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Internship at Perfect garments Processors Garments Division, Mumbai, 2011

A Industry training Report submitted to Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur (Maharashtra) in partial fulfillment for the requirement of the degree in Master of Fashion Design
Submitted by

Sonali M Gaidhane Supervisor Mrs Harsha Jharia

Accredited at A level DEPARTMENT OF FASHION DESIGN LADY AMRITBAI DAGA COLLEGE FOR WOMEN OF ARTS, COMMERCE & SCIENCE & SMT.RATNIDEVI PUROHIT COLLEGE OF HOME SCIENCE & HOME SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY 2010-2011

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I, Sonali M Gaidhane of L.A,D college express our in depth gratitude to Mr. SANDEEP MAHAJAN (VP garments) and Mr. SAMUEL MUPPAVARAPU (IE HOD) of Mumbai plant for guiding us along with road map before and throughout the training. We are heartily thanking to below member of Perfect Garment Processer HR Team for extending their courtesy & guideline during our stay with Perfect Garment Processer.

INTRODUCTION
M.F.D is a very practical oriented course that equips students with all the necessary skill sets that the industry expects. As a part of the course a one month internship at a garmennt firm is mandated, which aims at imparting a practical understanding of various processes related aspects of the sector. Internship enables students to get a better understanding of a company, correlate theory with practice, provides an opportunity to study and organsiation and its products and processes and also gaining knowledge on its functioning. We chose to pursue the internship at Perfect Garment Processer Garments division at Mumbai , This company is Indias largest vertically integrated mill with an envious export record accompanied by a dominant position in the domestic market. In compilation of this Internship report, all out efforts have been made to present a comprehensive picture of the activities undertaken at in the Perfect Garment Processer garment unit

PROCESS FLOW AT GARMENTS DIVISION

GARMENTS DIVISION The garments division consists of the following departments: 1. Fabric , Accessory and thread store 2. Sampling (Woven and Knits) 3. CAD department 4. Spreading and Cutting 5. Sewing /Production 6. Quality 7. Finishing/Packaging 8. Maintenance 9. Industrial engineering 10. Production Merchandising 11. Production planning and control The other auxiliary departments consists of 12. Embroidery 13. Printing 14. IT These departments work in coordination with each other for the purpose of fulfilling the objective of quality and mass produced garments or Apparels

FABRIC STORE

ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITY The goods are received and unloaded at the unloading bay. The fabrics are received and stacked in TO BE INSPECTED area. Physical check is done on the received goods to confirm details like Style No, colour, P.O.no, weight per lot; etc which are provided in the PI(Production information) sheet. Physical check is done for 100% of the received quantity/stock. A sample swatch from the bulk is sent to buyer for approval. After Physical check the goods are transferred to their respective storage areas after which quality inspection is done. Quality inspection consists of checking the actual GSM, shrinkage, shade and colour continuity card using various testing tools. The colour continuity card is used for the purpose of dividing the fabric into various batches for avoiding shade variation within garment /batches. First Quality inspection is done on 10% of the quantity using Four point system. If the inspection criteria are not met then again 15-20% of the remaining quantity is checked. Fabrics that fail the inspection criteria are sent back to the mill for replacements as the fabric sourcing is in-house. A fabric checking machine is used for woven garments whereas for knits physical checking is done. Quality inspection takes around 2 days to complete. If one particular lot fails then fabric Dept must have details like weight of the lot and Storage area etc. Lot passed with Four point system either has to be issued to cutting with the DC as against the actual consumption determined by IE Dept. The Dept also maintains the Reconciliation Report for each Style for referencing. Record maintenance of the In-word, Out-word and Stock Record for each Style is maintained both physically and in computerized formats. Fabric Trim chart is also developed style wise to confirm required fabrics are received. Sampling fabric for sampling purposes is stored in racks different from bulk fabrics. The fabric dept mainly communicates with cutting, merchandising, IE, sampling for performing its responsibilities.

DEPARTMENTAL LINKAGES

IE dept- Fabric details like length (woven), diameter/width and GSM (knits) are sent to IE for consumption determination. PPC dept- Fabric receival date, quantity and other details are sent to the PPC for planning and scheduling. Quality dept- Quality inspections are carried out and sent for verification and approvals. Merchandising dept- Communication for the purpose of follow up of the fabric received and also receives the PI sheet of orders. IT (MIS) dept- Various record keeping and data management is done through various SAP modules. Sampling dept- The fabric for the purpose of sample piece stitching is provided by the store. These fabrics are specially kept and checked to ensure quality. Dispatch dept- The gate inward of the fabric coming into the factory and outward of the fabric lot going back to the mill from store is maintained by the dispatch. Cutting dept- The cutting department relies on the store for quality clearance and issue of the fabric for cutting purposes.

ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITY The department is responsible for making various samples for buyer approvals. Sampling starts right after Order Confirmation Meeting (OCM). The buyer tech-packs are sent to the production merchandiser who in coordination with sampling department develops requisite samples or re-engineers the existing one. Based on the requirement of buyer various samples are prepared before production. Department analyzes the tech-pack received and prepares patterns accordingly on CAD (Computer Aided Design) or manually. During the pattern making fabric analysis is done and ordered for sample development. Accordingly samples are cut and tailor stitched. After the samples are created they are sent to the merchandiser for buyer approval. The comments given by the buyer are analyzed and acted upon. Sampling ensures that anything that goes into production is approved with no further changes. The tailors are in three groups with each group developing single sample. The approved fit sample is sent to the IE department for production feasibility and costing purposes. After confirmation on the PP sample the production merchandiser creates the PI sheet including buyer comments received. Records regarding incoming fabric, samples developed and samples despatched are maintained on a regular basis. 2.5 TERMINOLOGIES Tech-pack- It is a document provided by the buyer that contains details such as measurements, fabric and trim details, technical and construction details and packaging details. Samples- The various types of samples prepared are:It Fit sample- It is the first sample developed in compliance with the spec sheet. It is optional to create the sample using substitute fabric and trims. Usually fit samples are of middle range size. Fit approvals are required from the buyer on this sample. Internship at Alok Industries Ltd (Garments Division), Saily, 2010 27 o Size set- This consists of a group of four to five graded sizes. This is required to obtain approval on the grading of sizes. Any comments received on fit samples are applied here. These samples are made from actual fabric, trims and packaging materials exactly as per techpack. o Pre-Production (pp) sample- This is the final sample developed with all comments received from the buyer using actual trims and fabric. This is the last sample in which changes from buyer is accepted. This sample acts as reference for production. It is developed with strict adherence to the tech pack. After approval a FFP (fit for production) seal is put up on it. It then is called the FFP sample. o TOP (top of production) sample- This sample is the top most sample from the pilot run from a real production line. Buyer approval is required on this sample in order to proceed further. The purpose of the sample is to determine whether all requirements are met while mass production. o Concept sample- It is the first sample created in order to present the fit and concept of the garment. It may be developed in substitute fabric and trims. The measurements can be in tolerance range. o Red seal- This is similar to size set samples of two to three sizes with fit conformance. The sample can be developed in substitute fabric and trims.

o Black seal- It is similar to the PP sample and is made of actual fabric and trims. This sample is optional and is developed on buyer demand. o Gold seal- This sample is similar to TOP sample and is required to determine if all specifications are met during production. Photo shoot sample- This sample is developed for buyers marketing and advertising purpose. It has to be made from actual fabric and trims. It is developed in between Fit and PP samples. Salesman sample- (SMS Sample) This sample is developed in quantities of 8-12 garments. These samples are required by the buyer for his marketing purposes. These samples are exactly as per tech packs on actual fabric and trims.

ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES The cad department receives tech-packs from sampling department for pattern development. The patterns are developed as per the spec sheet with style details. The patterns are developed using Gerber Accumark PDS (8.2.1) Package. Patterns developed manually are digitized using a digitizer (Gerber Digitizer). The patterns prepared on the CAD are plotted on a plotting paper by a Gerber Plotter. The plotted patterns are cut-out manually and pasted on cardboard. These patterns are used for quality checking, referencing, sampling purposes and cutting. After pattern development marker making is done on AccuNest by importing the pattern pieces and placing them as per the ratio in the tech-packs. The marker document consists of details such as length, width and percentage utilization along with a pictorial diagram of marker plan. During sampling stage the marker plan is sent to the IE department for consumption calculations. A revised marker plan is made after the bulk fabric has been received in the fabric store. The revised marker is made on the basis of the actual diameter/width received and sent to the IE department for revised consumption calculation. The final marker plan is prepared and sent to the cutting section with the sealed patterns. The CAD keeps the previously made patterns for future referencing in a stack.

ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

The cutting department receives the PI sheet from the Production Merchandiser which contains all the details of the order. Accordingly before mass cutting sample cutting of size set (jump sizes) is done and sent to quality department for approval. After receiving approval on the size set lay order plan/production programme is prepared and sent to the CAD, cutting and the spreader. The lay order plan is prepared as per the ratio to be cut and the quantity to be cut. The spreader refers to the lay order plan for the length, the number of plies and lays for spreading. Spreading is done either by automatic spreader (Gerber XLS 50) or manually. Spreading for solid fabrics is done by automatic spreader while for yarn dyed fabrics and striped fabrics it is done manually. The spreading is done batch wise so as to avoid any shade variation. Batch changes during spreading are differentiated using fabric strips running across the length of the lay. No splicing is done and the end bits that are left are used for the purpose of preparing piping. Relaxation spreading of shrinkable fabrics is done. These are left as spread for 12-24 hrs to relax and reduce the effect of shrinkage after cutting. Spreading for stripes, yarn dyed fabrics is done in short lay lengths matching for stripes. Cutting for solid and All Over Print (AOP) fabrics is done on automatic cutter (Gerber GT7250). The cutter is movable between 3 spreading tables from where the fabric lays are fed by air floatation. Cutting for yarn dyed, checks and stripes are cut by Block cutting. Blocks according to size of patterns are cut using a straight knife (Blue streak). The pattern pieces which can be cut on fold are widthwise folded individually and layering done and cut using half pattern pieces. It is also known as recutting. The cut pieces are transferred to the QC table where cut pieces are randomly selected from the lot and verified with original patterns. Checked lots are then sent for ticketing.

5.2 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES The sewing floor consists of main production activities such as sewing,finishing and packaging. Cut pieces for sewing are issued from the cutting department to the sewing floor through lift. Reports are maintained regarding issuals to sewing. Accordingly the pieces are issued to lines responsible for sewing. There are storage racks to keep cut pieces at the start of every line. Feeding is done into the line bundle wise. All parts of garment are assembled together in roll form. Before assembly of pieces they are checked for any quality related issues and accordingly rejected and recorded. An input statement of the bundles is also maintained along with the details of the rejected pieces. The rejected pieces are returned back to the cutting forreplacement to the line. Sewing lines follow unpaced manual Unit Production System. The machines in the sewing line are laid out as per sequence of the operations for knits and for woven bundle system is followed for small parts and UPS for assembly. Each line has supervisor responsible for managing daily production activities. Line writers are kept to track production, arrange accessories, get replacement pieces from cutting, get thread and maintain record. Usually 2 or 3 lines are tracked by one writer. Every line has a Quality checker and every three lines have a Quality assurance appointed by QC department. Operators at each workstation pick up the garment from aisle space on the right side and perform the operation required. After the operation the garment pieces are again rolled and pushed ahead through aisle space for next operation. Check points are provided at various points in the line and end line. Garments from the production line are dispatched to the finishing on hourly basis. Before finishing the line writers

count the pieces produced size wise after every hour. Every workstation in the sewing line is provided with necessary work aids to make the job easier and a mechanical counter to account for the number of pieces produced per hour which is recorded by line writer. This is used to calculate operator efficiency and to find bottlenecks. Each line is provided with a production board on which hourly and cumulative production is displayed. Counter samples of the FFP sample are provided by the sampling which is hung at the beginning and the end of the line. Every workstation has a miniature sample of operation to be performed. Details of the machine and maintenance records are also hung at every workstation. Format for Traffic Light System used to track defects are provided by quality department for each workstations. Storage boxes at check points are provided for collection of rejected and alter pieces. The alter pieces are worked upon timely by the concerned operators to avoid production loss. Each line is provided with its own lighting facilities. Operators for operations are allocated based on their training and experience due to unavailability of skill matrix. If daily target is not met, overtime system is followed wherein only males work.

7.2 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES The garments from the end-line after counting are bought for stickering. In the

stickering process all the tickets on all the garment parts are removed and only a single ticket is left at the centre neck/waist band label of the garment. After stickering the garments are sent for pressing. Steam press are used for pressing. During pressing the pressers ensure that the size of each garment parts are within tolerance for this purpose they are provided with hard paper scales having size markings for different parts of different sizes by quality department. The pressed garments are counted and stored. Then these garments are sent for 100% final checking where all possible defects are checked. The faulty garments are divided into SPOTTING, ALTER, MENDING and REJECTION. Rejections are sent to the rejection room and recorded. Alters are sent back to the lines from where they have been produced for alterations required. Mending of defects such as small holes, torn yarns and contamination removal are done. Minor spotting is done by the final checking itself by using petrol guns. In case of major spots it is sent to the spotting rooms. Spotting room is equipped with two specialise spotting machines that can be used to remove various spots by the use of various chemicals. Then these garments are sent back for pressing. After final checking Tagging is done wherein different tags such as barcode tags, buyer tags and price tags are attached with the help of plastic lock tag pins. Folding is done as per buyer approval. An approved folded sample is hung in the folding section. After folding garments, they are packed using primary packing materials such as poly-bags, hanger and packing box. After primary packaging the packed piece are sent to packing section by passing them through a metal detector to avoid metal contamination. In the packaging section secondary and tertiary packaging such as blisters and cartoon packaging is done. As per buyer requirements after 80-100% packaging final inspection is performed on the packed lot. The final inspection is performed by a third party approved by the buyer. The inspection is performed on the AQL level decided by the buyer. The inspection is of destructive nature where the whole sample size is completely checked for any possible defects. Based on this inspection the shipment is approved. The inspected garments are repacked and sent to dispatch. Reports such as daily rejection, finishing and packaging reports are maintained.

8. MAINTENANCE
8.1 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

The maintenance department looks after all the machines in the garment division. The department is mainly responsible for: o Machine maintenance, _ Preventive maintenance, and _ Break down maintenance. The maintenance department follows various procedures to ensure that the machines are in working condition and do not breakdown regularly. The department is divided into two parts: o Needle and spare parts department and o Maintenance and repairs department The needle and spare parts department is responsible for storage and issue of needles and machine spare parts. Department follows a ZERO NEEDLE POLICY. In this policy it is required to find all the parts of a broken needle before replacing it. The policy has been implemented as per buyer requirements. In case a needle breaks, the operator reports to line supervisor who in turn reports to the maintenance. A mechanic is issued a set of needles for replacement purposes along with a reporting chart for each needle box. Whenever a needle is replaced all the parts of the broken needle are pasted on the chart along with signature of the supervisor. Only when the mechanic returns completely filled report with all the broken needle parts of the replaced needles is he issued a new box of needles. In case the needle parts are not retrieved as per rule the supervisor and the mechanic must check within two meter diameter for 15 minutes and also check all the garments within this range by a magnetic bar. If the parts are still not found then the contaminated garment of this range are passed through large metal detector. If any garment is found with needle contamination it is separated and then the quality department checks the pieces by hand metal detector and keeps the record and these garments are rejected.

PRODUCTION MERCHANDISING 10.1 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES The production merchandiser functions at the factory level and is different from the merchandisers who coordinate with buyers from head quarters. The production merchandisers do tracking and follow up of orders in order to ensure that the work is completed in time and meets all buyer requirements. The merchandisers are responsible for each and every activity during order completion. The merchandiser is required to get approval from the buyer regarding and aspect of the order ranging from sampling, sewing to packaging. Merchandiser plays a centre role in coordinating, instructing departments and decision making regarding any order related issue. 10.1.1 PRE-PRODUCTION PHASE In the pre-production phase, production merchandiser is sent a tech pack from the buyer on lines of which sampling is to be done. The merchandiser along with the sampling look after meeting buyer needs and keep record of them. Consumption calculation and details for compiling costing and booking are done and procured from the IE department. The details of the consumption and costing are sent to head quarters. A Production information sheet is sent from the Head quarters that contains all production related information necessary for production execution .This PI sheet is sent to cutting, stores, embroidery/printing, sewing and finishing for complying with the requirements. 10.1.2 PRODUCTION PHASE After the PP sample from buyer is approved the merchandiser sends the buyer comments received to all departments for reference. In the production phase the merchandiser looks after major issues that arise in production and follow up the details with H.O merchandisers regarding progress in work. As per buyer requirement the merchandiser also provides each department with department specific instructions provided by the buyer, for e.g. folding technique, Packaging method and ratios. Merchandiser remains involved with the follow up and decision making of the order from beginning till the shipment. 10.1.3 POST-PRODUCTION PHASE In the post production phase the merchandiser tracks and follows up the final inspection. It is also necessary to ensure that the order is ready on time and shipped as required. At this stage it is required to compile a report of the actual cost incurred for profit /loss analysis purpose. The merchandiser in coordination with the IE compiles the data relating to final costs incurred. This costing is based upon RECO statements of departments and cost incurred by each. This costing is sent to the H.O for accounting Profit and loss. QUALITY The merchandiser provides the comments received on the PP sample to the quality department for keeping it in view while quality checks. PPC The merchandiser follows up the details about various production phases to the PPC department for the purpose of tracking revising and following the TNA calendar. FABRIC STORE The merchandiser receives communication regarding the fabric received and their inspection report for crosschecking of the actual fabric details to that of the booked fabric details. CAD The merchandiser provides tech-pack details, size ratios and grading details for preparing the patterns and marker plan.

EMBROIDERY/ PRINTING The merchandiser provides the art work required in the garment to these departments. FINISHING & PACKAGING The merchandiser provides the details regarding folding and packaging. SAMPLING The merchandiser follows up all the details of all stages of sampling and all the communication between sampling and buyer goes through this department only. The merchandiser is also responsible for receiving approval for various samples from buyer