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Government Engineering College dahod

Project Report On Transducer

Submitted to : S.M. Veisnav

Submitted by: Challawala Mariyam RO.No-08EC007

What is transducer?
Device when activated from one form energy converted to another quantity, or Device which converts one physical quantity or condition to another A transducer is an electronic device that converts energy from one form to another. Common examples include microphones, loudspeakers, thermometers, position and pressure sensors,. and antenna Although not generally thought of as transducers, photocells, LEDs (light-emitting diodes), and even common light bulbs are transducers.

Physical quantity:- heat , intensity of light, flow rate, liquid level, humidity

Sensor:- sense physical quantity Classification of transducers

1. Based on the

power type Classification:-

Active transducer Passive transducer

2. Based on the type of output the classification of transducers are


Analog transducer Digital transducer

3. Based on the electrical phenomenon is a best Classification of


Resistive transducer Capacitive transducer Inductive transducer Photoelectric transducer Photovoltaic transducer

4. Based on the non-electrical phenomenon Classification of


Linear displacement Rotary displacement

5. Based on the transduction phenomenon:

Transducer Inverse transducer.

Active transducer:-

No extra power reqd. to produce I/p Self generating Draw power from input applied Eg. Piezo electric xtal used for accelartion measurement

Passive transducer:-

Device which derive power reqd. for transduction from auxiliary power source - externally powered Eg: resistive, inductive, and capacitive without power they will not work

Analog transducer:-

convert I/p quantity into an analog o/p Analog o/p- a continuous fn. Of time Eg. Strain gauge, L VDT, thermocouple
Digital transducer:-

Converts I/p into an electrical o/p in the form of pulses

Inverse transducer:-

Which converts electrical signal to physical quantity

Factor to be considered while selecting transducer:

It should have high input impedance and low output impedance, to avoid loading effect. It should have good resolution over is entire selected range. It must be highly sensitive to desired signal and insensitive to unwanted signal. Preferably small in size. It should be able to work n corrosive environment. It should be able to withstand pressure, shocks, vibrations etc.. It must have high degree of accuracy and repeatability. Selected transducer must be free from errors.

Transducer for pressure measurement What is pressure?

A pressure transducer is a transducer that converts pressure into ananalog electrical signal. Although there are various types of pressure transducers, one of the most common is the strain-gage base transducer force/ unit area, Unit (N/sq.m). Pressure measured can be absolute, gauge or differential depending on type of reference

High Performance Pressure Transducer: PX5500V

Types of pressure transducers: Gravitational:- eg : manometer Elastic force converted to strain, eg. Diaphragm, capsule, bellows, bourdon tubes.

1) Diaphragm: Common pressure sensing elastic element Thin circular plate stretched & fastened at its periphery Made of elastic alloys of bronze, phosphor bronze, stainless steel or alloys like Monel, Nickel span C

2) Capsule:-

Two corrugated metal diaphragms sealed together at periphery Forms a shell like structure One diaphragm has a port at centre to admit pressure to be measured Other diaphragm linked to a moveable mechanical part. Displacement proportional to difference b/w outer & inner pressure

3) Bellows:-

Thin walled cylindrical sheets with deep convolutions sealed at one end Sealed end moves axially when pressure is applied No. of convolution s vary from- 2 to 50 depends on range, operating temp Used for low pressure measurement displacement y = 2.n. A q P Rx 2 /( Et 2 .) Where:n no. of convolutions A q- effective area Et - youngs modulus of elasticity Rx radius of diaphragm P Pressure ie, Y P

The Heliotronics, Inc. Current/Voltage Transducer is used to measure the current and voltage on either the AC or the DC side of a photovoltaic system. Its wide voltage and current range allow for use in many different system configurations. Additionally, the Current/Voltage Transducer is available in two versions for different voltage systems.

Measurement of velocity Velocity linear or angular Linear velocity: Electromagnetic transducers O/p voltage E = /t = N I/ R2 . dR/dt, where N I/ R2 is a constant, R- reluctance so E proportional to reluctance R proportional to air gap & air gap proportional to velocity

Angular velocity: Tachometer types- Mechanical ,Electrical MHD sensor magneto hydrodynamic sensor Highly sensitive High precision

Transducer for vibration: Vibrations give early warning of impending conditions which may develop &vlead to complete failure & destruction of equipment Used in power plants, turbines Most vibrations are sinusodial in nature Got amp & freq. Amp gives displacement By measuring displacement, velocity or acceleration - vibrations measured

Vibration transducer: Acidometer measures shock or vibration, Pot type or LVDT type

Pot type accelerometer:-