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Christinne Cuyugan Lab Partner: Aiel Sotto Experiment #17: Analysis of an Organic Compound I.

Objectives

September 23, 2011

This experiment aims to examine organic compounds through preliminary examination, determination of physical properties, solubility class, elemental analysis and functional group tests. Schematic Diagram of the Procedure

II.

Preliminary Examination
Physical State Color Odor (waft)

Determination of Physical Properties


Melting Point Boiling Point Ignition test o Heat small amount of solid unknown compound on a small spatula note what temp it melts (low or high) Observe flammability of compound (nature of flame produced *soothy/clear*)

Solubility Class
See table 1

Elemental Analysis
A. Sodium Fusion
2mm3 sodium metal use DRY tongs/pincers to press between layers of DRY filter paper 1 pinch of powdered test sample on watch glass roll sodium metal in sample sodium metal in bulbet hold bulbet with clean crucible tongs heat slowly at start increase heat gradually red hot bulbet end of tube for 1 minute drop into beaker with 25 mL distilled water ensure bulbet breaks, repeat if otherwise heat to almost boiling filter colorless filtrate

WARNING! HAVE ALL UNREACTED SODIUM METAL KEPT IN DESIGNATED BOTTLE. UNREACTED SODIUM METAL SHOULD NOT BE DISCARED INTO SINK OR WASTE JAR. B. Test for Sulfur

2 mL test solution in test tube + dilute acetic acid to acidify soak filter paper in lead acetate solution use filter paper to cover mouth of warmed test tube

black ppt on filter paper?

(+) sulfur

Y (+) sulfur

C. Test for Halogen

2 mL alkaline fusion solution + dilute nitric acid to acidify boil briefly to expel HCN (if any) but BE CAREFUL WHERE YOU POINT TEST TUBE! + silver nitrate colored ppt? Y yellow? N silver? Y new 2-3 mL alkaline fusion solution acidify + 0.3 mL toluene + few drops fresh Cl2 in H2O solution OR few mg calcium hypochlorite OR few mL dilute KMnO4 pH must remain acidic yellow-orange in toluene layer? Y (+) Br Y (+) Br or I N (-) halogen

D. Test for Nitrogen

2 mL colorless filtrate from sodium fusion + 2 drops FeSO4 + enough NaOH to produce distinct alkalinity (pH 11) heat to boiling filter/decant to remove FeS ppt if any + dilute H2SO4 to acidify + 2-4 FeCl3 solution Prussian blue ppt? (+) N

allow to stand 10-15 mins if not, filter observe if (+) blue pigment on filter paper

E. Ferrox Test for Oxygen

crystal of Fe(NH4)(SO4)2 or FeCl3 + crystal KSCN in dry test tube grind Iron (III) hexathiocyanatoferrate adheres to stirring rod 3 drops liquid unknown or saturated toluene solution of solid uknown stir with previous rod salt dissolves? N hydrocarbon/halogenated solvents or diphenyl ehter (+) O RED-PURPLE SOLTN

III.

Table of Reagents/Products

Reagent/ Compound
acetic acid

Structure

Physical Properties
white semi-transparent solid, colorless liquid MF: C H O ; MW: 60.05g/mol 2 4 2 MP: 16.7C ; BP: 118C D: 1.049 g/cm, liquid SOL.: Miscible with water, alcohol, glycerol, ether, carbon

Hazards
corrosive hazardous when in contact with skin and eyes

nitric acid

tetrachloride. practically insoluble in carbon disulfide. ODOR: sour smell formula | HNO3 molecular weight | 63.0128 g/mol phase | liquid (at STP) melting point | -41.6 deg C boiling point | 83 deg C density | 1.5129 g/cm^3 solubility | miscible in water MF: C7H8 ; MW: 92.14 MP: -95C ; BP: 110.6C FP: 4.4C D:0.866 SOL.: Solubility in water at 23.5C. ODOR: Benzene-like odor. formula | Cl2 molecular weight | 70.906 g/mol phase | gas (at STP) melting point | -101 deg C boiling point | -34 deg C density | 0.003214 g/cm^3 (at STP) MF: KMnO4 ; MW: 158.04 g/mol MP: 240 C decomposes ; BP: not available FP: not available D: 2.703 g/cm3 SOL.: 6.38 g/100 ml of water at 20 C ODOR: odorless formula | FeSO4 compound formula | FeO4S molecular weight | 151.908 g/mol density | 2.841 g/cm^3 MF: HNaO ; MW: 40.00 MP: 318C ; BP: 1390C FP: not available D: 2.13 SOL.: 1g dissolves in 0.9 ml water, 0.3 ml boiling water ODOR: not available MF: H2O4S ; MW: 98.08 MP: 10C(anhydrous acid) BP: ~290C FP: not available D: ~1.84 SOL.: miscible with water; when diluting, add acid to the diluent ODOR: odorless brown in solution MF: FeCl3 ; MW: 162.2 g/mol MP: 306 C; BP: 315 C FP: not available D: 2.80 g/cm3 SOL.: completely soluble in water 266.01 (grams per mole) irritation of eyes, skin; eye and skin burns harmful oxidant toxic by inhalation, ingestion or by absorption through skin; serious irritant

toluene

CH 3

C6H5-CH3 Cl2 in H2O

dilute neutral KMnO4

FeSO4

NaOH

NaOH H2SO4

extremely corrosive; eye, skin, nose and throat irritation; skin and eye burns; dermatitis

H2SO4 FeCl3

corrosive; burns any area of contact; harmful if swallowed or inhaled

Fe(NH4)(SO4)2

KSCN

formula | KSCN compound formula | CKNS molecular weight | 97.181 g/mol density | 1 g/cm^3

IV.

Set-ups

Organic Compounds Water soluble insoluble

+ ether soluble insoluble insoluble

+ 5% NaOH soluble

S1 Water-soluble compounds

S2

+ 5% HCl

+ 5% NaHCO3 insoluble soluble

A2

A1

Acidic compounds insoluble soluble B Basic compounds M insoluble + H2SO4 soluble

w/ N or S

I Inert compounds

N Neutral compounds