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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF RUHUNA

DEVELOPMENT

PROGRAMME

AUTO CAD

RPGD Rathnaweera

RUHUNA DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME AUTO CAD RPGD Rathnaweera 2008 F A C U L T Y O

2008

DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME AUTO CAD RPGD Rathnaweera 2008 F A C U L T Y O F
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME AUTO CAD RPGD Rathnaweera 2008 F A C U L T Y O F

F A C U L T Y

O F

E N G I N E E

R I N G ,

G A L L E ,

S R I

L A N K A

Development Programme

2008

Computer Aided Drafting using AutoCAD

1.0 CAD and AutoCAD

Commonly, CAD stands for computer Aided Drafting which is used to produce technical drawings using a computer. Today with the development of computer industry, there are many types of software developed for computer Aided Drafting. AutoCAD is one of the leading and most popular software used in the industry.

1.1 Special Features of AutoCAD

Gives greater accuracy compared to the traditional hand drafting methods

Automatic Dimensioning with customized tools

Layer Properties

Zooming of the Drawing or Part of the Drawing

Ability to attach textural information

1.2 Recommended Hardware

List below are the hardware requirements for running AutoCAD 2007 on any system.

Pentium IV (800 MHZ) or higher

512 MB RAM

1024 X 768 VGA with true color

Installation 550 MB hard-disk space

Pointing device (Mouse)

CD-ROM Drive

Windows XP Professional / Windows 2000 with SP3 or SP4

1.3 The first look at AutoCAD

Launching AutoCAD is very simple. Double-click the application by clicking

is very simple. Double-click the application by clicking shortcut icon or start the Start » »

shortcut icon or start the

Start »»»» Programs »»»» Autodesk »»»» AutoCAD 2007 »»»» AutoCAD 2007

After a few moments, you could see the AutoCAD 2007 interface as shown in the following figure.

could see the AutoCAD 2007 interface as shown in the following figure. Faculty of Engineering, Galle,
could see the AutoCAD 2007 interface as shown in the following figure. Faculty of Engineering, Galle,

Development Programme

2008

Title Bar Properties Toolbar Standard Toolbar Menu Bar Draw Toolbar Cross Hair Drawing Area UCS
Title Bar
Properties Toolbar
Standard Toolbar
Menu Bar
Draw Toolbar
Cross Hair
Drawing Area
UCS Icon
Command Prompt Window
Scroll bars
Layout Tabs
Coordinate Display
Status Bar

Figure 01: Graphical user Interface (GUI) of AutoCAD 2007

1.4 The Pull-down Menus The Pull-down menus available on the menu bar offer a quicker way to access the commands and functions are the heart of AutoCAD 2007.

the commands and functions are the heart of AutoCAD 2007. Figure 02: Pull-down menu Faculty of

Figure 02: Pull-down menu

and functions are the heart of AutoCAD 2007. Figure 02: Pull-down menu Faculty of Engineering, Galle,
and functions are the heart of AutoCAD 2007. Figure 02: Pull-down menu Faculty of Engineering, Galle,

Development Programme

2008

1.5 Creating a ew Drawing

When you start a new drawing, follow the following steps.

File » ew from the Pull-down menu or click on the

Then following Select Template dialogue box will appear

the Then following Select Template dialogue box will appear icon on the Standard toolbar. Figure 03:

icon on the Standard toolbar.

dialogue box will appear icon on the Standard toolbar. Figure 03: Select Template Dialogue Box A

Figure 03: Select Template Dialogue Box

A drawing template file contains standard settings. You can select one of the template files supplied, or create your own template files. Drawing template files have a .dwt file extension. By default, drawing template files are stored in the template folder.

For the starting, select “acad.dwt” template

The behavior of the NEW command is determined by the Startup setting on the system tab of the options dialog box.

Startup setting on the system tab of the options dialog box. By default, “ Do not

By default, “Do not show a startup dialog” option is selected in the system tab of the options dialog box. When you select the “show Startup dialog box” option, AutoCAD displays the Startup dialog box as shown below.

box” option, AutoCAD displays the Startup dialog box as shown below. Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri
box” option, AutoCAD displays the Startup dialog box as shown below. Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri

Development Programme

2008

Development Programme 2008 Figure 04: Startup dialogue box Imperial Starts a new drawing based on the

Figure 04: Startup dialogue box

Imperial Starts a new drawing based on the Imperial measurement system. The default drawing boundary (the drawing limits) is 12× 9 inches.

Metric Starts a new drawing based on the Metric measurement system. The default drawing boundary (the drawing limits) is 420× 297 millimeters.

1.6 Opening a Drawing

File » Open from the Pull-down menu or icon from Standard tool bar. Then following Select file dialogue box will appear. There you can select the location of the file and open it.

There you can select the location of the file and open it. Figure 05: Select file

Figure 05: Select file dialogue box

location of the file and open it. Figure 05: Select file dialogue box Faculty of Engineering,
location of the file and open it. Figure 05: Select file dialogue box Faculty of Engineering,

Development Programme

2008

1.7 Saving a Drawing

File » Save/Save As…

AutoCAD displays the save Drawing As standard file selection dialog box. Then you can select the exact file saving folder and enter the file name and save the drawing.

1.8 Closing a Drawing

File » Close

AutoCAD closes the current drawing; if there have been no changes since the drawing was last saved. If you have modified the drawing, AutoCAD prompts you to save or discard the changes.

You can close a file that has been opened in Read-Only mode when you have not made any changes or willing to discard changes. To save changes to a read-only file, you must use the SAVEAS command.

Close all

Window » Close All

When you invoke this command, a message box is displayed for each unsaved drawing, in which you can save any changes to the drawing before closing it.

Quit/exit

File » Quit/Exit

Quits AutoCAD if there have been no changes in all opened drawing since the drawings were last saved. If the drawing has been modified, AutoCAD displays the Drawing modification dialog box to prompt you to save or discard the changes before quiting.

1.9 Giving Commands

You can give commands in AutoCAD several ways. Following methods are the most frequently used methods.

1. By typing the commands on the Command prompt. This is located below the drawing area.

2. Through Pull-down Menu: you can select the command on Pull-down menu and just click on it to activate the command.

3. Through the Tool bars

and just click on it to activate the command. 3. Through the Tool bars Faculty of
and just click on it to activate the command. 3. Through the Tool bars Faculty of

Development Programme

2008

2.0 Basic Geometrical Shapes

2.1.1 Drawing of Lines

Draw »»»» Line

Shapes 2.1.1 Drawing of Lines Draw » » » » Line Line command allows you to

Line command allows you to create a line where the end points are specified by two-dimensional or three-dimensional co-ordinates.

Command: _line Specify first point: Use one of the point fixing methods Specify next point or [Undo]: Use one of the point fixing methods Specify next point or [Undo]: Use one of the point fixing methods Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: Use one of the point fixing methods Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: Use one of the point fixing methods or Press

to terminate the command

Undo You can undo the most recently drawn line segments by entering the key U in specify next point:

Prompt

CloseCloseCloseClose

Close option joints the very last point with the very first point in the series of line segments that you had drawn using the line command, thus forming a closed shape.

Coordinate systems in AutoCAD

All drawings are superimposed on an invisible grid, or coordinate system, with horizontal X-axis and a vertical Y-axis.

(5,6) (8,6) (5,4) (2,4) (8,2) (2,2)
(5,6)
(8,6)
(5,4)
(2,4)
(8,2)
(2,2)
X-axis and a vertical Y-axis. (5,6) (8,6) (5,4) (2,4) (8,2) (2,2) Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri
X-axis and a vertical Y-axis. (5,6) (8,6) (5,4) (2,4) (8,2) (2,2) Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri

Development Programme

2008

Absolute Co-ordinate System (x, y)

To enter an absolute coordinate, specify a point by entering its X and Y values in the format X, Y. the following sequence of coordinates showing how to draw a triangle using absolute coordinates.

Command: _line Specify first point: 3, 3 Specify next point or [Undo]: 7, 3 Specify next point or [Undo]: 5, 5 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: c

5,5

or [Undo]: 5, 5 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: c 5,5 3 , 3 7,3 Relative
or [Undo]: 5, 5 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: c 5,5 3 , 3 7,3 Relative

3,3

7,3

Relative Rectangular Co-ordinate System (@x distance, y distance)

Use relative coordinates when you know the position of a point with respect to the previous point. The relative rectangular coordinate is represented in the following format.

Command: _line Specify first point: 2, 2

Specify next point or [Undo]: @ 4, 0 Specify next point or [Undo]: @ 0, 4 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @ -2, 0 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @ 0, -2 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @ -2, 0 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: c

@-2,0

@0,4

@0,-2
@0,-2
@0,-2

@0,-2

@-2,0

2,2

@4,0

NB: Distance is measured +Ve towards right and up and it is measured –Ve towards left and down

Relative Polar Co-ordinate System (@ distance < angle)

Polar coordinate system uses a distance and an angle with reference to the previous point to locate a point. Angles measured in anti-clock wise direction.

The relative polar coordinate is represented in the following format:

Command: _line Specify first point: 2, 3

Specify next point or [Undo]: @ 4< 0 Specify next point or [Undo]: @ 4< 90 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @ 4< 180 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: c

@4<180

180 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: c @4<180 @4<90 2,3 @4<0 Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri

@4<90

2,3

@4<0

Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: c @4<180 @4<90 2,3 @4<0 Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri Lanka
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: c @4<180 @4<90 2,3 @4<0 Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri Lanka

Development Programme

2008

2.1.2 Drawing of Circles

Development Programme 2008 2.1.2 Drawing of Circles Draw » » » » Circle » » »

Draw »»»» Circle »»»» [options]

You can create circles in several ways. The default method is to specify a center and radius. AutoCAD also provides 3 more methods to draw circles which are discussed below.

Command: _circle Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]:

Use one of the points fixing methods or enter an option

Center, Radius / Center, Diameter

This allows drawing a circle based on the center point and radius or diameter.

Specify radius of circle or [Diameter]: Enter radius value or enter D for diameter option.

3 Points

Enter radius value or enter D for diameter option. 3 Points Command: _circle Specify center point
Enter radius value or enter D for diameter option. 3 Points Command: _circle Specify center point

Command: _circle Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]: 3p Specify first point on circle: Use one of the points fixing methods Specify second point on circle: Use one of the points fixing methods Specify third point on circle: Use one of the points fixing methods

P3 P2 P1
P3
P2
P1
third point on circle: Use one of the points fixing methods P3 P2 P1 Faculty of
third point on circle: Use one of the points fixing methods P3 P2 P1 Faculty of

Development Programme

2008

2 Points

Command: _circle Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]: 2p Specify first end point of circle's diameter: Use one of the points fixing methods Specify second end point of circle's diameter: Use one of the points fixing methods

Tangent, Tangent, Radius

P1
P1

P2

Command: _circle Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]: ttr Specify point on object for first tangent of circle: select an object Specify point on object for second tangent of circle: select an object Specify radius of circle <1.0000>: Enter a value

Specify radius of circle <1.0000>: Enter a value 2.1.3 Drawing of Rectangles Tangent objects Draw »

2.1.3 Drawing of Rectangles

<1.0000>: Enter a value 2.1.3 Drawing of Rectangles Tangent objects Draw » » » » Rectangle

Tangent objects

Draw »»»» Rectangle

Command: _rectang Specify first corner point or [Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width]: Use one of the points fixing methods Specify other corner point or [Area/Dimensions/Rotation]: Use one of the points fixing methods

You can draw rectangles in several methods by invoking options within “[]” brackets. For example AutoCAD will facilitate to draw chamfered or fillet rectangles.

example AutoCAD will facilitate to draw chamfered or fillet rectangles. Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri Lanka
example AutoCAD will facilitate to draw chamfered or fillet rectangles. Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri Lanka

Development Programme

2008

Development Programme 2008 Normal Rectangle Fillet Rectangle 2.1.4 Drawing of Arcs Draw » » » »

Normal Rectangle

Development Programme 2008 Normal Rectangle Fillet Rectangle 2.1.4 Drawing of Arcs Draw » » » »

Fillet Rectangle

2.1.4 Drawing of Arcs

2008 Normal Rectangle Fillet Rectangle 2.1.4 Drawing of Arcs Draw » » » » Arc »

Draw »»»» Arc »»»» [options]

Draw » » » » Arc » » » » [options] Chamfered Rectangle Rectangle with line

Chamfered Rectangle

» Arc » » » » [options] Chamfered Rectangle Rectangle with line width .2’ Arc command

Rectangle with line width .2’

Arc command allows you to create an arc segment. Arcs created by AutoCAD are circular which form a part of a circle. There are different methods of creating an arc, as illustrated below. The default method is to specify the circumference with three points.

Command: arc Specify start point of arc or [Center]: Use one of the points fixing methods Specify second point of arc or [Center/End]: Use one of the points fixing methods Specify end point of arc: Use one of the points fixing methods

End Point

point of arc: Use one of the points fixing methods End Point Start Point Arc Direction

Start Point

Use one of the points fixing methods End Point Start Point Arc Direction Tangent Direction You
Use one of the points fixing methods End Point Start Point Arc Direction Tangent Direction You

Arc Direction

Tangent Direction

End Point Start Point Arc Direction Tangent Direction You can draw arc by using various methods
End Point Start Point Arc Direction Tangent Direction You can draw arc by using various methods

You can draw arc by using various methods and the commands can invoke from menu tool bar as shown in above.

and the commands can invoke from menu tool bar as shown in above. Faculty of Engineering,
and the commands can invoke from menu tool bar as shown in above. Faculty of Engineering,

Development Programme

2008

2.1.5 Drawing of Ellipse

Development Programme 2008 2.1.5 Drawing of Ellipse Draw » » » » Ellipse » » »

Draw »»»» Ellipse »»»» [options]

AutoCAD helps drawing a perfect ellipse or elliptical curve using this command. There are two different ways drawing an ellipse:

1. Define the full length of length of one axis and half length of other axis.

2. Define the center point of the ellipse ( the point where to axes intersect with each other) and half length of other two axes

Command: _ellipse Specify axis endpoint of ellipse or [Arc/Center]: Use one of the points fixing methods Specify other endpoint of axis: Use one of the points fixing methods Specify distance to other axis or [Rotation]: Use one of the points fixing methods

Command: _ellipse Specify axis endpoint of ellipse or [Arc/Center]: c Specify center of ellipse: Use one of the points fixing methods Specify endpoint of axis: Use one of the points fixing methods Specify distance to other axis or [Rotation]: Use one of the points fixing methods

P3 P1 Other Axis Distance
P3
P1
Other Axis Distance

Ellipse by axis endpoints

2.1.6 Drawing of Polygon

Distance Ellipse by axis endpoints 2.1.6 Drawing of Polygon P3 P2 P1 P2 Other Axis Distance
P3 P2 P1 P2 Other Axis Distance
P3
P2
P1
P2
Other Axis Distance

Ellipse by axis Centre

Using Polygon command you can draw geometrical shapes with number of sides varying between 3 and 1024 also it creates a regular polygon.

Command: _polygon Enter number of sides <4>: Enter a positive integer (3-1024) Specify center of polygon or [Edge]: Specify a point or enter e Enter an option [Inscribed in circle/Circumscribed about circle] <I>: Enter I or C Specify radius of circle: Specify radius of the imaginary circle

I or C Specify radius of circle: Specify radius of the imaginary circle Faculty of Engineering,
I or C Specify radius of circle: Specify radius of the imaginary circle Faculty of Engineering,
I or C Specify radius of circle: Specify radius of the imaginary circle Faculty of Engineering,

Development Programme

2008

Inscribed in Circle

Specifies the radius of a circle on which all vertices of the polygon lie

radius of a circle on which all vertices of the polygon lie Circumscribed about Circle Specifies

Circumscribed about Circle

Specifies the distance from the center of the polygon to the midpoints of the edges of the polygon

When you select Edge option

of the edges of the polygon When you select Edge option Defines a polygon by specifying

Defines a polygon by specifying the endpoints of the first edge

Specify first endpoint of edge: Specify a point (1) Specify second endpoint of edge: Specify a point (2)

(1) Specify second endpoint of edge: Specify a point (2) 3.0 Supportive tools to construction 3.1

3.0 Supportive tools to construction

3.1 Drawing Limits

Format »»»» Drawing Limits

The drawing limits are two-dimensional points in the world coordinate system that represent a lower-left limit and an upper-right limit. You cannot impose limits on the Z direction.

Command: limits Reset Model space limits:

Specify lower left corner or [ON/OFF] <0.0000, 0.0000>: Use one of the point fixing methods Specify upper right corner <12.0000, 9.0000>: Use one of the point fixing methods

3.2 Units

Format »»»» Units

AutoCAD displays the drawing units dialog box. Then you can select an option according to your preference.

dialog box. Then you can select an option according to your preference. Faculty of Engineering, Galle,
dialog box. Then you can select an option according to your preference. Faculty of Engineering, Galle,

Development Programme

2008

3.2 DSettings

Tools »»»» Drafting Settings…

This command provides some of the drawing aids to create the drawing at faster pace. When you invoke this command AutoCAD displays the Drafting Settings dialog box.

command AutoCAD displays the Drafting Settings dialog box. This dialog box contains four tabs but most

This dialog box contains four tabs but most important one is Object Snap tab for beginners. Object snaps constrain point specification to exact locations, such as midpoint or an intersection, on existing objects. Using object snaps, you can locate an exact position on an object without knowing the coordinate or by drawing construction lines.

3.2 Status Bar

coordinate or by drawing construction lines. 3.2 Status Bar 3.2.1 S AP SNAP command causes the

3.2.1 S AP

SNAP command causes the crosshairs to move in an imaginary grid so that the crosshairs locked on the intersection of the grid. You can select snap option either clicking S AP icon on status bar or by pressing F9 key. The snap spacing can be changed by changing the parameters of the snap option of Drafting Settings dialog box shown in above. Using the command SNAP also, you can select option.

3.2.2 GRID

GRID command will allow you to display grid over your drawing area specified by the limits. The spacing can be changed by the “Drafting Settings” dialog box which displays when you right click on the GRID icon on the status bar. The GRID command can be enabled/disabled by clicking on the GRID icon or by pressing F7 key

enabled/disabled by clicking on the GRID icon or by pressing F7 key Faculty of Engineering, Galle,
enabled/disabled by clicking on the GRID icon or by pressing F7 key Faculty of Engineering, Galle,

Development Programme

2008

3.2.3 ORTHO

ORTHO command is used with LINE command. It ensures all the lines are constructed orthogonal to the current snap grid. You can select ORTHO mode either clicking “ORTHO” button on the status bar or by pressing F8 key.

3.2.4 POLAR

POLAR command allows you to select angle measurements when drawing. The increment angle can be changed by using “Drafting settings” dialog box. You can select POLAR mode either clicking “POLAR” button on the status bar or by pressing F10 key

3.2.5 OS AP

OSNAP command allows you to snap objects at to various points given under “Drafting settings”. You can select OS AP mode either clicking “OSNAP” button on the status bar or by pressing F3 key.

4.0 Editing Commands

4.1 Selecting Objects

To activate the editing command first you need to select the object. AutoCAD gives you several methods to select the objects some of the very important methods explained as follows.

By pointing – When “Select objects”, is prompted, a small square is appeared on the screen instead crosshairs. What you have to do is just give a mouse click on which the object to be selected. Then the object will be selected and appears in dashed lines.

the object will be selected and appears in dashed lines. Select A only • By a

Select A only

By a Window – If you reply with “W” then you will be asked to give two opposite corners of a window. Using this method you have to select the window such a way that the object is totally enclosed by the window.

a way that the object is totally enclosed by the window. Selects D & E Faculty

Selects D & E

that the object is totally enclosed by the window. Selects D & E Faculty of Engineering,
that the object is totally enclosed by the window. Selects D & E Faculty of Engineering,

Development Programme

2008

• • • • • • 4.2 By a crossing Window – If you reply with

4.2

By a crossing Window – If you reply with “U” then you will be asked to give two opposite corners of a window. Here, any object which enclosed or touched by the window will be selected.

asked to give two opposite corners of a window. Here, any object which enclosed or touched

Selects A C D E

Remove – Suppose you want to remove an object while you are selecting the objects. Then you can remove that object by simply typing “R” and deselect the object by clicking on it.

Add – After removing objects, you can return to select object prompt by typing “A”

Fence – By typing “F” you can specify a fence. All the objects which crossed by the fence will be selected. The fence is specified by giving points.

Undo - Deselect the last selected object

Last – Selects the last object drawn.

ERASE

Modify »»»» Erase

This allows you to remove the selected objects from the AutoCAD drawing.

Command: _erase Select objects: Pick an object to delete

Select objects: Pick an object or to terminate the command

4.3 OOPS

This command restores the objects which have been erased by last ERASE command.

Command: oops

4.4 U DO (cont+z)

This command simply undoes the previously executed command.

4.5 REDO (cont+y)

This command will activate after undo have been performed.

4.6 COPY

Modify »»»» Copy

This command will enable user to create duplicates of the object without changing the original

object. (Without changing the position, dimension, properties, etc)

object. (Without changing the position, dimension, properties, etc) Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri Lanka Page 16
object. (Without changing the position, dimension, properties, etc) Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri Lanka Page 16

Development Programme

2008

Command: _copy

Select objects: Select object to copy

Select objects:

Specify base point or [Displacement] <Displacement>: Specify a base point

Specify second point or <use first point as displacement>: Specify the

destination

Specify second point or [Exit/Undo] <Exit>:

4.7 MOVE

Base Point

Base Point

Copied objects
Copied objects

Modify »»»» Move

This command will enable you to move selected objects after you specified the source and

destination.

Command: _move Select objects: Use one of the object selection method Select objects: Specify base point or [Displacement] <Displacement>: Use one of the points fixing method or displacement Specify second point or <use first point as displacement>: Use one of the points fixing method or press

4.8 ROTATE

Modify ► Rotate

In two dimensional drawings, ROTATE command is used to rotate the objects about a specified

angle.

Command: _rotate Current positive angle in UCS: ANGDIR=counterclockwise ANGBASE=0 Select objects: Select the object Select objects: Specify base point: Select a base point Specify rotation angle or [Copy/Reference] <0>: Enter required angle

A

B

D

or [Copy/Reference] <0>: Enter required angle A B D C O r i g i n
or [Copy/Reference] <0>: Enter required angle A B D C O r i g i n

C

Original Object

angle A B D C O r i g i n a l O b j

D C

angle A B D C O r i g i n a l O b j

A B

After rotating 90 deg

Base Point B Angle of Rotation = 90

c t D C A B After rotating 90 deg Base Point B Angle of Rotation
c t D C A B After rotating 90 deg Base Point B Angle of Rotation

Development Programme

2008

4.9 MIRROR

Modify ► Mirror

At times we need to create objects that are symmetrical about a particular axis. In such cases

MIRROR command comes in handy. Here you can either keep the original object or erase.

Command: _mirror Select objects: Select the object

Select objects: Specify first point of mirror line: Use one of the points fixing method Specify second point of mirror line: Use one of the points fixing method Erase source objects? [Yes/No] <N>: choose your option or

4.10 OFFSET

D

C

[Yes/No] <N>: choose your option or 4.10 OFFSET D C E O r i g i

E

Original Object

A

AB = Mirror Line

Mirror Image = FGH

B

D

A C E B Mirror Image and Original Object
A
C
E
B
Mirror Image and
Original Object

F

FGH B D A C E B Mirror Image and Original Object F H G Modify

H

G

Modify ► Offset

Offset creates a new object at a specified distance from a existing object or through a specified

point. The selected objects such as polygons, which are closed, might be get scaled up or down uniformly.

Command: _offset Current settings: Erase source=No Layer=Source OFFSETGAPTYPE=0 Specify offset distance or [Through/Erase/Layer] <Through>: Specify a distance Select object to offset or [Exit/Undo] <Exit>: Pick the object to offset Specify point on side to offset or [Exit/Multiple/Undo] <Exit>: pick a point Select object to offset or [Exit/Undo] <Exit>:

4.11 BREAK

Modify ► Break

This command allows you to remove part of an object or break at a point.

Command: _break Select object: select the object to be break Specify second break point or [First point]: f Specify first break point: Use one of the point fixing methods Specify second break point: Use one of the point fixing methods

methods Specify second break point: Use one of the point fixing methods Faculty of Engineering, Galle,
methods Specify second break point: Use one of the point fixing methods Faculty of Engineering, Galle,

Development Programme

2008

4.12 SCALE

Development Programme 2008 4.12 SCALE P1 P2 Before break After break Modify ► Scale Scale command
Development Programme 2008 4.12 SCALE P1 P2 Before break After break Modify ► Scale Scale command

P1

P2

Before break

After break

Modify ► Scale

Scale command enlarges or reduces the selected objects in the X, Y and Z directions.

Command: _scale Select objects: Use one of the object selecting method Select objects: Specify base point: Use one of the point fixing method Specify scale factor or [Copy/Reference] <1.0000>: Enter scale factor

or [Copy/Reference] <1.0000>: Enter scale factor Scale Factor 0.5 4.13 ARRAY Original Object Scale Factor 2

Scale Factor 0.5

4.13 ARRAY

Original Object

scale factor Scale Factor 0.5 4.13 ARRAY Original Object Scale Factor 2 Modify ► Array… When
scale factor Scale Factor 0.5 4.13 ARRAY Original Object Scale Factor 2 Modify ► Array… When
scale factor Scale Factor 0.5 4.13 ARRAY Original Object Scale Factor 2 Modify ► Array… When
scale factor Scale Factor 0.5 4.13 ARRAY Original Object Scale Factor 2 Modify ► Array… When

Scale Factor 2

Modify ► Array…

When you need to make multiply copies of an object ARRAY command comes in handy. After you invoke the command it displays array dialog box where you can set the number of rows, number of columns etc. Also it allows you to preview and modify the data set, prior to committing

to the array.

Command: array

modify the data set, prior to committing to the array. Command: array Faculty of Engineering, Galle,
modify the data set, prior to committing to the array. Command: array Faculty of Engineering, Galle,
modify the data set, prior to committing to the array. Command: array Faculty of Engineering, Galle,
modify the data set, prior to committing to the array. Command: array Faculty of Engineering, Galle,

Development Programme

2008

4.14 TRIM

Modify ► Trim

Using this command you can cut and erase objects (straight lines, arcs etc.) across the specified points on that objects. This is useful when you want to ensure one object touches with the other one.

Command: _trim Current settings: Projection=UCS, Edge=None Select cutting edges Select objects or <select all>: Use one of the object selection method Select objects: Select object to trim or shift-select to extend or [Fence/Crossing/Project/Edge/eRase/Undo]: Select the object to be trimmed

4.15 EXTE D

Objects to

Trim Cutting Edges
Trim
Cutting
Edges

Before Trim

4.15 EXTE D Objects to Trim Cutting Edges Before Trim After Trim Modify ► Extend EXTEND
4.15 EXTE D Objects to Trim Cutting Edges Before Trim After Trim Modify ► Extend EXTEND
4.15 EXTE D Objects to Trim Cutting Edges Before Trim After Trim Modify ► Extend EXTEND
4.15 EXTE D Objects to Trim Cutting Edges Before Trim After Trim Modify ► Extend EXTEND
4.15 EXTE D Objects to Trim Cutting Edges Before Trim After Trim Modify ► Extend EXTEND
4.15 EXTE D Objects to Trim Cutting Edges Before Trim After Trim Modify ► Extend EXTEND
4.15 EXTE D Objects to Trim Cutting Edges Before Trim After Trim Modify ► Extend EXTEND

After Trim

Modify ► Extend

EXTEND command elongates an object to a boundary. This command facilitates you to extend an

object to a boundary defined by other objects.

Command: _extend Current settings: Projection=UCS, Edge=None Select boundary edges Select objects or <select all>: Use one of the object selection method Select objects: Select object to extend or shift-select to trim or [Fence/Crossing/Project/Edge/Undo]: Select object to be extend

4.16 STRETCH

Modify ► Stretch

Sometimes we encounter the situations where it is required to change the size of an object in one

direction only. In such situations, AutoCAD provides a command called STRETCH which stretches or compresses the selected objects according to the user’s preference.

compresses the selected objects according to the user’s preference. Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri Lanka Page
compresses the selected objects according to the user’s preference. Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri Lanka Page

Development Programme

2008

Command: _stretch Select objects to stretch by crossing-window or crossing-polygon Select objects: Select objects by any crossing object selection method Specify base point or [Displacement] <Displacement>: Use one of the points fixing method Specify second point or <use first point as displacement>: Use one of the points fixing method

4.17 FILLET

Modify ► Fillet This command allows you to create rounded edges between two objects. When you invoking the fillet command you must remember to set the fillet radius by selecting the “Radius” option. Also you have to decide whether you trim the edges by selecting “Trim” option.

Command: _fillet Current settings: Mode = TRIM, Radius = 2.0000 Select first object or [Undo/Polyline/Radius/Trim/Multiple]: Select first object Select second object or shift-select to apply corner: Select second object

4.18 CHAMFER

Modify ► Chamfer

This command is used to create bevel corners formed by two non parallel lines.

Command: _chamfer (TRIM mode) Current chamfer Length = 2.0000, Angle = 60 Select first line or [Undo/Polyline/Distance/Angle/Trim/mEthod/Multiple]: Select first object Select second line or shift-select to apply corner: Select second object

4.19 JOI

Modify ► Join

This command helps you to join the individual segments of lines, arcs, elliptical arcs and splines

into a single object.

Joining a line

Command: _join Select source object: Select the first object (P1) Select lines to join to source: 1 found Select lines to join to source: Select the second object (P2) 1 line joined to source

P1 P2
P1
P2

Before

Joining an arc

Command: _join Select source object: Select the arc Select arcs to join to source or [cLose]: L Arc converted to a circle.

Before
Before
to source or [cLose]: L Arc converted to a circle. Before After After Faculty of Engineering,

After

After

to source or [cLose]: L Arc converted to a circle. Before After After Faculty of Engineering,
to source or [cLose]: L Arc converted to a circle. Before After After Faculty of Engineering,

Development Programme

2008

4.19 EXPLODE

Modify ► Explode

This command helps you to breaks a compound object into its component objects.

Command: _explode Select objects: Select the object to be exploded Select objects:

4.21 LE GTHE

Modify ► Lengthen

This command can be used to check or change the length of an object.

Command:LENGTHEN Select an object or [DElta/Percent/Total/DYnamic]: Select one option inside the square bracket to change the length

If you select an object without selecting any option AutoCAD show you the current length of that object or the included angle. To change the length or angle, you must select one of the options.

5.0 Display Control Commands

5.1 Zoom

View ► Zoom ► [options]

This command enlarges or reduces the view of the drawing. When we are working on a drawing it

is always required to bring the area of our interest to focus on to the screen.

Command: ZOOM Specify corner of window, enter a scale factor (nX or nXP), or [All/Center/Dynamic/Extents/Previous/Scale/Window/Object] <real time>: Enter an option Regenerating model.

Options

All: This zooms to display the entire drawing in the current viewport Center: Zooms to display a window defined by a center point and magnification value or height Dynamic: Zooms to display the generated portion of the drawing with a view box Extent: Zoom the current window to largest possible size to fill the screen Previous: Zooms to display the previous view Scale: Zooms the display at a specified scale factor Window: Zooms to display an area specified by two diagonally opposite corner points of a rectangular window Object: Zooms to display one or more selected objects as large as possible Realtime: The cursor changes to a magnifying glass with plus(+) and minus (-) signs

cursor changes to a magnifying glass with plus(+) and minus (-) signs Faculty of Engineering, Galle,
cursor changes to a magnifying glass with plus(+) and minus (-) signs Faculty of Engineering, Galle,

Development Programme

2008

5.2 PA

View ► Pan ►Real Time/ Point / Left / Right / Up / Down

This command allows you to move the drawing without changing magnification or dimention

Command: pan

Press ESC or ENTER to exit, or right-click to display shortcut menu.

5.3 REGE

View ► Regen

Regen regenerates the entire drawing and recomputes the screen coordinates for all objects. Regen

command used to make curves smooth after zooming. If the REGENAUTO feature is enabled, regeneration will be performed automatically.

is enabled, regeneration will be performed automatically. Before Regeneration After Regeneration 6.0 Create and Manage

Before Regeneration

will be performed automatically. Before Regeneration After Regeneration 6.0 Create and Manage annotation in

After Regeneration

6.0 Create and Manage annotation in AutoCAD

6.1 TEXT

Draw ► Text ►Single Line Text

Text conveys the meaningful information in your drawing. We use text for title blocks, to label

parts of the drawing, to give specifications, or make annotations. You can format text as

Command: _text Current text style: "Standard” Text height: 0.2000 Specify start point of text or [Justify/Style]: Use one of the point fixing methods or enter an option Specify height <0.2000>: Enter a positive value Specify rotation angle of text <0>: Enter an angle

Start point
Start point

6.2 MTEXT

Draw ► Text ►Multiline Text…

Text in the form of paragraphs, can be effectively generated in AutoCAD with this tool. The user- specified text boundary determines the width of the paragraph and the justification of text within the paragraph. Each multiline text object is a single object, regardless of the number of lines it contain.

is a single object, regardless of the number of lines it contain. Faculty of Engineering, Galle,
is a single object, regardless of the number of lines it contain. Faculty of Engineering, Galle,

Development Programme

2008

Command: _mtext Current text style: "Standard" Text height: 0.2000 Specify first corner: Use one of the point fixing methods Specify opposite corner or [Height/Justify/Line spacing/Rotation/Style/Width]:

Use one of the point fixing methods or enter an option

After you specify the second corner, AutoCAD displays the Multiline Text Editor Dialog box. The Multiline Text Editor includes a Text formatting toolbar and a shortcut menu.

includes a Text formatting toolbar and a shortcut menu. 6.3 STYLE Format ► Text Style… STYLE

6.3 STYLE

Format ► Text Style…

STYLE command is used to create user defined text styles.

STYLE command is used to create user defined text styles. AutoCAD provides a default text style

AutoCAD provides a default text style called STANDARD. Users can define their own text style by choosing a font from the listed font files and applying the desired effect such as width factor and oblique angle.

6.4 TABLE

Draw ► Table…

The TABLE command opens the insert table dialog box.

Draw ► Table… The TABLE command opens the insert table dialog box. Faculty of Engineering, Galle,
Draw ► Table… The TABLE command opens the insert table dialog box. Faculty of Engineering, Galle,
Draw ► Table… The TABLE command opens the insert table dialog box. Faculty of Engineering, Galle,

Development Programme

2008

7.0 Managing Properties of Objects

7.1 COLOR

Format ► Color…

AutoCAD displays the select color dialog box

Command: COLOR

AutoCAD displays the select color dialog box Command: COLOR You can select any color from the

You can select any color from the color pallets

7.2 LI ETYPE

Format ► Linetype…

AutoCAD gives you several number of standard line types, which are saved in a library. Normally a line type is a repeating pattern of dashes, dots and blank spaces. Using different line types enables you to show more information for the uses of your drawings. When you invoke the command Line Type Manager dialog box will appear and you can load line types by clicking on Load button. Also you can set each line type current by clicking on Current button of the Line Type Manager dialog box.

Command: linetype

Current button of the Line Type Manager dialog box. Command: linetype Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri
Current button of the Line Type Manager dialog box. Command: linetype Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri
Current button of the Line Type Manager dialog box. Command: linetype Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri

Development Programme

2008

7.3 LWEIGHT

Format ► Lineweight…

Generally line weights add width to your object both in your screen and paper when plotting. Using

line weights when you draw objects you can create heavy and thin objects so that you can easily differentiate between each. When you invoke the command Lineweight Settings dialog box will appear. Then you can select which ever the line weight you want.

Command: lweight

select which ever the line weight you want. Command: lweight 7.4 LAYER Format ► Layer… One

7.4 LAYER

Format ► Layer…

One of the very important features of AutoCAD is having the facility of using different layers in your drawing. It helps to draw more several complex drawings in a single drawing using layer properties and it highly save the time and also it give proper understanding for users. For example, you can draw your building structure in several layers, electrical wiring in another several layers, A/C system in any other layers etc. when you refer the drawing, you can refer each individually by disabling other relevant layers. There are several properties of layers, those are explained below.

ame:

you can assign a name to each layer to distinguish it from other layers. Name can be up to 31 characters

Color:

You can assign a color to your layer

Line type:

This can be defined as the nature of the line assigned to the layer.

Line weight: This gives width to your object

Lock/Unlock: This feature is used to prevent the user from editing objects in the drawing. But these layers are visible in both screen and plot

On/Off:

When a layer is off, it is invisible but it functions for certain functions ZOOM, PAN, etc. Layers that are off are not plotted.

Freeze/Thaw: This is similar to On/Off and used when you work with view ports. You can off some layers in some view ports and on those layers in other view ports.

some layers in some view ports and on those layers in other view ports. Faculty of
some layers in some view ports and on those layers in other view ports. Faculty of

Development Programme

2008

When you invoke the command Layer Properties Manager dialog box will appear. Then you can create layers according to your preferences.

Then you can create layers according to your preferences. 8.0 Dimensioning Dimensioning is the process of

8.0 Dimensioning

Dimensioning is the process of adding measurement annotation to a drawing. AutoCAD provides many ways to dimension objects and many ways to format dimensions. Dimensions show the measurements of objects, the distances or angles between objects, or the distance of a feature from an origin specify.

8.1 DIMLI EAR

Dimension ► Linear

Command: _dimlinear Specify first extension line origin or <select object>: Pick the first extension line origin or press enter to pick the object

Specify second extension line origin: Pick the first extension line origin Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle/Horizontal/Vertical/Rotated]: Pick the location of dimension line or enter an option Dimension text = 7.4050

P1 P2
P1
P2

P3

of dimension line or enter an option Dimension text = 7.4050 P1 P2 P3 Faculty of
of dimension line or enter an option Dimension text = 7.4050 P1 P2 P3 Faculty of

Development Programme

2008

8.2 DIMALIG ED

Dimension ► Aligned

Command: _dimaligned Specify first extension line origin or <select object>: Pick the first extension line origin or press enter to pick the object Specify second extension line origin: Pick the first extension line origin Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]: Pick the location of dimension line or enter an option Dimension text = 1.4963

To activate the object selection option you have to press enter key.

P1 Object Selected
P1
Object Selected

8.3 DIMRADIUS

Dimension ► Radius

A radial dimension consists of a radius dimension line with an arrowhead at the arc or circle end.

Command: _dimradius Select arc or circle: Select the arc or circle which you need to have dimensioning Dimension text = 1.0000 Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]: Pick the location of dimension line or enter an option

Pick the location of dimension line or enter an option 8.4 DIMDIAMETER Dimension ► Diameter DIMDIAMETER
Pick the location of dimension line or enter an option 8.4 DIMDIAMETER Dimension ► Diameter DIMDIAMETER

8.4 DIMDIAMETER

Dimension ► Diameter

DIMDIAMETER draws different types of diameter dimensions depending on the size of the circle

or arc.

of diameter dimensions depending on the size of the circle or arc. Faculty of Engineering, Galle,
of diameter dimensions depending on the size of the circle or arc. Faculty of Engineering, Galle,
of diameter dimensions depending on the size of the circle or arc. Faculty of Engineering, Galle,

Development Programme

2008

8.5 DIMA GULAR

Dimension ► Angular

Command: _dimangular Select arc, circle, line, or <specify vertex>: Select the object or vertex

or <specify vertex>: Select the object or vertex 8.6 DIMBASELI E Dimension ► Baseline DIMBASELINE draws

8.6 DIMBASELI E

Dimension ► Baseline

DIMBASELINE draws a series of related dimensions measured from the same baseline. AutoCAD

offsets each new dimension line to avoid overlaying the previous dimension line.

Command: _dimbaseline Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>: Pick the second extension line origin or press Dimension text = 1.3610

extension line origin or press Dimension text = 1.3610 8.7 DIMCO TI UE Dimension ► Continue

8.7 DIMCO TI UE

Dimension ► Continue

DIMCONTINUE draws a series of related dimensions, such as several shorter dimensions that add up to the total measurement. Continued dimensioning is also known as chain dimensioning.

Command: _dimcontinue Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>: Pick the second extension line origin or press Dimension text = 2.4283

the second extension line origin or press Dimension text = 2.4283 Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri
the second extension line origin or press Dimension text = 2.4283 Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri

Development Programme

2008

Development Programme 2008 Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri Lanka Page 30
Development Programme 2008 Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri Lanka Page 30
Development Programme 2008 Faculty of Engineering, Galle, Sri Lanka Page 30