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Library Files and Their Extensions and Functions File extension File Type name.

bsm A mechanical symbol fle (derived from the .dra fle with the same name) name.dra A PCB Editor drawing fle name.fsm A fash symbol fle (derived from the .dra fle with the same name) name.log A text fle containing the date and time the symbol or padstack name wa s last modifed or saved name.osm A drawing format fle (derived from the .dra fle with the same name) name.pad A padstack defnition fle generated/used by Padstack Designer name.psm A package symbol fle (derived from the .dra fle with the same name) name.ssm A custom pad shape fle (derived from the .dra fle with the same name) Symbol Types Package symbols (name.dra and name.psm) are the component footprints used on yo ur board design that are assigned in Capture. After fnishing the footprint drawi ng, the .psm fle is generated when you save the drawing. Mechanical symbols (name.dra and name.bsm) are objects, such as mechanical pins, which are not connected to a net, mounting holes on boards, or predefned board outlines. Flash symbols (name.dra and name.fsm) are used to defne thermal reliefs, which a re used to connect padstacks to power and ground planes when the planes are defn ed as negative plane layers. Positive plane layers do not need flash symbols, be cause PCB Editor automatically creates thermal reliefs based on trace width and spacing settings as defned in the Constraint Manager (more on that in PCB Design Examples). Drawing formats (name.dra and name.osm) are predefned drawing templates that fol low standard paper sizes. The six drawing formats range from drawing size A (8.5 * 11 in.) to size E (44 * 34 in.). You can add these to your board designs to give them a professional look and follow industry drawing standards. Custom pad shapes (name.dra and name.ssm) are specially designed shapes used to create padstacks that have pad shapes other than round or rectangular/square pad s. Padstack fles (name.pad) defne surface mount and through-hole padstacks and incl ude conductor information, such as inner and outer pad shape and size, and therm al relief sizes and physical information, such as drill diameter and soldermask and pastemask shapes and sizes. Padstack defnitions are handled using an application called Padstack Designer, which can be launched from within PCB Editor or launched separately from the Windows Start menu. Pads tack Designer is demonstrated in the design examples that follow. Graphical objects Graphical objects (lines, arcs, etc.) are placed on footprints and board layouts to show information not defned by padstacks (such as the outline of a part). Th e objects may be visible on the fnal board or visible only in the design fles. Objects that are visible on the board include silk-screen markings (component ou tlines, for example), while objects visible only in the design fles include thin gs like board outlines, assembly outlines, and boundaries (e.g., keep-out areas where traces and components are not allowed). Several types of objects can be us ed in PCB Editor, but usually only three or four types are used when making foot prints (i.e., detail objects, place boundary outlines, and occasionally copper a reas). Detail objects are used to indicate silk-screen markings that will be vis ible on the board and on assembly layers to provide information during assembly. Place boundary outlines are used by the DRC utility to maintain required distan ce between parts while laying out the board. On routing layers, copper areas can be used as heat spreaders or mini-ground planes for components that require the m. Examples of how to use these objects are given in the PCB Design Examples. Minimum Footprint requirements As shown in Figure 8-1 many types of text and graphics objects can be used when you make a new footprint. Not all the items shown in the fgure are required, bu t four minimum objects are required on a footprint design. Packages must have th e following elements: (1) at least one pin, (2) at least one reference designato r, (3) a component outline, and (4) a place-bound rectangle. As shown in Table 8

-2, reference designators and component outlines are placed on the silk-screen o r assembly layers (usually both), and the place bound rectangle is on the Place_ Bound_Top (or Bottom) layer. Fig. 8-1 Optional Footprint objects The following is a list of other elements you can add to a package symbol during the symbol building process: 1. Device type (text for the component device type). 2. Component value (text for the component value). 3. Tolerance (text for the component tolerance). 4. Component height (text for the physical height of the component). 5. User part number (text for the package part number). 6. Route keep-out shapes, identifying areas where etch is not allowed. 7. Via keep-out shapes, identifying via keep-out areas 8. Etch (etch lines, arcs, rectangles, shapes, or text added to the symbol). 9. Vias. Good sources for package information can be found at the following Web sites: 1.IPC Web site ( free Land Pattern Viewer based on the IPC7351 standard. 2. 3. 4. 5. IntroductIon to the Padstack desIgner Through-hole padstacks are often named by their shape and size. The seven pad ge ometries are null, circle, square, oblong, rectangle, octagon, and userdefned sh ape. For circular through-hole padstacks, one naming convention used is padXcirY d.pad, where pad indicates padstack, X is the pad outer diameter, cir is the sha pe (sq for a square top pad or rec for rectangular), and Y is the pad inner diam eter the drill size (see Figure 8-5). For example, if the outer dimension of a round pad is 62 mils (0.062 in.) and the drill hole is 25 mils, the pad name would b e pad62cir25d.pad.

For surface mount pads a typical naming convention is smdXrecY.pad (or d), where smd indicates the padstack is for a surface mount device, X is the pad width, rec (or _ ) indicates a rectangular pad, and Y is the pad height. Antipads: The clearance between a pad (or hole) and the surrounding copper (e.g. , on a plane layer) should be similar to or larger than the trace spacing constr aints you will likely use in your design. A typical clearance diameter is 10 to 20 mils larger than the pad diameter. Note that, if you make an inner pad much s maller than the outer layer pads, the antipad on the inner layer should still be larger than the largest pad in the padstack; otherwise undesirable capacitive c oupling can occur between the larger pad and an adjacent plane layer. In general the soldermask opening is typically 10 to 20 mils larger than the outer pads. Draw the body outline on the top silk-screen layer. To draw the silk screen, sel ect the Add Line tool, select the Package Geometry class and Silkscreen_Top su bclass from the Options pane, and select a Line width of 10 mils. The only text objects added by the wizard were the Ref Des objects on the Assembly_ Top and Silkscreen_Top subclasses. You can add your own as described in the prec eding examples (e.g., value and part number on the assembly layer). Thermal reliefs are used to provide resistance to heat flow from a plated throug h hole to the copper plane to which it is connected during solder operations. To construct a flash symbol, open PCB Editor. Start a new flash symbol drawing b y selecting File New from the menu. At the New Drawing dialog box, enter a name fo the symbol (e.g., TR_80_60_9 for thermal relief with outer diameter = 80 mils, inner diameter = 60 mils, and spoke width =9 mils), then select Flash symbol fro m the Drawing Type: list, as shown in Figure 8-36. Click OK.