thereis nothingworth dyingfor." He is our child,that youngman. We desperatelydo not wish for him to die. But his announcementon that placardis an announcement aboutmorethanthe draft,morethannuclearwea- lions,morethanwar.He whosaysthereis nothing worthdyingforsaysthereis nothingworthliving for. We,as a society,havesomemeasureof responsi- bilityforthemessageon thatplacard,forthefact thata youngAmerican-- thehealthiest,luckiest, mosttenderlytreatedyoungmanin history,at the heightof his physicaland sexualpowers,marching aroundthatpretty,prettytownon a dayof bright sunshine-- we havesonteresponsibilityforthefact thattie couldfindnothingof valuesavehis own skin;neithermother,norfather,norkith,norkin, nor ctmntry,nor God.Nietzschesaidthat he who valuesonlystayingalivehasthemindof a slave. Untilwe takeit uponourselvesto makethatboya freeInan-- both:freearrda man-- thecontinued survivalot ourowlrfreedomas a nalionwillnollie assured.

Thisspeechwas givenat the annualmeetingof

the P/uladelphiaSmietvin ChicagoApril17,IO82. MidgeDecteris theexecutivedirectorof TheCom-

m ittee[ortireFreeWorld,romposedo[ a humbero]

eminentaitthorsand.~,holar.~on both.~ideso[ tire Atlantic.Formerlythesenioreditoro[ BasicBooks andexecutiveeditoro[ Harper’s,MissDecteris the authoro] The New Chastityand LiberalParents, RadicalChildren. Firstprintedby theRock]ordlnstitute’sOcca- sionalPapers~eries.

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Letters

Dear Mr. Young:

Congratulations.It is lively,literate,andfunto read.Allthebestto you.

Yourscordially,

WilliamF. Buckley,Jr. New York

CaliforniaReview,

I thinkyourpublicationis purelyandutterlystu-

pendous.The wit,humor,andbitingchastisements of the Leftareunequaledin anypublicationI have encounteredlately.Keepup thegoodwork.

Thank you,

John Mabie

San Diego

P.S.I am currentlyattendingSan DiegoMesaCol- legeandwillbe at UCSDforthewintersessionnext year.I am lookingforwardto my transferandplanto participateactivelyin theUniversity’sconservative movement.Pleasecontactme with informationon presentendeavorsandfutureplansof theCalifornia Reviewand the CollegeRepublicansof UCSD. Viva Conservatisml Go ReaganI

P.S.S.Thanksforthe tipon Glider’sbook;it was great.

DearEric, Thankyou forsendingme theCaliforniaReview. I readeverywordand wasdelighted.I thoroughly agree with your stand on affirmativeactionand thoughtit wasverywellexpressed.AndI wasinter- estedand amusedby otherarticles.Wheredid you get the Cruikshankdrawings?

Love,

Granny

BurgePlantation

Mansfield,Georgia

Dear Mr. Young, We hopeforthesuccesst,[yournewpublication. My husbandis a scientistengagedin cancerresearch (mon(x;Ionalantibodyandtumorantigen)at Scripps Clinic. Manyscientistsbelievethatonlyliberalssupport research.We wouldliketo correctthatimpression. My husbandand I wouldbe happyto contributea shortarticleto yourpaper.Pleasecallus if youare interested¯

Bestregards,

G.L.Reisfeld

La Jolla

An OpenLetterto the CaliforniaReview. We find your attemptat right-wing,pseudo- satiricaljournalismto be tastelessandgutlessin additionto itsadmittedelitist,racist,sexist,and ageistviewpoint. While you obviouslythink that thin guise of humorwilltemperthe ferocityof yourremarkswe findthatthisratherfeebleattemptat satireonly emphasizesyour alreadyarchaicattitudes.Your "President"and "Editress"foundedthe paper to preservethe "AmericanWay." This questionable attemptat journalismcertainlycarriesthisout.You preservetheAmericanwayof blindnessand inepti- tudein dealingwiththerestof tbeworld. We cannotcallforyou to ceasepublication.We, thankfully,do nothavethatright.Butwe cancallon anyonewho reads your periodicalto leave your stacksof papersuntouchedupon publication.If youradvertisersdo notseeanysignificantcircula- tiontheycertainly(andhopefully)willdiscontinue theirsupport.We alsocalluponallUCSDstudents andstaffto boycottyouradvertisers:Conoco(anoil conglomerate),SeeDorygiftstore,La JollaBarber- ing and Styling,The ToggeryShop,LillyPulitzer resortwear,andCoors(anoppressiveoutfitto begin with). We are sendingcopiesof thisletterto thenew indicatorand to the UCSD Guardian.Whilewe may not alwaysagreewith theirstanceon issues,we knowthattheybelievein equaltime.

Jean Dangler

Dean H. Haas

Editor’snote:

Californiaradicalsarea miserablelot.Fora long time this campushas been the turf of ideologue blockheadswithdesignson replacingour constitu-

tionalsystemwiththeirhighschooltermprojects. Leftistsare,understandably,threatenedby thepros- pectof moreinformationreachingtheirsheep.Boy- cotts,namecalling,obscenephonecallsand other

McCarthytactics,however,don’tcarryanyintellec-

tualweight. Whatmakesthesefolksafraid?Is itbecausethey’re witless?The currentwisdomis that Solzhenitsyn wasinventedby the CIA. --ECY

September--CaliforniaReview--Page3

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alifornia

(;redo:We few,we happylew,[or liewhopicksUp thispapertodayshallbe m~,brother,be he ne’erso vile,this paperwill gentlehis condition.

E.ClasenYoung

President

H.W.CrockerllI

BrigadierEditor

C. BrandonCrocker

BusinessManager

ContributingEditors:

SuzanneL. Schott,BruceMacdonald

7ontributors:

JeffreyHart,SteveKelley,GregRedmond,Michael Litt, Emmelinede Pillis,MatthewPayne,Bob McKay,GrahamMottola,ChristianHearn John Bridgeman

Correspondents:

LisaSullivan

AlisonYoung

VitoParker

NicholasAldenMorehouse

ThomasWiegand

AdamWachtel

Washington

USC

New York

Chicago

Yale

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LakeForestPonyAdvisor:

James SimpsonIll Chie[SaloonCorrespondent:

MichaelO’Toole

ExecutiveDistributionCoordinator:

Mark P. Diamond LegalCounsel:

The GreenBerets

Pleaseaddressallh’tter.~,manu.wripts,andblanJ

rhecksto."

(;alilorniaReview ¯ t8.t6Rarrlho(;rarlde DelMar,CA 921)1,1

A conservativejournalis a terriblething to waste. Give to the CaliforniaReview, a not- for-profit organization. All contributions are tax-deductible.

Page 4--CaliforniaReview--September

¯ UCSDhasaffirmeditsdevotionto seriousnessand high standardsby unveilingWomen’sStudiesand Black Per/orming Arts Program minors as new entriesinitslistof academicdisciplines.

¯ Kabul Corral, Afghanistan:Two years after

BrotherBrezhnevlaunchedhis peacecrusadeinto Afghanistan,Moscowcontinuesbanningwestern reportersfromthefun.Butinternalsourcesindicate thatthe Sovietsareshootingeachotherwithreal

bullets--thususurpingfreedom-fighterresponsibili-

ties.A CommunistPartypowerstruggleresultedin

a gm~fightat thePresidentialpalacein Kabulleav- ingeightdead.

¯ What’sworsethana President’slavishvacation

schedule? Give up? Paying some bonehead at

Newsweekto complainaboutit.

¯ Campaignpromisescan come true. Today most

Argentinesaremillionaires--indeed,multimillion-

aires-justas ColonelJuan DomingoPeron pro- phesiedwhenhe roseto powerin the1940s.Thanks to an averageinflationrateof140percent,a million pesosare exchangeablefor $43.00in the United States.

¯ One would expectUCSD’sWelcomeWeek to be a

timewhenstudentsare taughthow to usethecam- pus librariesandhow to reada book.Notso.The

Universitywasofferingsuchscintillatingdivertis-

sements as "COLLEGE AND FREEDOM: MAK-

ING CHOICES ABOUT SEX. Men and women are invitedto a wide-rangingdiscussionaboutmeeting

andchoosingsexpartners,alternativesexuallifes-

tyles,and sexualdecision-makingwithinrelation- ships." Not to mention ’"HOPE IS NOT A METHOD’",a birthcontrolseminar.If we’regoing to be open,we shouldstop callingourselvesthe Universityof Californiaat SanDiegoandstartcal- lingourselvestheUniversityof CaliforniaforSin and Debauchery.

¯ I HAVE A DREAM DEPARTMENT: The forces

of integrationcontinuedtheirstruggleduringWel- come Week, too. Featuredwas the Asian Student Orientation,Black StudentOrientation,Black CommunityGet-together,Black StudentsScience OrganizationOrientation,andBlackStudentsUnion Dance.

¯ Joseph"Jo-Jo"Giorgiannithe 565-poundasth-

maticandsexoffenderwhowasreleasedfromprison becausehiscelldidnot haveairconditioningwas reincarceratedafterhe was seentreatinghimself withcigarswhilein a casino.Mr. Giorgianniis servingtimefortherapeof a 14-year-oldgirl.He claimedthattherewas nothingwrongwithwhathe didandthatif he hadnotbeenfatandItalianno one wouldhavecared.Unfortunately,neitherthe neu, indicatornor the ACLU were availableto defend thisvictimof weightismandracism.

¯ TheweekthattheSovietsaccusedtheIsraeli’sof

committinga genocidein Lebanonwas the w’ry sameweek that the Sovietsmassacredevery man, woman,andchildin sixvillagesof theI.ogarpro- vintein Afghanistan.Morethan2,000civilianswere killed.

InReview=

¯ Liberalpretty-boyRobertRedford,a substantial

landownerin Utah,wantsto developthe areanear his SundanceResort,says Redford’sproperties

manager,JohnLear.Theactorhasappliedforper-

mitsto developbetween40 and50 lotsnearthesmall skiresortand hasaskedLearto drawup a master planfortheresort,Redford’sranchin SpanishFork, andotherholdings. Formerlyan uhra-preservationist,Redfordnow viewsdevelopedwildernessin a differentlight. "Economicsare playinga big rolein everyone’s life,"Learsaid.JamesWattbe proud.

¯ StephenP. Jobsof LosGatosmadeit to thisyear’s

ForbesFourHundredlist.In 1976,~he27-year-old collegedropoutsaw potentialin personalcompu- ters.He soldhisbelongings,movedintoa garage, andnowowns13.6%of AppleInc.shares,valuedat about$100million.Of course,as RobertLekach- manwilltellyou,there’sno opportunityin America.

¯ Aftertwo men weremarriedto each otherin a

countyin Colorado.a localcowboytriedto geta licenseto marryhismare.iziantactof specieist arrogance,thecountyclerkdeniedtherequesteven thoughthere is no law prohibitinga man from marryinghishorse.

¯ A lotof peopleseemto thinkthattheonlymoral-

ityworthhavingthesedaysis no morality.Cali[or-

nia Reviewdisagrees.Thereis rightandthereis wrongand everyoneis freeto choosefor himself. Lifeis noteasy,butthewrongchoicewillmakelife moredifficultforoneselfandforothers.

¯ Duringa recentPadrestelecasttheegregiousDave

CampbellidentifiedthePadreorganist’srendition of Wagner’s"Rideof theValkyries"as "musicfrom somesurfingmovie.It soundsliketheintroduction to "Ben-Hut."Hanga staron thatone.

¯ Helen Caldicott,of the Physiciansfor Social

Responsibility,hasdiagnosedthearmsraceas a case of "missileenvy" stemming"from an inadequate malesexualcomplexon thepartof theworld’slead- ers."TheprofoundMs.Caldicottis alsotryingto get theSierraClubto jointhenuclearfreezemovement because nuclearwar would hurt chipmunks,and birdies,andtheozonelayer.

¯ Thenew indicatorownsprimeofficespacein the

StudentCenter,receivesfundingfromthe Univer- sity (throughyou and me),and has a paid staff, (ReggieWilliams,the collective’sone man band makes nearly$6.00 an hour).Cali]orniaReview receivesno Universityfunding,operateson a com- pletelyvolunteerbasis,andhasno officespace.We don’t call up our competition’sadvertisersand threatenboycottseither.Maybethat’swhy we’re calledelitist.

¯ The World Peace Council,one of those groups

agitatingfora nuclearfreeze,hasscheduleditsnext

meetingin Afghanistan.ThePresidentof the WPC, RomeshChandra,a formermemberof the central committeeof theCommunistPartyin India,hasthe followingmaximforhisfollowers:"Peopleask me, ’Youare a peacemovement.Why do you supportthe armedstrugglesin Nicaragua,Palestine,Vietnam?’ AndI reply,’Thearmedstrugglein thesecountriesis the peacemovement.’"

¯ Manyof yougaggedat Ms.Fonda’sexercisebook,

but nowyou can tryone of the JaneFondaWorkout salonspoppingup aroundthestate.ButJaneisn’t just shakingthe flab--she’spouring$30,000a month into hubby Tom "ChicagoSeven" Hayden’s Campaign for Economic Democracy (CED) group in SantaMonica,hopefullyboostinghischancesin theraceforstateassemblymanin the44thdistrict thisfall.Trashedin the’76racefortheDemocratic Senatenomination,Tommyis puttinghissocialist idealsintopracticeby tryingto buytheelection.Is JaneFonda’sbodyallthatgreat?

¯ It’sofficial.Thenumberonearmsmerchantin the

worldis theSovietUnion.Littleattentionwasgiven

to thisnewsby thepeacefront,butsomepeopleare gettingfed-upwiththebetterredthandeadset.An Americancorrespondentin Londonaskeda gregar- iouspeacenikwhyAmericacatchesalltheflack.The response?"BecausetheRussianswon’tlisten."

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September--CaliforniaReview--Page5

oooooooooo ooooooooooooeooooooqpo eoooooooooo ¯ ¯ ooooooooooooooooeooooooooooeooeo ¯ ¯ ooeeoo ¯ ¯ go ¯ ¯ eeoooo ¯ ooooooooooo ¯oooo oooooo¯ oo ¯ ¯ oo eoe¢ oooooooo ooo oooooooo oo oooooooooooo oool

ThePlayboyPhilosopher

MortimerSmithin his bookMy SchooltheCity:A Memoiro] New York in the Twentiesrecountshow he usedNew YorkCity as a classroom.Newsstands were stockedwithliterarymagazines,legitimate theatrewasthriving,movieswerebecomingan art form, and institutions--museums,churches,and universities--hadtours,sermons,andlecturesthat madeautodidacticisma happyeducationalalterna- tive.Todaya gooddealof thatalternativehasbeen effaced,much to the detrimentof the urbanslum dwellerand to Americaas a whole.The reason:

pornography.In New York, wherethe productions of GeorgeM. Cohanusedto captureeverytheatreon Broadway,the very same theatreshave become triple-Xarcades.Pornographydominatesthe maga- zineindustry,floodsmoviehouses,and,forthose fortunateenoughto havecable,it comeson TV. We wonder why crime is astronomical,why violent crimeandsexualassaultscontinueto rise,whyout largestcriminalclassismadeup ofjuveniles.It’snot tougheconomictimes.CrimeratesduringtheGreat Depressionrepresentan Edencomparedto the cur- rentstatistics.Itis becauseourmusic,ourliterature, andourfilmseemsto haveno othermissionbutto shockoursensibilities,glorifyourdepravity,and breakdowntaboos.Thisis thenewdefinitionof art; andartis didactic--itteacheslessons.TaxiDriver taughtJohnHinckleya lesson.

AlexanderSolzhenitsynhas told us how porno-

graphylowerstheworld’sviewof America.We once exportedfilmslike:The BestYearso[ Our Lives, GoingMy Way, It’s a Wonder]ulLi[e,She Wore a YellowRibbon,and The Prideof the Yankees.Now we exportfilmslike:Porky’s,AnimalHouse,Up in Smoke, Making Love, The Blue Lagoon, Deep Throat,Tarzanthe Ape Man,and Fridaythe Thir-

teenth.Indeed,whentheRussiansdirectedthePol-

ish Armyto imposemartiallawin PolandtheAmer-

ican movie playing in Polish moviehouseswas ApocalypseNow. The irony is almosttoo much.

Theleaderof thefreeworldflagellatingitselfin frontof peoplesufferingrealoppressionfromcivili- zation’sanathema.When the Nazis marchedinto Francethe French peoplecheered the American movieplayingin theirtheatres--Mr.SmithGoe.~to Washington.The Poles had no such option.

Anyintelligent,civilizedpersoncanseethatpor-

nographyis a horror--degradingto humanityand cloggingourmodesof discourse.Why thendoesit

exist?Who couldpossiblysupportsuch a thing? Meetthe PlayboyPhilosopher. You’veseenhim.He’stheonethatapproachesthe magazineracklookingoverhis shoulder.He’sthe

onewiththosesophisticatedandprogressiveopin-

ionsthatwe closedmindedprudescan’ttolerate. A sampling:

1) "Hey,that’snotpornography.That’sthe way lifeis." 2) "I’mpro-choicewhenit comesto abortion. There’snothinglikea pregnancyto ruina girl’s shape." 3) "I supportthe ERA. Hugh Heiner does. If you’regoingto getgirlsto posenudeforyou,you’ve gotto makeconcessions." These are the men that keep the masturbation industrythriving;andtheirnumbersaren’tlimited

to theyoung.Therearelotsof swingingoldsterstoo.

Contraceptioncutsacrossallgenerationgaps.Con-

sequently,oldermen areno longersatisfiedwith theirwives.Thenaturalprocessesof ageandmatu- ration,thenaturalfadingawayof earlymaritalcon- cupiscence,is to thema horriblescheme,no doubt propogatedby that villainof all villains,the policemanof the bedroom,the Moral Majority. Womenare upsetbecausethanksto contraception and the gospelaccordingto Penthouseanyshowof warmth,tenderness,or affectionon theirpartis takenby thelibidinousmaleas an invitationto ride. Pornographyhas dehumanizedhuman relations. Pornographymakessex a consumeritem.As C.S.

Lewispointedout,if youwentto a foreigncountry wherethe peoplewere not starvingand yet they flockedto burlesquehouseswherefoodwasunveiled

youwouldthinkthattheirappetiteshadbeenper-

verted.Well,so haveoursexualappetites.Sexis no longerlinkedto procreationor eventhe spiritual bondingof husbandandwife.Sextodayis supposed to be nothingbutfun.Theresultis thatonehallo[ allmarriagesendin divorce,onethirdof allpreg- nanciesendin abortion,andmen whoareotherwise tightfistedwiththeirmoneylaydownfivebucksor

so to watchthelatestin rapingtechniques. It usedto be saidthatthehush-hushsexualmoral- ityof theVictoriansledto allsortsofpsychological problems.Our open moralityhas not made us any lesssexobsessed,butratherithasmadeusmoreso.It hasmadelusta partof thenationalcharacter. No doubt, someday soon, the Playboy Philo- sopherwill developthe ultimatein progressive thinking.Unhappy with the wife who wisheshe wouldgrowup,alienatedfromhischildrenwhoare disgustedwith him, unable to find enough one night stands free from VD, and uncomfortable (thoughhe won’tadmitit)with the homosexuals, coprophiliacs,and necrophiliacs,who he helped legitimizewithhissex-is-nothing-but-funlifestyle, thePlayboyPhilosopherwillturnto thegreatestfun of all,onewithno responsibilitiesand no human beingsto worryabout--pantheonizedonanism.

HWC Ill

TheCaseAgainstDope

We all know aboutthe reportsthat link mari- juana smokingwith lung cancer,brain damage, loweredspermcounts,ad nauseum.Peoplewho are not alreadyconvincedthatmarijuanais unhealthy andwho clingdumblyto thepoliticallymotivated counterstudiesof pro-marijuanagroupswillnever be convincedby sucha tack.Theyarealreadyintel- lectualchattelsof thedrug.I wouldliketo trya differentapproach.I wouldliketo attackmarijuana on aestheticgrounds. Marijuanaretainstheglamorof thesixtiescoun- terctthurethatfannedit. Thougheverydormster smokesit,itisstillsupposedtobeanactofrebellion. Beinga dopesmokeris an actof conformity;andany collegeagestudentwhostillfeelshe hasto rebel againsthisparentshas obviouslynotgrownup at all. The marijuanacigaretteis a decidedlywimpish excusefora fag.It lookslikesomekindergardener’s papermacheversionof a condom.It is neithera manlycigarettenora feminineone.It lacksphalli- cismandit is certainlynotgraceful.It alsostinks. Thesicklysweetsmellof marijuanais notthescent thatmakeswomenimpatientfortheirmen to come homefromthe sea.Marijuanasmokershavea ten- dency to drool,and combinedwith theirheavily veinedeyesand droopyeyelids,theyrarelylook suave. Lastly,in thiserawhenno one wantsto makea commitment to another human being or to our nationone wonderswhy youngpeopleareso eager to giveup theirlibertyforthegaolof drugs.During the VietnamWar it was the policyof the North Vietnamesegovernmentto smuggledopeto Ameri- canservicemenandto theUnitedStates.Theirpur- pose was two-fold.One, they used the money to supporttheVietCong.Two,theybelievedit would helpto weakenAmerica’swill.The NorthVietna- mese remembered how opium had made China a patsy for the imperialpowers.Today the drug marketis controlledby organizedcrimeandFidel Castro(whousesthe moneyto supplementhis eight milliondollara dayallowancefromthe Soviets). Doestoday’sdopesmokerreallywantto tiehimself tothathistorical,economic,andpoliticaltradition?

HWC II!

BehindSeminaryDoors

ByJeffreyHart

As everyoneknows,collegefacultiesare politi- callykinky,buta recentsurveyof thepoliticalatti- tudesof thosewhoteachAmerica’sfutureministers andpriestsneverthelesscameas a bitof a shock. Thepeculiarpoliticalbehaviorof academicshas been documentedagain and again. In theirstudyof the1972election,forexample, EverettCarllLaddand SeymourMartinLipsettell

us that,despiteNixon’slandslidedefeatof McGov- ern in the nationat large,McGoverncarriedthe professorsby 56 to 43 percent,a contrarylandslide. Butthosefiguresdon’tbeginto tellthe story. According to Ladd and Lipset, McGovern was backed"by three-fourthsof facultyin theliberal socialsciences,by sevenin 10 amonghumanists-- butby onlyhalfof thenaturalscientistsanda third of thefacultyat businessschools.Further,McGov- ernwasthechoiceof 70percentofthefacultyatelite institutionsas comparedwithlessthanhalfat lower tierinstitutions."

I supposethisshouldhave preparedus for the

resultsof a newpollconductedby Roperandfocus- ingon professorsat Christianseminariesandtheo-

logicalschoolsthroughoutthecountry. Holdyourbreath.Ninety-twopercentof Episco- palianfacultybelievetheUnitedStatesspendstoo

muchon itsmilitary.Only27 per centof the same groupbelievestheUnitedStatesis a forceforgoodin the world. Other denominationsshow the same split,thoughto a marginallylesserdegree. Eighty-fivepercentof theCatholicprofessors believetheUnitedStates"treatstheThirdWorld unfairly." Seventy-fivepercentof theEpiscopaliansbelieve "repressiveregimesbackedby theUnitedStates"are

a greaterproblemin the worldtodaythan "Corn-

monistexpansion." In rangesvaryingfromone-quarterto one-third, thetheologyfacultiesbelievethereshouldbe a "top limiton incomesso thatno one canearnverymuch morethanothers."Abouthalfof theEpiscopalian, Methodist,LutheranandCatholicfacultiesbelieve that"theUnitedStateswouldbe betteroffif it movedtowardsocialism." Morethanhalfof thosefacultiesdisagreedwith thestatementthat"economicgrowthis a betterway to improvethe lot of the poor thandistributing existingwealth." Accordingto Mr. Ladd, mentionedabove, who headedthissurvey,thepoliticalattitudesof those theologianscloselyresemblethoseof thegeneral humanitiesfacuhy.

Thesepollresults,andtheyaremuchmoreexten-

sive thancanbe indicatedin a column,werepub- lishedin a newand-pryusefulmagazinecalledThis World,whichfocuseson therelationshipbetween Christianityandissuesof politicsandeconomics. My own impression,based on an admittedly limitedsample,is thatthegapbetweenfacultypolit- icalattitudesandthoseof thegeneralpublicisactu- allywidening. Thecountrymovedto therightwiththe election of Reagan,andthepollsshowrightwardtrendson a wholerangeof issues. In consequence,McGoverniteopinion on the campusfeelsitselfina conditionofsiege.Itfearsthe lossof the"gains"it madeduringthe’60s--reverse discrimination,trendyethnicandfeministprograms, ecologicalstuff. McGoverniteaccessto governmentat alllevelsis beingchokedoff.Themoodof thefacultyleftistsis hardeningand turningbitter.

KingFrature~Nvndlcate

Je]]reyHartis a prolessorat DartmouthCollege,an editoro] NationalReview,and an author.His most recentbook is When the Going Was Good: Ameri- canLifeintheFifties.

Subscribeto CaliforniaReview --thepeople’schoice.

STARTIN’GNEXT MONTH:BruceMacdonald’sKeepingIt Right

Page6--Califi)rniaReview--September

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iotesfrom the

The Reason Why

NormanPodhoretz’sthesisis reallynotso shock- rag. He says the war in Viemamwas beyond our

military,political,intellectual,andmoralcapabili-

ties,butthattheargumentof theanti-warleftthat whatAmericawasdoingwas immoralwasblatantly wrongthenantiis manifestlywrongtoday.Forthis he hasbeenexcoriated,defamed,andchastizedby thosewhothinktheydidmankinda greatserviceby gettingthet’nitedStatesontof Viemam. Onecan St’(’ why theymightbe worried.Never havetraitorsbeenso freehonlimpunity.JaneFonda

is rollingin filthycapitalistdollars.TomHaydenis a su(cessfu]politician,and Ramsey(:larkis

[)emocraticambassador-at-large.Foryearsnow,lef-

H.W.Crocker!il

tists have lookeddown on Americaas that sin- infestedlandmasswhosepeoplehavefinallybeen chastenedby humiliationand guih. Amongthischoi(ccollectionof highlyarticulate Bozos,Po(lhoretzzeroesin especiallyon Frances FitzGerald,MaryMcCarthy,and SusanSontag.Ms. Sontagcommentson the "moralbeautyof theViet-

namese"whoshe thinksare treatingdownedAmeri- canpilotslikeindulgentnannies.Sheexplainsaway thepicturesof Stalinin NorthViemamas an exam- ple of the NorthVietnameseabhorrenceof waste. Picturesare [or hanging,you know.Ms.McCarthy marvelsat how clean NorthViemamis and at how pueriletheAmericanP.O.W.sarecomparedto their dashing captors, (one of whom reminds her of PrinceAndreiin War and Peace.)Ms. Fitzgerald congratulatestheNorthVietnameseon theirability torelease"aggressionas a creativeforce."Forexam- pie,"TheNLFgenerallyproscribedtortureandpre-" ferret,thebulletto anyothermeansof dispensing death."Hullygee! The liberal|olliesare almostinnumerable.A groupof theologians,thesaintedDr.MartinLuther King amongthem, condemnAmericafor its policy of movingciviliansoutof combatzones!Unableto conreup witha reasonfor America’s"imperialism" in South Vietnam,(SouthViemamwas of no value to theIrniledStatesfor rawmaterialsor froma

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strategicpointof view),America’scriticsdecided thattheUnitedStateshada psychologicalneedto dominateothers.Much,as I suppose,we hada need to dominateEuropewiththe MarshallPlan.Loon- ies likeHansJ. Morgenthau,(whowasan anti-war

"moderate"),accusedtheUnitedStatesof commit- linga genocidein Viemam.Amazingly,despitethe genocide,thepopulationof SouthVietnamincreased by 3.83millionand of NorthVietnamby 3.99mil- lionduringthewar. Podhoretzgivesattentionto theinfamousgaffes of thepress,too.TheTetOffensiveof 1968,which wasplayedup as an Americandisaster,was oneof thegreatestAmericanvictoriesof thewar.It deci-

matedtheVietCong,provedthattheSouthVietna-

mese peopledid not supportthe Communists,and ledto an increasedseriousnessandresolveon the partof theSouthVietnamesemilitary.Thesiegeof KheSahn,whichwas turnedintoanotherDienBien Phu,wasactuallya sidelightof theTetOffensive, andincidentally,anotherCommunistdebacle.The

Christmastx)mbingof 1972, which scrupulously avoidedciviliantargetsaridinflictedonlyminor civiliancasualties,wasblownup intoa replayof Hiroshima. Can theanti-warmovementbe excusedbecauseit didn’tunderstandthetruecolorsof theNorthViet- nameseCommunists?No. When Viemamwas parti- tionedin 1954 one millionVietnamesefled the North. The Communist government murdered 50,000of tireremaininglandlords.In the"YetOffen- sive,duringtheir brief occupationof Hue, the

Communistsexecuted3,000civilians.Theevidence

wasthere,buttoo manyjournalists,likeHarrison Salisbury,reliedon North Viemamesepropaganda [ortheirinformation. Theperceptionsof theanti-warmovenrenthave, unfortunately,sunkintothenationalpsy(he.Jimmy Carterspokeof ourovercomingan "inordinatefear of Communism."It took the bloodbathin Indo- china,thefurtheranceof Sovietinfluencein Africa andLatinAmerica,andtheinvasionof Afghanistan

to reawakena properawarenesso[ Communismin Jimmy Carter.The men and women who forced us out of Vietnam,(includingthedovishCongressof 1975whi(h refusedto even sellspare partsand ammunitionto the imperiledSouth Viemamese), shouldbeartheburdenofguiltfortherealtragedyof the VietnamWar. RonaldReagan was right. The men who foughtto save Vietnam from Communism werepartof a noblecause.Thesamecannotbe said fi)rthosewholedus out. NormanPodhoretz’sthesisthatourbeingin Viet- nalnwasan actof imprudentidealismseems,to me, correct.WhyWe Werein Vietnamis a fine,compact historyof thewaranda scholarlydissectiono~"the anti-warmove~nenl.Mostimportantly,it setsup a newandmoreaccurateagendaforanydiscussionof ourrolein Vietnamand,therefore,of ourrolein the worhl.

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Page 8--CaliforniaReview--September

Advice from Uncle Milty:

CaliforniaReview Interviews

Dr. MiltonFriedman.the winnero] the Nobel Prize[or Economicsin 1976,is oneacademicwhose proseand logicis pellucidand ]ree o] ivy. The

l authoro] Freeto Chooseandthecharismatichosto] the PBS televisionserieso/thesamename (which has been seen in England,Australia,Holland, Japan,and Singapore),he is currentlya Senior ResearchFellowat theHooverInstitution,a Paul SnowdenRussellDistinguishedServiceProlessoro] Economicsat the Universityo] Chicago,a member o[ theresearchstall[ortheNationalBureauo] Eco- nomicResearch,and a columnistand contributing editoro] Newsweek.Somewherein his busy sche- dulehe ]oundtimeto conversewithCR’sBusiness Manager,C. BrandonCrocker,about the current stateof theeconomy.Theirspiriteddiscussion[ol- lows]orthwith.

CR:Manypeoplehavedescribedtheactionstaken by the FederalReserveoverthepastfew yearsas monetarist,yetyouhavebeencriticizingtheFedfor notfollowinga monetaristpolicy.Why wouldyou notcallrecentFedpolicymonetarist? FRIEDMAN:Becausean essentialfeatureof what

I andmostothermonetaristsregardas a monetarist

policyis steadynessandpredictabilityin therateof

monetarygrowth.The FederalReserve’spolicyhas

been monetaristin rhetoric,but it has not been monetaristin practice.It has beenmonetaristin rhetoricbecauseit hasstatedthatitsobjectiveis to achievemonetarytargets,butit hasnotbeenmonet- aristin practicebecausemonetarygrowthhasin fact

fluctuatedmorewidelysinceOctober1979,whenthe

Fed adoptednew procedures,than it had in any similarperiod. CR:Do youhaveanyreasonto believethattheFed willtryto keepthemoneysupplymorestablein the future? FRIEDMAN:I haveno doubttheywilltry.I think theyhavebeentrying.Theproblemis notwiththeir will,it’snotwithwhatthey’dliketo achieve,it’s withthe bureaucraticinertiathathas keptthem frommakingthechangesin theiroperatingproce-

duresthatarerequiredinordertoachievethatobjec-

tive.Theyhaveat longlastannouncedthattheyare goingto makethefirstof thosechangeswhichis the replacementof lagreserverequirementsby contem- poraneousreserverequirements.Thatis a change that someof us havebeen urgingon the Federal

Reserveeversince1970.

CR:Withallthetalkaroundaboutwelfarereform and cuttingwastefulspending,wouldyououtline yourideafora negativeincometax? FRIEDMAN:I would be glad to. Incidentally, however,I wantto disagreewiththewordingof your question.What we want to do is cut government spendingperiod.The wordwastefulis nota mean- ingfulterm.Oneman’swasteis notanotherman’s. Wastedependsoiltheobjectiveyouhavein view.I believethattotalgovernmentspendingis muchtoo large.As a fractionof ourincomeit shouldbe cut sharply.Nowit is truethata majorsourceof the growthin governmentspendinghasbe,:nan increase in transferpayments,thatis to say,in paymentsto someindividualsfinancedby taxesuponotherindi- viduals.The problemis how you move from that situationto theplacewe’dliketo be. Youcannot suddenly,overnight,discontinuethe wholeset of transferpayments.We have,throughgovernment, essentiallymadesomemillionsof familiesdepend- enton thosepaymentsfortheirlivelihood.Youcan- not suddenlycut thatoff antithrowthem in the streets.I have proposedthat we try to makethe transitionby replacingthepresentcollectionof transferprogramsby the negativeincometax. A negativeincometaxis simplywhatitsnameimplies. Underthepresentincometaxthereis a breakew’n point,an exemptionamount.If you earnlessthan thatyoupayno tax.I[ youearnmorethanthatyou paya taxon thedifferencebetweenyourincomeand thatpersonalexemption,thatno taxamount.If the no tax amountis $6,000for a family and your incomeis $10,000you pay a tax on $4,000.The negativeincometax simplyreversesthatbelowthe samebreakevenpoint.I1 thebreakevenI~)intis $6,000anda familyhasan incomeof $2,000it would receivein paymentsa fractionof thedifferenceof

$4,000.Thehigherthefraction,thebetterthefamily,

butthelessincentiveforthefamilyto getoffthe

negativeincometax and go to work.On the other hand,thelowerthetaxrate,thelowerthefraction, themoreincentivethereis fora familyto getoff.Bl,t youhaveto strikea balancebetweenthosetwo.I havein generaltendedto proposethatwe usethe presentno taxamountforthepersonalincometax, althoughI hastento addthatthatshouldreallybe raised,anduseas thenegativeincometax50%of the amountbelowthe personalexemption.In thatway everyindividualwouldhavea verystrongincentive to getoffthenegativeincometaxbecauseforevery dollarhe earnshe wouldat leastgetto keep50 cents of it,whereasunderpresentwelfarearrangementsit is veryoftenthecasethatifhe goesoutandearnsan extradollarhe losesthewholedollaror evenmorein theformof a specialwelfarepayment.In addition, we nowhavea collectionof a widevarietyof differ- ent measureswhichoverlapbut whichsomepeople canbenefitverymuch fromand somepeopledon’t get.Suchmeasuresas Aidto FamilieswithDepend- ent Children,SSI,foodstamps,Medicaid,andyou cango downthelist.Thenegativeincometaxwould lumpallof thosetogetherandsay"ifwe’regoingto helpthepoor,let’shelpthemby givingthemcash whichtheycanspendin accordancewiththeirlikes andlet’sgetridof thetremendousbureaucracythat we’vebuiltup to administerthesespecificprograms."

CR: Thereis a lotof talkin Washingtonabout implementinga flatratetaxsystem. FRIEDMAN:There is more talk than there is action.Mostof thetalkisan attemptby peopleto use therhetoricof theflattaxtoconcealbusinessat the same old stead.I have long beenin favorof an honest-to-godflatratetax.An honest-to-godflatrate taxwouldbe onewhichlevieda singlerateon all income,from whateversource,in excessof some personalexemption,the same typeof thingI was talkingabouton thelastquestion.Undersucha tax, in my opinion,you couldraisethe sameamountof revenuethatis nowbeingraisedby theincometax with a relativelylow rate underwhich everyone wouldbenefit.Butthatisn’twhatmostof thetalk abouttheflatratetaxcurrentlyis.Peoplearecalling thingsa flatratetaxwhichinvolvefairlysharply graduatedratesand more important,whichdo not get rid of the deductionswhich now reduceso sharplythebase of thepersonalincometax.What youneedto do is to eliminateallthecomplexitiesof thepersonalincometaxandhavea formthatcanbe on onepieceof paperin whichyousimplylisttotal income.Youtakenothingbut a personalexemption andstrictoccupationalexpensesandthenyouapply. a singleratetothebalance.Therearea fewproposals forthatkindof a thing.Twoof my colleaguesat the HooverInstitution,Bob Halland AlvinRabushka, havebeendevisinga verydetailedplanalongthese lineswhichtheyareshortlygoingto publishin the formof a book,andI believethereis onegroupin Congresswhichis tryingto pushthat.But mostof thetalkyouheararoundWashingtonis reallya fake. CR:Anotherplanthatyou havebeenbackingfor sometime,tuitiontaxcredits,is beingcurrentlycon- sidered.Why do you supporta vouchersystem? FRIEDMAN:I supportthe vouchersystembecause thereis no respectin whichthepoorpeopleof our country,I shouldn’tsaythepoorpeople,theimpe- cuniouspeople,the disadvantagedpeopleof this country,thereis no respectin whichtheyare so disadvantagedas withrespectto thekindof school- ingtheirchildrencanget.Thoseof us in themiddle and upperincomegroupshaveat leastsomechoice of whichschoolsourchildrengo to.If we donotlike thepublicschoolsthaiareavailableforthen)we (an affordto pay twice--oncein theformof taxesto supportthe publicscbooland onceto pay forthe tuitionof theprivateschoolof ourchoice.Thedis- advantagedfamilieswholivein theslumsof ourbig citiesunfortunatelyhaveno suchchoice.Theyhaw, to sendtheirchildrento thelocalpublicschool. Thoselocalpublicschc~)isaredisgraceful.Theyart" not educationalinstitutions.In very,very many casestheyareinstitutionsof confinementwhosereal fu,ctionis tokeel)thekidsoffthestreet.Thepeople who would benefit most from a thoroughgoing vouchersystemwouldbe thepeoplein suchareas. Forthefirsttimetheparentsin thoseareaswould havean effectivefreedomof choiceas to whereto sendtheirchildren.Manyof themhavebeenstriving desperatelyto getbetterschoolingfortheirchildren.

Thatis whyCatholicparochialschoolsin particu- lar,have seena greatincreasein the numberof studentscomingto themfromsuchslumfamilies.A voucherschemewould reallybroadenthat enor- mously.It wouldenablea marketsystemto go to workto provideschoolsof everykindandvarietyfor peoplethroughoutthecountry,butin particularfor the disadvantagedpeoplein thoseslums.I knowof no otherwayin whichthedisgracefulresultsof our so-calledpubliceducationcanbe corrected.And a thoroughgoingvoucherschememay or may not be thesamethingas tuitiontaxcredits.If oneconsiders ita little,onewilldiscoverthatonekindoftuition credit,onein whichthecrediton onehandis limited and,on theotherhand,transferable,canbe devised whichwillbe essentiallyidenticalto a thorough goingvoucherschemeexceptfor the name.Thatis thekindof tuitioncreditschemethatI wouldreally support. CR: You supportedthe tax cutsof 1981but for reasonsotherthantheLafferCurve FRIEDMAN:l supportthe tax cut of 1981.I do notsupportthetaxcutof 1981forthereasonsthat manysupply-sidershaveofferedon itsbehalf.I favor it,as I havefora longtime,beforethewordsupply- sidercameintothelexicon,becauseI believethereis no way in which you can cut governmentspending exceptby cuttingthe amountof tax receiptsthe governmenthasto spend.Therefore,I havebeenin favorof cuttingtaxesat anytime,in anyway,on any excuse.That’sthe onlyeffectiveway of bringing pressureto cutdownthesizeof government.I do not believe,anddid notin 1981believe,thatcutting taxesacross-the-boardwouldincreasetotalrevenue and makeit unnecessaryto cut spending.If I had thoughtthatwouldbe thecase,I wouldhavefavored a stilllargertaxcutbecausemy purposeis to cut governmentreceipts.Thereare somekindsof tax cuts,forexamplecuttingthetopratesof theper- sonalincometax,reductionin capitalgainstax,and

so on,whichdo havetheeffectof generatingmore

revenue.Buta broadscale,across-the-boardtaxcut

is notlikelyto generatemorerevenue.Moreover,I do

notbelieveyouwouldgetan instantaneouseffecton

effortor investmentor anyofthosethings.I thinkit

is regrettablethatsomeof thesupply-siders,who

hada verygoodcasetosell,oversoldtheircaseandin theprocess,to someextent,discreditedthemselves.

CR:Well,whatdo youthinkof supply-sidetheory

in general?

FRIEDMAN:There is nothingnew about supply- sidetheoryexceptitsname.It’ssimple,ordinary, economics.Economistshavearguedforhundredsof yearsthatif peoplegetpaidmoreto do something,

theyarelikelyto do moreof thatthing.If theyget paidlessfordoingsomething,theyarelikelyto do lessof thatthing.If youchargemoreforsomething, peoplewillbuyless.If youchargeless,peoplewill

buymore.That’ssimple,straight-forward,ordi-

nary,economicanalysis.Whatis calledsupply-side economicsis simplythe applicationof thatto a specificsituation.Namely,if youimposea heavytax on work,peoplearelikelyto worklessbecauseit reducesthereturnof work.If yougivea subsidyto leisure,peoplearelikelyto takemoreleisure.Allof thatis correct.So I am verymucha supply-siderin thesenseI havealwaysbeena supply-siderbeforethe name was invented. CR:You’vealsobeena longtimesupporterof the Balanced Budget Amendment. Why do you think thatitsadoptionis important? FRIEDMAN:I have not been a long timesuppor- terof a balancedbudgetamendment. CR: Oh. FRIEDMAN:I have beena longtimesupporterof

a spendinglimitationamendment.Now,the present

amendmentwhich is under the name of the Bal- anced Budget Amendmentis a combinationof a balancedbudgetand spendinglimitationamend- mentandthatis whyit is thefirstbalancedbudget amendmentI haveenthusiasticallysupported.It is a very sophisticatedand subtle amendmentand I thinkit wouldbe enormouslyeffective.ThereasonI am in favorof an amendmentto limitspendingis for thesamereason! haveindicated,i believethatwe havea biasin our politicalstructureunderwhich Congress,by voting on each spendingmeasure separately,tendsto spenda greateramountin total thanthepublicat largewouldfavorif it couldvote

on it,We havea biaswithrespectto anyspecific spendingmeasurein that small groupstend to benefita greatdealandthecostsarespreadvery thinly.Thesmallgroupthatbenefitslobbiesforit. Thelargegroupthatwillpayfor it doesnotknow aboutit anddoesnotlobbyagainstit.Whenyouadd theseparatepiecestogetheryougeta totalthatis largerthanthepublicat largeor theirrepresenta- tiveswouldvoteforif theyreallyhadan effective voteon thetotal.I believethatthekindof balanced budget,tax limitationmeasure,thatwas recently passedby theSenateis theonlydevicethatI knowof thathasa ghostofa chanceof correctingthatpoliti- caldefect. CR: Many economistsbelievein the Phillips Curveandpointto thecurrentfightagainstinfla- tionas evidenceof itsvalidity.Do youbelievethat unemploymentandinflationareinverselyrelated? FRIEDMAN:That’s not a questionto be ans- weredwitha yesor a no.It dependson whatperiod youhavein mind.Thereis no relationshipbetween a continuinglevelof inflationand the levelof unemployment.On theotherhand,thereis a transi- tionaleffect.If youmovefromrelativelylowinfla- tionto relativelyhighinflation,theinitialeffectwill be to reduceunemployment.Theultimateeffectwill. verylikelybe to increaseit.Similarly,if youmove fromhighinflationto relativelylowinflation,the initialeffectwill be to increaseunemployment ahhoughtheultimateeffectwillbe to reduceit.Most of thedifficultieswithmonetarypolicyandother policiesarisebecauseveryoftentheshorttermeffects arein onedirectionandthelongtermeffectsarein theoptx,sitedirection.Politicianstendto be very, veryshortsightedand theytendto overemphasize the shortterm effectsand ignorethe long term effects.Thereis no longtermPhillipsCurve,in my opinion,butthereis verydefinitelya curverelating changesin the levelof inflationto thelevelof unemployment. CR: Willtherecent$98billiontaxpackagenar- rowfuturedeficitsandresultinlowerinterestrates? FRIEDMAN:No. I do not approve and did not approveof thatrecenttaxincrease.I thinkthatPres- identReaganwasrightin Januaryin hisStateof the Unionmessagewhenhe saidthatraisingtaxeswill notreducethedeficit,butwillsimplyincreasethe amountthatCongressspends.I believethatwastrue morerecently.Interestratesarenotveryclosely relatedto shorttermupsanddownsin thedeficit. Longterminterestratesdo dependon the prospect ofdeficitsoverthenextfourorfiveyears,butI donot believethatthetaxincreaseaffectedsignificantly thoseprospects.

CR:Well,whydo youthinkWallStreethas acted so favorablyto thetaxpackage? FRIEDMAN:It hasn’t. You happenedto have a

chancecoincidence.WhatWallStreetactedfavora-

blyto wasthesharpdeclinein interestratesandthe pronouncementsof two of its leadinggurusthat theyhadreversedtheirformerpredictionsandwere nowpredictinglowerinterestratesforthefuture, ratherthanhigherones.If youlookat theexact timing,youwillseethatthebigjumpon WallStreet camebeforethe tax measurewas passedand while there was stillenormousuncertaintywhetherit would be passed. So I believe that was pure coincidence. CR:Haveweseentheworstin interestratesor will futuregovernmentborrowingpush them back up? FRIEDMAN:You are makinga standardmistake. GovernmentI~rrowingcan go up in the futureand stillinterestratescancomedown.There’snotthai kind of mechanicalone-to-oneconnectionbetween thetwo.Whetherwe haveseentheworstin interest ratesdependson somethingverydifferent.It depends on whethertherateof monetarygrowthis goingto staywhereit is or go down.If overthelongerperiod therateof monetarygrowthdoeswhatit hasdoneso manytimes before,and aftercomingdown speeds up,thenwe havenotyetseentheworstof theinterest rates.Nobodycan reallymakeanyfirmpredictions aboutinterestratesforanylongperiodof time. CR:Do youthinktherecessionhasbottomedout? FRIEDMAN:No. Well,I shouldn’tsayno. I think thattherecessionis humpingalongthebottom,but I don’tthinkwe’vehada definiteupturn. CR:Do you thinktherecoverywillbe moderate? FRIEDMAN:That depends.I don’tbelievethat’s

~l’liil’uiher--CalihliniaReview--Page9

Milton Friedman

in thepicture.Thatdependson whatpolicyis fol- lowedby theFederalReserveandwhatpoliciesare followedin Washington.So,1 don’tbelieveanybody

cansay.I wouldnotbe surprisedto seetherecovery be extremelyvigorousif we havetherightpatternof monetaryand fiscalpolicies.There is nothing wrongwiththe Americaneconomythatsomesensi- blegovernmentpolicieswon’tsolve. CR: How aboutdoubledigitinflation?ttasit been"wrungout"of the economy? FRIEDMAN:That depends.Inflationdependson monetarygrowth.If theFederalReservereturnsto

doubledigitmonetarygrowththenwe’llhavedou-

bledigitinflation.If the FederalReservekeeps monetarygrowthroughlywhereit is now,or at a lowerlevel,thenwe willnot.If it keepsit roughly whereit is nowthenwe willsettledownat about8% inflation.In orderto wringinflationout of the economyyou’vegot to have lowermonetarygrowth thanwe do now.Letme qualifythatlaststatement. So faras inflationis concerned,it dependson mone- tarygrowthoversomethinglikea twoyearperiod. When speakingabout the need for lowermonetary growth,I’mspeakingof theaverageoverthelasttwo years.Forthepastsixmonths,fromJanuaryto July 1982,monetarygrowthhad beenmuchtoo low.It’s beenat therateof 2.3%.Thatis whythe putative

recoverywasabortedandwhywe arestillin a reces- ~’_onthatwillnotclearup forawhile.So I am not talkingaboutmonetarygrowthrates lower than we’vehadoverthepastsixmonths;butlowerthan theaveragewe’vehadoverthelasttwoyears. CR:It looksas thoughsomethingis goingto have to be doneif theSocialSecuritySystemis to remain solvent.Whatactionswouldyousuggest? FRIEDMAN:Well,I’velongbeenin favor,as you may know from my writings,of abolishingthe SocialSecuritySystem. CR: Right. FRIEDMAN:ButI don’tbelievethatthat’sin the realmof politicalfeasibility,eventhoughit would behighlydesirable,in my opinion,to letpeopletake careof theirownretirement,keeptheirowntaxes, andprovidefortheirown future.In themeantime therewillbe band-aidsthatwillbe usedto patchup thepresentSocialSecuritySystem.Whatthespecific band-aidswillbe,I’min no positionto predict. CR: What is the course of actionthe Reagan administrationshouldtake to bringthe economy backtolife? FRIEDMAN: If you ask that question you’re goingto getthewronganswer.It is notthebusiness

(continuednextpage)

Page-iO--CaliforniaReview--September

Deee~eee~e~ee~e~eee~eeee~eeeee~e~o~oee~e~oe~e~oeoeoee~e~ee~e~e~e~e~ee~ee~eee~e~ee~ee~ee~ee~e~ee~ee~eee~e~e~ee~

of theReaganAdministration,or of anyadministra- tion,to bringtheeconomybackto life.It is the businessof the Administrationto followa stable policywhichpeoplecan counton,and in termsof which the individualentrepreneursaroundthe

country,theindividualworkers,theindividualsav-

ers,theindividualinvestorscanusetheirresources mosteffectively,whichwillnotbringthe economy backto life,but whichwillenabletheeconomyto performtheway it shouldperform.Fromthatpoint of view,whatthe ReaganAdministrationneedsto do is to continuewiththefourpointprogramthat wastheessenceof PresidentReagan’seconomicpol- icyduringthe campaign,andwhichhe has triedto followsince.Numberone,cuttax rates.Two,cut governmentspending.Three,reduceor eliminateas much regulationas possible.And four,promotea steadyrateof monetarygrowtharounda slowlydec- liningtrend.Thosearethefourbasicstepsthatare necessary.Theyshouldbe takensyste,naticallv,con- sistently,and the governmentshouldnot deviate fromthoseforshortrunconsiderationsin orderto givea littlejagto theeconomyup or a jagdown.

CR: Howwouldyou rate PresidentReagan’sper- formanceon economicmattersst)far? FRIEDMAN:The problemis that a Presidenthas

a greatdealof influencebutnota greatdealof power. In thoseareaswhereliehashadpower,I thinkPresi- dentReaganhas,on thewhole,doneextremelywell. Hisimmediateactionof eliminatingpricecontrols on oilwasverywelltaken.Hisproposalsforcutting taxeswereverydesirable.So,on thewhole,I would rate whatPresidentReaganhimselfhas donevery high. The one point tan which l’ve been disap- pointedwithhimwashisrecentstt‘pportof thetax increase.However,whathasactuallyhappenedhas notbeentheresultof PresidentReaganalone,butof PresidentReagan,the FederalReserveBoard,and theCongress.Thecombinedactivitiesof thesethree groupsdoes not deservea very high rating.The FederalReserve,in my opinion,has behavedvery badly,indeed.It has producedthe most erratic monetarypolicyof thepastfiftyyears.And that erraticmonetarypolicyhasproducederraticinterest ratesandan erraticeconomy.Manyof theshortterm difficultiesin whichtheeconomyfindsitselfderive from this.The Congresshas similarlynot really cooperatedthe wayone wouldhavehopedit would. It did passthetax measurethatPresidentReagan recommended,butit addedontoit a lotof elements

ON DISC

The Performer’s Progress

Donna Summer b~, Donna Summer Produced by Quincy Jones

(,e][enRecords

H.W.CrockerIII

Readingthejournalsof higherintellectualopin- ion,one canonly be amazedat the wayprofessors overatethe appetitesof theirstudents.A common assumptionis,"Anycollegegraduateshouldbe able to recognizethesuperiorityof Bachto theRolling Stones."Maybetheyshould,butveryfewdo. Popularmusicusedto meanGlennMiller,Frank Sinatra,andNatKingColeor at leastHarryJames, TonyBennett,andSarahVaughn.In otherwords,it was palatableand it was professional.Much as I admireAndrewSarris,I’m afraidhis approachto fihn has createdthe popularmusiccritic.Good popularmusic is what you whistle,what tinkles aroundin your memory,and what you enjoyhear- ing.Thepopularmusiccriticcanonlysurviveif he findssome other way to definewhat is good. He accomplishesthisby praisingtheoriginalityof the insipid,theartistryof thebizarrelycoiffeured,and theintegrityof theobnoxious.Listeningto my fel- lowstudents,(whothinkSibeliusis a foreigncar, andDvoraka leadingmemberof thePolitburo),talk about the virtuesof The Penetrators.The Tweed Sneakers,andThe(;o-GosI haveto wonderif these peoplehearthroughearsor funnels.Whatespecially rih’sme is thewaythatpop,nusicaficionados,who havethegallto worshipa talentlesshacklikeElvis Costello,canfeelso intellectualin rejectingsome- onelike DonnaSummer,whois tryingto bringpop musicbackto thereahnof respectability. Donna Summer has overcome poverty, drug- addiction,andleakyrelationshipsto constructfor herselfa lifebasedulxmambition,sobriety,anti Christianity.Thisshehasdoneina,,il,dustiynll),l"

thathe didn’trecommend.It hasnotbeenwillingto come to grips with the major problemof Social Security.It hasnotreallydonean effectivejobof cuttinggovernmentspending.So I thinkyouhaveto givethecollectionof governmentagenciesa sortof a mixedverdict.However,thatmay be toonegative, becausetherehas beena tremendouschangein the wholetoneof thediscussion.Youcannotconceiveof a recessionlikethe one we’vebeengoingthrough fiveor ten yearsago withouttherehavingbeena spateof billsin Congressto spendmoremoneyon employmentcreatingmeasures,on assistanceof one kindor another,allsortsof pumpprimingbills. Youhavehadnoneof thatthistime.It isveryhardto recognizehowunusualit is thatin themiddleof a recessionthe majorconcernof theCongressshould be howto cutdownthedeficits.Thatis a realrever- sal.I thinktherightwayto lookatthesituationnow is thatwe aremovingfroma trendin onedirection, whichhaslastedsomefiftyyears,a trendtoward biggerand biggergovernment,higherand higher spending,higherand highertaxes,and more and moreinflation.Andwe arein theprocessof revers- ing that and movingtowarda periodin which we will cutdownthe sizeof government,in whichwe willreducetaxes,andin whichwe will,I hope,bring inflationdown.It’sa transitionperiod.In the movementfromonetrendto theotheryouinevitably havea periodof greatinstabilityanduncertainty, and that’swhatwe’vebeengoingthrough. CR: Do you thinkembargoesof the SovietUnion are counterproductive? FRIEDMAN: Yes. CR: Whataboutthe gas pipelineand grain? FRIEDMAN: I think that we ought nought to provideany governmentalsubsidyto the Soviet Unionor to any companythatdealswiththeSoviet Union,as we oughtnot to any companythatdeals withanybody.ButI do notthinkthatit is productive for us to engagein economicembargoes.Thishas nothingto do withmy desireto do whateverwe can to penalizetheSovietUnion.It hasto do withthe veryclearrecordof historythatembargoessimply don’twork.I recommendto yourreadersthattheygo backand studywhathappenedto the firstembargo this countryimposedwhichwas by ThomasJeffer- sonin 1808. CR:You havewrittenthat"Thegainsthatstrong unionswin for theirmembersare primarilyat the expenseof other workers".Would you expandon

amenableto debaucheryand diabolismthanmoral- ity and while remaininga musiclandsuperstar crankingoutrecordsat therateGeorgeStevensused to make movies. Her movementtowardsartisticintegrityandaway from mechanicaleroticismand whimperingthump- ety-thumplovesongshascoincidedwiththedemands of themarketandherdesireto capturea broad,inte- gratedaudience.As the reigningQueenof Disco, (whicheverybodytellsus is dead butwhichquite obviouslysurvives),shehasmadeovertoverturesto

therhythmandblues,rockandroll,andeasylisten-

ingaudiences,and,as faras I cantell,incorporated

everytype of music known to man in her produc-

tions.TheIVanderer,herwildestadventure,oscil-

latedbetweeninspirational(i.e."I Believein Jesus") and newwave(i.e."ColdLove")andhit everybase in between.

Albeit,popmt‘,siclyricsarerarelypoetry,areoften stupidshedof music,andareusuallycomparableto pablum,drivel,andslop.Still,theyarethewordson thepublic’slips.Andherwordsarebetterthanmost, showingan emergentGilderiteconscienceand a catchycloseof spunk.Moreover,she is a common man’sT.S.Eliot.Sheis fondof beingabstractand shecitesfairytalesandsuchthingsincessantly.

Beyondthebrazenexplicationof laissez-fairein thetitletrackof Bad(,iris.(BadGirlsandLweand Aforehavelongbeenhermostsonorouseffortswith BadGirlsthefavoriteof rockersandLiveandMore thepreferenceof easylisteners),TheWandereris the richestin Wealth& Povertyimagery."Runningfor Cover",in some wonderfullyhard-boiledverse, warnsghettoinhabitantsto pullup on thoseboot- strapsor facetilt’devilas a playmate."WhoDo You ThinkYou’reFoolin’"sarcasticallyremindsus that successis resuhsnotpromises.Kaleidoscopiclan- guageand a gurglingdraindo a prettygoodjobof exlxlsingthesecularhumanistlit’in "Nightlife."

The Wanderer.however,is also unlistenabh’. Happily,Donna.gummeris a matureeffort--musical andintelligent."l.oveis inControl"is itslliisingle antiislile(li(failledis(<l.’Iakeitorleaveit."~’tilystl’ty

eeoeeoeeeeeeoeeeleeoeeeeeee

that? FRIEDMAN:If you raise the price of anything, youselllessof it.If unionsraisethepriceof their labor,therewillbe fewerpeopleemployedin that activity.The peoplewhoare not employedin that activitywilltryto getjobssomewhereelse.Where can theygetjobs?Onlyby competingwithpeoplein

otherareasandotheroccupations.That’swithpeo-

plethatarenotin thoseparticularunions.But,in orderto sellmoreyouhaveto havea lowerprice. Hence,a unionwhichis successfulin raisingthe wagesof itsmemberstendsto do so by addingto the supplyof workersforotherjobsandtherebylowers thewageratein otheroccupationsandactivities. CR:Do youagreewithGeorgeGilderthatcapital- istsarealtruists? FRIEDMAN: No. CR:You takeAdamSmith’sviewof self-interest andtheinvisiblehand. FRIEDMAN:Right. I believein Adam Smith. I don’tthinkcapitalistsareanymorealtruiststhan governmentpoliticiansare.I thinkpeoplearepeo- ple.Allof us havean enormouscapacityto recognize thatwhat’sgoodforus is goodforthecountry. CR: You recentlyhad a new book published~ AlonetaryTrendsin the~ rnitedStatesandthef 7hi- ted Kingdom. FRIEDMAN: Right.

CR:Have youany new booksplannedforthe near future? FRIEDMAN: Well, there won’t be in the near future.Sometimelaterthisyearor nextyear the revisedandupdatedversionof a collectionof News- week and other columnsthat was publishedabout fiveor sixyearsago.ForreasonswhichI am nottoo happyabout,it cameoutcindertwodifferenttitles. One title was There’sNo Such Thing as a Free Lunch.Theothertitlewas An Economist’sProtest. Thistime we willcorrectthat mistakeand we’ll comeoutunderonlyonetitle.I’mnotsurewhatthe titleofitwillbeyet. CR: I have a MiltonFriedmanT-shirtfrom the DecaturShop. FRIEDMAN: Ha, ha. CR: Do you have one? FRIEDMAN: Yes indeed. CR:Do you thinkthe drawingdoesyou justice? FRIEDMAN: Ha, Ha. Ha, Ha! You’d better ask NormaLipsett,who drewit. Askher.I’mnot going to commenton that!

of Love"is the realstandoutof the albumandis supportedby "The Woman in Me" and "Protection" --goodsongsall."Stateof Independence"is her requisitesongof mysticismand"Livin’in America" confirmsherplaceas oneof popmusic’sblackcon- servatives(alongwith PearlBailey,SammyDavis Jr., and Lionel Hampton). Donna Summer has alwaysshowna reverenceforthingspastandthatis continuedon thisrecordwithherrenditionof Billy Strayhorn’s1949composition"LushLife".The rest is mediocrity.That’sbetterthancanbe said[ormost pop albums. Withrockand roll disintegratingand country- westernunlikelyto hegemonizepopularmusicthere maystillbe hopeforournation’sairwaves.In the meantimeI’llkeeplisteningto Beethovenand make occasionalpop stops with Donna Summer.She’sa goodkid.

Septenlber--CaliforniaReview--Page11

Burke’sCasefor Conservatism

by SuzanneL. Schott

"Peoplewillnot lookforwardto posterity,who neverlook backwardto theirancestors,"writes EdmundBurke."Theideaof inheritancefurnishesa

sureprincipleof conservationauda sureprincipleof transmission;withoutat allexcludinga principleof

i,nprovement

or middle-aged,or yonng,but. in a conditionof unchangeableconstancy,moveson throughthe var-

iedtenorof perpetualdecay,fall,renovation,and progression.Thus, by preservingthe methodof naturein the corduclof the state,in what we improve,we are never wholly new; in what we retain,we areneverwhollyobsolete." "Conservatisni"as defined by Edmund Burke

incorporatesa respectfortradition,"A principleof conservation,"thatescapesthemeaningof theword as definedby today’saveragesouthernCalifornia liberal.HisReflectionson theRevolutionin France taketheformof a letterto a youngFrenchmanin 1790.Writtenpriorto theFrenchRevohttionas we thinkof it,theycontainsomeof history’searliest argumentsfor Conservatism. Burkepredicteda Francedevzistatedbv radical "h-ee-thinkers"-- andhe wascorrect.Beginningin 179.t.the"Reignof Terror"providedampleconfir- mation.Perhapsit is not too nnichio inaythat today’sliberalideologueswillheedBurke’swordsof wisdombeforetheysimilarlydevastateAnlerica’s socialtradition.AlthoughBurkewroteas an Eng- lishman,a connnonsenseapproachwillsufliciently

thewhole,at

onetime,is neverold,

transporthiscaseforconservatismacrosstheAtlan-

tic.BurkelikedAmericans~ whichis sayinga lot for an eighteenthcenturyEnglish,nan-- we are heirstohislegacy. Burkearguesfor theessenceof moraltradition:

"Nothingis more certain,thanthatour manners, ourcivilization,andallthegoodthingswhichare connectedwithmannersandwithcivilizationhave, in thisEuropeanworldof ours,dependedforages upontwoprinciples;andwereindeedtheresultof both combined;I meanthe spiritof a gentleman, andthespiritof religion." Lestwe forget,spiritedEuropeangentlemenfrom goodstockestablishedAmerica.

Burke,"notbeingilluminatedby a singlerayof thisnew-sprungmodernlight,"properlycherishesa "generousloyaltyto rankand sex."In his famous "Queenof France"passage,thenoblefemininefig- ureof MarieAntoinettesymbolizesvirtueviolatedby Frenchegalitarianism. "Itis nowsixteenor seventeenyearssinceI sawthe

queenof France,thenthedauphiness,at Versailles; and surelyneverlightedin this orb, whichshe hardlyseemedto touch,a more delightfulvision

littledidI

dreamthatI shouldhavelivedto see

suchdisastersfallenuponherin a nationof gallant met,,in a nationof menof honour,andof cavaliers." But,he laments:"Theunboughtgraceof life,the cheapdefenseof nations,thenurseof manlysenti- mentandheroicenterprise,is gonel" Indeed,radicallevelers,evenin America,have bornelittleregardforwhatBurketerms"chivalry" -- "thatproudsubmission,thatdignifiedobedience, thatsubordinationof theheart,whichkeptalive, evenin servitudeitself,thespiritof anexaltedfree- dom." "It was this, which,withoutconfounding ranks,hadproduceda nobleequality,andhandedit downthroughallthegradationsof sociallife."

Therefore,letus preserve"chivalry.""Ifit should everbe totallyextinguished,theloss1 fearwilll)t. great."For,underthis"’newconqueringempireof lightandreason,"allofthe"decentdraperyoflifeis it)be rudelytornoff.""Onthisschemeof things, kiugis buta man,a queenis bula woman;a woman is butarlanimal,andan aninlalnotof thehighest order.Allhomagepaidto thesexin generalas such,

andwitlioutdistinctviews,istolit’regardedasroin-

anteandfolly."

Reflecton thesocialrevolutionsof thesixties. Reflecton adversaryindividualsandcoalitionswho currentlythrustnew demandsfor "equality"into oursociety.Increasingly,thissame"schemeof bar-

barousphilosophy"threatensthetraditionalwhole-

somenessof Americanlifeby underminingthespirit of capitalismto whichwe owe our greatness,by subvertingthegeneralesteemforprivateproperty thatprovidesincentiveforadvancement,andby des- troyingthefamilyby attemptingto presentnatural maleandfemalerolesas obsolete. Burkecorrectlydeclares:"Thosewho attemptto levelneverequalize."Priorto theeighteenthcen- tury,England’sclasssystem,groundedin thefamily, wasgovernedby a naturalorder,withinwhicheach man or womanhada distinctrole.Personalpride andhappinesswerenotfunctionsof one’splaceon thesocialtotempole."Tobeattachedto thesubdivi- sion,to lovethe littleplatoonwe belongto in

society,isthefirstprincipleofpublicaffections.Itis the firstlink in the seriesby whichwe proceed towardsa loveto our country,and to mankind." The"rightsof men"havebeensubjectto violent controversyeversincethephrasewaspopularizedby suchwritersas VoltaireandRousseau.But,as Burke rhetoricallyquestions:"Am I to congratulatea highwaymanand a murderer,who has broke pri- sion,upontherecoveryof hisnaturalrights?"

PrimarilyconcernedlestFrenchphilosophycor-

rupt England,Burke employs wit and logic to enhancehiscase:"Whatis the useof discussinga man’sabstractrightto foodor medicine?Theques- tionis uponthe methodof procuringand adminis- teringthem.In that deliberationl shallalways

adviseto callin theaidof thefarmerandthephysi- cian,ratherthantheprofessorof metaphysics."

therealrights

"Faram I fromdenyingin theory

of men.In denyingtheirfalseclaimsof right,I do notmeanto injurethosewhicharereal,andaresuch as theirpretendedrightswouldtotallydestroy.If civilsocietybemadefortheadvantageof allmen,all theadvantagesforwhichit is madebecomehisright.

Itis an institutionof beneficence;andlawitselfis onlybeneficenceactingby a rule.Menhavea rightto liveby thatrule;theyhavea rightto do justice,as betweentheirfellows,whethertheirfellowsarein publicfunctionor in ordinaryoccupation.They havea rightto thefruitsof theirindustry They havea rightto the acquisitionsof theirparents

Whatevereach

man can separatelydo, without

trespassinguponothers,he hasa rightto do for

himself "

in the"partnership"of society."all,nellhave equalrights;butnotto equalthings."

Burkecriticizestheradicals"sotakentipwith

theirtheoriesabouttherightsofnian,thattheyhave

totallyforgottenhisuature.’

ofthesetheorists;ireallextrenies:andin proportion

theyarc’metaphysicallytrtle,rileyaremorallyanti politicallyfalse." As {miredStatescitizensundeltilt"(]onstitution.

we haveno legitimateclainlto aiD’ abstract"rights (if nlen."Rather,we areuniquelybh’ssedwiththe rightsof,.tmerican.s. Muchof Bi,rkeis est)eciallyusefulin comhatting theideologiesof Marxists,Socialists,andothe,

share-the-weahhleftistswhowouldsacrifice"every-

thing hunmnand divine"to "the idol of publi( credit."

Regarding Ihe "truly despicable"National Assemblymenwho havebroughtabouta "fondele( lionof evil,"Burkeobserves:"SonlethingtheyInust destroy,(Jrthe~seemI<)ihen,selvt’sI()existfor purl)ose."Slrivingto convincehis $oungFrench hiendof the revolutionaries’imbecility,Burke argues:"Youbeganill,becauseyotlbeganby despis- ingeverythingthaibelongedIO you."

l’helirelendedrights

(;ol’erunlenla]

sciente,a((or(tiug Burke. is

"iutendedfor suchpracli(alpuiposes,"(hal "requiresexperience,and eveninore experience thanall)’person(angainin hiswholelift’."BurkCs politicalhero,Ihestalesnian,appliespractical knowledgeof historyandhabitlo policynlaking. "WhenI hearthesiml)licityot contrivanceaimed al andlloastedof inanynewt/olilital~onstitutions,

I ant‘atnolosst.)decidethattheartifi(ersaregrossly ignorantof theirtrade,or totallynegligentto their duty. The simplegovernmentsare lundamentaily defective,to sayno worseol them."

Indeed,conservativesinustrealizethatnouveau-

theoreticiansfromFrench"’sophisters"to Marx-

worshippingPhD’s"cannotproduceanythingbet-

teradaptedto preservea rationalandmanlyfreedom than the coursethat we have pursued,who have chosenournatureratherthanourspeculations,our

breastsratherthanourinventions,forthegreatcon-

servatoriesand magazines of our rights and privileges."

Ironically,liberal"equalizing"sociologistsusu-

allymake"nosacrificesto theirprojectsof greater consequencethan theirshoe-buckles"whilstthey "bathein tears"and"plungein povertyanddistress, thousandsof worthymen and worthyfamilies." To hissurprise,BurkefindstheNationalAssemb-

ly’scharacteristictypeofindividualsto be men"not taughthabituallyto respectthemselves,whohadno previousfortunein characterat stake;whocouldnot be expectedto bearwithmoderation,or to conduct withdiscretion,a power,whichthey themselves, morethananyothers,mustbe surprisedto findin theirhands." He asks: "Who could doubt but that, at any expenseto the state,of which they understood nothing,theymustpursuetheirprivateinterests

whichtheyunderstoodbuttoowell?

awaythe objectswhichmadethehappinessof their fellows,wouldbe to themno sacrificeat all." The ignorantsectorpresentlycondemningnot only the Reaganadministration’ssocialprogram cutsand supply-sideeconomics,but alsothefree enterprisesystem,havemuchin commonwiththese revolutionaries"who,immersedin hopelesspov-

To squander

erty,couldregardallproperty

thanthatof envy

"

withno othereye

;

Page 12--CaliforniaReview--September

u

ooooo ~ ooooeeee0eooeo eoooooeooeooooeoooeeooeoooooooefe~eeoeooeeeeeeeeeeoeeoeeooee

oeoe eoobeoeeeooe~eoe oeeeooe eeooooee oeee eoeeeeooeeeeeeooeee

ooo oo oeoooeoeoe 6eeooeoee

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(Burke,continued/rowp. 11)

Burkeascribesthetroublein Franceto "rashand ignorantcounselin timeof profoundpeace."Thus, letus stompon ourpeacetimeparasiteswithsolesof conservatismbeforetheychewto shredsourfreedoms.

Louisde Bonald,oneof theforemostFrenchcon-

servativesduringtheperiodcontributedthisanal-

ogyto theoppositionof Revolutionphilosophyin his Theoriedu Pour[orPolitique:"Of old,in the centuryof force,a gallantknight,mountedon a palfrey,helmeton head and lance in hand.per- suadedhimselfin hischivalricdreamsthata beauti- ful princesslockedin a towerunder guardof a wizard,was goingto offer him her handand her estatesforfreeingherfromcaptivity.Today,in the centuryof enhghtment,theyoungliteraryman,still coveredwithdustfromschool,a penin hishandand thesocialcontractin hishead,imaginesin hisphi- losophicdreamsthata peoplegroaningunderdes- potismwillin itsprimaryassembliesconferupon him at leastthelegislativepowerif he canwith speechesand writingsbreaktheirchains.We have herethesamepassions;buttheknightwasa gener- ousandbravevisionary;theliteraryreal:is a dan- gerouslunatic."

Returningto Burke’sRe/lections,we notesimilar sentimenttowardsthe calculationsof Bonald’s

"youngliteraryman:

I

wasindeedaware,thata

jealous,ever-wakingvigilance,to guardthetreasure of our liberty,not onlyfrom invasion,but from decayand corruption,wasour bestwisdom,and our firstduty."

¯ eo

¯ el

ee ¯ ee

¯ eo ee oo

ThePursuitof Happiness

Oneman’sfreedommaybe anotherman’sstraight jacket.As thisissueoi Cali/orniaReviewgoesto press,a campaignto "reclaimAmerica"is smolder- ing aftermakingseveralwhistlestopson theeast coast.ReclaimAmerica,an offensiveof thefunda- mentallyleft-wingNationalPeople’sActiongroup (NPA),is intendedto seta courseof economicredis- tribution,providea platformforsingleissuegripe- groups,andboostthecareersof severalpolitical opportunists.The"Reaganis anti-people"rhetoric is runningthickwitha fervorheretoforewielded onlyby militantmarxists. Gale Cincotta,Chairpersonof the NPA vehe- mentlyexoneratesthe movement:

ReclaimAmericais fortheunderemployed;for the rightto affordablehome heatingfuel. Extravagantmilitaryspendingis breeding fearsof nuclearwarandis stealingfromsocial programsat thesametimehundredsof billions of dollarsin taxbreaksfor bigbusinessare liningthepocketsof thealreadyrich. Who,mightI ask, is stealingfromwhom? Carl Holman,Presidentof the NationalUrban Coalition,declaresthatReclaimAmericamust be implementedto "protectand recoverthe progress we’vemadesincethesixties."Butwhogetsthebill forthis"progress"?LuminaryJohnE. Jacobof the NationalUrban League says the movementwill "reclaimthepromiseof America."Powerfulwords, these-- "right","progress"and"promise".Butin thecontextusedhere,theyare nothingmorethan esotericpresumption.Americais the landof both opportunityand adventure--theantithesisof a promisedfuture.America’spremiseise itspromise, Thebasisfortheconceptof a limitedgovernment in theUnitedStateswasnotthematerializeddream of an egalitarianphilosopher.Rather,the concept was based on English common law and John Locke’s commentarieson the "GloriousRevolu- tion"of 1688.A limitedgovernmentbestprotectsthe "naturalrights"of allmen. In hiswork,On CivilGovernment(1690),Locke tellsus thattheRevolutionof 1688-89"putan endto attemptsat despoticmonarchy."He assertsthatmen have"naturalrights",includingtherightto "life, libertyandproperty(andthefreedomto pursuethat property).Lockeis correct.Therightto engagein enterpriseprovidesfreedom. Sir WilliamBlackstone,in hisCommentarieson the Laws o] England (1765), makes mention man’srightto "life,libertyandthepursuitof happ- iness."Replacingthe word"property"with"pur- suitof happiness"doe§not changethemeaningof the originalphrase.Therefore,ThomasJefferson incorporatesthisrevisedversionintotheAmerican Declarationof Independence-- "pursuitof happi- ness" was understoodthen as it shouldbe now. Americanshavethe right to seek happiness--some

As Burkeso aptlyremarked:"A few yearsagof

shouldbe ashamedto overloada matter,so capable

of supportingitself

tionaldoctrineis nowpubliclytaught,avowed,and printed."Now, more thanever, the AmericanWay mustbe conserved. As socialistSwedenmurdersthework ethicand communistRussiadepreciatesthevalueof life,letus listento Burke,for: "Wheneverour neighbor’s houseis onfire,it cannotbe amissfortheenginesto playa littleon ourown.Bettertobe despisedfortoo anxiousapprehensions,than ruinedby too confi- denta security."

butthisseditious,unconstitu-

¯ e~ ee

¯

¯ el

~o ¯

¯

Young Ideas

E. ClasenYoung

may attainit; othersmay not.This is America’s promise.Pursuitmeansadventure;happinessmeans an acquiredcapacityfora particularpurpose;or as Nathan[elWebsterwrites,"happinessis graceful aptitude."Heinousradicalsarenotgraceful.

The legislativepower that composedLocke’s "politicalsociety"wouldprotectthe "pursuitof happiness"onlyas longas "everyone,by majority would give allegiance."Lois Gibbs of the Love Canal HomeownersAssociation,and a leaderof ReclaimAmerica,representstheholdoutsof theme- generation:"Thetimeis cometo takebackwhatis rightfullyoursdespiteindustryand government." ButwouldMs.Gibbshaveanythingat allhadit not beenforthe"politicalsociety"thatguaranteedher "pursuitof happiness"?

The "politicalsociety"must endureto protect "naturalrights"--nietherthe "society"nor the "rights"can be jeopardizedforwhat Lockecalls "lightor transientcauses,"exempligratia--the highcostof heatingfuel.MaggieKuhn,formersix- ties burnout,and Gray Pantheron the Reclaim ,’liner[caprowlisveryupset:

Itishightimetofreethehostagecitiesfromthe Reaganpeopleand theirparanoia.The peo- ple, old and young,must work togetherfor peace.We t-antakebackourblightedslums, getwindmills,andsolarpondsinstalled,bring abundance,safeenergyand hope. Seriously?Her muhi-[acetedradicalismis a chi- mera,bothlightandtransient.

In 1860, AbrahamLincoln,our nation’sfirst Republicanpresidentsaid:"Whatis conservatism? Is it notadherenceto theoldandtried,againstthe new and untried?" The philosophersof these nationswhere true freedomis foreignhave no roots in the ancient democraciesof ourbelovedWesterntradition.They "despiseexperienceas the wisdomof unlettered

men

therecanbe no prescription;againsttheseno argu- mentis binding;theseadmitno tempermentand no compromise:anythingwithheldfrom their full demandis so muchof fraudandinjustice." Althoughour overwhelminglyliberalnews media wouldleadus to believeotherwise,conservatismis stillverymuchtheessenceof America,justas the familyis stillthemostsought-aftersourceof love andsecurity. "Becausehalfa dozengrasshoppersundera fern make thefieldring withtheirimportunatechink, whilstthousandsof greatcattle,reposedbeneaththe shadowof the Britishoak, chew the cud and are silent,praydo notimaginethatthosewhomakethe noisearetheonlyinhabitantsof thefield;that,of course,theyaremanyin number;or that,afterall, theyareotherthanthelittle,shrivelled,meagre, hopping,thoughloud and troublesome,insectsof thehour." America’ssilentmajorityhasenduredthenoiseof "insolentirreligion"longenough.Let us instead sustainan "austereand masculinemorality"with Burke’scaseforconservatism.

Theyhave’therightsof

men.’Againstthese

e,

le ¯

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On the writingof the Declarationof Independ- ence,JohnAdamssuggestedto Mr.Jeffersonthatits purpose was not simply to claim independence; rather,it wasto 7usti[ytheclaimto independencem andto do so in termsthatwouldenlistthesympathy of Europeanpublic opinion -- cogencyfor new ideas is a necessity.But Rep. John Conyers(D- Mich.)findsit fashionableto makea mockeryof the nobleventureof ’76by associatingReclaimA met[ca with the "vitalityof the Americanideal".The movement,accordingto Conyers,"isfor thepeople who havebeen economicallydiscriminatedagainst; (they)cannotcompetewiththe banksandcorpora- tions who are makingrecordbreakingprofitsand alsoarenowgettingthebenefitsof everlargetax- breaks."This legislatorhas a manifesthatredof wealth,furthermorehe is incorrect.Corporateprof- its are at recordlowsI Corporationsare losing money.Why are the corporaphobesnot dancingin thestreets? "Thiscrisis",saysConyers,"has beenbrought about by anti-people policies coming out of Washington,includingartificiallyhigh interest ratesand artificiallyhighenergycosts."Wrong again.Mr. Reagan’spolicieshave broughtdown interestrates.Energycostsaren’t"artificially"high; they’rereallyhigh.Let’saskMr.Conyersif he would endorseJamesWatt,whoseofficehasbeendedicated to reducingenergycostsforthepasttwentymonths. Any sympathyfor ReclaimAmericawill be borne out of ignorance,l[ the featherbrainsneglectto appreciatethesystemthatprotectstheirpursuits, thentheywillneverfindhappiness.

e,4lTalaric,1982

September--CaliforniaReview--Page13

oooOOooo ooooooooooopoeleeoo ¯ ooo ooooeooo oooooooeooooo eooooooooooooooooooooooeooooooooe oooooooooo oeo.o ¯ ooooeooooooeoo ooooo eo oo ¯ ooo oo eoeoeoe oo oeeeoeeeo oe ee ooeeoooooooooeo o

ANN WATSON

REPORTS:

A CaliforniaReviewConversationwith Ann Watson

Ann Watson was born in Vienna,Austria.She grewup undera reigno/terrorimposed[irstby the NationalSocialistsunderHitler,thenby theRus- sian Communistsunder Stalin. Escapingto the Americanzoneo[ occupationshebecamean o[]icial

translatorandinterpreter[ortheCriminalInvesti-

gationDivisiono/ the UnitedStatesForcesin Austria--abrancho/ militaryintelligence.Mrs. Watsonis a graduateo/theUniversityo/Viennaand

theInternationalSchool[orInterpreters(1945).She

is now a naturalizedAmericancitizen.AnnWatson is the authoro/twobooks:TheyCamein Peaceand CruelPeace.Shehas beenhonoredby manyorgani- zations[orher lecturesand speecheson interna- tionala/[airsandthethreato] totalitarianismto the institutionso/thiscountry.Sheis currentlyteaching on a part-timebasis[or the San DiegoCommunity College.A concertpianist,anda charmingandviva- cious woman,(with the most intelligentGerman Shepherdin the world--itunderstandsEnglish, French,andGerman),Mrs.Watsontooktimeto chat withBrigadierEditorCrockeraboutherworldview.

CR:How didyournewsletterget started? WATSON:I am not the run of themill conserva- tivenewsletterwriter.I nevermadea dimedoingany

of thiswork.I’vedoneitas a laboroflove.Itstarted when I wrote my book and, strangelyenough,it started with UCSD. I was teachingGerman and Frenchfor peoplewho wantedto get theirPhd., psychologistsand psychiatrists,whohad to read Germantextsthatwereverydifficultto translate. Onenightoneof my studentsaskedme a littlebit about my background living under Hitler and Stalin.I startedtalkingandtheclassbecamevery fascinatedand didn’twant to studyGermanafter that.Thisonegentlemansaidto me, "Well,I just heardAngelaDavisandMarcuseand all thesepeo- ple givea speechat UCSD and theyoughtto hear what you have to say about Communism. Would you considerhavinga debatewith some of these studentsat UCSD?"I said, "Sure,why not?" To makea longstoryshort,theyfinallysetup thedebate at theTwelve-thirtyClubin La JollaandI debated Marcuse’slittleangels.Thedebateturnedoutto be six againstme. We had a highschoolprincipalto monitorthedebate.He said,"Thisisn’tfair."The peoplefromUCSD invitedme to a meetingpriorto the debateand the head of the ChemistryDepart- ment who somehowhad got involvedsaid to me, "Yesit is fairbecauseyouwerebornandraisedover there.You claimyou livedunderCommunism "I said,"I didn’tclaimit,I didliveunderCommu-

nism."He continued,"

morecredibilitywiththeaudiencethanourstudents wouldhave."So I agreedto everything.Thedebate took placeandI won the debatehandsdown.They were still screaminginto their mikes when the debatewasover.I hadlunchthereandthenextdayI becamedesperatelyill. I went throughScripps Clinic.TheythoughtI had cancer,theytookevery test,theycouldn’tfigureout whatwaswrongwith me. One of the peoplein my Germanclass was a youngdoctorwho had just openedup his practice andI calledhimup andsaid,"I don’tknowwhatto do anymore.I losttwentypounds,my hairfellout, my fingernailsarebreaking.I’mconstantlysick,I can’teat,andI havea lowfever,andthesedoctors putme throughmiserygivingme allthesetestsand theyreallydon’tknowwhat’swrongwithme."tie said,"Comedownto my officetomorrowmorning." I wentdownthere.He checkedme out andhe said, "You have a low grade poisonin your system.I thinkit’sLSDandyou’reveryallergicto it."You

see,LSDis pureacidandI havebeenallergicto acid eversince.If I drinkoneglassoforangejuiceI getan immediatereaction,I can’teatstrawberries,I can’t

drink more than two

thingwithacidin it willaffectme thisway.This doctorgaveme somevitaminsar,d somecortisone

shotsandeventuallyI gotoverit,butI stillhavethis allergy.I suspecttheyreallytriedto putme outof businessat the verybeginningof my careeras a conservative.I wasso sickthatsummer,I didn’tfeel likedoinganything,andI stayedhome,andI gotso upsetaboutall thosethingsthatI sat down and wrotea bookwhichis entitledTheyCamein Peace. It’smy lifeunderHitlerand Stalinin Vienna.I entitledit TheyCamein PeacebecausetheNational

SocialistsunderHitler,theFascistsunderMusso-

lini,andtheCommuniststinderStalinallhad one messagefor the people--thatthey were bringing

peaceandprosperity.Of coursethemessageis that theybroughtnotonlywarandmisery,buttheyalso broughtstarvationandunbelievableagony,andthat theyarenotforthelittleguy.Theyart’notforyou and me. They abhor nothingmore than a middle

andthereforeyou have

glassesof champagne,any-

class.The Communistsdestroyedthe middleclass andso didtheNazis.Theybelievein an elitismatthe topand themassesat thebottomwhoare beingfed propagandaand turnedintozombiesto do the bid- dingof themaster.I mean,thereis no equalityin Russia. There is no equalityin any Communist

country.I thinkthegreatestdangerto Americais the factthatthepeoplethathavea lotof influenceand powerandmoneyareignorantof history,areignor- antof foreigncountries,totallyignorant.They’re ignorantpeople.I’vetalkedto senatorsand con- gressmenwho I considerso ignorantI wouldn’t want to wastemy timeeducatingthem.Theydon’t know anythingabout Europe.There was one man who wasrunningforPresidentat the sametimeas Reagan.A Republican.A veryhandsome,nice man. CR: PhilCrane. WATSON:Phil Crane.Phil Crane was my choice forPresident.I’lltellyouwhy.Inthethirtyminutes thatI interviewedhimfora TV programI foundout thathe speaksGermanand he speaksFrenchandhe studiedat theUniversityof Viennaandhe wasat the Sorbonnein Parisandhe knowstheworldandhe’sa statesmanandhe’snota twobitpolitician.He had thecharismaand he had the knowledge. CR: Andyet he gotverylittlesupportfromthe RepublicanParty. WATSON:That’sright.That’sright. CR:Whatdo youthinkof Reagan’splanforpeace in theMideast? WATSON:It’san absolutedisaster.Herewe have thispeaceplan.Everybody’srejectedit already.This soundsgoodfortheelection.TelltheJews,"Don’t worry,we love you." And tell the Arabs,"Don’t worry,we loveyou too.Andwe’llgiveyouevery- thingwe have.We’llgiveyouourjetplanes,andour money,and everything.Just keep the lid down." AndtheRussiansloveit.I listento RadioMoscow. CR: Whatdo you think of Reagan’spositionon thegaspipeline? WATSON:Well, I have writtenvolumes on the gaspipeline.Hispositionis absolutelycorrect.The onlyproblemis thewayhe haspresentedit,number one. And numbertwo, the Europeansare saying, "Fine,we are engulfedin an unemploymentcrisis andwe arefacedwiththeRedArmyat ourborders."

I mean,theRedArmyis as farfromthepeopleliving

in WestGermanyas Tijuanais fromus livingright here.Howwouldyoufeelif youlivedin San Diego and you knew thattherewere nuclearmissilesin Tijuana,andthereweretankarmies,andtherewere chemicalwarfaredivisions,andallthisstuffis sit- tingthereandcouldbe thrownat youat anytime. Andyouroneand onlyallyis sellinggrainto the troops.Thegreatestweaponin anywaris food.You knowwhatdefeatedHitlermorethananythingelse? Thefactthatwe wereallstarvingto death.We had nothingto eat.My fatherwaskilledin Stalingrad. He wasa colonelin theGermanArmy.Notby choice, he was draftedwhenthe GermanstookoverAustria. In thelastlettersthatI gothe said,"We’refreezing and we’restarving."Hadit notbeenfor thatthe Germanswouldhave obliteratedthe Russians.The Russianswerealmostfinished,hadit not beenfor theUnitedStatessendingfoodandequipmentto the Russianson theLease-lineAgreements.

CR:Do youhavea corollaryforeignpolicyaxiom as regardsPoland? WATSON:The peopleof Polandlaid their lives on the line tryingto overthrowtheir communist government.What did we do? We bailedout the Communistgovermnentof Polandto the tune of 71

milliondollarsat a timewhenwe werepractically bankruptin America.We have an army of allies behindtheIronCurtainthatarewillingto laydown theirlivesforthethingswe takeforgranted.Allwe haveto do is to do whattheMossadandtheKGBand everysecretorganizationis doingexceptourdumb. dumb CIA. Give them weapons, give them moral support,givethem books.Show the worldthat we mean it[ Show them we mean it! How can Reagan

talkabouttheSovietUnionwithallthisrhetoric--

"Lighta candlein your window."(Somebodyin Clairemontburneddowntheirhouseputtinga can- dlein theirwindowforthePolishpeopleI)--andthe next day give the governmentthat suppressesthe people71 milliondollars.Then we give Romania

200milliondollars.Theycan’tpaytheintereston

the debt.These Communistgovernmentsdon’tpay offtheirdebts.Theyknowfromthe beginningthat we’rea bunchof idiots. CR:Andthentheycan blackmailus by defaulting on theloans. WATSON:Exactly.I1 we’regoing to give money away,giveit to theAmericans,don’tgiveit to the Russians.So,if I werePresidenttodayI wouldsub- sidizeeverylarmer.If theyhavea surpltns1 wouhl

shipit to countriesthatarefriendlyto theUnited States,wheretheyarestarvingto d~athin Africa,in Indochina,wherever. CR:Do you thinkan all encompassing,unilateral boycottof theSovietUnionwouldbe successful? WATSON:Absolutely.Absolutely,becausethere’s only so much that Europecan do. The thingwith Americansis that they just don’t know any geo- graphy,theydon’tknowanyhistory,andtheydon’t know anythingabout these governments.People alwayssay to me, "But,Ann, Argentinawillsell grainto the Russians."Let them.Argentinacan’t produceenoughhigh-gradegrainto keepthe Rus- sianEmpirealive.Australiacannotfeedthe Com- munistworld.We arethe world’sbreadbasket.Our governmenthasturnedus intoa breadbasketforour enemies.That’simmoral.Outof everyfivemenin Russia,fourarein somesortof militaryservice.The sameis truein Nicaragua,thesameis truein Cuba, thesameis truein everyCommunistcountry.Now, who’s growing the food? Old men and old women are growingthe food.Unfortunately,Reaganis no differentfromCarter.He’sstillgoingto sellthe Russiansgrain,andhe’sstillgoingto communicate withtheRussians,andhe’stakingallthisgrufffrom theUnitedNations,thistheatreof theabsurd,which we spend3.5milliondollarsfor. CR: Do you think we shouldwithdrawfrom the UnitedNations? WATSON: Why of course. The United Nations would collapsethe day we withdraw.Our govern- mentshouldhaveintelligenceenoughto realizethat thisgamewe havebeenplayingis self-defeating. CR:If we couldstopourcorporationsfromsub- sidizingtheRussians,wouldthatbe sufficientcor- poratereformfor you or do you have something broaderin mind? WATSON: Oh no, I have much more in mind thanthat.Buttogetbackto mylittlecareer.I goton theradiobecauseI was advertisingmy bookon the airandoneof thetalkshowhostswenton vacation andhe decidedto try somethingdifferent.So,he said,"Eachdayof theweek,somebodydifferentwill takeovermy show.There’ilbe a gay,there’llbe a black,there’llbe a Mexicanandtherewillbe a right wingconservative."He pickedme to be theright- wing,conservative,"fascist"type.Thiswas Fred Lewis.He worksat the collegewith my husband. We’reverygoodfriends,we respecteachother,but, you know,he’sjusta dumb-dumb.So, Fredsaidto me, "Well,which day do you want? You can have any day you want,becauseyou’rethe only woman on theprogramandI’llletyouhaveyourchoice."I said,"I wantFriday."He said,"WhyFriday?"I said, "You’llfindout."Theyhad me and I was knownas the"fascistbitch".Thentheyhada blackprofessor from UCSD who wrote poetryand who talkedabout racismandpoetryandof coursenobodyin Southeast San Diegounderstooda wordhe wassaying,but he wasblackandhe talkedto theblackpeople.Andwe had a Mexicanguy by the name of Vic Viapando, who playstenniswith my husband.He was a great socialist,exceptthathe wouldn’tlivein Mexico.He wantedto livein Americaunderthefreeenterprise system.He’sa heckof a niceguy,anda lovableguy, anda goodtennisplayer,andI educatedhimalong thewayand he’snota socialistanymore.And then the gays had a show and thenthei’ewas a woman who advocatedsex educationfor twelveyear old children.So theyalldidtheirthing.On Mondaywas Vic Viapando,on Tuesdaywas the gay liberation movement, on Wednesday was the sex lady, on Thursdaywas the blackmovement,and Fridaycame alongandI cameon theairandI totallyobliterated themall.I listenedto everyshow,andI tooknotes, andI madetapes,andI tookon allthemainpoints t hatwerediscussedontheair.I tookthemoneby one anddebatedthemoutof sight.I hadthebestratings any show hadever had on KSDO beforeI left.The weekbeforeI wasfiredthegeneralmanagerinvited ,neto a partyandI satat histableandwechattedand he showedme theratingbook.He’dhada fewdrinks andhe gotcarriedawayand he showedit to me.He said,"Doyouseethat.You’vedoneterrificshows. Terrific.Peoplewriteto me andsaytheysettheir alarmclocksjustso theydon’tmissyourshow."I camehomeandI said,"Gee,isn’tthatwonderful."I expectedto stay on the air. On MondaymorningI wasfired.I hadsomeinterestingexperiences:with Jane Fonda during the Vietnam War, and a guy threwa chairat me andtriedto killme,theBlack Pantherscut all the telephonewireswhen I was interviewingAdmiralSabin duringthe Vietnam War.Thentheysetfireto thestation.It hadbeen raining.My showwasoverabout8 p.m.thatSunday and Vic Viapandocame on after me. And because (contimwdon next page)

Page14--Califi)rniaReview--Sel)tember

&ontinuedfrompage I Y)

everythingwasso tlampthe[iredidn’tstart,ntil1 wasofftheair.WhenI wasdrivinghome,I heardV, Viapandoscream,"My God!Theradioslationis o, fire!"Theyhada detectivethereandtheycalledme andtoldme neverto driven~ycaralone,neverto leavemy car in the parkingh)t there,and to be careful.I got manythreatsfromvariousgroups. Thisis howmy wholecareerstarted.Butto gethack to the originalquestionaboutmy newsletter.I startedwritingthe newsletterwhen I wason the radiobecausepeoplewouldwriteto me and askme

allthesequestions.So insteado[ answeringeachand everyoneof theselettersI decidedto publisha new- sletter.That’showil started.I didmylasttelevision showinJune.I hadto giveit up afterthat.Soright nowI’m teachingandI’m publishingmy newsletter andI don’tknowhowmuchlongerI canaffordto do that.I getlettersbackfrompeople.Onesubscriber said he had a visionfrom God. God told him to

changehislifeandhe’scancelledallIrissubscrip-

tions,includingmine.AndthenI hada letterfroma ladywhosaid."DearAnn,I haveenjoyedyournew- sletterverymuch,butnow I havedecidedto stop becauseignorameis bliss."

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Capitalism,Socialism,and the ThirdWorld

by C. BrandonCrocker

It seemsstrange,consideringtheempiricalevi- dence,that Americanliberalsshouldscornfree marketcapitalismas a leechon theThirdWorldand

hailcentrallyplanned,socialist,andMarxisteco- ationsexploitThirdWorldnationsbutnotcapital-

nomic systems as the savior oi Third World peoples--butwhoeversaidthatAmericanliberals arelogical? Manyliberals,suchas UCSD’sPoliticalScience

Professor,PeterGourevitch,forexample,assertthat

U.S

socialisteconomicpolicies(whichwhenannounced alterhiselectioncauseda largeoutflowof money fromtheFrenchstockmarket)areto blameforFran- ce’s deterioratedeconomy.Strangely,high U.S interestratesstartedto havetheirdevilisheffecton theFrencheconomyonlyafterMitterrand’selection, yet the FederalFundsratehas dropped40% since Mitterrand’svictory. Thoughsuch a defenceof Frenchsocialismmay be ratherweak,thewellentrenched(in academeat least)belie[thatsocialistic,plannedeconomiesare whatThirdWorldnationsneed,andthatcapitalism has beentheThirdWorld’sgreatestenemy,is even morevulnerableto scrutinization. Onechargeleveledagainstcapitalismnowis that

capitalistcountriesaresuccessfulbecausetheyhave exploited Third World nations through "neo-

colonialism".ThetheorybeingthatWesterncorpor-

ist nations."Neo-colonialism",however,is just anotherslogantheLeft usesin placeof reasoned argument.If thechargeweretruetheUnitedStates wouldbe a lesserdevelopedcountry.Afterall,the Americancoon¯mythroughoutthe 18th and 19th centurieswas,in largepart,a foreign(mainlyBrit- ish)venture.Also,underthistheory,countrieswith thegreatestcontactsandtraderelationshipswith Westerncapitalistcountrieswouldbe the poorest whilethosewiththe fewestcontactswouldbe the richest.In fact,theinverseis true.Manyliberals, however,findvalidityin theiraccusationsin thefact thatmanymajorcorporationsmovetheiroperations to ThirdWorldcountriesto takeadvantageof the large,andthereforecheap,laborforces.Withlogic endemicto theleftistmind,manyAmericanliberals arguethatit is worsefora ThirdWorldpersonto be employedby a largecorporationand makea small income(inU.S.standards)thanto haveno employ- ment and no income. Thisbringsus to theheartof therealreasonwhy many Third World nationshave stagnantecono- mies. Many AmericanintellectualsadviseThird Worldcountriesto developsomesortof "planned", highlyregulated(to "protect"workers)economy, and most Third World countriesseem to have an abundanceof peopleeagerto do the planning.Yet advocatesof socialistic,plannedeconomieshavefew examplesaboutwhichto h, rag.After35 yearsof centraleconomicmanagement,India has become theworld’slargestcharity.Cuba,beforeCastro’s rewflution,hadthefourthlargestpercapita(;NPin LatinAmerica.Today,despitereceiving8 million dollarsa dayfromtheSoviet[bfion,it ranksfour- teenth.Socialismhas changedTanzaniafrom an exporterof maizeto an importerof maize.Viemam’s new economicsystem has made Vietnam’schief exportslavelabor.The[a(tis thatsuchecononlic systemskeep lesserdevelopedcot|ntrieslesser developed. l.aborforcesin h’sserdevelopedcountriesare largeandcontaina highpet(entageof unskilledand underemployedindividt,als.The naturalresuhof thissituationis lowwagerates.Normally,a capital- istwilltakeadvantageo[ thisfactandinvestin the h’sserdevelol)edcountriesandmakeuseof thecheap lahor.As thisprocessoccurs,theworkfor(ebecomes moreskilledandtheI||u’nll)hIymentlatedml)S.The res|thsare higherwagesand higherstandardsof livin+But one politythat manyh’sserdeveloped (ore|trieshaw’followedis higherwagesby govern- nwntde(rt’eandn(,thy market[(,r(es.Whattiles(’ artifi(iall,,highwageralesdo is I()l)revent attraction(ifinvesttlrsandentrel)renet,rsandthns, thoughthewageratesmay Ix’high,h’whavejobs andtheecono|nyr(.mainsut|derdevehIl)ed.

interestratesandnotFrancoisMitterrand’s

TIIROTTLINGTnE¢OUNTllY’

Anothertacticthathasbeenusedby lesserdeve- lopedcountriesis to nationalizeindustries.Lesser developedcountriesare usuallyplaguedby high interestrates,whichmeansa shortageof capital. Probablyno singleactiontakenby a f;overnment doesmoreto shutofftheinflowof foreigncapital thannationalizations.Lossesincurredby compan- ies due to nationalizationshave been enormous.

Companiestryto avoidlosses,so theyavoidinvest- ing in countrieswhich have nationalizedother industriesor thatappearto be consideringnational- izing. Freemarketcapitalism,however,hasbeentriedby someThirdWorldcountries.Forinstance,theIvory Coasthas the freesteconomyand the highestper capitaincomein blackAfrica.Thereis alsoa more evendistributionof wealthin theIvoryCoastthan in socialistTanzaniaandZambia,yetdistributionof wealthis leftprimarilyto themarket. In 1973 under communist PresidentAllende, Chilehad an inflationrateof 350%.AfterGeneral

Pinochettookoffice,however,theinflationsitua-

tiongot worse,hitting500% in 1974 and 374% in 1975.At that time,Pinochetdecidedto take the adviceof MiltonFriedman,and with the aid of a teamof economiststrainedat theUniversityof Chi- cagounderFriedman,Pinochetcuttaxesand opened up theeconomyto freetrade.As a result,theChilean economygrewnearly9% in 1977 comparedto a 13% contractionin 1975 and tax revenue,even at the lowerrates,increased.In 1981theinflationrate stoodat around10%. Free trade has turned the economiesof many countriesin theorientintosomeof thestrongestin the worhl. Hong Kong, South Korea,Japan, and Singaporehaveallhadsuccessfulexperimentswith relativelyfreemarketcapitalism.EventileSoviet Irnionhasemployedfreeenterpriseit)orderto save its economy.The Sovietshaveallowedsome 3% o[ Sovietfarmlandto be runprivately.On this3% is produced25%of allSovietfartnproducts. Thetrackrecordof socialisticeconomiesshows thatsocialismhasfailedto improvetheconditionof thepeotflein thecountriesin whichit is employed, whereascapilalismhas had greatsuccess,h seems hightittlethatleftistideologuesgotofftheirmoral highhorsesandtooka lookat the realityof the

systemstheyadvo(ate.Poorpe,)l)h) needrot,rethan rhet(iri(-,as l.alithAthulathmudal,TradeMinister ofSril.ankal)UlSit."Wearein a 1)(,sl-so(ialist an erawhereshigansno h>ngerarel)elievedt()

il)st)facto.TheyhaveIf[l)el)roved

Totny

today

caltermsso(ialismmeanswhateverln(’ans(an I)e emtfloyedt()i|npr()vethelot(IfIht"l)oor.If m(/udesprivateenterl)rise,thenthat’salsoa good (flljecl,becauseif thatgivesjobs,ifthatin(reases in((nne,if Ihatgivesbettercuhivalionnlethods, thalme:|nsbeliernlanagenlenl (If yourindustries, wellthat’sgoodenoughso(ialismforme."

we-

havetakena so(ialistgoal.butit)l)racli

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Septembe|---Calih)rniaReview--Page15

e oeo¯¯¯¯ ¯¯ooooo¯¯¯¯ ¯moooooee¯¯el0ee¯ee¯ee¯¯¯,

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Page 16--CaliforniaReview--September

"In the meantime,Youngand Crockersit in theircampuso/lice,cloaked awayin secrecy,planning[orthe nextissueo[ theReview.’" --L.A.Times,May 31, 1982. Pugwash!

Meetthe Editorsof CaliforniaReview

President:E. ClasenYoung Born:August5, 1961. Birthplace:Westchester,New York.

Height:6’1".

Weight:175.

Hair:Blond. Eyes:Blue. Hobbies:Riding to hounds,collecting financialaid. Favoriteauthor:F. ScottFitzgerald.

Favoritebook:WinningThroughIntimi-

dationby RobertJ. Ringer. Favoriteactor:LaurenceOlivier. Favoritemovie:ChariotsoJFire. Favoritecomposer:Bach. Favoritemusicalcomposition:The Bran- denburgConcertos. Favoriterockgroup:LawrenceWelk. Favoritemagazine:NationalReview. Favoritepoliticalcommentator:WilliamF. Buckley,Jr. Religiousaffiliation:Presbyterian. Favoritetheologian:SaintAugustineof Hippo. Dreamvacation:Freddy’sSaloon,Bar Har- bor,Maine. Favoriteinitials:I.B.M. Favoritemilitaryorganization:U.S.Navy Seal Team. Favoritecorporation:LakerAirways. Bestfriend:LordMountbatten. Favoritesports:Surfing,rockclimbing, socialclimbing. Favoritesaying:"Liberalsare manifest lunchmeat." Favoritetelevisionshow:"FiringLine." Favoriteeconomist:ThomasSowell. FavoritePresident:AbrahamLincoln. FavoriteGeneral:GeorgePatton. Dreamgirl:MargaretThatcher. Favoritecar:Jaguar.

BrigadierEditor:H.W.CrockerIII Born:December15, 1960. Birthplace:SanDiego,California.

Height:6’2"

Weight:175.

Hair:Blond. Eyes:Blue. Hobbies:Old movies,figuringout how manyliberalscanfitona nucleartestsite. Favoriteauthor:DamonRunyon. Favoritebook:The WildGeeseby Daniel Carney. Favoriteactor:JohnWayne. Favoritemovie:GungaDin. Favoritecomposer:Dvorak. Favoritemusicalcomposition:The New World Symphony. Favorite rock group: The Arizona St. GeologyDepartment. Favoritemagazine:The AmericanSpectator. Favoritepoliticalcommentator:R. Emmet Tyrrell,Jr. Religiousaffiliation:Presbyterian. Favoritetheologian:JerryFalwell. Dreamvacation:Nairobi,Kenya. Favoriteinitials:U.S.M.C. Favoritemilitaryorganization:UnitedStates MarineCorps. Favoritecorporation:BangorPutna. Bestfriend:Hiscowboyboots. Favoritesports:Boxing,anythingwherehe cangetinjured. Favoritesaying:"Be a Man Among Men:

Jointhe RhodesianArmy." Favoritetelevisionshow: "The Honey- mooners." Favoriteeconomist:GeorgeGilder. FavoritePresident:TeddyRoosevelt FavoriteGeneral:Gordonof Khartoum. Dream girl: DonnaSummer. Favoritecar:A jeep.

 

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