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Theory of Plates

Part 1: Plane Stress / Plane Strain

Lecture Notes Winter Semester

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Kai-Uwe Bletzinger

Lehrstuhl fr Statik Technische Universitt Mnchen

kub@bv.tum.de http://www.statik.bauwesen.tu-muenchen.de/

Many parts and figures of the present manuscript are taken from the German lecture notes on Platten by Prof. E. Ramm [9], University of Stuttgart.

Lehrstuhl fr Statik Technische Universitt Mnchen 80290 Mnchen October 2000

0 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................. 5

1 PLANE STRESS - PLANE STRAIN: IN-PLANE LOADED PLATES ..................................... 7 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5 1.4 1.5 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.11.1 1.11.2 1.11.3 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 9 STATE VARIABLES ...................................................................................................................... 9 PLANE STRESS ........................................................................................................................... 10 EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS.................................................................................................... 10 KINEMATIC EQUATIONS ....................................................................................................... 10 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS.................................................................................................. 11 COMPATIBILITY CONDITION ................................................................................................ 11 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION, AIRY STRESS FUNCTION ............................................................ 12 PLANE STRAIN ........................................................................................................................... 13 PRINCIPAL FORCES, PRINCIPAL FORCE TRAJECTORIES ........................................................ 15 PRINCIPAL FORCES AND DIRECTIONS................................................................................... 15 PRINCIPAL FORCE TRAJECTORIES ........................................................................................ 17 LOAD CARRYING BEHAVIOR .................................................................................................... 18 ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR THE PLANE STRESS PDE ........................................................ 22 APPROXIMATE SOLUTIONS, SCHLEEHS METHOD ................................................................. 24 CIRCULAR PLATES (PLANE STRESS) ........................................................................................ 34 THE PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL WORK ........................................................................................ 36 FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION............................................................................................. 38 SIMPLE 3- AND 4-NODE DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS .......................................................... 38 CONVERGENCE BEHAVIOR ................................................................................................ 40 MODELING ......................................................................................................................... 43

0 References
Books in English Language: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Gould, Philipp L.: Analysis of Shells and Plates. Springer Verlag New York, 1988. Pilkey, W.D., Wunderlich, W.: Mechanics of Structure: Variational and Computational Methods. CRC Press, 1994. Reddy, J. N.:Theory and Analysis of Elastic Plates. Taylor and Francis, London, 1999. Szilard, R.: Theory and Analysis of Plates. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1974. Timoshenko, S.P., Woinoswski-Krieger, S.: Theory of Plates and Shells. McGraw-Hill, 1987. (2. Aufl.) Zienkiewicz, O.C., Taylor, R.L.: The Finite Element Method. Vol. 1: Basis, Vol. 2: Solid Mechanics, Vol.3 Fluid Dynamics. 5. Auflage. Butterworth and Heinemann, 2000.

Plate theory (in German): [7] [8] [9] Girkmann, K.: Flchentragwerke. 6. Auflage. Springer-Verlag, Wien, 1963 Marguerre, K., Woernle, H.T.: Elastische Platten, BI Wissenschaftsverlag, Mannheim, 1975. Ramm, E.: Flchentragwerke: Platten. Vorlesungsmanuskript, Institut fr Baustatik, Universitt Stuttgart, 1995.

[10] Hake, E. und Meskouris, K.: Statik der Flchentragwerke, Springer, 2001. Finite Element Method (in German): [11] Werkle, H.: Finite Elemente in der Baustatik. Vieweg Verlag, Wiesbaden, 1995. [12] Bathe, K.-J.: Finite-Element-Methoden. Springer-Verlag, 1986. [13] Link, M.: Finite Elemente in der Statik und Dynamik. Teubner-Verlag, Stuttgart, 1984. [14] Ramm, E.: Finite Elemente fr Tragwerksberechnungen. Vorlesungsmanuskript, Institut fr Baustatik, Universitt Stuttgart, 1999. Tables (in German): [15] Czerny, F.: Tafeln fr vierseitig und dreiseitig gelagerte Rechteckplatten. Betonkalender, 1987 1990, 1993 I. Teil drillsteife Platten mit Gleichlast und linear vernderlicher Last [16] Pieper, K., Martens, P.: Durchlaufende vierseitig gesttzte Platten im Hochbau. Betonund Stahlbetonbau (1966) 6, S. 158-162, Beton- und Stahlbetonbau (1967) 6, S. 150151. [17] Pucher, A.: Einflufelder elastischer Platten. 2. Auflage. Springer-Verlag, Wien, 1958. 5

[18] Schneider, K.-J.: Bautabellen. 7. Auflage. Werner-Verlag, Dsseldorf, 1986. [19] Schleeh, W.: Bauteile mit zweiachsigem Spannungszustand (Scheiben), Betonkalender 1978 (T2), Ernst & Sohn, Berlin. [20] Stiglat, K., Wippel, H.: Platten. 2. Auflage. Ernst & Sohn, Berlin 1973 Concrete Design (in German): [21] Leonhardt, F.: Vorlesungen ber Massivbau, Teil 2: Sonderflle der Bemessung. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975. [22] Leonhardt, F.: Vorlesungen ber Massivbau, 3. Teil: Grundlagen zum Bewehren im Stahlbetonbau. Springer-Verlag, 1974. [23] Schlaich, J. und Schfer, K.: Konstruieren im Stahlbetonbau. Betonkalender, 1993.

1 Plane stress - plane strain: in-plane loaded plates

1.1 Introduction The special cases of plane stress or strain apply to structures for which the following assumptions hold: two dimensions are large, the third is small the structure is plane the loads act parallel to the plane

Those structures are described by the mid plane and the thickness distribution. Because of the special type of loading the general three dimensional behavior of a continua can be reduced to two dimensions by the assumption of constant distributed stresses or strains through the thickness. The English term plate only reflects the geometry of the structure whereas the German term Scheibe additionally refers to the fact that only membrane action and no bending or twisting is present. The following terms might alternatively be used: in-plane loaded plate (plane stress) panel (plane stress) membrane structure plane stress / strain structure

Additionally, we shall assume linear, elastic, and isotropic material (Hookes law) in the sequel. 1.2 State Variables The deformation of the structure is determined be the displacements u(x,y) and v(x,y) of the mid-plane. The stresses are assumed to be constant through the thickness and can be integrated to give the stress resultants. (Fig. 1.1).

y, v

y, v

yx

xy

x
x, u

x, u

t z

Fig. 1.1: Definition of displacements and stresses


t/2

normal forces

nx =
9

t / 2

dz = t x

t/2

ny = in-plane shear force:

t / 2

dz = t y
t/2

(1.1)

n xy = n yx = ny

t / 2

xy

dz = t xy = t yx

nyx nxy nx nxy nyx ny Fig. 1.2: Definition of stress resultants


1.3 Plane stress

y x

nx

1.3.1 Equilibrium equations The equilibrium of internal and external (area) forces at an infinitesimal small element gives:

n n y + y dy dx y
py nx dy nxy dy nyx dx

dy dx

n n yx + yx dy dx y n n xy + xy dx dy x px

n n x + x dx dy x
ny dx

n x n yx + px = 0 + y x n y n xy + py = 0 + x y n xy = n yx

(1.2)

1.3.2 Kinematic equations The total strain is defined at any point by its three components:

10

u dy y v dy y

dy

u y

v x

v dx x
u dx x

dx

x =

u x

y =

v y

xy =

u v + y x

(1.3)

1.3.3 Constitutive equations The structure is not loaded lateral to the mid-plane, i.e. z = 0. Therefore, we have for isotropic elastic material considering the Poisson effect:

1 (n x n y ) Et 1 y = (n y n x ) Et 2(1 + ) 1 xy = n xy = n xy Et Gt x = The change in thickness is determined from


z = (n x + n y ) Et

(1.4) G= E 2(1 + )

Solving for the stress resultants we obtain: n x = D ( x + y ) n y = D ( x + y ) n xy = Gt xy D= Et 1 2

where E is the elastic, G the shear modulus, and is Poissons ratio. D is called the plate extensional stiffness.
1.3.4 Compatibility condition Differentiation and combination of (1.3) gives the compatibility condition of deformation, i.e. shear and normal strains are not independent:

11

2 2 2 x y xy =0 + x 2 x y y 2

(1.5)

1.3.5 Differential equation, Airy stress function Inserting the constitutive relations (1.4) into the compatibility equation yields

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 n x + 2 2 n y 2(1 + ) n xy = 0 y x x y x y

(1.6)

Together with the first two equations of (1.2) a system of three partial differential equations for three statical variables nx, ny, nxy is defined. A solution is provided by Airys stress function F(x,y) which is defined as:
nx = 2F 2F 2F ; n y = 2 ; n xy = + px y + pyx 2 x y y x

(1.7)

For constant px and py F satisfies the equilibrium equations (1.2) identically. Substituted into the compatibility condition (1.5) the governing differential equation of plane stress is derived:
4F 4F 4F +2 2 2 + 4 =0 y x y x 4

(1.8)

or together with the Laplace operator =


remarks:

F = 0

2 2 + 2 x 2 y

The plane stress equation is independent of the material constants. It is valid for all homogeneous isotropic materials. Since the PDE is homogeneous the loading must be considered by the boundary conditions. Displacements are determined by integration of strains, e.g.: 1 (n x n y )dx u = x dx = Et () (x) x v = y dy =
( y)

1 (n y n x )dy Et () y

12

- some examples of boundary conditions: a) free edge:

n x (x = a ) =
y x |x=a b) built-in edge:

2F =0 y 2 2F =0 x y

n xy ( x = a ) =

u(x = a ) =
y x | x=a

1 2F F 2 dx = 0 y Et x x
1 2F F dy = 0 Et x 2 y y

v( x = a ) =

c) loaded edge: qy y x | x=a qx

2F n x (x = a ) = 2 = q x y 2F n xy ( x = a ) = = qy x y

1.4 Plane strain Plane strain situations are characterized by prevented structural expansion in thickness direction. As a consequence lateral normal stresses z occur under in-plane loading because of the Poisson effect. Typical examples are long, prismatic structures, e.g. dams:

Dam simulation by plane strain analysis of a thin slice. The stress-strain relations are:
n x n y z Et Et E n y z n y = x + Et Et E 2(1 + ) n xy n xy xy = = Et Gt x =

13

and in addition
z = n x n y z + =0 Et Et E

which yields:
z = (n x + n y ) t

and
1+ ( (1 ) n x n y ) Et 1+ ( n x + (1 ) n y ) y = Et n 2(1 + ) n xy xy = xy = Gt Et x = Eliminating z and solving for the remaining stress resultants, we obtain:
nx = ny = Et ((1 ) x + y ) (1 + )(1 2 ) Et ( + (1 ) y ) (1 + )(1 2 ) x Et xy 2(1 + )

n xy = Gt xy =

Exercise: Show that the differential equation of plane strain is identical with the plane stress case.

14

1.5

Principal forces, principal force trajectories

1.5.1 Principal forces and directions Coordinate transformation:


y
y

dy

dx

Equilibrium:

ny

n yx

n xy
1

dy cos n x dx sin nx n xy

n xy nx

n yx ny dx cos

n yx ny dy sin

Slice x:

H = 0: V = 0:
Slice y:

n y sin dx + n yx cos dx + n x dx sin n yx dx cos = 0


n y cos dx + n yx sin dx + n xy dx sin n y dx cos = 0

H = 0: V = 0:

n x cos dy n xy sin dy n x dy cos n yx dy sin = 0 n x sin dy + n xy cos dy n xy dy cos n y dy sin = 0

n x = n x cos 2 + n y sin 2 + 2 n xy sin cos n xy = ( n x + n y )sin cos + n xy (cos 2 sin 2 ) Principal forces: n xy = 0
15

n y = n x sin 2 + n y cos 2 2 n xy sin cos

tan 2 * = n1/ 2 =

2 n xy nx ny

principal direction

1 (n x + n y ) 1 (n x n y )2 + n xy 2 4

Principal forces are perpendicular. Mohrs stress circle:

n xy maximal shear force ny


n2

n xy
2 nx
n1

16

1.5.2 Principal force trajectories - determine principal forces - principal forces are tangential at trajectories - trajectories illustrate the flow of forces

How to construct trajectories: a) free edge: trajectory edge xy = 0 = 0 loaded edge: trajectory in direction of loading

b)

c)

trajectories are perpendicular to each other

d)

the principal forces are constant if trajectories are parallel

e)

the radius of curvature is a measure of stress change in the transverse direction

f)

along a trajectory stress may change from tension to compression

17

1.6 Load carrying behavior Plane stress/strain plates are characterized by the kind of load application. The stress distribution is dominated by local effects near the bearing zones (principle of St. Venant). The remaining part of the structure is independent of how loads are applied and of the size of the plate.

Examples: beam: q
l
q l2 Mc = 8 1 2 W = th 6

C
e= 2 h 3

+
=

M W beam theory is allowed for a one span beam up to h/l 0.4 internal lever arm e = 2/3 0.4l = 0.267 l

panel: h/l > 0.4

principal force trajectories:

18

transition from beam to panel:

Figures from Leonhardt [21]. 19

problems of load application:

Figures from Leonhard [21].

strut and tie analogy (Emil Mrsch):

20

Figures from Schlaich and Schfer [23].

21

1.7 Analytical solutions for the plane stress PDE There exist several basic functions which satisfy the PDE (1.8):

1, x, x2, x3, y, y2, y3, xy, x2y, x3y, xy2, xy3, x4-3x2y2, x4y-x2y2, x6-5x3y2, ... ln(x2+y2), (x2+y2) ln(x2+y2), ... eysin(x), e-ysin(x), y eysin(x), ... More functions can be generated, e.g. by exchange of x and y, multiplication with constants, or by combination. The problem is to find a function which satisfies all boundary conditions exactly. Very often some conditions can only be approximated. Example 1:

h y x nx +
n

ny 0

nxy = 0

F = 1/ 3 n

y3 h

2F y = 2 n = nx 2 y h 2F = 0 = ny x 2 Example 2: 2F = n xy = 0 x y

ql 2

y x

ql 2

22

F( x, y) =

5 3 2 15 2 2 5 2 1 2 3 5 3 2 4 h x + 4 h x y + 4 l 2 h y + (y 5y x ) 2 3 q 2 F nx = 2 = (l 4x 2 )y + q 3 (3h 2 20 y 2 )y 3 2h 5h y

q 5h 3

ny = n xy

q 2F = 3 (h 3 + 3h 2 y 4 y 3 ) 2 2h x 2 q F = = 3 (3h 2 12 y 2 )x x y 2h

control at loaded edges:


n y (x , y = h / 2 ) = q V(x = l / 2, y ) = control at free edges: n y (x , y = h / 2 ) = 0 n xy (x , y = h / 2) = 0
n x (x = l / 2, y ) = N (x = l / 2, y ) = q 3h 2 20 y 2 y 0 3 5h
h/2 h / 2

h/2

h / 2

xy

dy =

ql 2

x (x

= l / 2, y) dy = 0

Obviously, the given Airy function does not satisfy the condition nx 0 exactly. However, the horizontal equilibrium condition is satisfied, as integration over the height shows. The normal force nx consists of two parts: a linear function in y, which is related to the beam solution, and a cubic function, which is in horizontal self equilibrium and expresses the deviation from beam theory. It becomes dominating for deep beams, h l/2.

nx

beam theory

deviation (self equilibrium)

23

1.8 Approximate solutions, Schleehs method Beton- und Stahlbetonbau 1964 Betonkalender 1978/II [19], 1983

The final stress state in a plane stress/strain plate can be understood as the superposition of stresses by the beam theory and a state of self equilibrium. The later describes the consequences of dismissing the main assumptions of the Bernoulli beam theory: (i) plane cross section and (ii) cross section stays normal to the center line during deformation.

nx

beam theory

warping (self equilibrium)

Procedures for the stress analysis of plates can be constructed which make use of this kind of stress partition. The principle is the following: rearrange loads and support forces into several load collectives which either reflect the Bernoulli beam conditions or are in self equilibrium with respect to the situation of load application or free edge conditions. analyze the structure for the Bernoulli beam case determine the additional stresses due to load application from tables. Since the loading is in self equilibrium the effect fades out with in the St. Venant zone. add both stress distributions, the effect of support condition, single loads, or free edges is only local.

Principle example: deep beam on single supports with concentrated load at the center top. P

Rearrangement of load and support forces in accordance to the Bernoulli beam theory (parabolic shear stress distribution) and superposition with local load combinations at the loading points.

24

B Bernoulli beam theory

+
A
p

local 2D problem of load application stresses from tables

A Example: deep beam under line load

y x h = 2b

p1 0.2 b

p1

bearing pressure: 2 0.2b p1 = pl p1 = 2.5 (l/b) p Bernoulli beam solution, stress at plate center x = 0 M (x = 0 ) =
x =

1 pl 2 + p1 0.2b (l 0.2b ) 2 8

M 12M 12M y= y= y 3 I th t 8b 3 3 My QS x = y = 0 = 3 2 tb It

25

statical area moment S: b-y b y


1 2

(b + y )

S = (b y )t S=

b t support: shear stresses 1.


l = 4b

1 t b2 y2 2 1 8 2 3 I= t (2b ) = tb 3 = tb 3 12 3 12

1 (b + y ) 2

Q = 2pb QS 2pb 1 t (b 2 y 2 ) 3 p 2 (b 2 y 2 ) = = = 3 2 2 It 2 tb 3 tb t Q = pb 3 p = (b 2 y 2 ) 2 4 tb

2.

l = 2b

26

Additional stresses from tables (infinite long plate strip) p

=
p1
p table T4 p

p1

=
table T3

+
p1

+
p1 -p

table T5

+
Evaluation at plate center: 1.) h/l = 0.5; h = 2b = 0.5l l = 4b p1 = 2.5 4 p = 10p M (x = 0 ) = x , min/ max

1 p16b 2 + 10p 0.2b (4 0.2) b = (3.8 2) pb 2 = 1.8 pb 2 2 8

3 1.8 pb 2 = ( b ) = 2.7 p 3 t 2 tb 27

stress from beam solution left p T4 left p1 T3 right p T4 right p1 T3 -p T5 sum

y= b -2.70 -0.20 0.06 -0.20 0.06 +0.20 -2.78

x /(p/t) y=0 0.00 0.00 -0.05 0.00 -0.05 0.00 -0.1

y = -b 2.70 0.20 0.06 0.20 0.06 -0.20 3.02

y /(p/t) y=b y=0 0.0 0.00 -1.0 -0.50 0.0 0.04 -1.0 -0.50 0.0 0.04 1.0 0.50 -1.0 -0.42

Distributions of x and y at span center and of xy at support center:

S ig ma x

S ig ma y

s e a rs s h tre s

1 0 , 8 0 , 6 0 , 4 0 , 2 0 0 -, 2 0 -, 4 0 -, 6 0 -, 8 1 3 2 1 0 1 2 3

1 0 , 8 0 , 6 0 , 4 0 , 2 0 0 -, 2 0 -, 4 0 -, 6 0 -, 8 1 1 -, 0 8 -, 0 6 -, 0 4 -, 0 2 0

1 0, 8 0, 6 0, 4 0, 2 0 02 -, 04 -, 06 -, 08 -, 1 0 0 , 2 0 , 4 0 , 6 0 , 8

The stress distributions differ only very few from the beam solution.

2.) h/l = 1.0; h = 2b = l p1 = 2.5 2 p = 5p 1 p 4b 2 M (x = 0 ) = + 5p 0.2b (2 0.2 ) b = (0.9 0.5) pb 2 = 0.4 pb 2 2 8


x , min/ max = 3 0 .4 p ( b ) = 0.6 p 2 tb t

stress from beam solution left p T4 left p1 T3 right p1 T4 right p1 T3 -p T5 sum

y= b -0.60 -0.191 0.275 -0.191 0.275 0.20 -0.232

x /(p/t) y=0 0 0.0 -0.170 0.0 -0.170 0.0 -0.340

y = -b 0.60 0.191 0.440 0.191 0.440 -0.20 1.662

y /(p/t) y=b y=0 0.0 0.0 -1.00 -0.50 0.00 -0.25 -1.00 -0.50 0.0 -0.025 1.0 0.50 -1.00 -0.55

28

vertical distribution of stress x (h/l = 1.0): stress from beam solution left p T4 left p1 T3 right p1 T4 right p1 T3 -p T5 sum y/b = -0.2 -0.12 -0.05 -0.05 -0.20 -0.20 +0.056 -0.324 -0.4 +0.24 -0.081 -0.081 -0.170 -0.170 0.088 -0.174 -0.6 +0.36 -0.069 -0.069 -0.040 -0.040 0.072 0.214 -0.8 +0.48 0.012 0.012 0.205 0.205 -0.016 0.898

Distributions of x and y at span center and of xy at support center:

S ig ma x

S ig m y a

sh e a r s s tre s

1 0, 8 0, 6 0, 4 0, 2 0 02 -, 04 -, 06 -, 08 -, 1 05 -, 0 0 , 5 1 1, 5 2

1 0 , 8 0 , 6 0 , 4 0 , 2 0 0 -, 2 0 -, 4 0 -, 6 0 -, 8 1 1 -, 08 -, 06 -, 0 4 -, 0 2 0

1 0 , 8 0 , 6 0 , 4 0 , 2 0 0 -, 2 0 -, 4 0 -, 6 0 -, 8 1 0 0, 2 0 , 4 0, 6 0 , 8

The stress distributions differ much from the beam solution

29

Table T1, Schleeh, Betonkalender 1983 TII 30

Table T3 31

Table T4

Table T5, Schleeh, Betonkalender 1983 TII 32

Table T7

Table T8 33

1.9 Circular plates (plane stress) For circular plates it is convenient to use polar coordinates:

y t r P(x,y) x x = cos r r = x 2 + y2 y = sin r = arctan y x

With the Laplace operator in polar coordinates = 2 2 2 1 1 2 + + 2 = 2 + r r r 2 2 x 2 y r

the differential equation is transformed to: F = 4 F 2 3F 1 4 F 2 F 1 F 3F + + 2 2 2 2 2 + 3 2 r 4 r r 3 r r r r r r 2

1 2F 4F + 4 4 2 + 4 = 0 r

The stress resultants are:


2 F 1 F 1 F + nr = 2 = r r r 2 2 t n = 2F 2 2F 1 F = r t r r

n r =

and the displacements in radial direction r: 1 (n r n )dr + rigid body displacements u= Et 0


r

Example 1: circular plate under external pressure p y,v x, u x, u


-

(1-)pb +
-

Etu nr = n = p

34

1 F = pr 2 2 1 F 1 2 F + 2 = p nr = 2 r r r cons tan t stress in plate 2F n = 2 = p r Et u = (n r n )dr = (1 )p dr = (1 )p r

Example 2: ring under internal pressure y,v

x, u

+
-

+
-

n nr

a b
F = p

a b

a2 a 2b2 1 ln r + p 2 r2 2 2 2 2 b a b a 2 2 b a 1 n r = p 2 2 b a r a2 n = p 2 b a2 b 2 + 1 r

2 a2 b Et u = p 2 (1 ) + (1 + ) r b a2 r

The maximum stresses are at the inner edge.

35

1.10 The principle of virtual work We start from the principle of virtual work for a 3-dimensional body:

w = (w int + w ext ) = ij ij d b i u i d g i u i d

(1.9)

where ij and ij are the components of stress and strain tensors, bi and gi the components of body and surface loads, respectively.

A g z, w y, v b z, w y, v E g b t

x, u 3D continuum

x, u plane stress/strain continuum

The special case of a thin 2-dimensional plane stress/strain structure is considered by splitting the integrals of (1.9) into an integral over the thickness and into one over the mid-surface A or along the edges E: w = ij ij dA dt b i u i dA dt g i u i dE dt = 0
t A t A t E

As the stresses are constant through the thickness the integration over t can be done in advance (pre-integration) which transfers stresses into stress resultants and external loads to area q or line loads p, respectively. Using a matrix notation the principle of virtual work now displays as: w = n T dA q T u dA p T u dE = 0
A A E

where
n x t x x q t b p t g n = n y = t y = y dt ; q = x = x ; p = x = x ; t = const. q y t b y p y t g y n xy t xy t xy x x u ; = y ; u = u = y ; u = v v xy xy

36

ny nyx

px qy nxy nx qx x py

The constitutive equations are also written in matrix notation, introducing the elasticity matrix D:
n = t D

plane stress
1 0 E 1 0 D= 1 2 1 0 0 2

plane strain 1 0 E 1 0 D= (1 + )(1 2 ) 1 2 0 0 2

At any point the strain is related to the displacement u by


x = Lu = 0 y 0 u y v x

(1.10)

The matrix L is a differential operator matrix. Putting all together:


n = t D = t DLu

= L u

and, finally: w = t u T LT D L u dA q T u dA p T u dE = 0
A A E

(1.11)

37

This equation represents equilibrium of plane stress / plane strain states in terms of the unknown displacement field uT = (u(x,y), v(x,y)). It is the basis for finite element procedures to determine an approximate solution of u. The virtual work equation is also called the weak form of equilibrium.
1.11 Finite element formulation

1.11.1 Simple 3- and 4-node displacement elements The principal idea of the finite element method is to reduce a continuous problem to a problem of a finite number of discrete parameters. The solution of the discrete problem gives an approximation of the continuous one. Here, we assume that the displacement field can be described by number of discrete displacement values which are defined at the finite element nodes. Several nodes together form a finite element (e.g. 3 node triangle, 4 node rectangle, Fig. 1.3). Inside the element, i.e. between the nodes, the displacement field is approximated by a linear combination of shape functions, each of them related to one node of the element. 3-node triangle y 3 y 2 m 2 1 3 4 x 4-node rectangle 1 b

a x Fig. 1.3: Two simple plane stress/strain finite elements

The shape functions can be defined with respect to the x,y-coordinate system as: 3-node triangle: 1 [x 2 y 3 x 3 y 2 + (y 2 y 3 )x + (x 3 x 2 )y] 2 1 N 2 ( x , y) = [x 3 y1 x 1 y 3 + (y 3 y1 )x + (x 1 x 3 )y] 2 1 N 3 ( x , y) = [x 1 y 2 x 2 y1 + (y1 y 2 )x + (x 2 x 1 )y] 2 N 1 ( x , y) = where is the element area: = 1 / 2[x 1 (y 2 y 3 ) + x 2 (y 3 y1 ) + x 3 (y1 y 2 )] 4-node rectangle: N 2 ( x, y) = 1 / 4(1 )(1 + ) N 1 ( x, y) = 1 / 4(1 + )(1 + )

N 3 ( x, y) = 1 / 4(1 )(1 )

N 4 ( x, y) = 1 / 4(1 + )(1 )

38

with

2 = (x x m ) a 1 (x 1 + x 2 ) y m = xm = 2 = a = x1 x 2

2 (y y m ) b 1 (y1 + y 4 ) 2

b = y1 y 4

For the triangle the displacement field is defined as:


u (x , y ) N 1 (x , y ) u 1 + N 2 (x , y ) u 2 + N 3 (x , y ) u 3 u(x , y ) = v(x , y ) = N (x , y ) v + N (x , y ) v + N (x , y ) v 1 1 2 2 3 3

or by separation of shape functions Ni and nodal displacements ui, vi using a matrix formulation:
u1 v1 0 u 2 = N (x , y ) v N3 v2 u 3 v3

N u(x, y ) = 1 0

0 N1

N2 0

0 N2

N3 0

(1.12)

Inserting (1.12) into the strain-displacement relation (1.10) yields


(x , y ) = L u(x , y ) = L N(x , y ) v x 0 (x , y ) = 0 y N(x, y ) v = y x 0 y 3 y1 y2 y3 1 = 2 0 x3 x 2 0 x x y y x x 2 2 3 1 3 3 (x , y ) = B v

0 x1 x 3 y 3 y1

y1 y 2 0 x 2 x1

0 x 2 x1 v y1 y 2

The differential operator matrix B is the discrete equivalent of L, now relating discrete nodal displacement with an approximation of the strain field . The procedure is equivalent for the 4-node rectangle or any other displacement finite element.

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All expressions are inserted into the virtual work equation (1.11):
w = (w int + w ext ) = t u T LT D L u dA q T u dA p T u dE = 0
A A E

w int = t v T B T D B v dA = v T t B T D B dA v = v T k v
A A

w ext = q T (x , y ) N(x , y ) dA + p T (x , y ) N(x , y ) dE v = f T v E A

And, finally, the element stiffness matrix k and the equivalent nodal force vector f are defined as: k = t B T D B dA
A

f = N T q dA + N T p dE
A E

which contribute to the system stiffness matrix and force vector.

1.11.2 Convergence behavior The quality of a finite element analysis is shown for the example of a cantilever beam discretized by 4-node elements:
P=1 t=1 h=1 l = 10
P l3 = = 10 3 EI

w
max = Pl = 60 W

E = 4106; = 0

w exact

Fig. 1.4: Cantilever beam with concentrated load

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Element discretization: 20 elements, 33 nodes, 60 degrees of freedom (dof)

40 elements, 63 nodes, 120 degrees of freedom (dof)

160 elements, 205 nodes, 400 degrees of freedom (dof)

3
Fig. 1.5: Several different discretizations Convergence behavior:
1 0,8 w/w exact 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 0 200 dof 400

Fig. 1.6: Displacement of cantilever tip


60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 200 dof 400

Fig. 1.7: Convergence of surface stresses 41

exact

10

20

30

40

50
2

60
3

surface

exact solution

10 x Fig. 1.8: Distribution of surface stress

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1.11.3 Modeling The limit of the underlying theory apply as well for solution methods like FEM. Often the mechanical model on the basis of the elasticity theory introduces singularities (i.e. local infinitely high stresses) which do not exist in reality because of the non-linear behavior of material (local plastic behavior, cracking etc.). In particular this is obvious at points as e.g.: concentrated loads concentrated point supports restraining effects, e.g. incompatibility of loading and support fringes of loading and bearing zones.

Loading and bearing zones To minimize the effect of singularities it is generally advisable to assume a finite size of a loading or bearing zone. Also in reality forces are spread over some area. However, the extension of the bearing zone may introduce additional effects like clamping or stress singularities at the fringe due to a rigid foundation which again is unrealistic. One has to decide which shortcoming may be acceptable for the given problem. In either case the principle of St. Venant applies, i.e. the kind of load application doesnt matter if the location of investigation is far enough away. q = 0.5 MN/m A

5m E = 3.0 x 10 MN/m =0
4 2

C 0.5 m

0.5 m 10 m Fig. 1.9: Modeling of the bearing zone.

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case

smoothed stresses x

stresses x at several sections

stresses sy at plate bottom

Fig. 1.10: Modeling of bearing zones: stress distributions.

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Restraining effects Very often the elasticity theory is faced with singularities which are introduced by inconsistent boundary conditions with respect to either equilibrium or compatibility. The latter case is due to restraining effects where the structure is forced into geometrical conditions which are in contradiction to the theory. For example, consider the following case of a deep cantilever beam which is fully clamped at the support. That means, that a vertical deformation at the support due to the Poisson effect is, of course, also prevented. At the transition points where the free upper and lower edges meet the boundary, however, the boundary conditions of the fully clamped support and the free edge are incompatible leading to singular results. As a consequence, the stress values determined at these points by the FEM are a function of the chosen mesh, approaching infinity as the mesh is refined. Due to St. Venant the effect is local where in reality stress concentrations are limited by the plastic or non-linear material behavior.
u 0 x

x, u P

u=v=0
v =0 y u =0 y

l y, v ny = 0 nyx = 0 nx 0

Fig. 1.11: Cantilever beam: System and boundary conditions

Fig. 1.12: Normal forces nx.

kinematical equations
u x v y = y u v xy = + y x x =

material equations
Et ( x + y ) 1 2 Et ( y + x ) ny = 1 2 nx = n xy = Gt xy

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Contradiction at the transition point (n 0): 1) n y = 0 y = x = y = v =0 ! y


u 0 x

but:

2) n xy = Gt = 0 but:
xy = u v + 0 ! y x

no. of elements

10

50

200

3200

nx

Fig. 1.13: nx-distribution at support for several finer meshes

Reference solution by Airy stress function nx

n xy

Equilibrium:

= 0:

h 2 2 1 n x h = h n xy l 2 3 3 2 n xy = 1 h nx 4 l

shear force distribution: n xy 2F = = n xy xy


2 2 1 4 y = 1 h n x 1 4 y h 4 l h

1 1 y3 x + f 1 (x ) + f 2 ( y ) + C F = n xy dy dx = n x h y 3 h l 4 x y

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nx = 2 nx

y (l x ) 2 F x y df 22 x = 2 =2n + h l y l h dy 2

df 22 y 1 y3 2 = 2 nx f 2 (y ) = n x dy h 3 h

1 1 y 3 (l x ) F = n x hy (convenient choice of C) 3 h l 4

check: vertical deformation at x = 0:


v = y dy =
y

ny =

2F =0 x 2

1 (n y n x )dy Et y

y (l x ) n x y 2 (l x ) 2 nx dy = h l Et y Et h l

n x y2 v (x = 0 ) = 0 if 0 Et h

Solution of PDE with parabolic shear force distribution leads to vertical deformation at the support due to the Poisson effect. That is inconsistent with a fully clamped support!

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