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I/ON A TRIP A paris vacation Kathy is on a one-week vacation from her job as a journalist. It is the first vacation she has had in a long time. She hasnt had a vacation in a long time. She is in Paris to attend her best friend's wedding. She has come to Paris to attend her best friends wedding. This is the third time she has been in Paris. (This isn't the first time she has been in Paris. Kathy has been in Paris before.) She first came to Paris as a student, ten years ago. (The first time she came to Paris was as a student ten years ago.) The last time was two years ago, when she came on business. During that trip, she was so busy that she didn't have time to see any of the sights. This time she plans to relax and enjoy herself. Kathy arrived in Paris two days ago/ the day before yesterday, which was Saturday. Her plane landed at 3:00, two hours behind schedule. Her plane was supposed to arrive at 1:00. After arriving, Kathy visited with her friend and met her friend's fianc for the first time. He is a very successful Italian businessman. The wedding was yesterday. It was a small wedding, but very nice. After the wedding, the newlyweds left for a skiing trip in the Swiss Alps. They went by rental car. Unfortunately, they got tied up in traffic. They didn't arrive at their hotel until late last night. Fortunately, they had confirmed reservations, so they had no trouble checking in. They plan to stay there until Thursday. Then they will travel on to Salzburg, in Austria. They are going to meet up with Kathy there before she returns to the U.S. The three of them are going to stay in a castle hotel ten miles outside Salzburg. The hotel is on a lake, and the view from the hotel is wonderful. The hotel is in a five hundred-year-old castle. It used to belong to an Austrian prince. Everyone is looking forward to staying here. 2/todays activities Today, in Paris, Kathy is enjoying herself. This morning she took a walk through the streets of Paris. After her walk, at around 9:00, she enjoyed a delicious cup of coffee in a small cafe. At 10:00 she went to the Notre Dame Cathedral where she listened to some beautiful organ music. Now she's at the Louvre, the famous art museum. It's 1:30. She has been there for two hours, since 11:30. She's looking at the Mona Lisa, one of the world's most famous paintings. In another hour she's going to leave the museum and do some shopping. She wants to buy a nice dress for herself and some perfume for her mother. This evening, she has a date to meet someone for dinner. Can you guess who he is? She's going to have dinner with Pierre, a famous photographer. She interviewed him two years ago. Since then they have kept in touch. They have written to each other several times. Kathy is interested in doing a project with him. She would do the writing, and he would take the pictures. Shes looking forward to talk to him about the project. She doesn't know it, but Pierre has romantic intentions. He thinks she's very attractive. 3,Florence and Beyond Tomorrow Kathy is going to leave Paris and fly to Florence, Italy. She's planning to stay in Florence for one day, until Wednesday evening. Pierre would like to go to Florence with her. If they go together, it could be the beginning of something beautiful. On the other hand, Kathy may not want that kind of relationship with Pierre. In any case, Kathy is planning to enjoy Florence. This will be her first visit there. The last time she was in Italy she visited Rome, but she didn't have time to go to Florence. She's looking forward to seeing some of the beautiful old buildings and great works of art. From Florence, she's going to take a train to Salzburg, where she will join her friends. They are going to meet her at the station. She has never been to Salzburg. It will be her first time. Like so many other cities in Europe, Salzburg has an interesting history. She wants to visit the place where Mozart was born. He was born there more than 200 years ago. Kathy only has time to stay in Salzburg for a couple of days. On Friday she and her friends are going to

attend a concert. She has to leave Saturday evening. She will fly to Paris, where she will catch her flight back to the States. Though a week isn't very long, Kathy's memories of this trip will last a lifetime. She is glad she came. II/ENERGY SOURCES 1,OUR ENERGY NEEDS For people to live on our planet, we need energy. We need energy for heat, for light, and for transportation. When it's cold, we need energy for heat. When it's dark, we need energy for light. When we want to travel, we need energy for transportation. For example, to run our cars, we burn gasoline, which comes from oil. We also need energy to run our factories. Here are some of the ways we get energy. Fossil fuels include coal, oil, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are an important source of energy. We burn fossil fuels, such as coal, to generate electricity. We also get energy from hydroelectric power stations. Hydroelectric power comes from the energy of falling water. The energy of falling water is converted into electricity. There are also other ways to get energy. The sun is another source of energy. Solar cells can convert sunlight directly into electricity. Many people hope that the use of solar energy will increase, because it's safe for the environment. However, solar energy is still expensive and underdeveloped. Wind power is also a safe source of energy. However, it is only useful in areas where there is a lot of wind. Like solar energy, the use of wind power is still quite limited. 2, Whats about the future? One of the main problems we now face is how to reduce the use of fossil fuels. There are several reasons why this is important. One reason is that the supply of fossil fuels is running out. Fossil fuels are not renewable. As the supply decreases, the price will increase. There may even be war. There is also the problem of transport. Large oil tankers transport oil across the oceans. Sometimes there are accidents, and large amounts of oil spill into the ocean. In the past few years, there have been several accidents. These accidents have caused the deaths of many fish, birds, and other wildlife. Another problem is air pollution. Burning fossil fuels causes air pollution. When we burn fossil fuels, waste gases, such as carbon dioxide, are produced. The waste gases enter our atmosphere and cause pollution, which damages our environment. For example, air pollution causes acid rain, which is killing many of our forests. There is also the problem of global warming. When a large amount of carbon gases are in the atmosphere, our world begins to heat up. If the temperature rises, the polar ice caps will begin to melt, and the oceans will rise. So, as you can see, fossil fuels cause many problems. Plants and trees help reduce global warming because they convert carbon dioxide into oxygen. If there are more plants, then the rate of global warming is reduced. However, many of our great forests are being cut down or burned. Our forests are also being killed by acid rain. So, as you can see, it's important for us to move away from fossil fuels as soon as possible. Nuclear energy also has problems. One problem is safety. Nuclear reactors are not completely safe. There is always some risk of an accident. In some cases, radiation has escaped into the atmosphere and into water supplies. There is also the problem of nuclear waste. The radiation from nuclear waste products is very dangerous. If it gets into the environment, it can cause serious health problems and even death. How about hydroelectric power? Can it help us move away from fossil fuels? Hydroelectric power is a clean source of energy. In addition, dams help us manage our water supplies. However, building dams does change the environment. Dams can cause problems for wildlife such as fish. Therefore, the number of dams must be limited. This leaves us with the problem of how to balance our growing needs for energy with our need to protect our environment. If we use less energy, it will help with the problem. As a result, conservation is very important. All of us want progress and a comfortable life. However, we must also look ahead to the future and take care of our beautiful world.

III/ LOCATION 1,City Directions You are at the hotel. Where would you like to go? Follow these directions. The park is on the corner of First Avenue and High Street, west of the hotel. Go out the front door of the hotel. Go West on High Street. Go to the corner. Turn right and cross the street. Cross First Avenue. Its on the corner, after you cross the street. The university is north of the hotel, behind the art museum. Go out the front door of the hotel. Turn left. Turn right at the intersection. Cross High Street. Go North on First Avenue. Go about half a block. Its on the right. The cafe is on the same block as the hotel, but on the opposite side of the street. Go out the front door of the hotel. Go West on High Street. Turn right and cross the street. Its on the corner after you cross the street. The art museum is directly across from the hotel. Go out the front door of the hotel. Make a right. When you get to the corner, take a left. Cross High Street. Go left. Its on the right, in the middle of the block. The movie theater is on the other side of the street from the hotel. Go out the front door of the hotel. Turn right. Go to the corner. Turn left and cross the street. Its on the corner after you cross the street. There are public rest rooms in the park. Go out the front door of the hotel. Go West on High Street. Go to the end of the block. Turn right and cross the street. Turn left. Cross First Avenue. Turn right. Go about half a block. Theyll be on your left. The hospital is one block west of the hotel, on the same side of the street. Go out the front door of the hotel. Go West on High Street. Go straight through the intersection. Its on the corner after you cross the street. The bank is right next door to the hotel. Go out the front door of the hotel. Turn left. Its next door, on the left. The city's best hotel is on High Street in the middle of the block. You are already there! This restaurant is on the corner next to the hotel. Go out the front door of the hotel. Turn right. Its next door, on the right. This gas station is east of the hotel, on the other side of Second Avenue. Go out the front door of the hotel. Turn right. Go straight through the intersection. Its on the corner after you cross the street. The subway entrance is one block east of the hotel. Go out the front door of the hotel. Go East on High Street. Go across the street. Its on the right, just past the gas station. There is a parking lot on First Avenue, south of the hospital. Go out the front door of the hotel. Turn left. Go straight through the intersection. Turn left. Its on the right, in the middle of the block. This gas station is across the street from a travel agency. Go out the front door of the hotel. Turn left. Go straight through the intersection. Turn left. Go South. Its directly across from a travel agency. The post office is around the corner from the hotel. Go out the front door of the hotel. Turn left. Turn left at the corner. Itll be on your left, in the middle of the block. There is a travel agency on First Avenue. Go out the front door of the hotel. Turn left. Turn left at the corner. Go south. Go past the post office. Itll be on your left. The department store is on Second Avenue, around the corner from the hotel. Go out the front door of the hotel. Turn right. Turn right at the intersection. Go about half a block. Its on the right. The bookstore on Second Avenue is between a gas station and a drugstore. Go out the front door of the hotel. Go East on High Street. Cross Second Avenue. Turn right. Go South. Itll be on your left, in the middle of the block. The drugstore is across the street from a department store. Go out the front door of the hotel. Go East on High Street. Cross Second Avenue. Turn right. Go South. Its two doors down from the gas station.

There is a police station on High Street, one block west of the hotel. Go out the front door of the hotel. Go West on High Street. Go straight through the intersection. Its the second building on the left. These are the four directions: North, East, South, and West. feedback (for wrong choices in Quiz) You should have turned right at the intersection. You should have turned left at the corner. You turned right, but you should have turned left. You turned, but you should have kept on going. You went west on High Street, but you should have gone east. You went too far. You didn't go far enough. You went in the wrong direction when you left the hotel. You're on the wrong side of the street. You're on the wrong corner.

2,Spatial Relations This is the upper left-hand corner. This is the second square from the left in the top row. This is the middle of the top row. This is the top row, second square from the right. This is the upper right-hand corner. This is the top right corner. This is the first square in the middle row. This square is on the far left of the middle row. This is the second square from the left in the middle row. This square is second from the right in the middle row. This square is in the center of the middle row. . Grid Quiz What time is shown in the upper left-hand corner? It says 10:15. Which animal is in the top row, second from the left? This is a monkey. What color is the flower in the middle of the top row? Its yellow. Which person is second from the left in the middle row? What does the clock in the lower left-hand corner say? What animal is in the bottom row, second from the right? What is in the center of the middle row?

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