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Construction Safety Management.

Safety means the absence of the danger at work, which is made possible by eliminating hazards that create the danger. A more practical definition used in an ILO document states "A thing is provisionally categorized as safe if it's risks are deemed known and, in the light of that knowledge, judged to be acceptable".

List of the activities and equipments required for the project of the high size building:
(a) List of the activities: 1. Cleaning the site and fencing 2. Excavation and earth working 3. Foundations and piling 4. Dewatering 5. Concreting 6. Scaffolding and structural steel erection 7. Drilling and blasting 8. Site transport 9. Material handling 10. Handling machinery and tools 11. Road making etc. (b) List of equipments needed: 1. Earth work machinery and equipments 2. Dozers and JCB 3. Dumpers 4. Piling rings, casing cap, bailers and chisels 5. Concrete Mixer, Batching plant, Vibrator, concreting pumps etc. 6. Hoists, Conveyers 7. Steel erection equipments, Tools, Scaffolding, formworks 8. Welding machinery 9. Pneumatic tools 10. Abrasive tools 11. Cutting tools 12. Hand tools 13. Electrical machinery, Fittings, Equipments and tools etc. 1

Construction Safety Management.

Hazards and Causes of accidents:

The common hazards and causes of accidents in the various field operations during construction work and many other activities related to the construction are mentioned below: (a) Excavation 1. There is a tendency to dump the excavated material just on the edge, the material may slide back into the trench or apply additional load on shoring 2. Many accidents occur due to falls in unfenced trenches. Such accidents are more common in rainy season. 3. Sidewalks tend to become unstable during the monsoons. 4. Workers normally take their lunch under the shade near their work sites. If shade is not available, they tend to sit in the undercut of the trench. This practice should be prohibited. 5. Vibrations caused by the operation of machinery at sites adjacent to the excavated pits may cause collapse of walls unless they are properly braced. 6. It is possible that harmful gases and fumes are present in a trench. Gases, vapors and their metabolites and the individuals develop symptoms of poisoning. 7. Internal combustion engines emit hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, which are dangerous to health. 8. While excavating near the building foundations, the latter should be supported by shoring, bracing or underpinning as long as the trench remains open. (b) Piling and Foundations 1. The legs of the tripod should be properly spiked in the ground. This will prevent accidents due to slipping up of the tripod legs when rested on a paved ground. 2. The failure of a pulley due to shearing of bolt or pin is quite common therefore, frequent check-ups of the pulley is essential. 3. The bailer is used for making the pile center. If the worker tries to loosen the sand at the location when the bailer is hanging over his head, he may get head injury. 4. The chances of a driving bar falling accidentally and injuring the worker are frequent.

Construction Safety Management. 5. Binding wire, nails etc. are very common sources of injury to workers while preparing the pile cages or handling and lowering them. 6. The bailers and chisels tend to swing when they are grounded on completion. Workers should keep a safe distance. 7. All workers must wear tight fitting clothes, helmets hand gloves, protective footwear and eye goggles. 8. Electrical connections must be handled with a great deal of care. (c) Concreting work: 1. The precaution must be taken while handling the mixer for electric driven mixers the wire connecting the mixers should be in good condition. 2. Exhaust gases of diesel engine if inhaled for long period may cause dieses. They should be directed away from the operator. 3. Accidents normally occur during cleaning of the drum. Care should be taken to display the notice, Under Repairs while cleaning the drum. 4. The chances of accidents are relatively more in placing the concrete manually. 5. Tower cranes, Mobile cranes, cable ways should be used with great deal of care. 6. The cranes with long boom are likely to touch the overhead power line. Accidents of such type are very common. Also the cranes are made for carrying the material only and not for men. 7. Cranes should not be used at speeds that cause boom to swing. It should be never be overloaded. (d) Scaffolding: 1. Unsecured ladders slip. 2. Use of unsuitable or faulty materials. 3. Inadequately supported scaffold boards. 4. Inadequate or irregular platform width. 5. Omission of guards' rails or toe boards. 6. Failure to secure scaffolds to the building or to brace it adequately 7. Overloading of platforms and scaffolds

Construction Safety Management. (e) Machinery: 1. Construction of tall building require the use of the cranes, Hoists, elevators etc. The location of these machines should be carefully selected. 2. If located inside the structure, floor opening and other spaces should be provided with guardrails.

Safety legislation and standards for construction industry:

Over the years, through practice as well as the decision handed down by various Courts a set of ground rules describing safety practices that must be followed at construction sites and by the contractors have emerged. There four sources of legal requirements regarding safety as applicable to construction industry as follows: 1. Standards lay down by the Bureau of Indian Standards. 2. Statutory provisions framed under various labour laws. contractor when the work is awarded. 4. Decisions, judgments and awards given by the judicial authorities from time to time. 3. Contract conditions written into the Contract Document signed by the client and


Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Publication Safety code for handling and storage of Building material. Safety code for scaffolds and ladders Safety code for working with construction machinery Safety code for excavation work Safety code for blasting and related drilling equipment Safety code for erection work of concrete framed structure Safety code for scaffolds and ladders Safety code for demolition of building 4 IS 3696 (part I) - 1966 IS 4130 1976 IS 8989 - 1973 IS 3764 1966 IS 4081 1967 IS 3696 (Part II) 1966 IS 7293 1974 Code No. IS 7936 - 1975

Construction Safety Management. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14 15 16 17 Safety code for working in compressed air Safety code for tunneling work Safety code for floor & wall opening, railing and board. Safety code for piling and other deep foundations. Safety code for construction involving use of hot bituminous material National building code of India Safety code for erection on structural steel work Guidelines for operation of reservoirs Safety code for construction, operation & Maintenance of river valley projects general aspects Amenities, protective clothing & Equipment construction. Storage, handling, detection and safety Measures for gases, chemical and flammable liquids 18 19 Steel scaffoldings Code of practice for steel tubular scaffoldings Definitions & materials, safety regulations For scaffoldings 20 21 22 23 24 Criteria for safety and design of structures subject to under ground blasts Code for practice for structural safety of buildings: shallow foundations Code of practice for the practice structural safety of buildings: masonry walls Code of practice for structural safety of buildings : Loading standards. Code for dress drivers in civil engineering works : safety 5 IS 10291 1982 IS 875 1964 IS 1905 1980 IS 1904 1978 IS 6922 1973 IS 2750 1964 IS 4014 (Part 1 1967) (Part 2 1966) (part 2) - 1982 (Part 6) - 1983 (part 10) 1983 IS 7323 1974 IS 10386 (part 1) - 1983 1983 Group 3 IS 7205 1973 IS 5916 1970 IS 5121 1969 IS 4756 1978 IS 4912 1978 IS 4133 1977

Construction Safety Management.

Safety in building construction

Construction of building construction involves the following operations: a) Transportation of material b) Handling of material c) Scaffolding and formwork. d) Mixing of material e) Placing of concrete f) Curing of concrete g) Removal of formwork and scaffolding Transportation of material Vehicles should be loaded as per the loading capacity specified by the manufacturer. Over loading causes more wear and tear of tyres, damages road surfaces and decreases efficiency of moving components of a vehicle While planning the site, the positioning of access points and the routing of site roads should be considered. Site entrances should be so located as to cause the minimum possible inconvenience to the public or other road users. Suitable warning boards should be displayed at site entrances. Transport vehicles usually go to the stacked material site for loading either manually or by machine. In manual loading the vehicle is quite safe. Incase of loading by a loader, a strong canopy or cab should be provided for the safety of the drive. The engine of the vehicle should not be kept running during the period of loading. Handling of Materials The materials handled at construction site are broadly of two types, namely raw materials and semi furnished or finished products. The raw materials are cement, bricks, earth aggregates, water, various types of steel sections, pipes, electrodes, acids, oils, paints and various types of fasteners. The finished goods are concrete, columns, trusses, gearings and equipments of all types. The two basic aspects of material handling are the transportation and storage material. The former requires equipment and the latter care in storage.

Construction Safety Management. Mixing of material Construction of framed structures is normally done by concrete mixers, which may be tilting type or non- tilting type. They may be driven by electric motors or by diesel engines depending on the location of the structure being constructed. The precautions to be taken while operating the mixers are that for electric driven mixers the wires connected should be in good condition, and the circuit breaker should well maintained. Earthin of electric motor should be done as per rules and specifications. Exhaust gases of a diesel engine if inhaled for long period may cause diseases. They should be directed away from the operator. Nobody should allow going under the skip. All gear and moving parts should be well guarded. Accidents normally occur during the cleaning of mixing drum. Care should be taken to display the notice, 'Under Repairs' while cleaning the drum. Good maintenance of a mixer will reduce the chances of accidents. Placement of concrete Concrete can be placed manually if the quantity is less, or mechanically if the quantity is large. The former method requires more workers and the use of scaffoldings. Thus the chances of accidents are relatively higher. Tower cranes, mobile cranes, cableways and hoists are used when the height of placement is more and the quantity to be placed is huge.

Management of accidents, employment injuries and occupational hazards/ diseases

Whenever a worker reports that he has received an injury at the work place, the site supervisor should take the following action: Arrange to render first aid on the spot and make an entry in the first aid register as well as in the accident register. If it is a minor injury, the worker may resume work after receiving first aid. If the worker says that he is unable to work due to the injury, he may be allowed to go to home. In case of the suspected malingering the site supervisor can send him to the Medical Officer and his advice should be followed. If the abstention from the work due to the injury exceeds 48 hrs. the accident should be reported to the Workmens Compensation Inspector immediately 7

Construction Safety Management. If the injury received is serious i.e. crushing, burning breaking of any limb or any part of the body, unconsciousness, danger of loss of any part of the body or a limb etc.: a) Render first aid and make entry in the first aid register as well as in the accident register b) Send the injured person to the Medical Officer/ dispensary / hospital in a vehicle / ambulance, accompanied by another person. c) Report the accident to the four prescribed authorities within 12 hrs. If the injury causes death, then: a) Report the accident to the prescribed authority within 4 hrs. b) Wait for the police to arrive, take charge of the dead body and remove it for post mortem and further processing. c) Make entry in the accident register. If it is subsequently learnt that the injured person has died due to the injury received: a) Record this fact in the accident register b) Notify the four prescribed authorities in the prescribed form within 12 Hrs. of knowing this fact. c) Make sure that the accident report was filled earlier in this case. So long as the injured person stays away from work due to the injury, and the period of abstention from work is certified by the competent medical authority, the worker will be granted leave with pay and his terms and conditions of services shall not be changed in any manner detrimental to the interests of the worker. In case of death of the injured person, or any permanent disability arising out of the injury due to accident, the competent authority will determine the quantum of compensation and the contractor or the Principal employer should pay it.

Safety organization and Site management

a) Role of Safety Department: The functions of the safety department may be the following: 1. To establish the norms and guidelines for the provisions of safety of site, men, materials, equipment and structures for the line management in charge of these functions 2. To prepare check lists, manuals and other documents for use by the line management in carrying out the function no. 1 3. To supervise safety at the site and within the organization. 8

Construction Safety Management. 4. To give advice on all safety matters in accordance with the safety policy. 5. To maintain all safety records, prepare reports and monitor the same to all concerned. 6. To conduct safety training in the organization. 7. To carry out safety audit periodically. 8. To discharge all statutory obligations of the organization regarding safety, and maintain liaison with government safety machinery and other industry associations. 9. To organize competitions, posters, meals and such other activities that promotes safety consciousness amongst employees. Small organizations, which cannot create separate safety departments, should however, nominate a suitable officer to supervise safety precautions. b) Duties of the Safety Officer: The duties of a Safety Officer shall be to advice and assist the factory management in the fulfillment of its obligations, statutory or otherwise, concerning prevention of personal injuries and maintaining a safe working environment. These duties shall include the following, namely To advice the concerned departments in planning and organizations measures necessary for the effective control of personal injuries; To advice on safety aspects in all job studies and to carry out detailed job safety studies of selected jobs; To check and evaluate the effectiveness of action taken or proposed to be taken to prevent personal injuries To advice the purchasing and stores departments in ensuring high quality and availability of personal protective equipments; To advice on matters related to carrying out plant safety inspections; To carry out plant safety inspections in order to observe the physical conditions of work and the work practices and procedures followed by workers and to render advice on measures to be adopted for removing the unsafe physical conditions and preventing unsafe actions by the workers. To render advice on matters related to reporting and investigation of industrial accidents and diseases; To investigate the selected accidents; 9

Construction Safety Management. To investigate the dangerous occurrences reportable under rule 115 of the Maharashtra Factories Rules, 1963 and the cases of industrial diseases contracted by any of the workers employed in the factory reportable under rule 116 of the said rules; To advice on the maintenance of such records as are necessary relating to accidents, dangerous occurrences and industrial diseases; To promote setting up of safety committees act as adviser to such committees; To organize in association with the concerned departments, campaigns, competitions, contests and other activities, which will develop and maintain the interest of the workers in establishing and maintaining safe conditions To design and conduct either independently or in collaboration with the training department, suitable training and educational programs for the prevention of personal injuries. No safety Officer shall be required or permitted to do any work which is inconsistent with or departmental to the performance of the duties mentioned in sub-rule (I) C) Safety Committee A safety committee is a most useful instrument for facilitating the necessary co-operative effort, which is essential to success in accident prevention. It should have representatives from top management, supervisory grades and from the workers, with additional representation from the safety department and maintenance staff. It should act as an advisory body and meet regularly.

Safety Training
The general worker: - It is desirable that new workers should, as soon as possible, be made aware of the needs of safety and the organization which exists to safeguard them accidents and from injury to heath. When they are taken on, it should be ascertained what experience they have had and with what kind of work they are familiar. Depending on the results of this interview they should be placed on work for which they are suited and where they should be receive instructions and not as something separate from it Special care has to be taken where recruits are unfamiliar to the particular environment in which they are working. Some of these workers may indeed never have seen some of the more simple forms of tools used on a construction site and may need instruction in their use from somebody who has knowledge of their backgrounds and ways of communicating with them. It is desirable also that where workers 10

Construction Safety Management. are unfamiliar with the language in general use on the site, selected trained people who speak their language should be available to help them. Safety Officers can play a big part in advising individual workers or groups of workers on safety and health precautions, during their ordinary visits to a site. In addition, special talks can be arranged on various aspects of safety by means of films to illustrate important aspects. They can be held on big sites or at other convenient places. Special one day safety exhibition with talks from safety experts can also be beneficial. The emphasis should always be on safe working as being an essential ingredient of correct working. Craftsmen: Although all craftsmen should be given general