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Ovidius University Annals Series: Civil Engineering

Volume 1, Number 6, Nov. 2004

Moderns Methods for Rehabilitation and Consolidation of Bricks Buildings


Aurora MANCIA a Marcela PRADA a Mihaela PLOAE a a University Of Oradea, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Oradea __________________________________________________________________________________________ Rezumat: Cel mai frecvent material ntlnit la constructiile civile, este crmida. De aceea edificiile construite din zidrie de crmid, constitue adesea un interes deosebit pentru constructori, mai ales pentru c acestea trebuie sa suporte tot mai multe transformri structurale, nemaicorespunznd cerinelor de rezisten, confort sau funcionalitate. Prevenirea degradrii constructiilor trebuie fcut nc din faza de proiectare, continund cu cea de exploatare. Umiditatea este una din principalele cauze ale dezagregrii zidriei, implicit a degradrii ei. Se prezint un sistem de restaurare-asanare a zidriei, bazat pe injectare de materiale microsiliconice, care intra in structura peretelui. Alte cauze ale degradrii construciilor sunt seismul, greeli de proiectare sau execuie. Pentru consolidarea acestora se va prezenta o metod modern, care folosete materiale composite polimerice armate cu fibre de carbon, sticl sau aramid, saturate cu rini epoxidice. Abstract: The most used materials in civil construction were the burnt clay bricks. The buildings are very old and so, they need to support permanent structural changes. The prevention of buildings debasement is recommended from the designing stage, and must continue through the service period. Humidity is one of the principal causes of the degradation and loosing properties of the masonry. We present a restore and sanitation system which is a modern procedure to a complete dampness remove. Other causes of buildings masonry degradation are: earthquakes, unequal settles, design and execution errors. According to these there are new consolidation techniques, using polymeric composite materials reinforced with carbon, glass or aramid fibers, saturated with epoxidic resins. Keywords: masonry degradation, bricks, rehabilitation, polymeric composite materials __________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Introduction: Till now, in our country, the most used materials in civil construction were the burnt clay bricks. The buildings are very old and so, they need to support permanent structural changes due to: - seismic noncompliance - changing of function ability - intervention of perturbations phenomenon - necessity of new structural loadings reckoning 2. The importance of rehabilitation: There are two fundamental aspects in maintenance and rehabilitation of the civil buildings that take our interest: to prevent and to heel.
ISSN-12223-7221

Figure 1
2000 Ovidius University Press

188 Moderns Methods / Ovidius University Annals Series: Civil Engineering Volume 1, Number 6, 187-190 (2004)

The prevention of buildings debasement is recommended from the designing stage, and must continue through the service period. The necessity of consolidation and rehabilitation of a building appear when that building is not according to: - evaluate the bearing capacity in current status - estimate repairs to be made - choose and detail the rehabilitation method according to a project We cant establish perfect directives or rules about the opportunity of a building consolidation or demolition. Currently it rehabilitates. Anyway, there are five fundamental stages to repair a building: - discover degradation - determine causes which were producing these degradation - evaluate the bearing capacity in current status - estimate repairs to be made - choose and detail the rehabilitation method according to a project We must take notice beforehand about the building debasement and we have to know that the accessible parts are protected meanwhile the inaccessible parts are ignored. The most important and most difficult stage is to determine the causes of degradation. For this stage there are no rules or methods, each case has a particular diagnose. The building must be examined and studied with lot of patient to observe and discover the hidden or latent abnormalities. Humidity is one of the principal causes of the degradation and loosing properties of the masonry (fig.2). According to this, the degradation of masonry is happening from these points of view:

Figure 2. In consequences, to a brick building we have to protect both structures, supra and infrastructure (fig.2). 3. Modern procedure of complete dampness remove: Further, we present a restore and sanitation system which is a procedure to a complete dampness remove. This procedure is used when prevention of falling in disrepair caused by disastrous effects of humidity could not be done. It is a heeling method. Using this systems about doing a damp course or a protective coating which: - stops the ascending of water due to materials capillarity - blocks water on foundations level ( figure 3 )

A. Mancia et al. / Ovidius University Annals Series: Civil Engineering 6, 187-190 (2004)

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Hydrophobic plaster Murisol DS/BD1K/BD2K Old plaster MicroMurisol horizontal injection

Are made from micro silicone synthetic resins and belongs to masonry or stones structures. Finally, we can use a silicone, silicate or mineral paint applied over the Murisol plaster. Other causes of buildings masonry degradation are: Earthquakes

Figure 3. Youre able to maintain masonry in good conditions by injecting the Murisol solution. After you pickle the damp surface, you must apply an absorbing plaster. These plasters have the quality of absorbing humidity and minerals from the structure and permitting so called breathing of the masonry.

Figure 5. unequal settles design and execution errors

Figure 4. Legend for figure 4: 1- Murisol VS plaster 2- Murisol GP 3- Murisol SP fein/weiss

Figure 6.

190 Moderns Methods / Ovidius University Annals Series: Civil Engineering Volume 1, Number 6, 187-190 (2004)

In these cases, first we must evaluate the situation and then we must achieve a consolidation project and choose an intervention method on the structure. The expert and the structural engineer have two options; they can choose a classical method of rehabilitation which is cheap but needs long work time, or a modern procedure, new consolidation techniques, using polymeric composite materials reinforced with carbon, glass or aramid fibers, saturated with epoxidic resins. These materials presents like thin sheet, lamella or strips in case of carbodur and have the following properties: - compression strength compare to steel - specific weight 40 times less than steel As a result of laboratory work the conclusion is that consolidated masonries by using polymeric composite materials are more strength than others and have very good ductility, with a very high energy absorbing capacity. 4. Modern procedure of consolidation: Further we present the polymeric composite materials rehabilitation technique, which means: - deep pickle of the surface - even up all irregularities of the substrate followed by leveling with an adhesive coating - apply an epoxidic resin seal or layer (fig.9).

inclusion in this layer of the carbodur strips, till the resins penetrate it, so the surface turn to white. - in the case of malposition of the strips the surface completely turn to black (fig.7) The advantages of using this system are: - a very good proportion between material, time and work - the structure, so the foundations too are not overloaded

Figure 8. flexible materials no casing needed can be used to a multiple constructive solutions confers high durability, corrosion and tiredness resistance social advantage due to not have to evacuate lodgers

5. References: [1] Corneliu Nistor Consolidarea si Intretinerea Constructiilor, Ed. Tehnica, Bucuresti, 1991 [2] Radu Agent Expertizarea si punerea in siguranta a cladirilor existente, Ed. Fast Print, 1998 [3] StoMurisol System, Dokumentation 2003 [4] Syka System, Dokumentation 2004 Figure 7.