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ANALELE TIINIFICE ALE UNIVERSITII AL.I.

CUZA DIN IAI (SERIE NOU)

SECIUNEA I

BIOLOGIE ANIMAL

TOMUL L

2004

COMITETUL DE REDACIE Redactor responsabil: Prof.dr. Gheorghe MUSTA Secretar de redacie: Prof.dr. Mircea VARVARA ef. lucr. Luminia BEJENARU Tehnoredactare: Tehn. Alexandrina ATODIRESEI Membri: Prof.dr. Nicolae VALENCIUC Prof.dr. Iordache ION Prof.dr. Constantin PISIC Prof.dr. Mircea VARVARA Prof.dr. Vasile HEFCO

Adresa redaciei: Universitatea Al.I. Cuza Iai Facultatea de Biologie Catedra de Zoologie-Ecologie Bd. CAROL I, Nr. 20 A Iai, Romnia Cod 700505 Tel. 0230-201516 Fax. 0232-201472

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004

SUMAR
LUMINIA ICONOMU, IOANA REDINCIUC The use of biological indicators in the evaluation of Iai wastewater treatment plant performances ..7 SINZIANA MICU, VALERIA ABAZA Changes in biodiversity of Decapods (Decapoda, Crustacea) from romanian Black Sea coast ................................ 17 ALIONA NOVAC, ANCA-NARCISA NEAGU, I. MIRON Data regarding the mussels population structure (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk.) from the area of Agigea dyke .................................................................................................................27 PERJU TEODOSIE, TNASE MARIANA, ION OLTEAN, MONICA PORCA Grgria galicol Smicronyx jungermanniae Reich.(Col; Curculinidae), un periculos agent de limitare a rspndirii speciilor de cuscut ........................................ 35 ELENA FERARU AND GHEORGHE MUSTA The predators and the parasitoids insects in the colonies of aphids (Homoptera:Aphididae) deleterious to the fruit trees from Vaslui county. ...............................................................39 ELENA FERARU The catalogue of the species of aphids (Homoptera:Aphididae) that attack fruit trees in Vaslui county .............................................51 CARMEN PRELIPCEAN, GHEORGHE MUSTA, ANDREI PRELIPCEAN Natural control realized by parasitoid insects inside the Aphis fabae Scop. colonies ....................................................59 PRELIPCEAN CARMEN, MUSTA GHEORGHE, ANDRIEV SORINA, PRELIPCEAN ANDREI Predators insects controlling Aphis fabae Scop. populations .......................................................................................................................67 I. COJOCARU, IRINEL E. POPESCU La diversit des coloptres aquatiques (Insecta, Coleoptera) du Marais de Vacreti (Bucarest) ................................................77 MIRCEA-DAN MITROIU Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) new to Romania (I) ..... 85 IONEL ANDRIESCU & MIRCEA-DAN MITROIU Notes on the Pteromalid fauna (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae) of Dobrogea, Romania (II)..............89

IRINEL E. POPESCU Eurytomid wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae) new for Romanian fauna (II) ............................................................97 OVIDIU POPOVICI New Scelionidae Species (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Scelionidae) for Romanias fauna .......................................................103 OVIDIU POPOVICI New species of Platygastridae (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae) to Romania fauna.......................................................107 IOAN MOGLAN Hymnoptres parasitodes (Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera) du pou de San Jos - Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comstock (Diaspididae, Homoptera) de la zone centrale de la Moldavie (Roumanie) ........................................111 MIRCEA VARVARA Variation of the species diversity of Carabidae (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in two vegetal associations in the Brnova Forest, Iai (East of Romania)...................................................................................117 MIRCEA VARVARA AND ALICE PILAT - The knowledge of carabids (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from three sites of the Fundtura Forest, Rchitoasa, Bacu county .................................................................................................................141 MIRCEA VARVARA AND FULGA ZUGRAVU Contributions to the study of carabids (Cleoptera, Carabidae) from the Gdini Forest, Neam county..............157 IRINEL E. POPESCU AND TEFAN R. ZAMFIRESCU Synecological analysis of a wheat field ground beetles community from letea (Bacu district).........................173 MIRCEA NICOAR Biodiversity conservation ......................................................183 CONSTANTIN DRUGESCU AND SORIN GEACU Contributions to the knowledge of submediterranean fauna in Romania ...................................................195 MARIN USATI Diversity of fish fauna in the catchment area of the Prut river in Republic of Moldova .........205 CTLIN D. COSTINIUC, LUCIAN D. GORGAN Researches about Tansa Belcesti Lakes ihtiofauna.........................215 BOGDAN VORNICU AND IORDACHE ION Nutrition of some species of fish in the Middle Basin of Moldova River ...................................................................223 DOREL URECHE, KLAUS WERNER BATTES, F. PRICOPE, I. STOICA Prospective monitoring of fish communities from Buzu Rivers Basin .................229 4

COSTIC MISIL Ecological fish feeding strategies in aquaculture..243 ANDREEA NICOAR Morphometric study of the juveniles belonging to complex Rana esculenta from Ciric Rivers Basin (Iai)...............................................257 TEFAN ZAMFIRESCU Comparison between water frogs (Rana esculenta complex) mating calls.....................................................................................................267 IORDACHE ION, ADRIAN OPREA, t. ZAMFIRESCU, C. ION, ELENA ION The conservation of the terrestrial vertebrates from the protected areas and natural reserves of Moldavia...........................................................................................279 CONSTANTIN ION AND OVIDIU POPOVICI Preliminary considerations concerning food disponibilities and feeding behaviour of reed paserines .....................293 DOROSENCU ALEXANDRU, POCORA VIOREL, ION CONSTANTIN Considerations about the observations and the performed ring putting on birds in Furtuna-Maliuc and Vadu (the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve)................................303 FELICIA FLOCEA Rare, vulnerable and protected birds from the RepedeaBrnova area the Jassy county ....................................................................................311 CARMEN BLESCU Preliminary data regarding bird fauna of the Craiovia Lake municipality of Craiova ............................................................................................. 319 CARMEN GACHE, S. TRELEA Actual status of the Corncrake (Crex crex) in the Northeastern part of Romania...............................................................................337 CARMEN GACHE Ornithological observations in Ciric area Iai county..............343 DIANA GHEEU, ANCA NEAGU, GIANINA COMNESCU Morphological and structural aspects of liver parasite trematodes in sheep ......................351 DIANA GHEEU, ANCA NEAGU, GIANINA COMNESCU Structural modifications of the sheep liver parenchyma in fluke infestation..................................357 MARIA STIRBU, GEORGETA MIU, MARIA ISTRATE - Some aspects on the modifications - in time - the growth and development in teen-agers from some rural communities of the Jassy county............................................................................363 ANA ARC New contributions to the study of the transverse palmary sulcus and of its similar ridge formations..................................................................................375

GABRIELA POSTOLACHE, LUIS SILVA CARVALHO, V. HEFCO, S. STRATULAT, ISABEL ROCHA Spectral evaluation of autonomic changes produced by chronic ethanol administration in rats .........................................389 MARIANA POPOVICI, IORDACHE ION Small mammals species (Mammalia, Rodentia, Insectivora,) the collection of the Natural History Museum, Iai ..403 LIGIA DORINA DIMA, CARMEN GACHE Dolphins in captivity: realities and perspectives ............................................................................................................ 413 MINA MONEACU, MARIANA MUSTA Effets secondaires des certaines substances utilises dans la conservation du bois biodtrior ..419 ION COJOCARU La philognie et la systmatique philognetique...........................431 GHEORGHE MUSTA, MARIANA MUSTA Evolutive strategies of colonial animals .............................................................................................................439 GHEORGHE MUSTA, MARIANA MUSTA Biosemiotic dimensions of colonial animals .....451 LUMINIA BEJENARU Profesorul Sergiu Haimovici la a 75-a aniversare 461 SERGIU HAIMOVICI Recenzie - ION COJOCARU, Paleobiologie, volumul III, Editura Universitii Al. I. Cuza Iai, 2004, 482 p .465

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 _________________________________________________________________________________________

NOTES ON THE PTEROMALID FAUNA (HYMENOPTERA: CHALCIDOIDEA, PTEROMALIDAE) OF DOBROGEA, ROMANIA (II)
BY

IONEL ANDRIESCU1 & MIRCEA-DAN MITROIU1

Key words: Pteromalidae, Dobrogea, genera and species new to Romania, new host records. Dobrogea (Constana and Tulcea counties) is the territory situated in the S-E of Romania, between the Danube and the Black Sea. Twenty-one pteromalid species from the subfamilies Spalangiinae and Pteromalinae are presented in this paper. The genera Stenoselma Delucchi, 1956 and Stinoplus Thomson, 1878, and the species Stenoselma nigrum Delucchi, 1956, Stinoplus militaris Thomson, 1878, Spalangia irregularis Bouek, 1963, Norbanus scabriculus (Nees, 1834) and Pteromalus altus (Walker, 1834) are recorded for the first time in Romania. Rhizococcus agropyri Borschs. is a new host record for Pachyneuron muscarum (L.); another host record is new to Romania. For one species Romania is the northern limit of its geographical distribution.

Introduction Fifteen species of pteromalids from five subfamilies and twelve genera were presented in the previous note /8/. We are now adding to this list twenty-one pteromalid species from fifteen genera, placed in the subfamilies Spalangiinae and Pteromalinae. These records are not, however, complete. The species in each subfamily are presented in alphabetical order. Material and methods Most of the material was collected by the authors using a regular sweeping net, during a long period (1955-2001). Five species were reared in laboratory from various hosts. The material was collected in Constana (CT) and Tulcea (TL) counties. Most of the individuals were collected in Agigea Natural Reserve (CT), situated near the Black Sea shore. Results Subfamily Spalangiinae Spalangia irregularis Bouek, 1963 new species to Romania Identified material: Agigea Natural Reserve (CT): 1, 19. VII. 1965, on Daucus flowers.
_______________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Ionel Andriescu & Mircea Dan Mitroiu

Geographical distribution: Cyprus, Israel /24/. Romania is so far the northern limit of its distribution. Biology: unknown. Subfamily Pteromalinae Conomorium patulum (Waker, 1835) Identified material: Valul lui Traian Natural Reserve (CT): 1, 27. VI. 1955. Geographical distribution: widely distributed: Armenia, Canary Islands, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Egypt, Spain, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Macedonia, Morocco, Republic of Moldavia, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Sweden, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom /24/. Previous records in Romania: /26, 1/. This is the first record of the genus and the species in Dobrogea. Biology: primary parasitoid of Arctiidae, Geometridae, Notodontidae, Noctuidae, Lymanthriidae, Selidosemidae, Lasiocampidae, Gracillariidae, Lyonetiidae and Tineidae (Lepidoptera) /15, 24/. Dibrachys cavus (Walker, 1835) Identified material: 9 and 2 reared on 26. VIII. 1971 from pupae of Grapholitha molesta Busck. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) collected at Basarabi (CT) on 18. VIII. 1971 new host record to Romania. Geographical distribution: widely distributed: Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz, Korea, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, Pakistan, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Moldavia, Russia, Serbia, Serbia, Slovakia, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uruguay, United Kingdom, USA. /24/. Previous records in Romania: /25, 9, 21, 5, 22, 23/. This is the first record of the genus and the species in Dobrogea. Biology: primary parasitoid of insects from orders like Coleoptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera or, more often, secondary parasitoid through Ichneumonidae, Braconidae (Hymenoptera), Tachinidae (Diptera) or other Chalcidoidea /15, 24/. Flight period: V-XI /15/. Dinarmus acutus Thomson, 1878 Identified material: Agigea Natural Reserve (CT): 1 and 1, 15. VIII. 1956. Geographical distribution: Algeria, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Gambia, Greece, Hungary, India, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, Morocco, Republic of Moldavia, Senegal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, USA, former USSR /24/. Previous records in Romania: /1, 2/. This is the first record of the genus and the species in Dobrogea. 90

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Biology: primary parasitoid of Bruchidae (Coleoptera); one record from Coccidae (Homoptera) (it needs confirmation) and one record from another species of Dinarmus, as hyperparasitoid /15, 24/. Homoporus fulviventris (Walker, 1835) Identified material: Agigea Natural Reserve (CT): 1, 28. VI. 2000. Geographical distribution: Belgium, Bosnia Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Spain, Republic of Moldavia, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom /24/. Previous records in Romania: /3, 4, 7/. Biology: primary parasitoid of Cynipidae and Eurytomidae or hyperparasitoid through Eupelmidae (Hymenoptera) /24/. Flight period: V-IX /15/. Homoporus nypsius (Walker, 1839) Identified material: Agigea Natural Reserve (CT): 1, 28. VI. 2000. Geographical distribution: Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Spain, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Morocco, New Zealand, Republic of Moldavia, Russia, Serbia, Sweden, Slovakia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, USA /24/. Previous records in Romania: /13, 3, 4, 17/. Biology: primary parasitoid of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera), Eurytomidae, Torymidae (Hymenoptera) or Scolytidae (Coleoptera) (this last record needs confirmation) or hyperparasitoid through Eurytomidae and Torymidae /15, 24/. Flight period: VI-VIII /15/. Homoporus subniger (Walker, 1835) Identified material: Agigea Natural Reserve (CT): 1, 28. VI. 2000. Geographical distribution: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Kazakstan, Montenegro, Republic of Moldavia, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom /24/. Previous records in Romania: /3, 4/. Biology: primary parasitoid of Cynipidae (Hymenoptera); one record from Apionidae (Coleoptera) and one from Lepidoptera need confirmation /15, 24/. Flight period: VI-IX /15/. Merisus splendidus Walker, 1834 Identified material: Valul lui Traian Natural Reserve (CT): 2, 5. VIII. 1955; Agigea Natural Reserve (CT): 1, 25. VI. 2000. Geographical distribution: Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Macedonia, Montenegro, Republic of Moldavia, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom /24/. Previous records in Romania: /13/. This is the first record of the genus and the species in Dobrogea. 91

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Biology: primary parasitoid of Eurytomidae (Hymenoptera); one record from Lepidoptera (it needs confirmation) /15, 24/. Flight period: VI-VII /15/ but also later, as our record indicates. Norbanus obscurus (Masi, 1922) Identified material: Periprava (TL): 1, 9. VI. 1995; Agigea Natural Reserve (CT): 1, 9. VII. 2000, leg. I. Popescu. Geographical distribution: Azerbaijan, Croatia, former Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Macedonia, Serbia, Spain, Turkey, Ukraine /24/. Previous records in Romania: /7/. Biology: unknown, reared from stems of Halogeton sp. /12/. Norbanus scabriculus (Nees, 1834) new species to Romania Identified material: Agigea natural reserve (CT): 1, 9. VII. 2000, leg. I. Popescu. Geographical distribution: Azerbaijan, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Montenegro, Republic of Moldavia, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine /24/. Biology: primary parasitoid of Cephidae (Hymenoptera), Curculionidae, Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) and Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera) /12, 24/. Pachyneuron muscarum (Linnaeus, 1758) Identified material: 1 and 1 reared on 4-5. V. 1962 from Sphaerolecanium prunastri Fonsc. (Homoptera, Coccidae) on Prunus spinosa collected in Agigea Natural Reserve (CT) on 27. IV. 1962; 2 and 2 reared from the same host in July 1965; 1 from Rhizococcus agropyri Borschs. (Homoptera) on Agropyron intermedium collected on 4. VII. 1963 in Agigea Natural Reserve (CT) new host record. Geographical distribution: Armenia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, India, Iran, Israel, Italy, Kazakhstan, Netherlands, Poland, Republic of Moldavia, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, St. Vincent & Grenadines, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom /24/. Previous records in Romania: /13, 18, 20, 20/. This is the first record of the species in Dobrogea. Biology: primary parasitoid but usually hyperparasitoid of many species of Coccidae (Homoptera) through other parasitoids /15, 24/. Psilocera crassispina (Thomson, 1878) Identified material: Agigea Natural Reserve (CT): 1, 25. VI. 2001 and 1, 21. VI. 2000, leg. L. Fusu. Geographical distribution: Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom /24/. Previous records in Romania: /3, 4, 7/. 92

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Biology: unknown, associated with Carduus pycnocephalus (Asteraceae) and Hordeum leparinum (Poaceae) /24/. Flight period: VI-VIII /15/. Pteromalus altus (Walker, 1834) new species to Romania Identified material: Agigea Natural Reserve (CT): 1, 21. VI. 2000, leg. L. Fusu. Geographical distribution: Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Montenegro, Republic of Moldavia, Spain, United Kingdom /24/. Biology: unknown, associated with Euphorbia amygdaloides (Euphorbiaceae) /24/. Flight period: V-VI /15/. Pteromalus bifoveolatus Frster, 1861 Identified material: and reared from Saturnia pyri Schiff. pupae (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae) collected at Techirghiol (CT) on 25. II. 1962 and Agigea (CT) on 26. III. 1962. Geographical distribution: Croatia, Czech Republic, Italy, Mauritania, Morocco, Republic of Moldavia, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom /24/. Previous records in Romania: /2, 27/. This is the first record of the species in Dobrogea. Biology: primary parasitoid of Lasiocampidae, Saturniidae, Lymanthriidae and Notodontidae (Lepidoptera) /15, 24/. Flight period: IV-VII /15/. Pteromalus varians (Spinola, 1808) Identified material: Periprava (TL): 1, 14. IX. 1966. Geographical distribution: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Republic of Moldavia, Russia, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom /24/. Previous records in Romania: /9, 1, 3, 4/. Biology: primary parasitoid of Curculionidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) /15, 24/. Flight period: IV-VIII /15/, but also later, as our record indicates. Raphitelus maculatus Walker, 1834 Identified material: 1 and 4 reared 1-19. X. 1964 from stems of Cotinus coggygria collected on 19. IX. 1962 at Valea Iortmacului (CT); 13 and 99 reared IX. 1964 from branches of Prunus armeniaca. Geographical distribution: Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Egypt, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, New Zealand, Poland, Republic of Moldavia, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom, USA /24/. Previous records in Romania: /14, 3, 4/.

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Biology: primary parasitoid of Scolytidae and Curculionidae (Coleoptera) or hyperparasitoid through Braconidae (Hymenoptera) /15, 24/. Flight period: IV-X, several generations /15/. Stenoselma nigrum Delucchi, 1956 new genus and new species to Romania Identified material: Agigea Natural Reserve (CT): 1, 13. V. 1962. Geographical distribution: Azerbaijan, Bosnia Hertegovina, Canary Islands, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Kazakhstan, Macedonia, Slovakia, Spain /24/. Biology: primary parasitoid of Buprestidae (Coleoptera), Cynipidae (Hymenoptera) and Sesiidae (Lepidoptera) /24/. Flight period: VII-IX /15/. Stichocrepis armata Forster, 1860 Identified material: Agigea Natural Reserve (CT): 4, 23. VI. 2000; 1, 25. VI. 2001; 1, 28. VI. 2001; Geographical distribution: Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Republic of Moldavia, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Switzerland /24/. Previous records in Romania: /17/. This is the first record of genus and the species in Dobrogea. Biology: primary parasitoid in pupae of Geometridae and Sesiidae (Lepidoptera) /24/. Note: this species occurs mainly in xerothermic habitats and the females are very rare. Stinoplus militaris Thomson, 1878 new genus and new species to Romania Identified material: Agigea Natural Reserve (CT): 1, 23. VII. 1964. Geographical distribution: Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Montenegro, Republic of Moldavia, Serbia, Sweden, Ukraine /24/. Biology: primary parasitoid of Scolytidae and Curculionidae (Coleoptera) /24/. Trichomalus rufinus (Walker, 1835) Identified material: Agigea Natural Reserve (CT): 1, 12. VI. 1964. Geographical distribution: Austria, Belgium, Bosnia Herzegovina, Canary Islands, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Lithuania, Montenegro, Norway, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom /24/. Previous records in Romania: /13, 25/. This is the first record of the species in Dobrogea. Biology: primary parasitoid of Apionidae (Coleoptera) /15, 24/. Flight period: V and IX-X /15/.

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Notes on the Pteromalid fauna (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoiea, Pteromalidae) of Dobrogea, Romania (II)

Tricolas xylocleptis Bouek, 1967 Identified material: 6 reared on 7. VIII. 1964 from plants of Clematis vitalba attacked by Xylocleptes bispinus (Duft.) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae), collected on 14. VII. 1964 at Periprava (TL). Geographical distribution: former Czechoslovakia, Germany /24/. Romania is so far the eastern limit of its distribution. Previous records in Romania: /3, 4/. Biology: primary parasitoid of Xylocleptes bispinus (Duft.) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) in stems of Clematis vitalba (Ranunculaceae) /10/. Acknowledgements: We thank Assist. Irinel Popescu and Assist. Lucian Fusu, Al. I. Cuza University, for collecting and offering a part of the material. Bibliography 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Andriescu, I., 1971 Lucr. Sta. Cercet. Biol. Geol. Geogr. Stejarul, Pngrai, 4: 425-444. Andriescu, I., 1972-1973 Lucr. Sta. Stejarul, Ecologie terestr i genetic, Pngrai :155-190. Andriescu, I., 1993 Anal. t. Inst. Delta Dunrii, Tulcea (Romnia): 49-58. Andriescu, I., 1996 Verh. 14 Internat. Symp. Ent. Mitt., SIEEC, Mnchen: 290-294. Andriescu, I., Sucinieanu, Veronica & Oancea, I., 1974-1975 Lucr. Sta. Stejarul, Ecol. terestr i genetic, Pngrai: 47-65. Andriescu, I. & Mitroiu, M.-D., 2001 Anal. t. Univ. Al I. Cuza, Iai (ser. nou), XLVII: 21-28. Andriescu, I. & Mitroiu, M.-D., 2003a Volum omagial Vasile Radu, Univ. Babe-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca: 19-24. Andriescu, I. & Mitroiu, M.-D., 2003b Anal. t. Univ. Al I. Cuza, Iai (ser. nou), XLIX: 71-77. Booc, Margareta, 1967 Stud. Univ. Babe-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca, Ser. Biol., 2: 81-86. Bouek, Z. 1967 Acta Ent. Mus. Nat. Pragae, 37: 635-647. Bouek, Z. & Rasplus, J. Y., 1991 Illustrated Key to West-Palearctic Genera of Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea), Techniques et Pratiques, INRA, Paris, pp. 140. Dzhanokmen, A. K., 1999 Russ. Journ. Zool., 78, (8): 952-959. Erds, J., 1948 Fragm. Faun. Hung., XI (2): 36-51. Finescu, G. N., 1930 Bul. Min. Agr. i Dom., VI (11-12): 1-6. Graham, M. W. R. de V., 1969 Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent., Suppl. 16: 1908. Mitroiu, M.-D., 2001 Bull. Soc. Roy. Belg. Ent., 137: 91-97. 95

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17. 18. 19. 20.

21. 22. 23.

24.

25. 26. 27.

Mitroiu, M.-D. & Andriescu, I., 2003 Anal. t. Univ. Al I. Cuza, Iai, (ser. nou), XLIX: 63-70. Moglan, I., Moglan, Veronica, 1998 Anal. t. Univ. Al. I. Cuza, Iai. (ser. nou), 41-43: 45-50. Moglan, I., 2000 Mitt. Dtsch. Ges. Allg. Angew. Ent 12 (1-6): 133-139. Moglan, I., 2002 in Parasitic Wasps: Evolution, Systematics, Biodiversity and Biological Control, International Symposium, Koszeg, Hungary. (edts.: Melika, G., Thuroczy, Cs.), pp. 480. Musta, Gh. & Tudor, Constana, 1973 Stud. Com., Muz. Jud. Suceava, t. Nat., III. Musta, Gh. & Costea, Gabriela 2000 Mitt. Dtsch. Ges. Allg. Angew. Ent 12 (1-6): 331-335. Musta, Gh., Musta, Mariana & Costea, Gabriela, 2002 in Parasitic Wasps: Evolution, Systematics, Biodiversity and Biological Control, International Symposium, Koszeg, Hungary. (edts.: Melika, G., Thuroczy, Cs.), pp. 480. Noyes, J. S., 2003 Universal Chalcidoidea Database. World Wide Web electronic publication, http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/chalcidoids/index.html [accessed 25-NOV-2003]. Perju, T. 1965 Lucr. t. Ser. Agric., Inst. Agr. Dr. Petru Groza Cluj Napoca, XXI, 285-304. Suciu, I., 1960 Anal. t. Univ Al. I. Cuza (ser. nou), sec. II (t. Nat.), VI, 3: 805-813. Suciu, I., 1979 Stud. Cercet. t. Nat., Muz. Jud. Braov, XII, 3.

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PRELIMINARY DATA REGARDING BIRD FAUNA OF THE CRAIOVIA LAKE MUNICIPALITY OF CRAIOVA
BY

CARMEN BLESCU1

Key words: Bird fauna, phenology, monitoring, nesting species, vulnerable Between 2000-2003, in the area of Craiovia Lake and Park, there were monitored 90 species belonging to 11 orders and 32 families. Most of the species - 49 belong to Passeriformes Order. The 31 aquatic species are included in 6 orders and 11 families. The total number of nesting species is of 32, but they were signalled in different years; only 14 species nested in all the 4 analysed years. From a phenological point of view, the migratory birds predominate as compared to the sedentary ones. Within the analysed area, 17 species have an unfavourable conservation status in Europe, as they are vulnerable and declining.

Introduction The Craiovia Lake is a basin built along the bed of the Cornioiu stream between 1966 and 1967. It is located in the north-western part of the municipality of Craiova, on the left side of the European road E 64, Craiova Drobeta-Turnu Severin, between the residential district of Craiovia Nou (to north) and the one of Brestei (to south). It is separated by an isthmus over which there was built a pedestrian bridge and, thus it was divided into two unequal lakes: a main large lake and a smaller one. In the middle of these lakes, there can be noticed small islands covered by reed thicket. Both basins are surrounded by reed, bulrush, willows, and, thus, in time, the area acquired the peculiarities of a river meadow. Near the lake, there has been fitted out the park with the same name, with alleys and a large variety of trees (for example, the genera: Populus, Juglans, Quercus, Acer, Fraxinus, Salix, etc.) and bushes (Solanum, Rosa, Crataegus, etc.) that draw many species of birds. Within the park, there is also a swimming-pool with a low functionality. In 1985, the whole arrangement covered a surface of about 85 ha, while the lake occupied 32 ha. At present, it covers a surface of 54 ha and the lake only about 4 ha. Purpose of the investigation The present paper ranges among a larger project referring to the birds within the area of Craiova as, when I began the research, I did not find any reference with regard to this aspect in the specialised literature. ______________________________
1

Universty of Craiova

Carmen Blescu _________________________________________________________________________________________

The purpose of the study was: - the monitoring of the bird fauna within the area of Craiovia Lake and Park; - data regarding the phenology of the species; - data about the nesting species; - knowing the vulnerable and declining in number species that are present on S.P.E.C. lists of the European conventions regarding the protection of the birds and their habitats. Material and methods The bird fauna noticed between January 2000 and December 2003 is based on direct observations (from stationary points). There were made trips once or twice a month, in the morning or in the afternoon. The birds were identified both visually and by means of a binocular of Norconia type (10x50), using, at the same time, Bruun & alt. catalogue guide for determining species (1999). The data regarding the number of the species, as well as the ones linked to their ecology, biology, and ethology were registered on work files. In order to render the most important aspects concerning the life of the birds, I also took some photos. Results and discussions Between January 2000 and December 2003, the bird fauna of the analysed area counted about 90 species that belong to 11 orders and 32 families (Table 1.). The most numerous species belong to the order Passeriformes: 49 species (number that represents 54.47 per cent of the total number of noticed species) and 16 families (51.6 per cent). Among the 13 species, sylviidae family is well represented in the area, followed by Turdidae - 8 species, Corvidae, and Fringillidae with 5 species each. I emphasised 31 species of aquatic birds (without including the reed thicket species warbler that from a systematic point of view belong to Passeriformes Order) are distributed in 6 orders and 10 families: Charadriiformes Order with 9 species (29 per cent); Anseriformes and Ciconiiformes Orders with 8 species each (25.8 per cent); Gruiformes Order with 3 species (9.67 per cent); Podicipediformes Order with 2 species (6.45 per cent); Pelecaniformes Order with one species (3.22 per cent). Among the aquatic species (Blescu, 2002), we mention as a new appearance: Egretta alba, which, from December 2002 to February 2003, periodically came for feeding not only in the area of the Craiovia Lake, but also in the area of Romanescu Park (it is sure that they wintered in the area of the pools located within the county of Dolj, near Craiova); Podiceps cristatus a pair noticed on the small basin on the 17th of April and the 23rd of May; Ardeola ralloides 5 specimens noticed by the edge of the reed thicket on the 10th of May; Vanellus vanellus up to 12 specimens. It is difficult to establish the phenology of the species only for the area of the Craiovia Lake. It is usually realised for large surfaces. In spite of all these, I want to specify: - 11 species were constantly noticed during all my trips in the four years of the study, in larger or smaller numbers, no matter the weather; due to this fact, I considered 320

Preliminary data ragarding bird fauna () _________________________________________________________________________________________

them to be sedentary: Anas platyrhynchos, Columba livia domestica (close to the houses located in the neighbourhood of the basin, where they also nest), Streptopelia decaocto, Corvus frugilegus, C. corone cornix, C. monedula, Pica pica, Parus major, Passer domesticus, P. montanus, Carduelis carduelis . - certain sedentary and nesting species for other areas of Craiova and its periphery has irregular appearances within the studied habitat; they were not constantly observed during all the trips I made; some of them occasionally passed through the habitat for feeding and resting during different periods of the year (Garrulus glandarius, Picus viridis etc); certain species stayed in this habitat all the time in this habitat for nesting: for example Turdus merula (2000, 2001), Dendrocopos major (2000, 2001), D. syriacus (2001-2003), Galerida cristata (2002), Carduelis chloris (2001,2003), Parus caeruleus (2002,2003). - most of the species are summer guests; some of the species stay here as they nest (16 species); others came for feeding and resting (for example Egretta garzetta, Ardea cinerea, Aythia nyroca, Chlidonias hibrydus etc.). From this category, some specimens of Gallinula chloropus and Fulica atra also stayed here over the winter. - some species with a status of summer guests in Romania, cross the area in question either in spring (prevernal aspect) Cuculus canorus, Saxicola torquata, Phoenicurus ochruros etc, or in both seasons, spring and autumn (serotinal and autumnal aspect) Sylvia communis, Phylloscopus trochilus, P. collybita, etc. In 2003, Sylvia borin stayed also during summer, as it is possible to be a nesting species. - among the species that are winter guests, Troglodytes troglodytes, Erithacus rubecula and Emberiza schoeniclus never left the territory. Most of the species did not spend the entire period here, even if some of them were noticed during almost all the months of the hiemal season (Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Fringilla coelebs etc). Other species only crossed the area searching for food: Certhia familiaris, Regulus regulus and R. ignicapillus, Pyrrhula pyrrhula etc. - as accidental appearances, I considered the species that occasionally came within the habitat, at irregular time periods. Some species just flew over the area accidentally (Buteo buteo, Falco tinnunculus), while other species stayed for a longer or shorter period (Emberiza citrinella, Turdus viscivorus, etc). Beginning with June 2001, there have been annually made de-colmatations of the main lake, burning of some areas covered by reed, because the mayoralty intends to build a pleasure beach and an aquatic sports grounds. Due to these works, the habitat changed influencing the present bird fauna, especially the aquatic species. After the first reclamation, there was observed the reduction of the number of certain aquatic specimens, as well as the appearance of other species of birds, such as the limicolous ones. Among these, I found the presence of Himantopus himantopus species quite special, as this species is protected in Romania. In 2003, it manifested a nesting behaviour and it is possible to be a nesting species. At the same time, in 2003 the number of Nycticorax nycticorax specimens increased (18 specimens in July); they came for feeding and resting (the species was observed even if during the afternoon). Within 321

Carmen Blescu _________________________________________________________________________________________

the place previously covered by the de-colmatated basin, besides the areas covered by bulrush, reed, willows, there developed a grassy vegetation rich in sedge, dwarf elder, wild orache, great mallow, hemp, thistle, horse thistle, bur etc. From place to place, there appear puddles, rich in duckweed and land elevations that made up access roads on the sides of which there grow numerous ruderal plants. The new aspect of the field represents an ideal place for the nesting of the warblers, shrikes, wagtails etc. With reference to the yellow wagtail, I want to specify that: - Motacilla flava feldegg was constantly seen in 2002 and 2003, when it also nested; - M. f. thunbergi was seen by the end of March and the beginning of May 2003; - at the same time, I have also noticed 2 specimens the appearance of which did not allow me to include them in one of the known sub-species and, thus, I did not write them down in the table. I shall precisely identify them in the next years. The total number of nesting species is 32. I considered as nesting species those species at which I noticed: - adults with building material in their beaks; - flying direction of the adult with food in their beak in a certain place many times; - observation of certain nests (they are very well blacked out, hard to observe in order to ensure the protection of the eggs and the nestlings); - the presence of the nestlings and the young or only of the young. The number of the species that nested oscillated during the 4 years of the study. Most of the species, namely 27, nested in 2001. Of the number of nesting species, 14 nested in all the analysed years: Ixobrychus minutus, Anas platyrhynchos, Gallinula chloropus, Fulica atra, Columba livia domestica, Streptopelia decaocto, Hirundo rustica, Sturnus vulgaris, Corvus frugilegus, C. monedula, Acrocephalus scirpaceus, Parus major, Passer domesticus, Passer montanus. Till now, the data referring to nesting/ non-nesting species indicate that the non-nesting ones predominate in the area. The findings regarding this aspect are relative. Many of the nesting species are linked to the private gardens located around the lake. It is possible that the number of the nesting birds to decrease (due to the modification of the habitat), to maintain or to increase (due to adaptation to the new changes of the habitat) for the next years. According to the European status regarding the conservation of species and habitats, there have been established 5 categories of S.P.E.C (Species of European Conservation Status), after Tucker and Heath (1994). Of the total number of the species noticed within the area of Craiovia Lake and Park, 17 are considered to have an unfavourable status of conservation for Europe, as they are vulnerable and declining in number; they belong to 3 categories of S.P.E.C.: - the 1st category of S.P.E.C. globally threaten species. There can be mentioned only Aythya nyroca. - the 2nd category of S.P.E.C. species with unfavourable conservation status concentrated in Europe. There can be mentioned only 3 species: Phalacrocorax pygmaeus that comes in the area for resting and feeding, Picus viridis in search of food; Ciconia ciconia that stayed for about one hour before a new flight. - the 3rd category of S.P.E.C. species with unfavourable conservation status that are not concentrated in Europe. This category includes 13 species: 4 of them are 322

Preliminary data ragarding bird fauna () _________________________________________________________________________________________

vulnerable: Botaurus stellaris, Ixobrichus minutus, Ardeola ralloides, Anas querquedula, and 9 declining in number species: Falco tinnunculus, Nycticorax nycticorax, Chlidonias niger, Chlidonias hybridus, Hirundo rustica, Lanius collurio, Saxicola torquata,, Muscicapa striata, Galerida cristata. Except for Galerida cristata species that is sedentary within the area of Craiova, all the other species are summer guests and in passing species. Of the vulnerable and declining in number species, 4 found excellent conditions for nesting: Ixobrichus minutus, Lanius collurio, Galerida cristata, Hirundo rustica. During the field researches, it was noticed a permanent oscillation of the number of birds, both annually and according to the season due to the climatic and feeding conditions. Most of the species were observed during the prevernal aspect, when, besides the existing species (sedentary, partially migratory, some species that stayed from winter), there appeared the species in passing (cuckoos, warblers, spottedflycatchers), as well as summer guests (grebes, herons, swallows, wagtails, red-backed shrikes, etc). The maximum number of birds was registered in 2002, when I monitored 56 species between March and April. The diversity of species noticed in the area of the Craiovia Lake and Park proves the fact that the birds have adapted to the urbanisation conditions in the area as this habitat is also a resting point for many birds in the migration process. We assist to a various climate which in our area in the last years, was manifested through hot and dry summers, short autumns and springs, mild winters that directly or indirectly influenced the dynamics of the birds. At the same time, the change of the biotope due to the human intervention led to the modification of the bird fauna within the studied area. That is why it is necessary to continue the seasonal and annual monitoring of the birds.

323

Table 1. The phenological situation of the species of birds within the area of Craiovia Lake and Park the Municipality of Craiova between 2000-2003 at which there are added some observations regarding the birds of this habitat Species Phenology No. Family Observation for Order the studied area 2000 2001 2002 2003 Ord. Podiciformes Fam. Podicipedidae Tachybaptus ruficollis Podiceps cristatus Ord. Pelecaniformes Fam. Phalacrocoracidae Phalacrocorax pygmaeus Ord. Ciconiiformes Fam. Ardeidae Ardea cinerea Botaurus stellaris Ixobrychus minutus Ardeola ralloides Nycticorax nycticorax

1. 2.

III-XI

III-X

IV-XI IV,V

OV.C. Frequent P. One pair OV. Feedingresting OV. Feedingresting OV. Rare OV.C. Frequent P OV. Feedingresting

3.

VIII, IX, XI II, IV, V, VII, VIII, X, XI III-IX VII

II,VII

4 5. 6. 7. 8.

II-XI IV, VII, VIII IV-IX

V, VI, VIII, IX, X IV-X VI, IX

VIII, IX, X IV-IX V V, VI, VII, IX

324

No. 9.

Species Family Order Egretta garzetta

Phenology 2000 IV-IX 2001 IV, VI, VII, VIII 2002 VI, VII, IX 2003 VI, VII,VIII, IX I, II

Observation for the studied area OV. Feedingresting OI. One-two specimens A. Acc. 8 specimens. OI. 4 specimens

10

Egretta alba Fam. Ciconiidae Ciconia ciconia Ord. Anseriformes Fam. Anatidae Cygnus cygnus Cygnus olor Anas platyrhynchos Anas crecca Anas queryuedula Anas clypeata Aythia ferina

XII

11.

VIII I, II II, III, IV I-XII I, II III, IV IV IV, VII, X III, IV II-XII II, XII III III, IV, V, VII, VIII

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17 18

I-XII I, II

I-XII

VII, VIII, IX

P S.C. Common OI. P P OV. Cp. Feeding-resting

325

No. 19.

Species Family Order Aythia nyroca Ord. Falconiformes Fam. Accipitridae Buteo buteo Fam. Falconidae Falco subbuteo Falco tinnunculus Ord. Gruiformes Fam Rallidae Rallus aquaticus Gallinula chloropus Fulica atra

Phenology 2000 2001 VIII 2002 IV 2003 III, V, VI, VII

Observation for the studied area OV. Feedingresting

20.

VIII

II, XI

III, IX

IV, VI, VIII

A. Acc

21. 22.

V, VII, VIII

VII, VIII IV, VIII

OV. A.Acc. One pair

23. 24. 25.

XII II-XII II-XII

I-II I-XII I-XII

I-XII II-XII

I-XI II-XII

OI. Rare OV. OI. C. Common OV. OI. C. Common

326

No.

Species Family Order Ord. Charadriiformes Fam Recurvirostridae Himantopus himantopus Fam Charadriidae Charadrius dubius Vanellus vanellus Fam Scolopacidae Calidris minuta Tringa sp. Fam. Laridae Larus ridibundus Larus argentatus cachinnans Fam. Sternidae Chlidonias niger

Phenology 2000 2001 2002 2003

Observation for the studied area

26.

VI, VII,VIII

IV, VIII

IV-VII, VIII

OV.Cp

27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

VIII, IX V, VI, VII VIII, IX VIII, IX I-III, VI, VII, VIII, X I, II, IV, V

P OV P P It appears periodical It appears periodical OV. For feeding

I-XII I-III,V,VI-X, XII IV,VI,VII,I X

III, V, IX, XI I, X VI

V II, V, VII, IX, X XI, XII III, V, VI, VIII, XI III, V

33.

327

No. 34. 35. 36.

Species Family Order Chlidonias hybridus Ord. Columbiformes Fam. Columbidae Columba livia domestica Streptopelia decaocto Ord. Cuculiformes Fam Cuculidae Cuculus canorus Ord. Piciformes Fam. Picidae Picus viridis Dendrocopos major

Phenology 2000 2001 VIII 2002 2003 V, VI, VIII

Observation for the studied area OV. Ad., young

I-XII I-XII

I-XII I-XII

I-XII I-XII

I-XII I-XII

S.C. Common S.C. Common P. It appears regularly

37.

IV,V

IV, V

IV-V

V, VI

38. 39.

IV, VII, IX, XI II,IV,V,VII, VIII X-XII I, III, IV,VI,VIII, IX, XI

II, V, IX, XI I, II, III,VI,VIII, X, XI, XII II-V,VII-XII

II, III, VIII, IX, XII I, III, VII, X, XII

III, VII, XI III, VI, VIII, XI I-III, VVII, IX, X, XII

S. Solitary. Rare S.C. In a small number. One pair S.C. In a small nr; one-two pair

40.

Dendrocopos syriacus

I, III, V-VIII, XI, XII

328

No. 41.

Species Family Order Dendrocopos medius Ord. Passeriformes Fam. Alaudidae Galerida cristata Fam. Hirundinidae Hirundo rustica Delichon urbica Fam. Motacillidae Motacilla flava Motacilla alba Fam. Laniidae Lanius collurio Fam. Sturnidae Sturnus vulgaris Fam. Corvidae Corvus frugilegus

Phenology 2000 2001 V,VI,VIII 2002 IV, XI 2003 II

Observation for the studied area A. Acc. One specimens

42. 43. 44.

X, XI, XII III-IX IV-IX III-IX III-IX

I-IV, VI-XII III-VIII IV, V, VIII

I-III, VII, X, XII IV-IX IV, VI

S. C. OV.C. Common OV.C. Decreasing OV,C OV, P.C OV.C. Frequent OV.C. Common S.C. Common

45. 46. 47. 48. 49.

VIII IV-IX V, VII-IX III-XI I-XII III-X I-XII 329

IV-IX IV-IX V-X IV-XI I-XII

IV-IX IV V-X IV-X I-XII

No. 50. 51 52

Species Family Order Corvus corone cornix Corvus monedula Pica pica

Phenology 2000 I-V, VIIIXII I-XII I, IV,VI,IX,X, XI X, XII I-II, XI-XII IV, V, VIII IV-IX IV-IX 2001 I-XII I-XII I-XII 2002 I-XII I-XII I-XII 2003 I-XII I-XII I-XII

Observation for the studied area S.C. Common S.C. Common S.C. Common

53 54 55 56 57 58 59.

Garrulus glandarius Fam. Troglodytidae Troglodytes troglodytes Fam. Sylviidae Locustella luscinoides Acrocephalus schoenobaenus Acrocephalus scirpaceus Acrocephalus palustris Acrocephalus arundinaceus

II, VII, IX I-II, XI-XII IV-V,VII-IX IV-X IV-X

III, VI, XI, XII I-III, X-XII IV,V, VII, VIII, IX

II,VI, X I-III; X-XII V,VII,VIII

S. Solitary. Rare OI. Constant OV.C OV.C

IV-X IV, V, VII, VIII IV-X

V-VII, IX V-VIII V-IX

OV.C OV.C OV.C.

VI,IX 330

No. 60 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67 68. 69. 70.

Species Family Order Sylvia borin Sylvia atricapilla Sylvia communis Sylvia curruca Phylloscopus trochilus Phylloscopus collybita Phylloscopus sibilatrix Hypolais icterina Fam. Regulidae Regulus ignicapillus Regulus regulus Fam Muscicapidae Muscicapa striata

Phenology 2000 III, IV, VIII, IX IV, VIII, IX III, IV, XI, X III, IV, VIIIX 2001 III, IV, VIII, IX IV, VIII, IX II, IV, IX, X III,IV,VIII,IX, X VIII, IX XII IV, VIII, IX, X I, III, XI XII VIII, IX I I, III IX III, IV III, IV, X III, IV, IX, X IV, VIII 2002 III, IV, IX III, IV 2003 III-IX IV IV IV IV, VIII, IX, X IV, IX, VIII

Observation for the studied area P,OV. Cp P P P P. Frequent P. Frequent P P. Rare OI. For feeding OI. For feeding P

331

No.

Species Family Order Fam. Turdidae Saxicola torquata Phoenicurus ochruros Erithacus rubecula Luscinia megarhynchos Turdus merula Turdus iliacus Turdus pilaris Turdus viscivorus Fam Paridae Parus major Parus caeruleus

Phenology 2000 2001 2002 2003 III III I-IV, X-XII V-VIII I-III, X

Observation for the studied area P. P OI. Constant OV. Frequent. C S.C. Decreasing OI. In flocks OI. In flocks or isolately A.Acc. Rare S. Common. C S.C. Numerous in autumn and winter

71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80.

I-II, XI-XII IV,VI,VIII I-XII

I-II, X-XII IV-VIII I-III, VI, VIIIXII I, II IX

I, II

III I-III, X-XII IV-VIII I-III, V, IX, XI, XII II, XII I, II, XII III, X I- XII I-III, V,VII-XII

I XI I-V,VII-XII I-III, V, VII, IX-XII

I-XII I-IV,VIIIXII

I-XII I-IV,VII-XII

332

No.

Species Family Order Fam. Certhiidae Certhia familiaris Fam. Passeridae Passer domesticus Passer montanus Fam. Fringillidae Fringilla coelebs Pyrrhula pyrrhula Coccothraustes coccothraustes Carduelis chloris Carduelis carduelis Fam. Emberizidae Emberiza schoeniclus

Phenology 2000 2001 XII I-XII I-XII XII X, XII I, II, XII IV-VI, VIII, IX, X XII I-II, IV, V, VII-XII X-XII 2002 II I-XII I-XII I, III,XII I, XI I, II, XI, XII I-IV,VI-VIII, X, XI, XII I-V, VII-XII 2003 I I-XII I-XII II, III, X III I, II, III, XI II-VII, XII, IX, X I-XI

Observation for the studied area OI. Rare One specimens S.C. Common S.C. Common OI OI. Rare OI S.C. Discrete presence S.C. Frequent

81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88.

I-XII I-XII

XII

II-VI,VIIIXII

89.

I-II, XI-XII

I-III, XI

OI. Frequent

333

Nr. 90.

Species Family Order Emberiza citrinella

Phenology 2000 2001 VIII, IX 47 species 69 species 2002 XII 75 species 2003 II 76 species

Observation for the studied area A. Acc. In flocks

Total Species

Explication of the table: S-sedentary species; OV-summer gust; OI-winter guest; P-passage species; A.Acc-accidental appearance; Ad-adults; C-nesting; Cp-possible nesting species; I-XII the months of year:I-January;II-February; III-March; IV-April; V-May; VI-June; VII-July; VIIIAugust; IX-September; XI-November; XII-December

334

Carmen Blescu _________________________________________________________________________________________

Conclusions - Craiovia Lake and Park represent an ecological favourable environment when it comes to ensure food, shelter, nesting conditions, as well as a resting place for many species of birds during migration periods. - There were identified about 90 species belonging to 11 orders and 32 families between 2000 and 2003. - Of the 49 species and 16 families, Passerifomes Order is the best represented. - I identified 31 of aquatic and semi-aquatic species that are included in the following orders: Charadriiformes (9 species), Anseriformes (8), Ciconiiformes (7), Gruiformes (3), Podicipediformes (2), Pelecaniformes (1) - Of the 32 species of nesting birds, 14 nested in all the analysed years: Ixobrychus minutus, Anas platyrhynchos, Gallinula chloropus, Fulica atra, Columba livia domestica, Streptopelia decaocto, Hirundo rustica, Sturnus vulgaris, Corvus frugilegus, Corvus monedula, Acrocephalus scirpaceus, Parus major, Passer domesticus, Passer montanus. - Of the total number of noticed species, 17 have an unfavourable status of conservation for Europe, as they are vulnerable and their number is declining. Only Aythia nyroca is threatened at a global level and 4 species are nesting: Ixobrychus minutus, Lanius collurio, Galerida cristata, Hirundo rustica. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Blescu, Carmen, 2000 - Studii i Comunicri, t. Nat. vol. XVI. p. 172-178. Craiova Blescu, Carmen, Mirela Ridiche, 2001 - Studii i Comunicri, t. Nat. vol. XVII, p. 172 178. Craiova Blescu, Carmen, 2002 - Studii i Comunicri, t. Nat. vol. XVIII. 207 212. Editura Sitech Craiova Blescu, Carmen, 2003 - Analele Univ. din Craiova, vol.VIII (XLIV), p. 7075, Craiova Botnariuc, N, Vdineanu, V., 1982 - Ecologie - Indici structurali ai biocenozei.. p.121- 131. Editura Didactic i pedagogic Bucureti Bruun, B. & colab., 1999 - Psrile din Romnia i Europa - determinator ilustrat. Ed. Hamlyn Guide (Ediie Romneasc, adaptat de Munteanu, D. i redactat de Societatea ornitologic romn) Gache, Carmen, 2002 - Dinamica avifaunei n Bazinul Rului Prut Publicaiile Societii Ornitologice Romne, nr.15, Cluj-Napoca Ciobotea, D., 1999 - Grdinile i Parcurile Craiovei. p. 70-72. Editura de Sud Craiova Kiss A, 2002 - Rezervaia ornitologic Satchinez. Editura Excelsior Timioara. Mitruly Aniko 2002 - Avifauna bazinelor acvatice antropice din podiul 335

Preliminary data ragarding bird fauna () _________________________________________________________________________________________

11. 12.

Trnavelor. Publicaiile Societii Ornitologice Romne, nr.18, Editura Risoprint Cluj-Napoca Munteanu D., 1998 - Analele Banatului t. Nat. 371-381 Weber, P, Munteanu, D, Papadopol, A, 1994 - Atlasul Provizoriu al psrilor clocitoare din Romnia. Publ. S.O.R., nr. 2 Media

336

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 _______________________________________________________________________________________

LA DIVERSIT DES COLOPTRES AQUATIQUES (INSECTA, COLEOPTERA) DU MARAIS DE VACRETI (BUCAREST)


PAR

ION COJOCARU1, IRINEL E. POPESCU1

Mots clefs: coloptrs aquatiques, diversit, Bucarest Dans le Marais de Vcreti ont t identifis une trentaine despces de coloptrs aquatiques appartenant 4 familles: Haliplidae, Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae et Limnebiidae. Les plus abondentes ont t les ditiscides (52,5%) rpresentes par 17 espces.

Introduction Ltude prsente comprend une analyse qualitative et cantitative des coloptres aquatiques collectes dun cosysteme de marais situ dans le primtre intravillan de Bucarest. En Roumanie on a effectu des tudes plus importantes visant la systmatique et la biologie des coloptres aquatiques: Olimpia Marcu visant les familles des Haliplidae, Hygrobiidae, Dytiscidae et Gyrinidae (1929), M. Ienitea les familles Hydraenidae (1968), Limnebiidae (1970), Hydrophilidae (1972), le genre Laccobius (1972), A. Ruicnescu les suprafamilles Dytiscoidea et Gyrinoidea. Plus rcemment (2000, 2001) nous avons publi des travaux visant la diversit des coloptres en differents bassins aquatiques de la Moldavie (rivires, lacs, marais et tourbires). Matriel et mthode Les chantillons constatent en adultes et larves de coloptres aquatiques (Fig. 2 et Fig. 3) amasses chaque semaine au cours du mois daot 2003 dans la zone littorale du marais de Vcreti. La collecte a t ralise laide dun filet limnologique (diamtre de 30 cm, de toile trous de 0,5 mm) par trois locations. A chaque location on a effectu une quinzaine dchantillons distance de 100 cm de profondeur ayant couvert le fond de leau, la masse de celle-ci, en incluant la zone riche en macrophites (riche en roseau surtout). Les insectes obtenues ont t conserves en alcool et dtermines. On a enregistr labondance des individus trouvs dans les preuves et on a calcul son abondance relative.

_______________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Ion Cojocaru et Irinel E. Popescu

Rsultats On a collect en total un nombre de 240 coloptrs aquatiques appartenant une trentaine despces des 4 familles (Tableau 1). Le plus grande abondance est enregistre par lespce Noterus crassicornis (30,83%), suivie par celle de Coelostoma orbiculare (17,5%). La majorit des individus et espces appartiennement la famille de Dytiscidae qui contient les espces de proie bonnes naguses, respiration arienne qui prfrent le biotope vgtation macrophyte et soustrat vaseux. Une prsence probablement accidentalle prsente lespce de Megasternum boletophagus (Hydrophilidae) qui est cite dans la litterature apparraissent seulement sur les restes organiques. Labondance relative au niveau de famille est rendue dans le figure nr. 1. Tableau nr. 1. La liste des espces de coloptres aquatiques (Le Marais de Vcreti, 2003) Abondance Abondance No. Taxons (No.) relative (%) Famille Haliplidae 27 11,25 1. Haliplus obliquus (Fabricius) 5 2.08 2. Haliplus (Haliplinus) wehnckei Gerh. 13 5,41 3. Peltodytes caesus (Duft.) 9 3,75 Famille Dytiscidae 126 52,5 4. Hydroporus sp. Clairv. (Hydroporinae) 3 1,25 5. Guignotus pusillus (F.) 1 0,41 6. Hygrotus inaequalis (F.) 1 0,41 7. Scarodytes halensis (F.) 1 0,41 8. Graptodytes bilineatus (Strm.) 2 0,83 9. Noterus clavicornis (Deg.) (Noterinae) 2 0,83 10. Noterus crassicornis (Mull.) 74 30,83 11. Laccophilus minutus (L.) 9 3,75 (Laccophilinae) 12. Laccophilus variegatus (Germ.) 12 5.0 13. Colymbetes striatus (L.) 1 0,41 (Colymbetinae) 14. Ilibius ater (Deg.) 1 0,41 15. Ilibius sp. Er. 5 2.08 16. Rhantus pulverosus (Steph.) 1 0,41 Hydaticus transversalis (Pontopp) 1 0,41 17. (Dytiscinae) Cybister lateralimarginalis (Deg.), 18. imagos 1 6 2,5 Cybister lateralimarginalis, larvae 5 19. Graphoderus sp. Steph., larvae 6 2,5 78

La diversit des coloptres aquatiques (Insecta, Coleoptera) ()

No. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Taxons Famille Hydrophilidae Coelostoma orbiculare (F.) (Sphaeridiinae) Megasternum boletophagum (Marsh.) Limnoxenus niger (Zschach.) (Hydrophilinae) Anacaena limbata (F.) Laccobius biguttatus Gerh. Helochares lividus Forst Helochares obscurus (Mull.) Enochrus melanocephalus (Oliv.) Enochrus coarctatus (Gredl.) Enochrus testaceus (F.) Famille Limnebiidae Limnebius sp. Leach Total

Abondance (No.) 79 42 1 2 17 1 2 9 3 1 1 8 8 240

Abondance relative (%) 32,91 17,5 0,41 0,83 7.08 0,41 0,83 3,75 1,25 0,41 0,41 3,33 3,33 100

Fig. 1. L'abondance relative des coleopteres aquatiques (Le Marais Vcreti, 2003)

3% 33%

11% Haliplidae Dytiscidae Hydrophilidae Limnebiidae 53%

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Ion Cojocaru et Irinel E. Popescu

Conclusions Dans lintervalle relativement bref de prlvement des preuves on a obtenu un trs grand nombre dindividus de coloptres aquatiques. Cette chose-l sexplique par le dveloppement de la vgtation aquatique qui reprsente des sources dabri pour toutes les coloptres aquatiques. La vgtation aquatique constitue la source de nourriture pour quelques unes des coloptres microphytofages (Haliplidae, Limnebiidae et quelques Hydrophilidae) qui se nourissent aves du priphyton et des restes vgtaux; ces coloptres, leur tour, constituent la nourriture des coloptres de proie (Dytiscidae et quelques-unes des Hydrophilidae). Bibliographie 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Antonescu C. S., 1967 - Biologia apelor, Ediia a II-a, Ed. Did. i Ped., Bucureti Bertrand H., 1954 - Les insects aquatiques d'Europe, Editura Paul Lechevalier, Paris Brauer A., 1909 Die Susswasserfauna Deutschlands Coleoptera, Heft , Verlag von Gustav Fischer, Jena Chiriac E., Udrescu M., 1965 Ghidul naturalistului n lumea apelor dulci, Editura tiinific, Bucureti Chatenet G., 1990 Guide des coloptres dEurope, Delachaux & Niestle, Paris Cojocaru I., Nicoar M., 2001 Bul. inf. Soc. Lepid. Rom., 11, (1-4): 169-181, 2000, Cluj-Napoca Ienitea, M. A., 1974 Trav. Mus. Hist. Nat. Grigore Antipa, Bucureti Ienitea, M. A., 1968 Trav. Mus. Hist. Nat. Grigore Antipa, vol. VIII, Bucureti Ionescu M. A., Lctuu M., 1971 Entomologie, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti Mota C., Knechtel W., 1920-1921 Bul. Sect. Scient. Arad, Roumanie, Bucureti Nicoar M., Cojocaru I., 2000 Analele t. Univ. Al. I. Cuza Iai, seria Biologie animal, Tom. XLIV-XLV 1988-1999, 53-62, Iai Nicoar M., Cojocaru I., Vasiloiu A., 2001 Analele t. Univ. Al. I. Cuza Iai, seria Biologie animal, Tom. XLVI, Iai, 2000, 45-53, Iai Pirisinu Q., 1981 Cons. Naz. Rrc, Verona, Italia. Rousseau E., Lestage J. A., Schouteden H., 1921 Les larves et nymphes aquatiques des insectes dEurope, Vol. 1, Office de Publicite, Bruxelles Ruicnescu A., 1988 Lucr. IV, Conf. Nat. Entomologie Cluj-Napoca Stan Gh., 1995 Bul. Inf. Soc. Lepid. Rom. 6, (1-2): 67-96, Cluj-Napoca Tachet H., Bournaud M., Richoux Ph., 1991 Introduccion a l'etude des macroinvertebres des eaux douces, Ed. Univ. Lyon. 80

La diversit des coloptres aquatiques (Insecta, Coleoptera) ()

Haliplus obliquus

Peltodytes caesus

Hydroporus sp

Guignotus pusillus

Scarodytes halensis

Hygrotus inaequalis

Noterus clavicornis

Noterus crassicornis

Graptodytes bilineatus

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Laccophilus variegatus

Laccophilus minutus

Fig. 2. Coloptres aquatiques colectes dans le Marais Vcreti (Bucarest)

Rhantus pulverosus

Coelostoma orbiculare

Megasternum boletophagum

Enochrus melanocephalus Helochares obscurus Anacaena limbata 82

La diversit des coloptres aquatiques (Insecta, Coleoptera) ()

Laccobius biguttatus Fig. 3. Coloptres aquatiques colectes dans le Marais Vcreti (Bucarest)

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Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 ________________________________________________________________________________________

LA PHILOGNIE ET LA SYSTMATIQUE PHILOGNETIQUE


PAR

ION COJOCARU1

Mots-cls: la philognie, la systmatique philognetique, la cladistique Le travail attire lattention sur le fait que lintroduction de nouvelles mthodes de dtermination de la philognie telle que savre lanalyse cladistique, ne peuvent tre dune rele utilit systmatique si on ne tient pas compte des principes de base de cette systmatique-ci. Pratiquement la reconstitution dune philognie compltement naturelle est soumise une limite qui ne peut pas tre dpasse cest dire impose par les rgles de cette systmatique-ci, les limites imposes par ltude de lvolution (la relativit des macrotaxons) et les limites imposes par la mthode danalyse de la philognie.

Introduction Lessai de reconstituer un systeme de classification le plus naturel possible sappuyant sur la ralit philognetique reste en grande partie une utopie. Une classification juste peut etre ralise pour les espces actuelles alors quon respecte des critres prcis. Mais la tentative dinclure toutes les espces connues de tous les temps dans le mme systme taxinomique est soumise des contraintes et contradictions objectives qui ne permettent pas une mais plusieurs solutions. Ce travail a deux objectifs: (i) de signaler quelques violations des principes et rgles de la systmatique sous linfluence de lanalyse cladistique; (ii) de vrifier lhypothse que la systmatique ne pourra jamais tre 100% philognetique sans tenir compte de la quantit disponible de donnes ou de la mthode danalyse. Discussions A. Principes et rgles ludes 1. Le principe de la non-introduction dun grand nombre de rangs taxinomiques intermdiares; par exemple, linterprtation dune cladogramme faisant rfrence lvolution des archosaures (Benton, 2000) a conduit la suivante succesion taxinomique hirarhique: la division (Archosauria) la sous-division (Crurotarsi) linfradivision (Crocodylotarsi) le surordre (Crocodylomorpha) lordre (Crocodylia) la division (Mesoeucrocodylia) la sousdivision (Metasuchia) la infradivision (Neosuchia), etc. (Figure 1). Ces rangs taxinomiques intermdiaires linfraclasse et au sousordre compliquent le systme de classification (en principe jusqu son invalidation)
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Ion Cojocaru _________________________________________________________________________________________

et, en fin de compte, elles sont toujours insuffisants pour exprimer toutes les relations philogentiques supposes. 2. le principe de lhyrarchie des rangs taxinomiques; Dans lexemple donn pluhaut on observe que les rangs appls division, sousdivision et infradivision sont subordonns hirarhiquement eux-mmes chose impossible et inacceptable. Par exemple, la division Archosauria inclue la division Mesoeucrocodylia qui, son tour, est incluse dans une unit de rang infrieur lordre Crocodylia. Du point de vue de la philognie on peut considrer que dune unit infriure on peut dtacher une autre suprieure mais du point de vue systmatique nimporte quelle unit est incluse dans une autre de rang suprieur. 3. le principe de la rpartition des espces dans des macrotaxons quivalents. Par example, une classe peut tre divise en deux ou troi sousclasses etc., mais non en deux sousclasses et une famille indpendente. Cette irrgularit peut tre admise provisoirement alors quil y a des dates (donns) trs soummaires concernant certaines formes (celles incluses dans la famille, dans lexemple precedent). Par exemple, la classe Amphibia a t plus rcemment (Benton, 2000) spare en deux sousclasses (Batrachomorpha et Reptilomorpha) et la famille des Ichthyostegidae (classifie couramment dans la souclasse Labyrinthodontia), place lorigine des deux sousclasse a t revise comme indpendente sans lui attribuer une sousclasse propre ou bien sans tre incluse dans lune des deux sousclasses descendentes. La systmatique reclame que toutes les taxons dun macrotaxon soient groups dans des units hirarhiques quivalentes. Par exemple, sil existe dans un embranchement un seul genre on va lui dsigner automatiquement une famille, un ordre et une classe. 4. le principe de lorganisation: les units systmatiques reprsentent dabord des catgories organisatrices et en seconde place des catgories volutives. Une catgorie organisatrice est fonde en sappuyant sur des caractres communs et fondamentaux. Une catgorie volutive (clade, branche) est fonde en sappuyant sur les drnieres caractres communs apparus (les synapomorphies). Le principe de lorganisation est celui qui justifie le maintien dans les classification des taxons paraphiltiques. Par exemple, la classe Reptilia cest un taxon paraphiletique qui figure dans la classification classique des tetrapodes (classification ayant la base le critre organisationnel): La Surclasse Tetrapoda (monophiltique) La Classe Amphibia (monophiltique) La Classe Reptilia (paraphiltique) La Classe Aves (monophiltique) La Classe Mammalia (monophiltique) Si nous plaons au premier plan le critre volutif ainsi quon le fait la cladistique, alors on peut transformer la classification classique prcdente dans une nouvelle qui va inclure des taxons monophiltiques seulement: Surclasse Tetrapoda Le taxon Amphibia 432

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Le taxon Amniota Le taxon Anapsida Le taxon Diapsida Le taxon Aves Le taxon Synapsida Le taxon Mammalia Cest la nouvelle classification dans laquelle on a limin le taxon paraphiltique des Reptilia. Est-elle meilleure? Si on est daccord pourquoi nest elle pas applique? Elle ne lest pas parce que le groupement sur le nom des reptiles de toutes des amniotes qui sont parvenues un niveau commun dorganisation, unies par des caractres fondamentaux, permet une classification plus pratique et plus raliste qui celle qui tient compte des dirctions dvolution. Par example, toutes les anapsides, synapsides et diapsides primitives ayant un aspect de lsard et aussi suffisament de caractres communs pour leur permettre lidntification en tant que groupe part, spar des autres tetrapodes telles les oiseaux et les mammifres. De la perspective volutive certaines reptiles devrons former une classe avec les oiseaux et dautres avec les mammifres, ce que ne sera pas du tout raliste car, entre les niveaux dorganisation des reptiles, des oiseaux et aussi des mammifres un grand saut qualitatif sest produit (Figure 2). B. La systmatique peut-elle tre 100% philogentique? Pour tre considre 100% philognetique, la systmatique devrait utiliser seulement des taxons monophiltiques. Une branche (clade) est par dfinition monophiltique. La systmatique classique utilise, en les combinant, des taxons monophiltiques et dautres paraphiltiques. Pour devenir en totalit philognetique, la systmatique devrait liminer les taxons paraphiltiques ce que la cladistique en fait. Dans ce cas combien naturelle serait la nouvelle systmatique? La difference entre les classifications orizontales et les clasifications verticales est connue; les classifications orizontales groupent ensemble les lignes volutives diffrentes mais qui ont atteint le mme niveau dvolution; les clasifications verticales indiquent une seule ligne volutive mais qui a travers des niveaux diffrents dvolution. Quelle est lutilit des taxons paraphiltiques dans la systmatique? Voil les limites de la systmatique philognetique: 1. Les limites tenant aux principes de la systmatique; 2. Les limites concernant ltude de lvolution; 3. Les limites concernant la manire de lanalyse philognetique. 1. Les limites tenant aux principes de la systmatique A lintrieur de la classification, le critre de lorganisation prime vis--vis celui volutif. Le systme de classification devrait avoir une structure hirarhique des sousunits quivalentes et sans beaucoup de rangs taxinomiques intermdiares. On ne recomande pas que chaque noeud de la cladogramme soit associ un rang taxinomique; le fait qui conduit une inflation par degrs hirarhiques. Par exemple, entre les rangs de linfraclasse et lordre quelque fois apparaissent intercals les rangs: surlgion, lgion, 433

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division, sousdivision, cohorte. On peut ainsi appliquer une dnomination de la branche mais sans valeur de rang taxinomique (ventuellement dsigne en tant que groupe). La classification des espces actuelles est fait grce aux vidences quon y rencontre. Eliminer un taxon paraphiltique (ainsi les Reptilia) signifier classifier ensamble des formes avec vitesse dvolution bien diffrentes. La cladistique tient compte en comptabilisant des nombres des synapomorphies mais elle ne peut pas leur rendre la signification taxinomique dun point de vue rtrospectif de leur volution. Si on apprcie que la vitesse de lvolution est rendue par le nombre de synapomorphies rapport une unit de tmps, alors cest possible que deux branches vitesse gale prsentent une organisation beaucoup plus diffrente du point de vue qualitatif. Dans ce cas, la classification est dtermine par le critre de lorganisation et moins par celui volutif (conformment A4). Dune autre part, si au cadre dun taxon monophiltique une branche a une vitesse dvolution beaucoup plus grande que les branches soeurs, alors on peut dlimiter un macrotaxon de rang gal celui dorigine et celui dorigine devient paraphiltique (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. La dlimitatuon des macrotaxons paraphitiques. A et B macrotaxons monophiltiques; A-B macrotaxon paraphiltique.

2. Les limites appartenant ltude de lvolution La cladistique appele aussi la systmatique philognetique, cest une mthode de redre des relations hypothtiques dapparant entre les taxons sappuyant sur les synapomorphyes rcentes. Les espces disparues sont traites dans une cladogramme de mme quelles soient contemporaines (entre elles). Par consquance, lembranchement de la cladogramme va donner des taxons des rangs de plus en plus petits. Les rapports de descendence de la cladogramme sont objectifs et acceptables mais, au cas de linclusion de taxons connus comme ayant une valeur de forme intermdiare les rsultats ne sont pas ralistes. Les oiseaux, par exemple, tant drivs du sousordre des Theropoda, ne peuvent avoir, conformment la cladistique, la valeur taxinomique plus grande que celle dune infraordre ou que celui dune suprafamille. Mais la systmatique classique, ce quon sache, spare les oiseaux en tant que toute autre chose vis--vis des formes reptiliennes originaires, en leur attribuant le rang systmatique de classe. 434

La philognie et la systmatique philognetique _________________________________________________________________________________________

La cladistique ne peut pas prciser lorsquune branche (clade) va avoir un rang taxinomique suprieur celui de la branche de laquelle il sest dtach. Cette impossibilit est cause par le fait que lanalyse cladistique ne peut pas surprendre les effects du phnomne de relativit des macrotaxons. Celle relativit-ci peut tre exprime en termes simples, ainsi: pendant leur existence, les espces se classifient avec cot de leurs anctres et proches parents mais, ces espces fossilises entre temps puissent tre classifies cot de leurs descendents (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2. La relativit des macrotaxons. (a) la ralit volutive; pendant la periode t0-t1 lespce s appartient au macrotaxon A; temps t2 lespce s peut tre classifie dans le macrotaxon B; (b) la cladogramme pour cette ralit; (c) la classification en vision prospective selon la cladistique; (d) la classification en vision retrospective selon la systmatique classiquee; A, B des macrotaxons; s lespce anctre pour le macrotaxon B. Les taxons sont dlimites rellement uniquement dans leur existence (au prsent du temps de lvolution); au parcours de lvolution, la composition des macrotaxons change. Lapparition de nouveaux membres du systme volutif qui peuvent orienter long terme lvolution, peuvent influencer aussi lencadrement systmatique des espces dej existentes. Il en rsulte que linstabilit systmatique dun taxon intermdiaire nest pas donne par linsuffisance des donnes dont on dispose cest dire, de la mthode de recherche ou de la subjectivit du chercheur, mais de lvolution elle-mme en tant que systme dynamique composition changeable de faon irrversible. En actualisant les espces fossiles, la cladistique impose une vision prospective dans la systmatique, cest dire une sorte dhyrarchie des branches dentre le pass et le prsent. Ce fait-ci peut tre ralis sur de bases justes mais on peut perdre quelques 435

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significations majeures servant dlimiter les macrotaxons au prsent du temps de lvolution. En dautres termes la cladistiques cest un instrument de la continuit dans lvolution pendant que la systmatique cest une science de la discontinuit dans lvolution. Sans lapport de celle-ci on ne pourrait dfinir du point de vue qualitatif une catgorie taxinomique. Par exemple, lantithse reptile/oiseaux se transformerait dans lantithse reptile/reptiles grandement modifies sans pouvoir exprimer en termes rels ce que ce veut dire grandement modifies. Dans la cladogramme concernant les tetrapodes on accepte, par exemple, que les termes Aves et Mammalia dfinissent des classes distinctes. Conformment lanalyse cladistique ces termes sont inexplicables car ils sont repris de ce quon savait dej propos des tetrapodes. Une cladogramme, qui exprime la continuit volutive seulement, ne peut suggrer la sparation tranchante de quelques macrotaxons descendents (ainsi les oiseaux et mamifres vis--vis les reptiles). Si les cladisticiens ne sauraient-ils pas ce que les oiseaux et mamifres pouraient-ils tre et en recevrant des donnes, ils ne pourraient pas les dpister en tant que quelque chose d part des tetrapodes reptiliennes mais seulement comme des reptiles avances seulement. Autrement dit, les cladogrammes rendent lvolution de la continuit par une permanente relation de subordination systmatique des taxons descendents. La souplesse et llgance dune classification base sur les cladogrammes est due en grande mesure au fait que les utilisateurs savent davance quelles sortes de catgories organisatrices analysent. 3. 1. Les limites tenant de la manire danalyse taxinomique Il sagit des limites de lanalyse cladistique: - la cladogramme ne peut pas indiquer au niveau des noeuds lespces des anctres. Dans les noeuds il y a toujours des anctres inconnus (Fig. 3); - la cladogramme est une ramification atemporelle qui ne peut pas tre rapporte laxe du temps. Or, nous venons de montrer que les espces peuvent se dlimiter relement seulement au prsent de leur temps de lvolution; - la cladistique ne peut pas valuer de faon systmatique les formes intermdiaires parce qu elle ne peut pas surprendre le phnomne de relativit des macrotaxons; - la cladistique ne peut pas estimer le rang des macrotaxons descendent mais seulement la manire debranchement de leurs lignes dvolution; - la cladistique ne peut pas empcher labaissement des rangs des macrotaxons descendents monophiltiques (Fig. 4); - lanalyse cladistique dpend des donnes prevalues fournies par la systmatique classique. Dans de nombreux travaux de spcialits les cladogrammes sont prsentes en tant que philognies mais cest une chose incorrecte.

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Fig. 3. La cladogramme ne peut pas indiquer au niveau des noeuds lespces des anctres. Les classifications possibles de lespce inconnue s.

Fig. 4. La dlimitatuon des macrotaxons en vision prospective. La cladistique exprime la continuit de lvolution. Les taxons sont progessivement plus petits en vision prospective de la cladistique.

Conclusions 1. On constate une tendence dexploitation abusive des rsultats offerts par lanalyse cladistique par le fait quon lude une srie des principes fondamentaux de la systmatique. 2. La cladistique ne peut pas exprimer du point de vue apriorique la signification taxinomique des synapomorphies. 3. La systmatique accepte les taxons paraphiltiques parce quelle est oblige oprer avec des caractres absentes; cest ainsi quon dlimite beaucoup de protistes (thalophites, etc.), aclomates, gymnospermes, reptiles. 4. La systmatique ne peut pas tre en totalit philognetique car (i) les catgories taxinomiques sont dfinies dabord comme units organisatrices et du second abord volutives; (ii) ce nest pas utile dliminer tous les taxons paraphiltiques. Ceuxci rendent mieux lunit organisatrice dun groupe originaire par rapport au groupe descendent. 5. Lanalyse cladistique apporte des informations utiles et objectives pour la construction des philognies mais pour dlimiter les macrotaxons il faut respecter les rgles de la systmatique.

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Bibliographie 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Bnrescu, P., 1973 Principiile i metodele zoologiei sistematice, Editura Academiei RSR. Benton, M. J., 2000 Vertebrate Paleontology, second edition, Blackwell Science, United Kingdom. Cojocaru, I., 1994 - Rev. t. "V. Adamachi", vol. II, nr. 4: 203-206, Iai. Cojocaru, I., 1995 - Rev. t. "V. Adamachi", vol. III, nr. 3-4: 97-100, Iai. Lipscomb, Diana, 1998 Basics of cladistic analysis, George Washington University D. C. Mayr, E., 1974 Populations, espces et volution, Hermann, Paris.

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RESEARCHES ABOUT TANSA BELCESTI LAKES IHTIOFAUNA


BY

CTLIN D. COSTINIUC1, LUCIAN D. GORGAN1

Key words:

ihtiofauna, Tansa Belcesti, ecological indexes

Ihtiological researches for Tansa Belcesti Lake, were 15 17 October 2003. The biological material collection made by fishing with fish net and seines. Were been detected 14 species from 4 families (Cyprinidae, Percidae, Cobitidae, Centrarchidae). The ecological characteristics of present ihtiocenosis in lake have been showed using ecological indexes: numerical and gravimetrical stock, percentage rapport for exemplars number by species, some parameters for dimensional structure of populations.

Introduction Tansa Belcesti Lake situated in Moldavian bent, on the Bahlui Rivers course nascent as result of embanking in 1977 and it has a surface of 44 ha, with a lengthiness of 7km. The studies about lakes ihtiofauna are integral part from CNCSIS grant (code 637/2003) with title The ihtiofauna from Bahlui Rivers hydrographic basin and parasitofauna. The aim of investigations The aim of investigations was to establish the ihtiofauna for Tansa Belcesti Lake in 2003, with the proposal for the next years to continue the research for a prospective monitoring of lake. Material and methods For ihtiological material collection, was used the drag net with the aperture of network by 60mm. From collected material had been extracted statistical representative samples, which ones have been biometrical and gravimetrical measured. After this, were calculated some specifically ecological indexes (numerical and gravimetrical stock, percentage rapport for exemplars number by species, dimensional structure of populations from rapports F/C, Y/C and parameters AT, AF, SF. Dimensional structure adverting to the balance and importance of diverse species with different lengthiness and weightiness, appreciate the rapport between
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carnivorous species (C) and plant feeder (F), the assurance with booty fish (Y) for predatory and finally, the economical importance for industrial fishing of ihtiocenosys by percent of big individuals, with economical value from the entire intiocenosys. It is possible to appreciate in this way, the grade of equilibrium or disequilibrium of ihtiocenosys, in function of quantitative rapport between ecological groups of fishes (wolfish, unwolfish, prey and predators). Dimensional used classes were small individuals (S), without taking count of species and which represent the food for predators and to small dimensions for be counted like economical interest, big individuals (A) which present economical interest. Other classification was in function of diet: - unrapacious individuals (F) plant feeders, plankton feeders; - rapacious individuals (C) from carnivorous species; - prey individuals (Y) including spawn which constituted the food for rapacious species. Equilibrium state for one ihtiocenosys that it is possible to be established using some parameters: the rapport F/C the rapport between uncarnivorous and carnivorous species; the rapport Y/C express the quantity of prey fish available like food for a weight unit of fishes from C category; the parameter AT represent the percent of fishing fishes from the basin fishes total biomass; the parameters A and C represent the quantitative abundance of weight category (A, I, S) from the total association, taking count of all individuals from trophic category F (Godeanu S., 1997). Results and discussions Taxonomical structure have been collected 14 species from 4 families (Cyprinidae, Percidae, Cobitidae, Centrarchidae), hence 10 native species and 4 introduced (table 1). Table 1 Taxonomical structure of fishes populations from Tansa Belceti Lake. Ecological statement No Scientific name Native Introduced species species 1. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Valenciennes, 1844 * 2. Aristichthys nobilis Richardson, 1845 * 3. Alburnus alburnus alburnus L., 1758 * 4. Orthrias barbatulus L., 1758 * 5. Pseudorasbora parva Schlegel, 1842 * 6. Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch, 1782 * 216

Researches about Tansa Belcesti Lakes ihtiofauna ________________________________________________________________________________________

No 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Scientific name Perca fluviatilis fluviatilis L., 1758 Gymnocephalus cernuus L., 1758 Rhodeus sericeus Bloch, 1782 Stizostedion lucioperca L., 1758 Scardinius erythrophthalmus L., 1758 Lepomis gibbosus L., 1758 Cyprinus carpio carpio L., 1758 Abramis brama Pavlov,1956

Ecological statement Native Introduced species species * * * * * * * *

Numeric and gravimetric stock we can observe dominance of higher economical importance species (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Aristichthys nobilis, Cyprinus carpio carpio) and between rapacious species numeric dominated is Perca fluviatilis and gravimetric Stizostedion lucioperca (table 2). While the plant feeding remanded species put on populations and the basin using, numerical dominance of Perca fluviatilis is because of this species juveniles, which are multitudinous, in direct binding with an abundant zooplankton growth. Table 2 Numeric and gravimetric stock of fish populations from TansaBelceti Lake No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Species silver carp bighead carp bleak stone loach stone moroko prussian carp common carp carp bream amur bitterling rudd pikeperch pumpkinseed european perch ruffe Total Numeric stock (ex/100m2) 7.41 1.80 4.22 0.45 0.20 0.61 1.24 0.12 0.62 0.50 1.10 0.43 1.92 1.54 22.16 217 Gravimetric stock (g/100m2) 12365.5 3382.2 634 6.6 1.6 183 2604.3 35.4 6.1 17.5 562.3 6.2 95.3 23.5 19352.9

Ctlin D. Costiniuc and Lucian D. Gorgan ________________________________________________________________________________________

Percentage rapport of individuals number by species shows a clear dominance of Aristichthys nobilis (32%), Alburnus alburnus alburnus (9%) and Cyprinus carpio carpio (6%) and between rapacious species dominant is Perca fluviatilis with 9% (Figure 1.)
nr. ex (%)
35

32

30

25

20

19

15

10

8 6 5 3 1
6 7 8 9

9 7 2

3 1
5

0 1 2 3 4 10 11 12 13 14

species

Figure 1 Percentage rapports of exemplars number by species in Tansa Belcesti Lake 1. silver carp, 2. bighead carp, 3. oblate, 4. stone loach, 5. stone moroko, 6. prussian carp, 7. common carp, 8. carp bream, 9. amur bitterling, 10. rudd, 11. alu, 12. pumpkinseed, 13. european perch, 14. ruffe Dimensional structure of fish populations Dimensional structure determination for the entire capture made possible a appreciation about the equilibrium or disequilibrium statement of ihtiocenosys by ensemble. In table 3 are presented biomass values by dimensional groups and species. The rapport F/C = 27.16 is in domain of unbalanced associations and Y/C = 0.22 in suboptimal domain, which indicate an easier overcharge with rapacious species. The value for AT = 96.9% indicate the same overcharge with rapacious species and the same for the values of AF = 92.9% and SF = 0.5% (figure 2).

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Table 3 Dimensional structure for fish populations


DIMENSIONAL GROUPS Diet No. 1. 2. 3. 4. unrapacious 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Species S silver carp bighead carp bleak stone loach stone moroko prussian carp common carp carp bream amur bitterling rudd 61.5 6.6 1.6 12.4 6.1 9 97.2 2.2 24.2 23.5 49.9 147.1 Biomass I 1.9 49.6 2 8.5 (%) I 3 Juvenile J % 20.1 6.6 0.5 63.2 2.5 9 31.7 100 31.25 34.54 40.98 51.43 0.55 35.48 25.39 36.17 5.08 0.71 Adults A 12365.5 3382.2 43.3 1.1 119.8 2604.3 35.4 3.6 8.5 % 100 100 68.3 68.75 65.46 100 100 59.02 48.57

A 3382.2 121 2604.3 33.4 -

S 97 100 100

A 100 100 66.12 100 94.35 -

12365.5

6.78 27.1 100 5.65 -

51.43 48.57

UNRAPACIOUS rapacious 11. 12. 13. 14. alu pumpkinseed european perch ruffe RAPACIOUS TOTAL F (total) C (total) Y (total) C (total)

62 18506.4 0.52 0.33 112 4 16 132

99.15 101.9 2.2 24.2 8.5 34.9

18563.7 99.45 562.3 4 71.1 15 652.4 100 64.52 74.61 63.83 94.92

450.3 - 19.92 80.08 35.48 64.52 55.1 25.39 17.8 57.81 505.4 100 7.26 19.2 73.53

Total F/C Y/C

194 19011.8 0.76 1.00

98.24 136.8

19216.1 99.29

18665.6 / 687.3 = 27.16 147.1 / 687.3 = 0.22

AT = 96.90% AF = 92.92% SF = 0.50% F/C = the rapport between uncarnivorous and carnivorous. Y/C = the quantity of prey fish available for a weight unit of fishes from C category. AT = percent of fishing fishes from total biomass of fishes from basin. AF = the quantitative abundance of A sizes category from the entire association, taking count all individuals from F trophic category. SF = the quantitative abundance of S sizes category from the entire association, taking count all individuals from F trophic category.

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Figure 2 The diagrams of optimal values domains and deviations from these domains for repports F/C, Y/C, AT, SF, and AF (after Godeanu S., 1997) Conclusions The Tansa - Belcesti Lake ihtiocenosys is constituted from 14 species of fish, which 10 are native and 4 introduced. Numeric stock in medium is about 22.16 exemplars/ 100m2 and gravimetric stock is about 19.350 g/100m2. The biomass is constituted in principal from big size species and exemplars with higher economical value. 220

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The percentage rapport of exemplars number by species shows a dominance of silver carp (32%), oblate (19%) and from rapacious species dominant is european perch (9%). The dimensional structure of populations indicates a higher biomass for adult individuals which constitute, in majority, the dimensional group A. The rapports F/C, Y/C and the parameters AT, AF and SF shows an easier overcharge with carnivorous. Bibliography

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Bnrescu, P., 1964 Fauna R.P.R., Pisces-Osteichthyes, XIII, Ed. Acad., Bucuresti, 959 p. Godeanu, S., 1997 Elemente de monitoring ecologic/integrat, Ed. Bucura Mond, Bucuresti, 183 p. Ureche, D., 2003 Cercetari privind ihtiofauna din bazinul Siretului (Teza de doctorat) Wootton, R.J., 1992 Fish ecology, Blackie Academic&Professional, 212 p. Al. I. Cuza University of Iasi, Department of Zoology, B-dul Carol I 20 A, Iasi, Romania. Al. I. Cuza University of Iasi, Department of Genetics, B-dul Carol I 20 A, Iasi, Romania.

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DOLPHINS IN CAPTIVITY: REALITIES AND PERSPECTIVES


BY

LIGIA DORINA DIMA1, CARMEN GACHE2

Key words: dolphinarium Constana, dolphins lifetime, diseases and mortality In the present note, we give information about the Balck Sea dolphins living in the Dolphinarium from Constana We present our experience of working with dolphins in a small dolphinarium, during a long period. We notice the reason of their short lifetime and we are trying to find explanations. We present some solutions to improve the life conditions for dolphins in our institute.

Introduction The passage from the sea life in captivity is a very difficult experience for dolphins that are living in very large surfaces, without borders. First, the animal is isolated from his familiar group and his communication system became useless. Secondly, the dolphin must go from an infinity home to a small and close pool. He must learn to live between borders and reference points. On the other hand, the dolphin is a predator fish eater; in a dolphinarium, the animals receive pieces of fish from the mans hand. The dolphins use to play long time of each day in the open sea, but in dolphinarium these animals must learn to play on the rules, with new signals and a fixed table. At the beginning of 70th years, in Constana was open the first dolphinarium from the Black Sea coast. It is a small dolphinarium and, during the years, there were present all three pontic species of dolphins: Phocaena phocaena, Delphinus delphis and Tursiops truncatus. The most common reasons of the captive dolphins death are: the diseases (dermal infections, internal haemorrhages, internal general infection, cardiac diseases), incidental events (intestinal occlusions through swallowing of different objects), the under nourishment (through rejecting of food or the dolphin cannot eat because another dolphin hinders him to take the food), the suicide (the dolphin refuses the food or strikes himself against the pools walls till it dies). The most frequent deaths reason recorded in our dolphinarium is the dolphins incapacity to live in captivity conditions the animals refuse the food or strike them on
_________________________________ 1 The Museal Complex of Contana 2 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Ligia Dorina Dima, Carmen Gache _________________________________________________________________________________________

the pools walls till (especially, for the species Delphinus delphis and Tursiops truncatus) they die. Materials and methods Our studies began in 1986 and includ observations in the Constana Dolphinarium, marine trips in the Romanian waters of the Black Sea and chemistry analyses on the dolphins dead in our dolphinarium or failed on the Romanian beach of the Black Sea. Results and discussions In open sea, the Black Sea dolphins lifetime is about 30 40 years for Tursiops truncatus, 20 30 years for Delphinus delphis and 9 14 years for Phocaena phocaena. In optimal conditions of captivity, the dolphins have a lifetime around the same values. In the great marinelands, the average lifetime of Tursiops truncatus is of 17.5 years, but there are examples of 40 years old bottle-nosed dolphins. In the Dolphinarium from Constana, we had recorded the next captivity lifetimes values: Phocaena phocaena average lifetime = 6 months; the greatest longevity was of 14 months; Delphinus delphis average lifetime = 5.5 years; the greatest longevity was of 14 years of captivity; Tursiops truncatus average lifetime = 5 years; the most longevity exemplar is still living after 17 years of captivity and we estimate that he is about 24 years old (when he was captured, in 1986, we established that he was an adult male about 7 years old). From these information, we notice two different aspects. First, in the Dolphinarium from Constana, the average lifetime is very short. Despite the fact that, normally, the bottle-nosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is the most tolerant species in captivity conditions, in our dolphinarium, he lived no more then the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis). We try to find explanations for these facts. Between the positive factors of the captivity life, we mention: the prophylactic treatments for some diseases, the vitamins administration and the nourishment on a fixed table. One of the greatest problems for the dolphins accommodation and surviving in captivity conditions is the adaptation to a new food regime and to accept a new way to nourish. The free dolphins are predators and are eating only living fishes. In captivity conditions, the dolphins receive pieces of fish from the mans hand. In the Dolphinarium from Constana, the food is equally shared in five rations/day during the winter, respectively, eight rations/day during the summer. The dolphins are receiving these rations in the morning, on lunch and dinner, but also during the shows like rewards. We are using frozen fish (Trachurus mediterraneus, Merluccius sp., Clupea harengus, Scomber scombrus and, circumstantially, we used, with good 414

Dolphins in captivity: realities and perspectives _________________________________________________________________________________________

results, species as Sardina pilchardus, Alosa caspia normanni. All the dolphins receive additionally vitamins everyday, after a schedule established by a veterinary doctor. From the negative factors identified in the Dolphinarium from Constana, we have noticed three principal factors: the pools surfaces, the waters quality and the dolphins isolation. The pools using for dolphins have the next sizes: the summer pool is about 20 m length, 12 m large, 4.5 m depth and a volume about 1200 m water; is using during the warm period of year for the dolphins shows and for the instruction process; the wintering pool (there is a relating channel with the summer pool) is about 10 m length, 6 m large, 2.5 m depth and a volume about 180 m water; it is used for the animals wintering, but also for the quarantine periods; the covered pool is about 21 m length, 8 m large, 3 m depth and a volume about 500 m water; it is used for dolphins shows during the whole year, but also for the wintering and instruction process of animals. If we consider the pontic dolphins biology and their sizes, it is obvious that, no one of the pools has optimal sizes for the dolphins captivity life, especially for the large dolphins. The wintering pools volume and sizes are not enough to shelter a dolphin for a long time. However, in this pool, the oldest dolphin from our dolphinarium, a male of Tursiops truncatus, has been wintering every year begining from 1998. The covered pool has optimal conditions only for one dolphin. The summer pool is good for two exemplars of Delphinus delphis or Tursiops truncatus, but for the last species is very close to the optimal limit that could explain the greatest longevity of the common dolphin compared to the bottle-nosed dolphin. Some objectives factors or economical reasons require the dolphins isolation. For long time, in our dolphinarium was present only one dolphin. Sometimes, when we had two dolphins, we separated them because one of the animals was too aggressive or because, during the summer, we had to give two shows for public. On the other part, the pools sizes require a limited number of dolphins because the super-population is a negative factor for these territorial animals. The dolphins isolation is a very strong stress factor for these social animals. The most frequent reaction of the isolated dolphins is the hyper-excitability, in different forms of display. The animal can have an uncontrolled swimming and put it is in dangerous conditions. Sometimes he strikes violently the pools borders it seems to lose the limits of its territory, so, the dolphins die breaking their head or spinal column. Other times, the animal can refuse to participate in the show and perform very dangerous jumps in order to nervously unloading. The very long isolation of dolphins brings out the appearance of apathy and total indifference when the animal hiding under the nourishment bridge, refusing the food. Frequently, especially in the situation of longevive and alone captivity dolphins, appear the very bad nervous conditions, when the dolphins strike them to different objects, jumping out very high, beating violently the 415

Ligia Dorina Dima, Carmen Gache _________________________________________________________________________________________

water. This kind of behaviour was displayd usually by the oldest bottle-nosed from the dolphinarium Constana even the human beings were present on the pools border. The waters quality is good only for a short period in our dolphinarium. Despite there exist a filterable system, the waters treatment uses solution of NaCl. Our observations point out that the excessive using of this kind of treatment encourages the appearance of allergies, excessively drying of skin and the lesions which increase the dermathose risk. We are thinking that using the CuSO4 and the artificial increasing of the pool waters salinity could allow a good quality of water and improve the life conditions for dolphins. Ideally, it could be to have an emergency pool to keep there the sick dolphins during the treatment period. In this way, we reduce the risk for the other animals, but also the cost of the water NaCl treatment and of the water filtering to remove the excess of chlor. To decrease the risk of incidental death, it is necessar to achieve the maintenance works when the dolphins are not in the pool. In addition, the strange objects must be removed immediately from the pools to avoid the possibility that dolphin catch and swallow them. Not in the end, we must warn the public about the fact that the presence of small objects in pools represent a very great danger for dolphins life. In the dolphins instruction process, we must use very precise and correct signals in order to avoid the bewilderment of animal. Every time when we give a nourish signal, we must offer a piece of fish to dolphin if not, the dolphin has the stress of cheat (he does not receive the reward for a good reaction). The disconcerted animals can swallow strange and dangerous objects. In some situations, the human attitude was the probable cause of the dolphins death. For example, after 1993, the first signs of conflict appeared between two males of Tursiops truncatus that were living in our dolphinarium from 1986. Our specialists captured many bottle-nosed dolphins from the Black Seas Romanian waters before 1996, but only one exemplar survived for five months. Usually, the dolphins died after few hours or days of captivity. Two or three of them died because the large publicity by mass media turns these moments into great local events. The horns nose of the cars drive by enthusiast but not informed drivers, in addition with the presence of a large public along the road from the sea shore and on the territory of the dolphinarium were important stress factors for the dolphin astonished by the captures moment. The same kind of publicity could contribute to the death of dolphins immediately after birth, through the human excitement presence close to pool. Not in the end, the all shows participation of the females during the pregnancy period had surely a negative impact on the birth moment and on the viability of small dolphins. Our observations and the information from the dolphinariums archive permit us an hypothesis on the dolphins accommodation in captivity. The ill dolphins and the pregnant females of dolphins seem to accept more easily the captivity status than the healthy animals. Maybe, this respons of the first animals is a positive answer of the 416

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dolphins to the improvement of their health status under the cares, attention and the treatment given by man in dolphinarium. During the last years, in the Dolphinarium from Constana a bottle-nosed dolphin female (Tursiops truncatus) gave two births and two miscarriages. We do not know if it exists a real correlation but we must notice that the birth were the result of the July mating period then the pregnancy began after the autumn mating period (September October) finished with miscarriages. The first complete pregnancy (25.07.2000) took off with one died dolphin (hanged with the umbilical girdle). The second birth (21.05.2002) was the longest recorded in our dolphinarium twelve hours, so the little dolphins died during the birth. Of course, our lack of experience in the dolphins birth situations was another negative factor for the viability of the little dolphins. We are thinking that the birth of viable dolphins in the Dolphinarium from Constana could be possible if: 1. the females pregnancy status is identified before the birth moment. Our experience permits us to notice that the partner male of the female has a protective behaviour and performs the shows numbers refused by female. In this situation, a rigorous medical control could permit us to identify earlier the pregnancy status and to take protection measures for pregnant female; 2. during the pregnancy period, the administration of different treatments protect them about the impact on the embryons development (in January 2001, the pregnant female received antibiotics); 3. during the pregnancy period, the shows participations of the female is reduced; 4. we are improving the captivity conditions the waters quality, the foods quality and quantity for the pregnant females. Every change in the captivity dolphins daily life has a negative impact on their behaviour and psychology, even the animals have lived for many years in captivity. After 17 years of captivity, our longest bottle-nosed male (Tursiops truncatus) needs three four days of accommodation each time when he must change the pool (for wintering or for summer period). For this reason, maybe it is more correct to speak about the dolphins habitual and no accommodation to the captivity life. The life in a dolphinarium even an ideal one is just a captivity life for a dolphin; this means the breaking out of all his experience before the captures moment, the change of all or nearly all his knowledge and his daily life in the open sea, with his familiar group. It is obvious, the dolphins surviving in captivity depends on us - the man that takes them out of sea and brings them in our world. We must increase the level of our knowledge about the cetaceans biology, ecology and ethology, about their necessities, but also to follow their health status and the qualities of the captivity conditions. For this reason, the human personal who works with dolphins must improve their experience and must decrease the impact of captivity stress factors to their minimum limits. 417

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References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Diol, Ph., Cousteau, J. I., 1987 Les dauphins et la libert, Ed. Flammarion, France Mihai, I. M., 1978 Rev. Muzeelor, 6 Mihai, M. I., Vasiliu, Fl., 1986 Stud. i Cerc. Pontus Euxinus, III: 213 - 215, Constana Plotoag, Gabriela, Stnescu, E., 1980 Stud. i Com. Pontus Euxinus, I: 169-172, Constana Plotoag, Gabriela, 1984 Ecologia i protecia ecosistemelor, 4: 195 199, Bucureti

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CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE OBSERVATIONS AND THE PERFORMED RING PUTTING ON BIRDS IN FURTUNAMALIUC AND VADU (THE DANUBE DELTA BIOSPHERE RESERVE)
BY

ALEXANDRU DOROSENCU 1, VIOREL POCORA 1, CONSTANTIN ION 1

Key words: birds, avifauna diversity and abundance Between 18.08.2003 01.09.2003, with the help of Tulceas branch of SOR, there was organized an ornithological camp in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (at Furtuna - Maliuc lake and in Vadu area, Constanta District), with the participation of some teachers and students from the Faculty of Biology of the University Al. I. Cuza , Iasi. The purpose of this expedition was to analyze the quantity and the quality of the avifauna through the method of visual transects and the bird capture with ornithological nets. In this period there were observed a number of 177 bird species and there were ringed 81 birds from 23 species. The low water level in Furtuna Lake area as well as in Sinoie Lake- Vadu area was favourable to the waders, ducks, swans, herons, eastern glossy ibises, pelicans.

Introduction Between 18.08.2003 01.09.2003 the Branch of Tulceas SOR has organized an ornithological camp in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. The ornithological camp took place in two stages: first stage took place in the close proximity of Furtuna Lake at south bank, and the second one in the south of Chitucs marine levee in Vadu area, the south limit of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. ( Botond, J. K., 1997). The purposes of this incursion were to analyze the quantity and the quality of the avifauna through the method of visual transects (Metode de evaluare a abundenei psrilor, 2000) and the bird capture with ornithological net. The Furtuna Lake is situated at about 5 km NE from Maliuc locality; it has a surface of about 900 ha, being one of the most representative lakes from the Danube Delta. (Cuzic V., 2003) The highest depth of the lake is about 3 m, but in the southern and in the western sides there are smallest depth producing as well areas which are favorable for feeding numerous species of birds as: waders, ducks, swans, herons, eastern glossy ibises, pelicans, etc. The ornithological nets were placed in the SV side of the lake in a willow forest (Salix alba), limited by a strip of reed (Phragmithes australis), which is flooded more
________________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Alexandru Dorosencu and all. _________________________________________________________________________________________

then six month a year, so representing a very important habitat for the species of passerines which are using the area as a place to nestle or to transit during the migrations period. The second stage took place in Vadus area, south by Chitucs marine levee, which is an entirely protected area as part of the Biosphere Reserve of Danube-Delta, with a surface of 2300 ha. Chitucs levee is an important crossing and wintering area for thousands of birds and it is declared Important Bird Area no. 5 (I.B.A.) on national level. (Criterii AIA, 1996) A very important part of the substratum is formed by mollusks shells, especially sea shells, sands and salt soil. The east side of the Chitucs marine levee is ended by the sea. At west and south-west from Chitucs sands there is Sinoie Lake. The depth of the lake is not so high, especially on its south side, representing a very important area for nesting and especially for feeding and resting of the waders species, which appears in large amounts in this area during the migration time. Sinoie Lake is surrounded by a strip of reed (Phragmithes australis), measuring about 150 m width, which has a special importance as a nesting, feeding and resting zone for aquatic species of birds. In Chitucs zone, as well as in Saele marine levee which surround Sinoie Lake, we can find saxicole and halofile plants, acclimatized to sands and salt soil: Eryngium maritimum, Juncus maritimus, Elymus sabulosus, etc., plants ( Ciocrlan, V., 2000) that are important for insects populations which represent the main source of food for numerous species of insectivorous and omnivorous birds. Very important as feeding and resting place during the migration time for the passerines species that cross this zone are the associations of bushes with Eleagnus angustifolia and Hippophae rhamnoides , which grow in shapes of rows and clusters along the sand banks. Materials and methods The observations in Furtuna Lake zone were effectuated in the morning starting at 6 until 8.30, and in the evening from 18 oclock until the sunset, working out visual transect (Svensson, Lars, 1992, Svensson Lars 1999, Metode de evaluare a abundenei psrilor, 2000) of 2 km a long the west shore of Furtuna Lake. During the camp time at Furtuna, there were observed 115 species of birds. In Vadu area, there were effectuated ornithological observations at the decantation tanks by the village, on the sea shore, as well as at the south end of Sinoie Lake. In this last place, the observations were effectuated from a higher zone (so called Peasants fortress from Vadu), from a fixed place, and later there were investigated transects for 10 km a long south and eastern shore. For effectuating the quality and quantity observations we used binoculars (10x50, 12x50, 15x50) and fieldtelescopes (22x60, 15-45x60, 20-60x80). In Vadu area the observations took place for 5 days between 26 and 31 of August. The dates were fulfilled by those ones which were taken by the end of September from 21.09 until 26.09.2003, on the second travel in the area. 304

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The observations were taken in 3 different places: on the seaside of the Black Sea, decantation tanks near by the Vadu village and on the south and south-east side of the Sinoe Lake. During the whole period of the camp at Vadu, there were observed 177 species At Furtuna Lake area, as in Vadu area there were mounted 8 ornithological nets bonfire, each one with a length of 6-7 m, with the aim to capture and ringing the species of passerines. In Furtuna Lake area as in Vadu area, there were ringed 81 birds from 23 species. Results and discussion In Furtuna Lake area there were observed 93 species among which the most important are: Pelecanus onocrotalus in number of approximately 1200 individuals, Plegadis falcinellus in number of approximately 500 individuals, protected species by the Convention from Berne (1979), Cygnus olor in number of approximately 2500 individuals, a number of approximately 3000 ducks among which the predominant species was Anas crecca in number of approximately 800 individuals. At the same time there were observed rare species which registered a relative high number of individuals: Pelecanus crispus which were present in number of 4, species which was catalogued as being very vulnerable in the world by the red list of IUCN (1994) and the list from Berne for 1979; Haliaeetus albicilla, an adult and two juvenile, species considered, after the IUCN (1994) criterions, being endangered and with a high risk of disappearance. Among the observed waders species, and prevailing as number of individuals we can mention: Calidris ferruginea, Calidris alba, Actitis hypoleucos, Tringa ochropus, Tringa glareola, Tringa nebularia, Tringa totanus, Tringa erythropus, Philomachus pugnax, Himantopus himantopus, Vanellus vanellus, etc. In Furtuna Lake area there was observed the Sterna caspia species in number of 16 individuals, protected species in accordance with Berne Convention (1979) and rare in Romania as well as in Dobrogea (Weber Peter, 2000) which can be seen only during the crossing periods. The species from genus Chlidonias: Chlidonias niger, Chlidonias leucopterus, Chlidonias hybridus, are frequently seen in Furtuna Lake area and in Vadu area, species which are protected by the Berne Convention (1979). Regarding the marsh terns most cases of the observed individuals were juveniles, because the adults was already gone. Also during the camp there were visually identified a number of 25 species from Passeriformes order. In Furtuna lake area there was observed the lack of the species from Podicipediformes order, caused by the low level of the water and the extended drought of this year, that have caused an absence of trofic resources for this birds. The number of species and exemplaires observed at Furtuna lake was high because of extended drought period brought about the decrease of water level and even the drainage of certain swamps, which caused an earlier autumn migration. Our result 305

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are very simmilar with the outher autors. (Cuzic V., 2003, Ion C., 2001, Stanescu D., 1969) The number of species observed on the seaside of the Black Sea is smaller comparing (Ion C., 2001, Weber Peter, 2003) with the number of species inventoried during the past years, due to late migration because of long drought and especially as a result of the antropic impact increasing year by year. During the whole period of the camp, there were observed 177 species, which belong to four orders, the most well represented being the order of Charadriiformes with 11 species. There were observed rare species for our country as: Sterna albifrons, Calidris alpina, Limicola falcinellus, Pluvialis squatarola, Stercorarius parasiticus, rare species which only cross the zone and search for food in the seashore sands. At the decantation tanks there were observed 40 species, which make part of 8 orders, the most well represented being the order of Chadriiformes with 17 species, such as Larus minutus which is a predominant species in this zone with 100 exemplares, like Phalaropus lobatus with 19 individuals, extremely rare species for Romania (as is mentioned in red list of animals from Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve- Lista Roie a speciilor de plante i animale din Rezervaia Biosferei Delta Dunrii Romnia, 2000) , Sterna caspia, Calidris temminckii, Charadrius alexandrinus, etc. On the south side of Sinoie Lake there were observed 95 species which make part of 12 orders, the most well represented being Charadriiformes order with 35 species, among them more are considered very rare, and we mention here: Pelecanus onocrotalus - 350 individuals, Pelecanus crispus 8 individuals, Anser anser 22 individuals, Anas crecca 300 exemplars, Anas clypeata 35 exemplars, Anas acuta 7 exemplars, Tatorna tadorna 215 individuals, protected species by the Convention from Berna (1979), Recurvirostra avosetta 62 individuals, Charadrius hiaticula 24 individuals, Charadrius alexandrinus 12 individuals, Calidris minuta 81 individuals, Calidris temminckii 28 individuals, Larus minutus almost 90 individuals. This mentioned species are protected in Europe by the Convention from Berna (1979)and are mentioned in red list of animals from Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve- Lista Roie a speciilor de plante i animale din Rezervaia Biosferei Delta Dunrii Romnia, 2000. In tanks near to Vadu village there were observed Phylomachus pugnax 19 exemplars, and also Numenius arquata with 48 exemplares. The great presence of the waders species is due first of all to the extended draught, so the water level was low and there was created important place for feeding especially for this species. In Sinoie Lake area and near by, there were recorded during our excursion species as Platalea leucorodia, Circus cyaneus, Circus pygargus, Falco peregrinus, Haematopus ostralegus, Tringa ochropus, Tringa glareola, Tringa nebularia, Tringa stagnatilis, Tringa totanus, Chlidonias niger, Chlidonias hybridus, Chlidonias leucopterus, Sterna caspia, Coracias garrulus, Merops apiaster, species which are observed in low number in other moist area of the country. Among special species (as is mentioned in Atlasul psrilor clocitoare, 1999 and by Weber Peter, 2000) which were observed during our camp, we would like to 306

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mention: Tadorna ferruginea 8 individuals, Limicola falcinellus 115 individuals, Phaloropus lobatus 19 individuals, Stercorarius parasiticus one individual, Burhinus oedicnemus 3 juvenile individuals, Pandion haliaetus one individual, Gelochelidon nilotica almost 30 individuals, this species was present always only in Peasants fortress from Vadu area, because on the lawn from this area there is an important population of locust which is the main food for this species. Among rare species for Romania (as is mentioned in red list of animals from Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve) which were observed on Sinoie Lake, we mention: Pelecanus crispus 40 individuals, Tadorna tadorna 215 individuals and Tadorna ferruginea with 8 individuals. In Furtuna Lake area, in flooded reed bed and willow forest, there were ringed 42 birds from 7 species, the main species being Acrocephalus scirpaceus 23 individuals, species specific to reed beds, and Parus caeruleus, species specific to water meadow area with willows. (see table 1) In Vadu area between 27.08 and 29.08.2003, in bushes area, there were ringed 45 birds from 18 species, the prevailing species being Lanius collurio with 16 ringed individuals, specific species to the area where there were placed the ornithological nets. (see table 1) Beside those 18 species ringed at Vadu, there were captured 6 more species: Ficedula parva, Ficedula albicollis, Phylloscopus collybita, Phylloscopus trochilus, Phylloscopus sybilatrix, Sylvia curruca, but these couldnt be ringed because we didnt have such small rings in diameter to make these birds ringing possible. Chituc marine levee is a very important area for migrating birds feeding and resting (especially for passerines) in their journey to the places where they could spend the winter. ) In Vadu area, between 23.09 and 30.09.2003, in autumn, during the migration period, next to Sinoie Lake there were captured about 36 individuals belonging to 6 species. The most numerous individuals captured belong to Panarus biarmicus (21), most of them very young, what make us believe that this is the species predominantly nesting in the Sinoie Lakes reed. (see table 1) Our results are not so different from those of other authors such as Ion C., 2001, Stnescu D., 1969, Weber Peter, 2000. We specify that present situation of avifauna good taking in consideration the great diversity of species and the big number of individuals. Conclusions The low water level in Furtuna Lake area as well as in Sinoie Lake area was favourable to the waders, ducks, swans, herons, eastern glossy ibises, pelicans. Furtuna Lake represents an important habitat for aquatic birds, offering most propitious conditions for food and rest, being a very important area for nesting, migrating for aquatic bird populations which transit this zone of the Danube Delta. Avifaunistic diversity and birds abundance at Vadu , as well the number of captured species of bird was high. 307

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We consider that future studies will complete the whole image about the avifauna on the Chituc marine levee declaring Vadu area as strictly protected, considering that the human impact is growing up because of the increasing antropic presure. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Botond, J. K., 1997- Cartea Deltei, Editura Aves, Odorheiu Secuiesc. Bruun, B., Delin, H., Svensson, L., Singer, A. & Zetterstrom, D., 1999- Psrile din Romnia i Europa. Hamlyn. Ciocrlan, V., 2000 - Flora Ilustrat a Romniei Pteridophyta et Spermatophyta, Editura Ceres, Bucureti. Cuzic, Viorel, Cuzic, Mariana, 2003 - Std. si Cercet., Biol., Univ Bacau, Bacau (under print) Ion, C, 2001 - Anal. St. ale Univ. Al. I. Cuza Iasi, Supliment, p.281-290 Peter, Weber, 2000 - Avifauna zonei Histria- Rezervaia Biosferei Delta Dunrii, Editura Aves, Odorheiu Secuiesc Stnescu, Dan, Rang Ctlin, 1969 - Stud. i comunicri, Muz. de tiinele Naturii Bacu, p. 277-282 Svensson, Lars, 1992 - Identification Guide to European Passerines, Ed Sturegatan 60, Stockolm Svensson, Lars, Grant, J., Peter, 1999 - Collins Birds Guide, Harper Collins, London *** 2002 - Atlasul Populaiilor Clocitoare din Romnia, Ediia a II-a, Publ. S.O.R., Cluj Napoca, p.101-104 ***-2000, Lista Roie a speciilor de plante i animale din Rezervaia Biosferei Delta Dunrii Romnia, Editura Aves, Odorheiu Secuiesc *** 1996- Criterii AIA, Romanian Ornitological Society, Cluj Napoca *** 1979- Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, Berna *** 1994- IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals *** 2000- Metode de evaluare a abundenei psrilor, Romanian Ornithological Society, Cluj Napoca *** 1997- The EBCC Atlas of European Breeding Birds, Their distribution and abundance, Published by Academic Press San Diego, CA 92101

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Table no 1. The account of bird captures in the studied areas Zone No. Sinoe Lake Furtuna Species Vadu (south) Lake 1. Jynx torquilla 1 2. Lanius collurio 16 3. Motacilla flava 5 4. Locustella luscinioides 1 5. Acrocephalus schoenobaenus 4 6. Acrocephalus palustris 1 7. Acrocephalus scirpaceus 23 5 8. Acrocephalus arundinaceus 1 2 9. Hippolais icterina 1 10. Sylvia nisoria 1 11. Sylvia borin 2 12. Sylvia atricapilla 1 13. Sylvia communis 1 14. Sylvia curruca 1 15. Phylloscopus trochilus 1 16. Phylloscopus collibita 1 17. Phylloscopus sibilatrix 1 18. Ficedula parva 1 1 19. Ficedula albicollis 1 20. Muscicapa striata 7 21. Saxicola rubetra 1 22. Phoenicurus phoenicurus 3 23. Luscinia luscinia 1 1 24. Parus caeruleus 11 25. Parus major 2 26. Panurus biarmicus 21 27. Emberiza schoeniclus 4 Total captures 42 45 36

Total captures 1 16 5 1 4 1 28 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 7 1 3 2 11 2 21 4 123

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CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF SUBMEDITERRANEAN FAUNA IN ROMANIA


BY

CONSTANTIN DRUGESCU1 AND SORIN GEACU1

Beitrge zur Kenntnis der Submediterranfauna in Rumnien. Auf Grund von in letzter Zeit unternommenen Forschungen wird versucht, die Idee zu verbreiten, dass es in den sdrumnischen Landschaften Rumniens eine zonale Raumeinheit (die Mediterran- unterzone) gebe, die den bergang von der Mediterran-zu der steppensylvosteppischen Zone mache. Aus einer genauen Analyse der Verteilung von Sdtieren in Rumnien geht hervor, dass das Becken der Unteren Donau eine wahre nordische Verbreitungsregion von Mediterrangattungen darstellt. Neben europischen, eurosibirischen und pontischen Gattungen tragen diese zur Bildung von partikulren Assoziazionen (Cenosen) bei, die eine wirkliche submediterranen Unterzone im Rahmen der groen biogeographischen mediterranen Zone bilden. Die wichtigsten faunistischen Reprsentanten sdlichen Ursprungs, die zur Bildung von submediterranen Assoziazionen (Cenosen) mitwirken sind: Pieris manni, Gortyna moesiaca, Libythea celtis (Lepidoptera), Ontholestes haroldi, Carabus gigas (Coleoptera), Cicada orni, Tibicina haematodes (Homoptera), Isophya speciosa (Ortoptera), Camphylaea trizona, Idylla rugicollis (Gasteropoda), Vipera ammodytes, Lacerta muralis maculiventris, Testudo hermanni (Reptilia) Apus melba, Parus lugubris, Emberiza cia, Carduelis balcanica (Aves). Der bergangscharakter der Fauna der submediterranen Unterzone im Becken der Unteren Donau geht auch daraus hervor, dass manche Mediterrangattungen, die hier leben, von Untergattungen verteten sind, wie: Pieris manni ssp. rossi, Testudo hermanni racovitzai, Oenathe hispanica melanoleuca, Ablepharus kitaibelii stepanecki. Vom kologischen Standpunkt sind die Mehrheit der hier erwhnten Gattungen termophile Elemente, die in die wrmere Standorte, auf Kalkstein in geschtzten Tlern, Schuchten und auf sonningen Felsabhngen leben. Gebiete auf die viele solcher Tierelemente vorgedrungen sind gibt es in Drobeta Turnu Severin Snnicolau Mare, Giurgiu Zimnicea und die Sddobrudscha. Detailed research has recently been trying to accredit the idea that southern lanscapes in Romania include a spatial unit transitorynal from the Mediterranean to the sylvo-steppe zones.
_______________________________ 1 Institut of Geography, Bucureti

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The first to have noticed it were the geographers, eg. Mihilescu in 1969 who spoke of a Submediterranean sector, and Ghibedea & Isboiu in 1985 who based on the average data of the principal climatic elements distinguished a Dacian-type Submediterranean climate in the south-west of Romania, between Snnicolaul Mare and Drobeta Turnu Severin. In Geografia Romniei (I, 1983) one can read: a sector of climatic province with Submediterranean influences exists in that some part of the country. Similar climatic features are seen in Dobrogea and Zimnicea-Giurgiu sector, where in winter, the warm, south-west air advections, generated by Mediterranean cyclones, shape a warmer climate, usually associated with rainfalls and sleet. The intensity of specifically winter phenomena is reduced, the snow-layer lasting for a few days (15-25, eg. 23.7 in Constana City), the frost-free interval being one of the longest in this country (231 days in Constana, 229 days in Isaccea, 224 days in Turnu Mgurele and Mangalia, and 222 in Drobeta Turnu Severin). There are years in which frost is episodic, the vegetation period being almost continuous. Annual temperature averages come close to those of some southern European zones, with intermediary continental and Mediterranean climate values of 11.70C at Drobeta Turnu Severin, 11.60C at Calafat and Turnu Mgurele, 11.50C at viniaMehedini, 11.40C at Berzasca-Cara Severin and Giurgiu, 11.30C at Orova, Greaca and Cernavod, 11.20C at Mangalia, Constana and Clrai, 11.10C at Isaccea, Corabia, Sulina, Feteti and Brila. These are similar to those registered in Toulouse France (11.30C), Nish and Belgrade Serbia and Montenegro (11.20C), Zagreb Croatia (11.60C), Skoplje Macedonia (11.80C), or at some meteo stations in northern Bulgaria (Lom and Veliko Tyrnovo 11.50C, Vidin and Silistra 11.20C, Shumen and Varna 11.00C). Values in the continental regions (8.80C in Prague, 7.90C in Krakow and 6.80C in Kiew) are lower than in the Mediterranean ones (14.10C in Marseilles and 15.0C in Rome). Another characteristic element winters are milder and shoter (the Danube Defile, the Cerna Valley and the southern Black Sea littoral), have the shortest and mildest winters with higher air temperature averages: 1.40C at Mangalia, 0.70C at Sulina, 0.60C at Lugoj, 0.50C at Drobeta Turnu Severin, 0.30C at Timioara and Cernavod, and 0.10C at Babadag. A similar picture is seen south of the Danube, in Bulgaria: 1.00C at Shumen, 0.90C at Silistra, 0.50C at Vratza and 0.30C at Vidin. In the Mediterranean climate zone the three winter months register higher averages (Athenes 9.90C and Marseilles 7.20C) than in the continental area: -5.30C at Kiew (Ukraine), -3.00C at Dorohoi (Romania) and 2.50C at Krakow (Poland). The January mean in the Submediterranean climate zone has intermediary values (0.20C at Mangalia, -0.30C at Constana and vinia, -0.40C at Shumen (Bulgaria), -0.50C at Berzasca, -0.60C at Sulina, -0.70C at Orova, -0.80C at Caransebe, -1.00C at Lugoj and Drobeta Turnu Severin, -1.20C at Timioara and Vidin (Bulgaria), -1.40C at Babadag), between those of the Mediterranean climate (6.70C in Marseilles, 7.00C in Rome and 9.30C in Athenes) and the continental one (-3.30C in Krakow, -3.50C in Warszawa, -4.00C in Tecuci and 6.20C in Kiew). 196

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The average number of winter days is lower in the Submediterranean zone (20.6 at Drobeta Turnu Severin, 20.9 at Sulina, 21.8 in Constana and 22.4 in Timioara) than in the northern regions (39.1 in Cluj and 43.1 in Botoani). The average number of frost days is lower in the south (73.2 in Constana, 80.9 at Drobeta Turnu Severin, 83.5 at Calafat) than in the north and north-east of the country (127.5 at Bistria and 117.4 at Vaslui). Spring comes by 7-14 days earlier, the average temperatures of this season are by 2-30C higher than in the north and north-east of the country. The first frost sets on one month later (1, Nov. at Giurgiu and Clrai, 2, Nov. at Corabia and Brila, 5, Nov. at Turnu Mgurele, 7, Nov. at Calafat, 9, Nov. at Isaccea, 11, Nov. at Drobeta Turnu Severin, 15, Nov. in Constana) than in the north (8, Oct. at Cluj and 10, Oct. in Roman). The last frost occurs at an earlier date in the Submediterranean climate zone (1, Apr. Brila, 2, Apr. Mangalia, 3, Apr. Drobeta Turnu Severin), than in the north and north-east of Romania (24, Apr. in Brlad and 29, Apr. in Bistria). It follows that the thermal regime in the south of Banat, south of Oltenia and in Dobrogea, makes the transition between the Mediterranean and the continental climate. A similar character has the precipitation regime, as shown by the monthly averages. The continental climate (in Banat, Oltenia and Dobrogea) has one pluviometric maximum, in May-July, and so has the Mediterranean one, but in winter. The Submediterranean climate is an intermediate type, with two pluviometric maxima: a principal one in May and June (like the continental climate) and a secondary one in October-December, brought about by the intensification of Mediterranean cyclones and the south-west advection of moist air masses. The distribution of the two-maxima pluviometric type is the strongest argument in favour of a Submediterranean climate. The principal maximum occurs in May (Anina 125.9 mm, Denta 74.2 mm) and June (Orova 81.8 mm, Vnju Mare 67.4 mm, Ciupercenii Vechi 67.3 mm, Isaccea 52.5 mm, Constana 43.5 mm, Jimbolia 67.8 mm, Banloc 79.4 mm, Turnu Mgurele 67.5 mm) and the secondary maximum in October (Anina 91.9 mm, Vnju Mare 56 mm, Ciupercenii Vechi 53.2 mm, Isaccea 42 mm, Jimbolia 52.8 mm, Denta 52 mm, Turnu Mgurele 46.8 mm), November (Orova 76 mm, Constana 36.2 mm) and December (Banloc 49.6 mm). In Drobeta Turnu Severin, the secondary maximum (80.9 mm in November) has even higher values than the principal one (76.6 mm in May). The situation is similar south of the Danube, in Bulgaria, where the principal maximum occurs in June (Silistra 66 mm, Shumen 78 mm, Veliko Tyrnovo 88 mm) and the secondary one in November (Silistra 47 mm and Veliko Tyrnovo 53 mm) and December (Shumen 57 mm). The biogeographical formations follow this distribution. Thus, only part of the Mediterranean species occur over larger arees, not simply around the Mediterranean Sea, but also in the north of the Balkan Mts., the Prebalkan Platform and the basin of the Lower Danube, some forming continuous associations, others stopping on the line of the Balkan Mts, presumably because beyond it the climate no longer suits them. 197

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Mediterranean plants and animals that do advance northwards, up to the Lower Danube Basin (and even farther into the Southern Subcarpathians) which actually represents a northern region of wide and uninterrupted spread of Mediterranean species, especially in the south of the Romanian Plain, take part beside European, Euro-Siberian and Pontic elements, in the formation of some particular coenoses, making up a truly Mediterranean zone, intermediary between the Mediterranean and the steppe and sylvo-steppe zones from the southern part of Romania. As regards the vegetation of the Romanian Plain, Doni (1967) emphasised the presence of gladed Submediterranean forests. They represent a distinct zonal unit, namely, the sub-zone of the southern sylvo-steppe and, together with the Submediterranean fauna, form the sub-zone of Submediterranean ecosystems belonging to the Mediterranean zone (Popova et al., 1976). Some of the Submediterranean plant species contributing to the formation of common Submediterranean complexes, are Quercus pubescens, Q. cerris, Q. frainetto, Fraxinus ornus, Carpinus orientalis, Cotinus coggygria, Cornus mas, Viburnum lantana, Pinus nigra, var. banatica, Ruscus aculeatus, R. hypoglossum, Corylus colurna, etc. The main representatives of the southern fauna are the reptiles: Vipera ammodytes, Lacerta muralis maculiventris, Testudo hermanni hermanni, T. hermanni montandoni, lepidopterans Pieris manni ssp. rossi, Gortyna moesiaca, Libythea celtis, Cenonympha leander, Eriopus latreilii, coleopterans Ontholestes haroldi, Carabus gigas, homopterans Cicada orni, Tibicina haematodes, Lyristes plebejus, orthopteran Isophya speciosa, hymenopteran Eucera clypeata, gasteropodans Campylaea trizona, Idyla rugicollis, Speliodiscus triasica, scorpion Euscorpius carpathicus, birds Oenathe hispanica melanoleuca, Alectoris graeca saxatilis, Streptopelia decaocto, Apus melba, Parus lugubris, Embriza cia, E. circus, Carduelis balcanica, Eremophylla alpestris balcanica etc. The wide spread of these species in the Lower Danube Basin was facilitated not only by favourable ecological conditions, but also by the proximity of the PonticMediterranean glacial refuge, a later centre of genesis and diffusion of the PonticMediterranean fauna. This situation enabled the massive penetration of many southern elements during the Atlantic (a post-glacial climatic optimum): Lacerta muralis maculiventris, L. viridis, L. taurica, Testudo hermanni, Vipera ammodytes, Reticulitermes lucifugus, Scolopendra cingulata, Carabus affinis and Ablepharus kitaibelii, representing the East-Mediterranean faunistic wave. Subsequently, in the Upper Holocene (Subatlantic), when the weather was slightly cooling, the area of southern species (Mediterranean and Submediterranean) would shrink, some remaining in isolated stations or enclaves, the above ones (see map) constituting the glacial relicts of today. As a result, the continuity of these southern species north of the Danube represents a historical process that unfolded in the Quaternary. The transitorial character of the Submediterranean fauna in the Lower Basin of the Danube is obvious also because some Mediterranean animal species of the region are 198

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represented by sub-species, eg. Pieris manni ssp. rossi, Testudo hermanni racovitzai, Oenathe hispanica melanoleuca, Ablepharus kitaibelii stepanecki, etc. The presence of the Submedierranean sub-zone, a biogeographical unit that makes the passage from the Mediterranean to the sylvo-steppe and steppe zones, is conformable to the laws of nature, because the passage from a biogeographical unit to the adjoining one is not so very well delimited. Between them there is a transitional unit with common biogeographical elements interwoining there. In most cases, therefore, the boundary between the two units is often festooned, looking like continental sea sides where land ends up in peninsulas, islands and gulfs (Fig. 1). This remark is true of the Submediterranean sub-zone, too, it displaying large outposts, and a few island-like enclaves of Submediterranean and Mediterranean elements, eg. near Iai (I) - Helix lucorum (gastropodan) and Dinarchus dasyppus (orthopteran), in the Buzu Subcarpathians (II) Euscorpius carpathicus, Reticulitermes lucifugus; in the Olt Valley (III) north and south of Rmnicu Vlcea town Euscorpius carpathicus, Calliptamus italicus, Carabus gigas; in the Mure Valley (IV) near Deva town Isophya speciosa, Euscorpius carpathicus, Carabus gigas. There are three territorial outposts in which several southern elements can be detected (see fig. 2). The first outpost, which is the richest and covers the largest area, is the Danube Defile and the adjouining zone, with lots of Mediterranean animals: Reticulitermes lucifugus (isopterans), Phyllomorpha laciniata, Coriomeris spinolai, Melanocoryphus altomaculatus, Apophimus pectoralis (heteropterans), Pezotettix giornai (orthopterans), Agrilus sinuatus (coleopterans), Coniopterix arcuata (neuropterans), Meria fasciculata (hymenopterans), Mantis religiosa (mantoidans), Scolopendra cingulata (chilopodans), Oedipoda germanica, Tibicina haematodes (homopterans), Elachiptera megaspris (dipterans), Coscinia cribaria, Pieris manni, Dryobotodes cerris (lepidopterans), Euscorpius carpathicus (arahnides), the northernmost representative of the scorpions, Scutigera coleoptrata (myriapod rather a house dweller), Vipera ammodytes, Testudo hermanni (reptiles) and birds: Passer hispaniolensis, Hirundo daurica rufula, Emberiza cirlus, Oenathe hispanica, Dendrocopos syriacus. Many of these species are southern thermophilous elements, therefore they are concentrated mostly on calcareous terrain with warmer topoclimates. Here on the limestone of the Danube Defile, some particular coenoses have come into being, eg. the gasteropodans Herilla zieglesi dacica-Xerocampylaea zelebori or Campylaea trizona, Idylla rugicollis, Speliodiscus triaria and the ornithocoenosis of Oenathe hispanica melanoleuca-Neophron percnopterus-Hirundo rupestris, all with a marked southern character. A second area of the southern associations is the eastern Burnaz Plain, the forests of which host southern insects like: Tettigia orni, Cicada plebeja, Carabus gigas, Callimenus montandoni and C. oniscus. Going eastwards, in Dobrogea, one finds a southern outpost with a faunistic complex containing Ablepharus kitaibelii fitzingeri (Reptilia), Dinarchus dasypus, 199

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Calliptamus italicus, Callimenus affinis (Coleoptera), Tibicina haematodes (Homoptera), etc. From an ecological viewpoint, the majority of these Submediterranean animal species are thermophilous, occupyng warmer, limestone-based areas, sheltered valleys, gorges and defiles, as well as the sunlit rocky slopes. As previsionly mentioned, they have a higher incidence in the south-west and south-east of Romania, where the climate shows obvious Mediterranean influences, with two thermal-hydric maxima. As a conclusion, the presence of many southern elements in the south of Romania is ever better evidenced, and the idea of a Submediterranean biogeographic space unit in this part of the country is gaiming ground. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Bunescu, Alexandra, 1959 - Nota I Artropode, Probleme de Geografie, VI, Bucureti. Bunescu, Alexandra, 1961 - Nota II Vertebrate, Probleme de Geografie, VIII, Bucureti. Clinescu, R., 1967 - Analele Universitii Bucureti, Seria tiinele NaturiiGeologie-Geografie, XVI, 2. Clinescu, R., 1969 - Biogeografia Romniei, Edit. tiinific, Bucureti (sub redacie) Clinescu, R., Bunescu, Alexandra, 1958 - Contribuii la o ncercare de raionare zoogeografic a faunei din R. P. R., n vol. Realizri n geografia R. P. R. n perioada 1947-1957 , Edit. tiinific, Bucureti. Clinescu, R., Iana, Sofia, 1964 - Analele Universitii Bucureti, Seria tiinele Naturii-Geologie-Geografie, 1. Ciachir, N., Gleanu, P., 1969 - R. S. F. Iugoslavia, Edit. Enciclopedic Romn, Bucureti. Dumbrveanu, Daniela, 1993 - Cteva cercetri geografice ce atest prezena climatului submediteraneean n ara noastr, Geographica Timisiensis, 2, Timioara. Erhan, Elena, 1988 - Curs de Meteorologie-Climatologie, partea a II-a Climatologie, Facultatea de Biologie-Geografie-Geologie, Universitatea Al. I. Cuza Iai. Ghibedea, V., Bcanu, Lucia, Grigercsik, E., 1970 - Studii de Geografie a Banatului, Universitatea Timioara. Ghibedea, V., Isboiu, C., 1985 - Exist climat submediteraneean n sud-vestul Romniei?, Terra, 2, Bucureti. Grossu, A., 1972 - Studii i Cercetri de Biologie, Seria Zoologie, 24, 4, Bucureti. 200

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13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

Iana, Sofia, 1978 - Principii de regionare biogeografic, Studii de Geografie, Universitatea Bucureti. Iftimie, A., 1997 - Despre prezena unei populaii de Ablepharus kitaibelii n mediul urban, Nymphaea, XXIII-XXV, Oradea. Kiss, B., 1970 - Studia Universitatis Babe-Bolyai, Series Biologia, 1, Cluj. Kiss, B., 1979 - Studii i Cercetri, Comitetul de cultur, Tg. Jiu. Mihilescu, V., 1969 - Geografia fizic a Romniei, Edit. tiinific, Bucureti. Popova-Cucu, Ana, Muic, Cristina, Drugescu, C., 1976 - Revue Roumaine de Gologie, Gophysique et Gographie, Serie de Gographie, 20, Bucureti. tefureac, Tr., 1965 - Studii i Cercetri de Biologie, Seria Botanic, 17, 4-5, Bucureti. x x x, 1966 - Clima R. S. Romnia, II, C.S.A., I.M., Bucureti. x x x, 1960 - Fauna R. P. Romne, Reptilia, Edit. Academiei, Bucureti. x x x, 1997 - eopa a ap, Akaemo aeco, Co. x x x, 1983 - Geografia Romniei, I (Geografia fizic), Edit. Academiei, Bucureti. x x x, 1969 - Geografia vii Dunrii romneti, Edit. Academiei, Bucureti. x x x, 1960 - Monografia Geografic a R. P. Romne, I (Geografia Fizic), Edit. Academiei, Bucureti.

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202

Fig. 1 Histograms of atmospheric precipitations at Jimbolia, Denta, Anina, Orova, Vnju Mare, Ciupercenii Vechi, Zimnicea, Constana (Romania), Silistra and Sumen (Bulgaria).

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203

Fig. 2. Northern limits of some Ponto-Mediterranean elemente (Northern limits of some Pontic Mediterranean elements): 1. Milax cristatus (Gasteropoda) ; 2. Lindholmiola corcyrensis (Gasteropoda) ; 3. Deroceras melanocephalus (Gasteropoda) ; 4. Helix lucorum (Gasteropoda) ; 5. Zebrina varnensis (Gasteropoda) ; 6. Lithobius bulgaricus (Chilopoda) ; 7. Nematostoma bidentatus (Opilionida) ; 8. Chortippus loratus (Orthoptera); 9. Isophya speciosa (Orthoptera) ; 10. Modicogrillus chopardi (Orthoptera) ; 11. Zerynthya cerisyi (Lepidoptera) ; 12. Gortyna moesiaca (Lepidoptera) ; 13. Perisomana caecigena (Lepidoptera) ; Rhyncomyia peusi (Diptera) ; 15. Pelobates syriacus (Amphibia) ; 16. Ablepharus kitaibelii (Reptilia) ; 17. Lacerta praticola (Reptilia) ; 18. Coluber jugularis (Reptilia) ; 19. Lacerta taurica (Reptilia) ; 20. Mesocricetus newtoni (Mammalia) ; 21. Isophya rectipennis (Orthoptera) ; 22. Conocephalus hastatus (Orthoptera). I.-IV. Enclave de elemente sudice (Southern enclaves).

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 _______________________________________________________________________________________

THE CATALOGUE OF THE SPECIES OF APHIDS (HOMOPTERA:APHIDIDAE) THAT ATTACK FRUIT TREES IN VASLUI COUNTY
BY

ELENA FERARU1

Key words: aphids, apple tree, pear tree, quince tree, plum tree, cherry tree, morello tree, apricot tree, peach tree, ungrafted apricot tree. This paper presents 23 species of aphids, deleterious to the fruit trees of some mixed orchards situated on private properties in Vaslui County. Vaslui County is situated in Barlad`s plateau, East Romania. The identified species belong to the Aphidinae subfamily, 9 of them belonging to the Aphidini tribe, and 14 belonging to the Macrosiphini tribe. For each identified species, the attached notes are presenting information regarding the identifying material, geographical distribution, and the species` biology. Hyalopterus amygdali Blanc., Melanaphis pyraria Pass., and Ovatus insitus Walk. are aphids mentioned for the first time in Romania as species infesting fruit trees. Dysaphis devecta Walk. is mentioned for the first time in Moldova.

Introduction The main purpose of the article is the development of a catalog of the aphids attacking the fruit trees of private mixed orchards from different areas of Vaslui County. The identified aphids belong to the Aphidinae (Homoptera: Aphididae) subfamily. Aphids are parthenogenetic and viviparous insects, widely spread in the Holarctic area and eastern hemisphere. Most of the species present alternation of host plants, being found on both wooden and grassy plants. Material and methods The material was gathered in the autumn of 2002 and in the summer of 2003 from mixed orchards in which a pesticide chemical control was never made. Specimens were collected from 9 types of fruit trees (apple tree, pear tree, quince tree, plum tree, cherry tree, morello tree, apricot tree, peach tree and ungrafted apricot tree) found in private gardens from: Banca, Brlad, Bogdneti, Buhieti, Crasna, Hoceni, Muntenii de Jos, Murgeni, Puieti, Soleti, Tutova and Vaslui. A number of 1970 winged individuals were studied; the studied individuals were obtained from 216 samples
______________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Elena Feraru _________________________________________________________________________________________

extracted through direct and accidental breaking of the leafs of the 9 species of fruit trees considered for experimentation. Results and discussions Family Aphididae. Subfamily Aphidinae. Tribe Aphidini 1. Aphis craccivora, Koch, 1854 Identified material: 22 winged individuals obtained from 9 samples: 7 samples from plum trees (15.10.02 Vaslui, Munteni, Crasna; 16.10.02 Bogdneti, Buhieti, Puieti; 9.06.03 Brlad), and 2 samples from pear trees (9.06.03 Crasna, 10.06. Bogdneti). Geographical distribution: Europe, North America, Africa, Asia, Australia. Found in all regions of Romania /1/. Biology: Migratory species. It hibernates as an egg deposit at the base of bush trunks and vegetable grassy plants. 2. Aphis fabae Scopoli, 1763 Identified material: 42 winged individuals obtained from 18 samples: 3 samples from apple trees (15.10.02 Murgeni, Soleti; 9.06.03 Vaslui), 2 from pear tree (15.10.02 Crasna, Murgeni), 8 from plum trees (15.10.02 Brlad, Murgeni; 16.10.02 Banca, Bogdneti, Buhieti, Tutova; 9.06.03 Soleti, Vaslui), and 5 from cherry trees (16.10.02 Banca, Puieti, Tutova; 10.06.03 Bogdneti, Puieti). Geographical distribution: Cosmopolitan. Found in all regions of Romania. Biology: Migration and pole-vaulting species. It hibernates as an egg deposit at the base of buds or into the bush barks of Evonimus, Viburnum, Philadelphus etc. 3. Aphis pomi De Geer, 1773 Identified material: 220 winged individuals obtained from 37 samples: 24 samples from apple trees (15.10.02 end 9.06.03 Brlad, Crasna, Hoceni, Muntenii de Jos, Murgeni, Soleti, Vaslui; 16.10.02 end 10.06.03 Banca, Bogdneti, Buhieti, Puieti, Tutova), 6 from pear trees (15.10.02 Crasna, Soleti; 9.06.03 Crasna, Munteni; 10.06.03 Banca, Bogdneti), and 7 from quince trees (15.10.02 Hoceni, Munteni, Murgeni; 16.10.02 Banca, Bogdneti, Buhieti, Puieti). Geographical distribution: Europe, North America, Africa, Asia (Japan, Taiwan), New Zeeland. Found in all regions of Romania except for the mountain regions /1/. Biology: It develops on both fruit and ornamental trees and bushes. 4. Hyalopterus amygdali Blanchard, 1840 Identified material: 42 winged individuals obtained in 13 samples: 10 samples from plum trees (15.10.02 Crasna; 16.10.02 Banca, Bogdneti; 9.06.03 Crasna, Soleti, Vaslui; 10.06.03 Banca, Bogdneti, Buhieti, Tutova) and 3 samples from peach trees (9.06.03 Crasna; 10.06.03 Bogdneti, Puieti). Geographical distribution: Europe, North Africa, Central Asia /1/. 52

The catalogue of the species of aphids (Homoptera:Aphididae) () _________________________________________________________________________________________

Biology: It hibernates on fruit-bearing species. Secondary hosts are different graminee, tifacee, ciperacee. H. amygdali is mentioned for the first time in Romania as a species harmful to fruit trees. 5. Hyalopterus pruni Geoffroy, 1762 Identified material: 206 winged individuals obtained in 28 samples: 24 samples from plum trees (15.10.02 and 9.06.03 Brlad, Crasna, Hoceni, Muntenii de Jos, Murgeni, Soleti, Vaslui; 16.10.02 and 10.06.03 Banca, Bogdneti, Buhieti, Puieti, Tutova) and 4 from peach trees (15.10.02 Hoceni, Muntenii de Jos; 16.10.02 Bogdneti, Buhieti). Geographical distribution: Palearctic Region. Found in all regions of Romania /1/. Biology: It hibernates in egg form on the branches of plum trees, peach trees, and apricot trees. Migrates on reed, where they are multiplying all summer. In the autumn, they turn back on the prunoidee. 6. Melanaphis pyraria Passerini, 1861 Identified material: 26 winged individuals obtained in 4 samples from pear trees (9.06.03 Brlad, Muntenii de Jos; 10.06.03 Banca, Bogdneti). Geographical distribution: Europe, The Near East/1/. Biology: Dioecic species found in the spring on the inferior side of the apple tree leafs. In the summer, they migrate on determined species of graminee. M. pyraria is mentioned for the first time in Romania as a species harmful to fruit trees. 7. Rhopalosiphum insertum Walker, 1849 Identified material: 58 winged individuals obtained in 28 samples: 12 samples from apple trees (15.10.02 Brlad, Crasna, Hoceni, Muntenii de Jos, Murgeni, Soleti, Vaslui; 16.10.02 Banca, Bogdneti, Buhieti, Puieti, Tutova), 5 from pear trees (15.10.02 Crasna, Munteni; 16.10.02 Banca, Bogdneti, Tutova), 5 from quince trees (15.10.02 Brlad, Murgeni, Soleti; 16.10.02 Buhieti, Tutova), and 6 from plum trees (15.10.02 Crasna, Murgeni, Vaslui; 16.10.02 Bogdneti, Buhieti, Puieti). Geographical distribution: Palearctic Region. Romania: Neam, Constana /1/. Biology: Apple trees and the other fruit-bearing trees represent the main host. The second generation of winged aphids migrates on the roots of graminee. 8. Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Linn, 1761 Identified material: 40 winged individuals obtained in 18 samples: 9 samples from plum trees (15.10.02 Crasna, Brlad, Hoceni, Vaslui; 16.10.02 Banca, Buhieti, Puieti, Tutova; 9.06.03 Vaslui), 4 from peach trees (15.10.02 Crasna, Murgeni; 16.10.02 Banca, Bogdneti), and 5 from cherry trees (15.10.02 Hoceni, Murgeni; 16.10.02 Bogdneti, Puieti, Tutova). Geographical distribution: Cosmopolitan.

53

Elena Feraru _________________________________________________________________________________________

Biology: At the beginning of the summer, the viviparous females host on aquatic plants; in late autumn, oviparous females will leave the aquatic plants, to deposit eggs on fruit trees. Identified material: 56 winged individuals obtained in 12 samples: 4 samples from plum trees (15.10.02 Crasna, Soleti; 16.10.02 Bogdneti, Puieti) and 8 from quince trees (15.10.02 Munteni, Murgeni, Soleti, Vaslui; 16.10.02 Banca, Buhieti, Puieti, Tutova). Geographical distribution: Cosmopolitan. Biology: It hibernates as a resistant egg, on the trees and bushes bark or as nonwinged forms on cereals and spontaneous poacee, realizing an anholociclic biological cycle. Family Aphididae. Subfamily Aphidinae. Tribe Macrosiphini 10. Aulacorthum solani Kaltenbach, 1943 Identified material: 36 winged individuals obtained in 5 samples: 3 samples from quince trees (15.10.02 Crasna, Murgeni; 16.10.02 Banca) and 2 from ungrafted apricot trees (16.10.02 Puieti, Tutova). Geographical distribution: Cosmopolitan. Biology: A species with a big polyphagous. It hibernates on wooden species and as long as summer lasts, it advances on different grassy plants. 11. Brachycaudus cardui Linn, 1758 Identified material: 186 winged individuals in 44 samples: 24 samples from plum trees (15.10.02 i 9.06.03 Brlad, Crasna, Hoceni, Muntenii de Jos, Murgeni, Soleti, Vaslui; 16.10.02 and 10.06.03 Banca, Bogdneti, Buhieti, Puieti, Tutova), 10 from cherry trees (15.10.02 Brlad, Hoceni, Murgeni, Soleti; 16.10.02 Banca, Bogdneti, Buhieti, Tutova; 9.06.03 Brlad, Soleti), and 10 from peach trees (15.10.02 Brlad, Hoceni, Muntenii de Jos, Murgeni, Soleti; 16.10.02 Banca, Bogdneti, Buhieti, Puieti, Tutova). Geographical distribution: Palearctic Region. Found in all regions of Romania /1/. Biology: Migrating, polivoltin and dioecic species. It hibernates in the form of egg deposits on the bark and branches of plum trees. It begins to advance on the first host; they later migrate on other plants. 12. Brachycaudus helichrysi Kaltenbach, 1843 Identified material: 76 winged individuals obtained in 14 samples: 7 samples from plum trees (15.10.02 Brlad, Crasna; 16.10.02 Bogdneti; 9.06.03 Hoceni, Vaslui; 10.06.03 Banca, Bogdneti), 3 from cherry trees (15.10.02 Bogdneti, Murgeni; 16.10.02 Buhieti), 2 from peach trees (9.06.03 Crasna; 10.06.03 Bogdneti), and 2 from apple trees (9.06.03 Murgeni, Soleti). Geographical distribution: Cosmopolitan. Biology: Migrating, polivoltin and dioecic species. It hibernates in the form of egg deposits, on plum trees' bark and branches. 54

The catalogue of the species of aphids (Homoptera:Aphididae) () _________________________________________________________________________________________

13. Brachycaudus prunicola Kaltenbach, 1843 Identified material: 50 winged individuals obtained in 6 samples: 4 samples from peach trees (9.06.03 Brlad, Bogdneti, Munteni; 10.06.03 Puieti) and 2 samples from plum trees (9.06.03 Brlad, Munteni). Geographical distribution: Europe. Romania: Cluj, Iai, Bacu, Ialomia, Sibiu /1/. Biology: Non-migrating species. It colonizes the inferior side of the peach tree leafs. The species is protected by ants. 14. Dysaphis devecta Walker, 1849 Identified material: 24 winged individuals in 3 samples from apple trees (10.06.03 Banca, Bogdneti, Hoceni). Geographical distribution: Europe (Holland, Germany, England, France, Poland, Ukraine, Russia etc.). Romania: Vrancea, Constana, Cluj, Braov, etc. /1/. Biology: It advances on different species of Malus. Species cited for the first time in Moldavia. 15. Dysaphis plantaginea Passerini, 1860 Identified material: 70 winged individuals obtained in 22 samples: 17 samples from apple trees (15.10.02 Brlad, Hoceni, Vaslui; 16.10.02 Bogdneti, Tutova; 9.06.03 Brlad, Crasna, Hoceni, Muntenii de Jos, Murgeni, Soleti, Vaslui; 10.06.03 Banca, Bogdneti, Buhieti, Puieti, Tutova) and 5 from pear trees (15.10.02 Hoceni; 16.10.02 Banca, Bogdneti; 9.06.03 Hoceni; 10.06.03 Bogdneti). Geographical distribution: Europe, North America (USA), North Africa (Maroc, Egypt), Asia (Israel, Turkey, Iraq, Cyprus). Romania: Braov, Cluj, Satu-Mare, Iai /1/. Biology: Migratory species. It hibernates as isolated eggs, or small deposits of eggs, at the base of the buds on the annual branches of apple trees. The second host plant is represented by species of Plantago. 16. Dysaphis pyri Boyer de Foscolombe, 1841 Identified material: 36 winged individuals obtained in 4 samples from peach trees (9.06.03 Hoceni, Murgeni; 10.06.03 Bogdneti, Tutova). Geographical distribution: Europe, Asia, South Africa, Australia. Romania: Cluj, Vrancea, Botoani, Iai, Prahova, etc. /1/. Biology: Heteroecic species. The pear tree is the main host and Gallium sp. is the second favourite host. The species is protected by ants. 17. Hyperomyzus lactucae Linn, 1758 Identified material: 10 winged individuals obtained in 2 samples from quince trees (16.10.02 Bogdneti, Crasna). Geographical distribution: Cosmopolitan. Biology: It develops on compozitae and different saxifragaceae. Note: The species is not cited as deleterious to quince trees (fruit trees). A possibility is that it arrived accidentally on these species of trees. 55

Elena Feraru _________________________________________________________________________________________

18. Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas, 1878 Identified material: 22 winged individuals obtained in 15 samples: 9 samples from apple trees (15.10.02 Brlad, Hoceni, Muntenii de Jos, Murgeni, Soleti; 16.10.02 Banca, Buhieti, Puieti, Tutova) and 6 from ungrafted apricot trees (15.10.02 Crasna, Hoceni, Muntenii de Jos; 16.10.02 Banca, Buhieti, Puieti). Geographical distribution: Europe, North America (USA, Canada). Found in most regions of Romania /1/. Biology: Anholociclic and polyphagous species. 19. Macrosiphum rosae Linn, 1758 Identified material: 18 winged individuals obtained in 5 samples: 1 sample from apple trees (9.06.03 Brlad), 2 from quince trees (16.10.02 Banca, Buhieti), and 2 from ungrafted apricot trees (15.10.02 Hoceni, Murgeni). Geographical distribution: Cosmopolitan. Biology: It hibernates as eggs on rose branches. Around June, they will advance on the rose; they may migrate on secondary plants. 20. Myzus cerasi Fabricius, 1775 Identified material: 198 winged individuals obtained in 32 samples: 24 samples from cherry trees (15.10.02 and 9.06.03 Brlad, Crasna, Hoceni, Muntenii de Jos, Murgeni, Soleti, Vaslui; 16.10.02 and 10.06.03 Banca, Bogdneti, Buhieti, Puieti, Tutova) and 10 from morello trees (15.10.02 Crasna, Munteni; 16.10.02 Banca, Bogdneti, Puieti; 9.06.03 Brlad, Munteni; 10.06.03 Buhieti, Puieti, Tutova). Geographical distribution: Cosmopolitan. Found in all regions of Romania. Biology: It hibernates in egg form, on the bark of the branches or at the base of the cherry tree buds. In June, the individuals will migrate on grassy plants and reproduce until the beginning of autumn. The sexuale developed individuals will commute back on the cherry trees for depositing the winter eggs. 21. Myzus persicae Sulzer, 1776 Identified material: 424 winged individuals obtained in 181 samples: 24 samples from plum trees (15.10.02 and 9.06.03 Brlad, Crasna, Hoceni, Muntenii de Jos, Murgeni, Soleti, Vaslui; 16.10.02 and 10.06.03 Banca, Bogdneti, Buhieti, Puieti, Tutova), 24 from apple trees (idem plum tree), 24 from peach tree (idem plum tree), 24 from cherry trees (idem plum tree), 16 from quince trees (15.10.02 Brlad, Crasna, Hoceni, Muntenii de Jos, Murgeni, Soleti, Vaslui; 16.10.02 Banca, Bogdneti, Buhieti, Puieti, Tutova; 9.06.03 Crasna, Hoceni; 10.06.03 Banca, Bogdneti), 24 from morello trees (idem plum trees), 14 from ungrafted apricot trees (15.10.02 Brlad, Crasna, Hoceni, Muntenii de Jos, Murgeni, Soleti, Vaslui; 16.10.02 Banca, Bogdneti, Buhieti, Puieti, Tutova; 9.06.03 Brlad, Hoceni), 7 from pear trees (15.10.02 Murgeni, Vaslui; 16.10.02 Bogdneti, Buhieti; 9.06.03 Crasna; 10.06.03 Bogdneti, Buhieti), and 24 from apricot trees (idem plum trees). Geographical distribution: Cosmopolitan. Found in all regions of Romania. Biology: Polivoltin species. 3-5 generations of fundatrigene will develop on peach trees, and more generations of virginogene will develop on secondary host plants. 56

The catalogue of the species of aphids (Homoptera:Aphididae) () _________________________________________________________________________________________

22. Ovatus insitus Walker, 1849 Identified material: 24 winged individuals obtained in 11 samples: 2 samples from apple trees (15.10.02 Vaslui; 16.10.02 Bogdneti), 2 from quince tree (16.10.02 Banca, Bogdneti), 4 from ungrafted apricot trees (15.10.02 Hoceni, Vaslui; 16.10.02 Bogdneti, Tutova), and 3 from plum trees (9.06.03 Hoceni, Soleti; 10.06.03 Tutova). Geographical distribution: Eurasia /1/. Biology: Found on rose species and on some labiate. O. insitus is mentioned for the first time in Romania as a species harmful to fruits trees. 23. Phorodon humuli Schrank, 1801 Identified material: 84 winged individuals obtained in 16 samples: 14 samples from plum trees (15.10.02 Munteni; 16.10.02 Bogdneti; 9.06.03 Brlad, Crasna, Hoceni, Muntenii de Jos, Murgeni, Soleti, Vaslui; 10.06.03 Banca, Bogdneti, Buhieti, Puieti, Tutova) and 2 from cherry trees (16.10.02 Bogdneti; 9.06.03 Brlad). Geographical distribution: Europe, North America, Asia (China, India, Korea). Romania: Cluj, Sibiu, Bacu, Iai, Mure, Braov /1/. Biology: Migratory species with the first host represented by plum trees, peach trees and secondary host represented by hops. Conclusions A number of 23 species of deleterious aphids are mentioned; these are infesting 9 species of fruit trees found in private mixed orchards situated in 12 localities of Vaslui County. Hyalopterus amygdali Blanc., Melanaphis pyraria Pass., and Ovatus insitus Walk. are species mentioned for the first time in Romania as harmful to fruit trees. Dysaphis devecta Walk. is mentioned for the first time in Moldova. The most widely spread aphid species is Myzus persicae Sulz., and the most vulnerable species of trees is the plum tree (see table 1). References 1. 2. Boguleanu, Gh., 1994 - Fauna duntoare culturilor agricole i forestiere. Insecta, Ed. Teh. Agr., Buc., II: 337-442; Ciochia, V., Boeriu, H., 1996 - Conspectul afidelor, plantelor gazd i principalii limitatori naturali din Romnia, Academia de tiine Agricole i Silvice Gh. Ionescu Sisesti de Ornitologie, protecia psrilor i a naturii din Romnia, Soc. pentru ecosanogenez din Romnia, Braov; Holman, J., Pintera, A., 1981 - Ubersicht der Blattluse (Homoptera, Aphidoidea) der Rum. Soz. Rep., Academia Praha; 57

3.

Elena Feraru _________________________________________________________________________________________

4.

5. 6.

Musta, Gh., Musta, Mariana, Maniu, C., 2000 - Afide duntoare i complexul de parazitoizi care le limiteaz populaia. Rolul biocenozelor parazitoide n pstrarea echilibrului natural, Edit. Corso, Iai; Svescu, A., 1961 - Album de protecia plantelor, Centrul de material didactic i propagand agricol, Bucureti, vol. I, II; Svescu, A., .a., 1982 - Tratatat de zoologie agricol. Duntorii plantelor cultivate, Edit. Acad. RSR;

Table 1. The evidence of the nourish relations between aphids and fruit trees Trees Aphids Aphis craccivora Aphis fabae Aphis pomi Hyalopterus amygdali Hyalopterus pruni Melanaphis pyraria Rhopalosiphum insertum Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Rhopalosiphum padi Aulacortum solani Brachycaudus cardui Brachycaudus helichrysi Brachycaudus prunicola Dysaphis devecta Dysaphis plantaginea Dysaphis pyri Hyperomyzus lactucae Macrosiphum euphorbiae Macrosiphum rosae Myzus cerasi Myzus persicae Ovatus insitus Phorodon humuli Total apple tree pear tree quince tree plum tree cherry tree morello tree peach tree apricot tree ungrafted apricot tree * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 10 * * * * * * * 8 58 * * * 13 * * * 7 * * * * * * * * 5 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 8 2 7 1 Total 2 4 3 2 2 1 4 3 2 2 3 4 2 1 2 1 1 2 3 2 9 4 2

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004

THE PREDATORS AND THE PARASITOIDS INSECTS IN THE COLONIES OF APHIDS (HOMOPTERA:APHIDIDAE) DELETERIOUS TO THE FRUIT TREES FROM VASLUI COUNTY
BY

ELENA FERARU1 AND GHEORGHE MUSTA1

Key words: aphids, entomophagous, parasitoids, hyperparasitoids, predators. During the year 2003, we have analyzed the entomophagous complex which affects the colonies of 8 aphid species frequently deleterious to the fruit trees from the mixed orchards situated in the private gardens from some regions of Vaslui County. A number of 25 predator insect species were identified, belonging to 8 families, together with 6 species of parasitoid insects from the family Aphidiidae. For each deleterious or parasitical species that has been identified, the species of aphids are mentioned, together with the corresponding fruit trees which are the medium for the extract probes. The collection date and place are also being specified.

Introduction The purpose of this paper is to evidence the biological relations settled by the species of aphids, frequently deleterious to the fruit trees with other species of insects. The relations between aphids and a wide variety of other species are very complex. These are: prey-predators and host-parasitoids. The predators and parasitoids are parasited by other species from other systematic categories. Material and methods The biological material was collected in the summer of 2003 from the colonies of 8 species of aphids which are frequently deleterious to the fruit trees: Aphis pomi de Geer, Brachycaudus cardui Linne, Brachycaudus helichrysi Kaltenbach, Dysaphis plantaginea Passerini, Hyalopterus pruni Geoffroy, Myzus persicae Sulzer, and Phorodon humuli Schrank. The samples were collected from 5 types of fruit trees: apple tree, pear tree, plum tree, cherry tree, and peach tree; the trees used were situated in private gardens in which a chemical control with pesticides was never made. The predator insects were collected directly or were obtained in laboratory conditions from pupae, while the parasitoids were obtained from mummies present on deleterious leafs and offshoots. The analysis was centered on 401 predator individuals obtained from 84 probes and on 98 parasitoid individuals obtained from 15 probes.
_________________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Elena Feraru and Gheorghe Musta _________________________________________________________________________________________

Results and discussions Predator insects Family Coccinellidae 1. Adalia bipunctata L: 28 individuals from colonies of: Aphis pomi, developing on apple trees (9.06 Munteni; 20.06 Banca, Bogdneti; 4.07 Murgeni; 10.07 Buhieti) and pear trees (9.06 Vaslui), Brachycaudus cardui, developing on plum trees (9.06 Vaslui; 20.06 Banca; 4.07 Hoceni) and peach trees (20.06 Bogdneti), B. helichrysi, developing on plum trees (4.07 Murgeni), Hyalopterus pruni, developing on plum trees (9.06 Soleti, Vaslui; 20.06 Brlad; 10.07 Buhieti), Myzus cerasi, developing on cherry trees (20.06 Bogdneti; 10.07 Puieti), Myzus persicae, developing on plum trees (9.06 Crasna; 20.06 Banca; 4.07 Murgeni; 10.07 Puieti), cherry trees (20.06 Banca) and peach trees (10.07 Puieti), and Phorodon humuli, developing on plum trees (9.06 Munteni; 20.06 Brlad, Bogdneti). 2. Adalia decimpunctata L: 11 individuals from colonies of: Aphis pomi developing on apple trees (20.06 Banca, Bogdneti), Dysaphis plantaginea, developing on apple trees (9.06 Munteni; 4.07 Hoceni) and Myzus persicae, developing on plum trees (20.06 Bogdneti; 10.07 Buhieti), peach trees (20.06 Brlad) and cherry trees (10.07 Puieti). 3. Adonia variegata Goeze: 13 individuals from colonies of: Aphis pomi, developing on apple trees (9.06 Soleti, Crasna; 20.06 Brlad, Banca; 4.07 Murgeni) and pear trees (9.06 Soleti; 20.06 Banca; 10.07 Buhieti, Puieti), and Dysaphis plantaginea, developing on apple trees (9.06 Munteni). 4. Calvia quatuordecimguttata L: 9 individuals from colonies of: Aphis pomi, developing on apple trees (9.06 Vaslui, Munteni, Crasna; 20.06 Brlad, Bogdneti; 4.07 Murgeni) and pear trees (10.07 Buhieti, Puieti), and Dysaphis plantaginea, developing on apple trees (20.06 Banca, Bogdneti). 5. Coccinella septempunctata L: 32 individuals from colonies of: Aphis pomi, developing on apple trees (9.06 Munteni; 20.06 Banca, Bogdneti), Dysaphis plantaginea, developing on apple trees (10.07 Buhieti), Brachycaudus cardui, developing on plum trees (9.06 Munteni; 20.06 Banca; 4.07 Murgeni) and peach trees (4.07 Hoceni; 10.07 Puieti), B. helichrysi, developing on plum trees (20.06 Bogdneti), Hyalopterus pruni, developing on plum trees (9.06 Crasna, Soleti, Vaslui; 20.06 Banca, Brlad, Bogdneti; 4.07 Murgeni), Myzus cerasi, developing on cherry trees (20.06 Banca; 10.07 Puieti), Myzus persicae, developing on plum trees (20.06 Brlad; 4.07 Hoceni; 10.07 Puieti) and peach trees (9.06 Soleti; 20.06 Banca, Bogdneti), and Phorodon humuli, developing on plum trees (10.07 Buhieti, Puieti). 6. Exochomus quadripustulatus L: 8 individuals from colonies of: Aphis pomi, developing on apple trees (9.06 Vaslui), Dysaphis plantaginea, developing on apple trees (9.06 Vaslui), Hyalopterus pruni, developing on plum trees (9.06 Crasna; 20.06 Brlad), Myzus persicae, developing on plum trees (4.07 Hoceni) and peach trees (10.07 Puieti), and Phorodon humuli, developing on plum tree (20.06 Brlad, Bogdneti). 40

The predators and the parasitoids insects () _________________________________________________________________________________________

7. Propylaea quatuordecimpunctata L: 26 individuals from colonies by: Aphis pomi, developing on apple trees (9.06 Munteni, Soleti, Vaslui; 20.06 Brlad; 4.07 Hoceni, Murgeni) and pear trees (9.06 Munteni), Dysaphis plantaginea, developing on apple trees (20.06 Banca), Hyalopterus pruni, developing on plum trees (9.06 Munteni, Soleti; 20.06 Banca, Brlad, Bogdneti; 10.07 Buhieti), and Phorodon humuli, developing on plum trees (9.06 Munteni; 20.06 Bogdneti; 4.07 Hoceni, Murgeni; 10.07 Buhieti). 8. Scymnus subvillosus Goeze: 54 individuals from colonies of: Aphis pomi, developing on apple trees (9.06 Crasna, Vaslui; 20.06 Bogdneti) and Brachycaudus cardui, developing on plum trees (20.06 Bogdneti; 4.07 Murgeni; 10.07 Buhieti). 9. Scymnus frontalis F : 20 individuals from colonies of: Aphis pomi, developing on apple trees (9.06 Munteni, Vaslui; 20.06 Bogdneti; 4.07 Hoceni) and Dysaphis plantaginea, developing on apple trees (4.07 Hoceni, Murgeni). 10. Stethorus punctillum Weise: 6 individuals from colonies of: Aphis pomi , developing on apple trees (9.06 Vaslui), Hyalopterus pruni, developing on plum trees (20.06 Bogdneti), Myzus cerasi, developing on cherry trees (20.06 Bogdneti), and Myzus persicae, developing on plum trees (20.06 Bogdneti; 4.07 Murgeni) and peach trees (10.07 Puieti). 11. Synharmonia conglobata L: 9 individuals, developing on colonies of: Brachycaudus cardui, developing on plum trees (9.06 Munteni; 20.06 Banca, Brlad) and peach trees (10.07 Buhieti), B helichrysi, developing on plum trees (4.07 Murgeni), Hyalopterus pruni, developing on plum trees (9.06 Crasna; 20.06 Bogdneti; 4.07 Hoceni), and Phorodon humuli, developing on plum trees (4.07 Murgeni). Family Syrphidae 12. Episyrphus balteatus DeGeer: 21 individuals part of colonies of: Aphis pomi, developing on apple trees (9.06 Soleti, Vaslui; 20.06 Banca, Bogdneti), Hyalopterus pruni, developing on plum trees (9.06 Munteni; 20.06 Brlad, Bogdneti; 4.07 Hoceni) and Brachycaudus cardui, developing on plum trees (9.06 Crasna; 20,06 Bogdneti), Myzus cerasi, developing on cherry trees (20.06 Banca; 4.07 Murgeni; 20.07 Puieti), and Myzus persicae, developing on plum trees (9.06 Munteni; 20.06 Banca, Brlad; 4.07 Hoceni) and peach trees (10.07 Puieti). 13. Paragus albifrons Fall.: 14 individuals developing on colonies of: Aphis pomi, developing on apple trees (9.06 Vaslui; 20.06 Brlad, Bogdneti; 4.07 Hoceni) and pear trees (20.06 Banca, Brlad, Bogdneti), and Brachycaudus helichrysi, developing on peach trees (4.07 Hoceni). 14. Sphaerophoria scripta L: 12 individuals from colonies of: Hyalopterus pruni, developing on plum trees (9.06 Munteni, Vaslui; 20.06 Banca, Brlad, Bogdneti) and Phorodon humuli, developing on plum trees (20.06 Bogdneti; 4.07 Hoceni, Murgeni). 15. Syrphus braueri Egger: 2 individuals from colonies of: Myzus persicae, developing on peach trees (9.06 Vaslui) and plum trees (9.06 Vaslui). 41

Elena Feraru and Gheorghe Musta _________________________________________________________________________________________

16. Syrphus ribesii L: 18 individuals from colonies of: Brachycaudus cardui, developing on peach trees (9.06 Munteni; 10.07 Puieti), Hyalopterus pruni, developing on plum trees (9.06 Crasna, Soleti, Vaslui; 20.06 Banca, Bogdneti; 4.07 Hoceni), and Phorodon humuli, developing on plum trees (20.06 Brlad, Bogdneti; 4.07 Hoceni, Murgeni; 10.07 Buhieti, Puieti). The parasitoids of the Syrphidae developing on colonies of the aphids. Family Ichneumonidae Diplazon laetatorius F: 7 individuals obtained from Sphaerophoria scripta from colonies of Hyalopterus pruni, developing on plum trees (9.06 Munteni, Vaslui). Family Encyrtidae Bothriothorax aralius Walk.: 9 individuals obtained from Episyrphus balteatus from colonies of Myzus persicae, developing on peach trees (10.07 Puieti). The species is new for Romanias fauna. Family Pteromalidae Pachyneuron grande Thomas: 12 individuals obtained from Episyrphus balteatus from colonies of Hyalopterus pruni and Brachycaudus cardui, developing on plum trees (20.07 Bogdneti) and Syrphus ribesii on colonies of Hyalopterus pruni and Phorodon humuli developing on plum trees (20.07 Bogdneti). Family Chrysopidae 17. Chrysopa (Chrysoperla) carnea Steph.: 7 individuals from colonies of: Aphis pomi, developing on apple trees (9.06 Vaslui), Hyalopterus pruni, developing on plum trees (9.06 Crasna, Vaslui; 20.06 Brlad, Bogdneti; 4.07 Hoceni), and Phorodon humuli, developing on plum trees (10.07 Buhieti). 18. Chrysopa formosa Brauer: 5 individuals from colonies of: Brachycaudus cardui, developing on plum trees (9.06 Munteni), Hyalopterus pruni, developing on plum trees (20.06 Banca, Bogdneti; 4.07 Hoceni), and Phorodon humuli developing on plum trees (20.06 Brlad). 19. Chrysopa septempunctata Wesm.: 2 individuals from colonies of: Hyalopterus pruni, developing on plum trees (20.06 Bogdneti). Family Chamaemyiidae 20. Leucopis melanopus Tanas.: 77 individuals from colonies of: Aphis pomi developing on apple trees (9.06 Crasna, Munteni, Soleti, Vaslui; 20.06 Brlad, Bogdneti; 4.07 Murgeni; 10.07 Buhieti), Brachycaudus cardui, developing on plum trees (9.06 Vaslui), and Phorodon humuli, developing on plum trees (20.06 Bogdneti). Family Cecidomyiidae 21. Aphidoletes aphidomyza Rond.: 8 individuals from colonies of: Aphis pomi, developing on apple trees (9.06 Soleti, Vaslui; 20.06 Banca, Brlad; 4.07 Hoceni, Murgeni). Family Forficulidae 22. Forficula auricularia L: 5 individuals from colonies of: Myzus cerasi, developing on cherry trees (20.06 Bogdneti; 4.07 Hoceni, Murgeni; 10.07 Puieti) and Myzus persicae, developing on cherry trees (20.06 Bogdneti). 42

The predators and the parasitoids insects () _________________________________________________________________________________________

Family Anthocoridae 23. Anthocoris nemoralis F: 5 individuals from colonies of: Hyalopterus pruni, developing on plum trees (9.06 Crasna, Vaslui; 20.06 Brlad, Bogdneti) and Phorodon humuli, developing on plum trees (20.06 Bogdneti). 24. Anthocoris nemorum L: 2 individuals from colonies of: Myzus persicae, developing on cherry trees (20.06 Bogdneti) and Myzus cerasi, developing on cherry trees (20.06 Bogdneti). Family Cantharidae 25. Cantharis livida L: 7 individuals from colonies of: Brachicaudus cardui, developing on plum trees (9.06 Crasna; 10.07 Puieti), Hyalopterus pruni, developing on plum trees (20.06 Banca, Brlad), and Phorodon humuli, developing on plum trees (4.07 Hoceni; 10.07 Puieti). Parasitoids insects Family Aphidiidae 1. Aphidius ervi Hal.: 8 individuals obtained from mummies collected from colonies of: Aphis pomi, developing on apple trees (9.06 Vaslui) and Myzus persicae, developing on peach trees (9.06 Vaslui). 2. Diaeretiella rapae Mc Intosh: 24 individuals obtained from mummies collected from colonies of: Aphis pomi, developing on apple trees (20.06 Bogdneti), Brachycaudus cardui, developing on peach trees (10.07 Puieti), and Myzus persicae, developing on peach trees (10.07 Puieti). Diaeretiella rapae had been parasited by Aphidencyrtus aphidivorus (8 individuals, Myzus persicae, 10.07 Puieti) and Pachyneuron aphidis (3 individuals, Myzus persicae, 10.07 Puieti). 3. Ephedrus persicae Froggatt: 26 individuals obtained from mummies collected from colonies of: Aphis pomi, developing on apple trees (4.07 Hoceni), Hyalopterus pruni, developing on plum trees (4.07 Hoceni, Murgeni; 10.07 Buhieti). Ephedrus persicae had been parasited by Charips melanogaster (3 individuals, 4.07 Murgeni), Ch. leunisii (5 individuals, 10.07 Buhieti) and Ch. minutus (4 individuals, 10.07 Buhieti). 4. Ephedrus plagiator Nees: 6 individuals obtained from mummies collected from colonies of: Hyalopterus pruni, developing on plum trees (9.06 Crasna). 5. Lysiphlebus fabarum Marshall: 30 individuals obtained from mummies collected from colonies of: Aphis pomi, developing on apple trees (20.06 Brlad) and Hyalopterus pruni, developing on plum trees (20.06 Bogdneti; 4.07 Murgeni). Lysiphlebus fabarum had been parasited by Ch. arcuatus (3 individuals, 20.06 Bogdneti) and Aphidencyrtus aphidivorus (7 individuals, 20.06 Bogdneti). 6. Trioxys angelicae Hal.: 4 individuals obtained from mummies collected from colonies of: Hyalopterus pruni, developing on plum trees (9.06 Munteni).

43

Elena Feraru and Gheorghe Musta _________________________________________________________________________________________

Conclusions This paper presents the entomophagous that control the advance of 8 species of aphids frequently found deleterious for the fruit trees growing in some regions of the county of Vaslui. Leucopis melanopus Tanas. and Scymnus subvillosus Goeze are the most abundant (A%) species found in aphid colonies; the most frequent species found (F%) are Coccinella septempunctata L., followed by Adalia bipunctata L., Leucopis melanopus Tanas. and Scymnus subvillosus Goeze, species considered to be eudominant (D5); Coccinella septempunctata L., Adalia bipunctata L., Episyrphus balteatus DeGeer and Propylaea quatuordecimpunctata L. are species considered to be dominant (D4) into aphid colonies developing on the fruit trees. Characteristic for these biocoenosis (W%) are Coccinella septempunctata L., Adalia bipunctata L., Leucopis melanopus Tanas. and Propylaea quatordecimpunctata L.. Coccinella septempunctata L. and Adalia bipunctata L. are the only accessory species (C2), the rest being accidentals (C1) (table 1). The most frequent predators have been found in the colonies of Aphis pomi, species developing colonies on apple trees, and in the colonies of Hyalopterus pruni, species developing colonies on plum trees. Aphidius ervi, Diaeretiella rapae, Ephedrus persicae, E. plagiator, Lysiphlebus fabarum and Trioxys angelicae act as primary parasitoids. Charips melanogaster, Ch. leunisii, Ch. minutus, Ch. arcuatus, Aphidencyrtus aphidivorus i Pachyneuron aphidis act as secondary parasitoids. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Frazer, B.D., 1988 Predators, Aphids. Their Biology, Natural Enemies And Control, Editor in Chief W. Helle, Amsterdam; Lctuu, Matilda, Panu, Mihaela, 1967 Studii i Cercetri de Biologie, Seria Zoologie, RSR, Bucureti, Tom 19 (1): 45-120; Moglan, Veronica, 1992 A II-a Conf. Pentru Prot. Mediului prin metode i mijloace biologice i biotehnice, Braov; Moglan, Veronica, 1995 Lucr. Celei de-a II-a Conf. Na. pentru Prot. mediului prin metode i mijloace biologice i biotehnice, Univ. Transilvania din Braov, Braov; Svescu, A., .a, 1982 Tratatat de zoologie agricol. Duntorii plantelor cultivate, Edit. Acad. RSR; Star, P., 1964 Nature Ekologia Polska, Seria A, Tom XII, Nr. 30, Warszawa; Star, P., 1966 Aphid parasites of Czechoslovakia, A review of the Czechoslovak Aphidiidae (Hymenoptera), Charles University, Prague; Stary, P., 1988 Aphidiidae, Aphids. Their Biology, Natural Enemies And Control, Editor in Chief W. Helle, Amsterdam; 44

The predators and the parasitoids insects () _________________________________________________________________________________________

We thank Mrs. Drd. Andriev Sorina for verification of the ladybeetles, Mr. Prep. drd. Mircea Mitroiu for determination Pachyneuron grande species and Mr. drd. Lucian Fusu for determination Bothriothorax aralius Walk species. Table 1 The sinecological analysis of the predators insects D Predators A A% F% D4 Adalia bipunctata 28 6.98 30.95 D3 Adalia decimpunctata 11 2.74 9.52 D3 Adonia variegate 13 3.24 11.90 D2 Anthocoris nemoralis 5 1.24 5.95 D1 Anthocoris nemorum 2 0.49 2.38 D2 Aphidoletes aphidomyza 8 1.99 7.14 D3 Calvia quatuordecimguttata 9 2.24 11.90 D2 Cantharis livida 7 1.74 7.14 D2 Chrysopa carnea 7 1.74 8.33 D2 Chrysopa formosa 5 1.24 5.95 D1 1.19 Chrysopa septempunctata 2 0.49 D4 Coccinella septempunctata 32 7.98 32.14 D4 Episyrphus balteatus 21 5.23 21.42 D2 Exochomus quadripustulatus 8 1.99 9.52 D2 Forficula auricularia 5 1.24 5.95 D5 Leucopis melanopus 77 19.20 11.90 D3 Paragus albifrons 14 3.49 9.52 D4 Propylaea quatuordecimpunctata 26 6.48 22.61 D3 Scymnus frontalis 20 4.98 7.14 D5 Scymnus subvillosus 54 13.46 7.14 D3 Sphaerophoria scripta 12 2.99 9.52 D2 Stethorus punctillum 6 1.49 7.14 D3 Synharmonia conglobata 9 2.24 10.71 D1 Syrphus braueri 2 0.49 2.38 D3 Syrphus ribesii 18 4.48 16.66 C C2 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C2 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 W W4 W3 W3 W2 W1 W2 W3 W2 W2 W2 W1 W5 W3 W2 W2 W4 W3 W4 W3 W3 W3 W2 W2 W1 W3

W% 8.66 1.04 1.54 0.29 0.04 0.57 1.07 0.5 0.58 0.29 0.02 10.28 4.5 0.76 0.29 9.16 1.33 5.88 1.42 3.85 1.14 0.42 0.96 0.04 3

45

Elena Feraru and Gheorghe Musta _________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 2 The sinecological analysis of the parasitoids insects. D Parasitoids A A% F% C D4 Aphidius ervi 8 8.16 13.33 C1 D5 Diaeretiella rapae 24 24.48 20 C1 D5 Ephedrus persicae 26 26.53 26.66 C2 D4 Ephedrus plagiator 6 6.12 6.66 C1 D5 Lysiphlebus fabarum 30 30.61 20 C1 D3 Trioxys angelicae 4 4.08 6.66 C1

W% 1.08 4.89 7.07 0.40 6.12 0.27

W W2 W2 W4 W2 W4 W2

46

Table 3 The percentage presentation of the coenotical affinity index Jaccard (q=(c/a+b-c)*100) for the predators insects in the colonies of the aphids from the fruit trees
Specii

1. Adabip 2. Adadec 3. Adovar 4. Calqua 5. Cocsep 6. Exoqua 7. Proqua 8. Scysub 9. Scyfro 10. Stepun 11. Syncon 12. Epibal 13. Paralb 14. Sphscr 15. Syrbra 16. Syrrib 17. Chrcar 18. Chrfor

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 6.25 5.88 9.09 20.45 13.33 15.38 3.22 6.66 6.66 6.06 15.78 3.03 9.67 0 11.11 6.45 3.33 5.88 5.88 6.06 0 0 7.69 7.69 7.69 0 8.33 6.66 0 0 0 0 0 33.33 4.77 0 11.53 6.66 0 0 0 0 7.69 12.5 7.69 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6.25 25 8.33 8.33 0 0 18.18 0 0 10 5.71 5.88 20.83 20.07 20.07 6.66

19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16.66

20 20 5.88 25 5.71 12.5 26.08 23.07 23.07 6.66 0 12 20 5.88 0 4.34 3.84 0

21 22 23 24 25 6.66 6.89 10.71 3.70 3.22 7.69 0 0 0 0 33.33 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 14.28 0 0 10 16.66 0 44.44 0 26.66 50 11.11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14.28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 7.69 13.63 0 0 0 0 0 0 27.27 0 17.64 8.33 10

42.85 23.07 7.69 25 9.09 20 9.06 0 7.27 0 0 0 8.33 0

9.37 12.19 6.45 6.42 3.12 12.5 15.38 2.94 12.90 0 24.24 17.24 10.34 3.70 12.5 7.69 7.69 7.69 6.25 13.04 6.66 14.28 0 10.34 4.16 13.63 8.69 7.69 14.28 12.5 14.28 9.09 9.09 0 0 14.28 16.66 9.06 27.27 8 0 35 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 22.22 18.18 9.06 5.26

3.12 3.22 14.28

7.14 14.28 7.69 7.69

5.26 18.18

13.33 0 21.05 20.07 27.27 11.11 6.66 19.04 9.25 5.55 0 37.5 0 7.14 25 0 40 0 0 20 0 0 14.28 20 18.18 12.5 23.52 7.14 0 0 0

8.33 13.04 0

14.28 9.52 9.52

Specii

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

19. Chrsep 20. Leumel 21. Aphaph 22. Foraur 23. Antnem 24. Antnemo 25. Canliv

20 0

21 0 23.07

22 0 0 0

23 20 7.14 0 0

24 0 0 0 25 0

25 0 0 0 0 10 0

48

Table 4 The evidence of the nourish relations between predators and the aphids from a few fruit trees
Aphids Predators Aphis pomi apple pear tree tree Dysaphis plantaginea apple tree Brachycaudus cardui plum tree peach tree B. helichrysi plum peach tree tree Hyalopterus Myzus cerasi pruni plum tree cherry tree Myzus persicae plum cherry peach tree tree tree Phorodon humuli plum tree

Adalia bipunctata Adalia decimpunctata Adonia variegata Calvia quatuordecimguttata Coccinella septempunctata Exochomus quadripustulatus Propylaea quatuordecimpunctata Scymnus subvillosus Scymnus frontalis Stethorus punctillum Synharmonia conglobata Episyrphus balteatus

* * * * * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * * *

* *

* *

* *

* * *

* *

* *

* * *

* * * * 49 * * * * * * * * * * * *

Aphids Predators

Aphis pomi apple pear tree tree

Dysaphis plantaginea apple tree

Brachycaudus cardui plum tree peach tree

B. helichrysi plum peach tree tree

Hyalopterus Myzus cerasi pruni plum tree cherry tree

Myzus persicae plum cherry peach tree tree tree

Phorodon humuli plum tree

Paragus albifrons Sphaerophoria scripta Syrphus braueri Syrphus ribesii Chrysopa carnea Chrysopa formosa Chrysopa septempunctata Leucopis melanopus Aphidoletes aphidomyza Forficula auricularia Anthocoris nemoralis Anthocoris nemorum Cantharis livida

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

* * * * *

50

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 ________________________________________________________________________________________

RARE, VULNERABLE AND PROTECTED BIRDS FROM THE REPEDEA-BRNOVA AREA THE IAI COUNTY
BY

FELICIA FLOCEA1

Key words: lows, rare birds, conservation, red book. Nowadays, a significant number of animal species are suffering a severe decline, both numerically and as to the surface of the area they occupy.

Introduction The red lists and books represent alarm signals, drawing the attention on the danger to which the species under consideration are exposed, along with evidencing their situation and the main causes of their ecological problems. Material and methods: An official red list of the bird species on the territory of Romania does not exist. In May 1981, Dan Munteanu published a project of such a list, presenting some of the species in danger of extinction, rare species, species in regress, endangered and vulnerable species, on the Romanian territory. Also, lists of the protected bird species occur as appendices to Regulation 103 on the cynegetic fund and game protection (issued September 1996, completed and republished in May 2002). More complete lists of protected bird species have been elaborated as appendices of the urgent ordinance 236 (issued December 2000), on the regime of the protected natural areals, preservation of natural habitats, of the wild flora and fauna, to be completed in the appendices of regulation 462/2001, for the approval of the Ordinance 236/2000, promulgated by Decree 615 from July 2001. A list of the bird species from the avifauna of Romania considered for the European conservation projects (SPEC), elaborated, for Romania, by Dan Munteanu, has been included in the volume entitled Birds in Europe their conservation statutes, issued by BirdLife International. Four SPEC categories are to be mentioned , as follows: - SPEC 1 category globally endangered species, occurring in Europe, which depend on conservation. - SPEC 2 species with populations concentrated in Europe, yet with conservation status unfavorable in Europe.
_______________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Felicia Flocea _________________________________________________________________________________________

- SPEC 3 species whose global populations are not concentrated in Europe, with an unfavorable conservation status in Europe. - SPEC 4 species with global populations concentrated in Europe, with a favorable conservation status in Europe. Conservation of wild fauna and of natural habitats actually represents the topic approached by the Council of Europe, held in Bern, September 1979, on occasion on which lists of same protected (III) and strictly protected (II) birds species for Europe have been drawn. In the year 1994, The International Union for the conservation of Nature and the Natural Resources (IUCN) published the IUCN red list, along with the criterion in force for a certain species inclusion in such lists, starting from the evaluation of the species effectives, on considering the tendencies of their evolution. The table that follows presents the species of birds rare, vulnerable and in danger of extinction from the Repedea Brnova area, Iai, to be found in all the above mentioned lists. Table 1. Species of rare, vulnerable and in danger of extinction birds, in the Repedea Brnova areal Law Law BER No. Species Red list IUCN SPEC 103 236 NA 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Ciconia ciconia Ciconia nigra Aquila chrysaetos Aquila pomarina Buteo buteo Buteo lagopus Pernis apivorus Accipiter gentilis Accipiter nisus Milvus migrans Milvus milvus Circus macrourus Falco tinnunculus Falco subbuteo Falco vespertinus Perdix perdix * * * 312 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 3 3 * 3 4 3 3 4 2 3 3 3 II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II

Rare, vulnerable and protected birds from the Repedea-Brnova area the Iai county _________________________________________________________________________________________

No. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43.

Species Coturnix coturnix Crex crex Gallinula chloropus Vanellus vanellus Scolopax rusticola Columba oenas Columba palumbus Streptopelia decaocto Streptopelia turtur Cuculus canorus Athene noctua Strix aluco Asio otus Strix uralensis Bubo bubo Caprimulgus eur. Alcedo atthis Merops apiaster Coracias garrulus Upupa epops Picus viridis Picus canus Dendrocopos major Dendrocopos syriacus Dendrocopos medius Dendrocopos minor Dendrocopos leucotos

Red list * *

Law 103 *

Law 236 * * * * * * * * * *

IUCN

SPEC 3

BER NA II

3 4 4 III

3 3 4 II II II II 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 4 4 II II II II II II II II II II II II II

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 313

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Felicia Flocea _________________________________________________________________________________________

No. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71.

Species Dryocopus martius Jynx torquilla Galerida cristata Alauda arvensis Lullula arborea Riparia riparia Hirundo rustica Delichon urbica Anthus trivialis Anthus campestris Motacilla flava Motacilla alba Lanius collurio Lanius minor Lanius excubitor Oriolus oriolus Sturnus vulgaris Garrulus glandarius Pica pica Corvus monedula Corvus frugilegus Corvus corone cornix Corvus corax Troglodytes trogl. Prunella modularis Hippolais icterina Sylvia atricapilla Sylvia borin

Red list

Law 103 * * * *

Law 236 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

IUCN

SPEC

BER NA II II

3 3 3 2 3 3

II II II II

* * * * * * * * * *

II II II

3 2 3

II II II II III III III

III III III II

* * * * * * 314

* * * * * * 4 4 4 4 II II II II

Rare, vulnerable and protected birds from the Repedea-Brnova area the Iai county _________________________________________________________________________________________

No. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97.

Species Sylvia communis Sylvia curruca Phylloscopus collybita Phylloscopus sibilatrix Phylloscopus trochilus Regulus regulus Regulus ignicapillus Ficedula hypoleuca Ficedula albicollis Ficedula parva Muscicapa striata Oenante oenante Saxicola rubetra Saxicola torquata Phoenicurus phoen. Phoenicurus ochruros Erithacus rubecula Luscinia luscinia Luscinia megarhynch. Turdus merula Turdus philomelos Turdus viscivorus Turdus pilaris Parus palustris Parus lugubris Parus caeruleus

Red list

Law 103 * * * * * * * * * *

Law 236 * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

IUCN

SPEC 4

BER NA II II II

II II

4 4 4 4 3 4 3 2

II II II II II II II II II II

* * * * * *

* * * * * * *

4 4 4 4 4 4 4

II II II

* * * 315

* * * 4 4

II II II

Felicia Flocea _________________________________________________________________________________________

No. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116.

Species Parus ater Parus major Aegithalos caudatus Sitta europaea Certhia familiaris Passer domesticus Fringilla coelebs Fringilla montifringilla Pyrrhula pyrrhula Coccothraustes cocc. Serinus serinus Carduelis chloris Carduelis spinus Carduelis carduelis Carduelis cannabina Miliaria calandra Emberiza citrinella Calcarius lapponicus Carpodacus erythrinus Total

Red list

Law 103 * * * * * *

Law 236 * * * * * * *

IUCN

SPEC

BER NA II II II II II III

* * * 4 4 4 4 4 4 II II II 2 69 94 II II II II II II

* * * * *

* * * * * * * *

20

84

113

Results and discussions Out of the 117 bird species identified in the Repedea Brnova area, 116 are rare vulnerable or in danger of extinction. The Red List proposed by Dan Munteanu for Romania includes 20 bird species to be found in the Repedea Brnova avifauna (17.09%), grouped into 5 categories, as follows: 316

Rare, vulnerable and protected birds from the Repedea-Brnova area the Iai county _________________________________________________________________________________________

- 2 species in danger of extinction: Aquila chrysaetos occurring irregularly in the area, and Milvus milvus a passage species; - 6 endangered species, having suffered a severe regress in the XXth century, which caused their disappearance in certain regions of our country. These are: Ciconia ciconia, Milvus migrans, Accipiter gentilis, Aquila pomarina, Circus macrourus and Bubo bubo; - 8 species in numerical regress, some of them being enough rare even in the Repedea Brnova areal: Pernis apivorus, Alcedo atthis and Coturnix coturnix, while Hirundo rustica, Falco subbuteo and Falco vespertinus represent more frequent species. - 3 potentially vulnerable species: Ciconia nigra a rare, passage species, Accipiter nisus a sedentary, quite rare species, Dendrocopos leucotos identified only once in the beech forests of Dobrov although it might, be possibly, more numerous. - A species in recovery as a result of its protection, Corvus corax. In the Repedea Brnova avifauna there are present 84 birds species included in the appendices of Regulation 103, as well, that is 71.19% of the total avifauna. The contraventions applied to those disobeying this regulation are unfortunately, quite insignificant and do not succeed in stopping poaching Much more comprehensive is the list of protected birds from the appendices of Regulation 236, in which 113 species from the Repedea Brnova area are to be found (i.e., 96.58%). This list leaves aside only 4 species of our region, namely: Turdus merula, Turdus pilaris, Passer domesticus and Passer montanus. The IUCN red list includes only two bird species, namely: a species depending on conservation Circus macrourus, a passage species for such region, and, respectively, Crex crex, summer guest and, probably, hatching species. From the list of the species considered for the SPEC Conservation Projects in Europe, 69 species (58.97%) are to be met in the Repedea Brnova area, as follows: - a globally protected species (SPEC 1) Crex crex. - 7 species concentrated in Europe, with unfavorable statute (SPEC 2): Ciconia ciconia a numerous, passage species; Caprimulgus europaeus summer guest, nesting, quite frequently; Coracias garrulus rare summer guest; Picus viridis frequent sedentary species; Lullula arborea summer guest noticed at Poieni; Lanius minor summer guest observed only one time, in July 1998, in the Brnova areal, and Phoenicurus phoenicurus frequent summer guest. - 26 species with unfavorable conservation status in Europe, the global population of which are not concentrated on the continent (SPEC 3). Among them, a certain part are sedentary, with reduced effectives: Perdix perdix, Athene noctua, Bubo bubo, or larger effectives: Picus canus and Galerida cristata. Others represent rare summer guests: Aquila pomarina, Milvus migrans, Lanius excubitor, Riparia riparia, Muscicapa stiata, Anthus campestris, or more frequent: Jynx torquilla, Hirundo rustica, Merops apiaster. - 35 species with global populations concentrated in Europe, with a favorable conservation status in Europe (SPEC 4). Among the rare summer guests, mention should 317

Felicia Flocea _________________________________________________________________________________________

be made here of: Pernis apivorus, Milvus milvus, Hippolais icterina, Saxicola rubetra, and passage species: Columba palumbus and Ficedula hypoleuca. The list of protected bird species elaborated by the Council of Europe the Convention of Bern includes 94 species (80.34%), 8 protected (III) and 86 strictly protected (II) species from the Repedea Brnova area. Conclusions Considering the great number of endangered bird species, as well as the decrease in numbers in Europe for the observable species in Repedea Brnova, we consider that this area should be classified as being a protected one.

Bibliography 1. 2. 3. 4. Graham, M. Tucker and Melanie F. Heath et. col., 1994 Birds in Europe, Their Conservation Status, Bird Life International., 1994 Hagemeijer, W., J., M., Blair, M., J., 1997 The EBCC Atlas of European breeding birds: their distribution and abundance, The European Bird Census Council, London, 1997 Heath, Melanie, F., Evans, M.,I., 2000 Priority Sites for Conservation, vol ll, Southern Europe, Bird Life International, London, 2000 1990-2001 Birds The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, London, UK, vol. 13.19

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Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 ________________________________________________________________________________________

ORNITHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS IN CIRIC AREA IAI COUNTY


BY

CARMEN GACHE1

Key words: Ciric, birds, breeding species, human influence. The Ciric area includes three dam lakes and an artificial forest. In the present note, we give information about the avifauna from Ciric area Iai: a taxonomic list, the birds species phenology and breeding status. We notice also some aspects viewing the level of human presence and the influence on the birds populations.

Introduction The Ciric River takes it source from Dealul Ciricului (112 meters altitude); it is about 17 kilometres length and has a surface of 58 km2. It is a tributary river for Bahlui River basin. On this valley, three dam lakes are situated: Ciric I 14 hectares, Ciric II 8 hectares and Ciric III (Veneia) 7 hectares. These dams were achieved in order to forestall the flooding of the eastern part of Iai town and to create a place to pleasure for the inhabitants. In this area, the people come to swim, for sporting fishing and boating. On the slopes, it is present a park-forest about 263 hectares it is a plantation (in order to decrease the gliding risk and to fix the soils) of deciduous trees: Quercus robur, Quercus petraea, Acer platanoides, Acer campestre, Ulmus sp., Tilia sp., Cerasius avium, Malus silvestris and Juglans regia (the last is rare). Near the bank of the water, there are groups of poplars (Populus alba), willows (Salix sp.) and elms (Ulmus sp.). The paludous vegetation covers small areas and is represented by reedbeds Phragmites australis, Phragmites communis, Typha angustifolia and Typha latifolia or small herbs Carex vulpina, Carex nutans, Scirpus lacustris and Juncus gerardi. The meadow and grassland are present on very small areas. The climate is temperate-continental, with an average yearly temperature of 9.3 C. The summers are dry and warm (usually, in July, the temperature is around 36 38 C) and the winters are very cold (could be weeks when the temperature is constantly around 15 17 C below zero). The rainfalls average yearly value is about 517 millimetres. The dominant winds are from the north western, south and north direction. There does not exist any study focused on the birds species situation in Ciric area. We notice that information about the avifauna of Ciric area appears especially in
____________________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Carmen Gache _________________________________________________________________________________________

the works of C. V. Mndru and A. Papadopol (2, 5, 6) and in the monographic study about the Prut River basin avifauna published by Carmen Gache (1). Methods of study Our field observations began in 1992 and covers all the phenological periods. We used the method of transects and different counting methods, according to the birds species points of counting (especially during the breeding period), circles counting (for passerines) or night counting (for owls). Transects were established during our first visits and we kept them during the whole study. The principal transects were choised in forest on a distance about 1.5 km, on two parallel lines with the western and eastern shores of the lakes Ciric I - Ciric II; for the lakes Ciric I and Ciric II, the transects follow the whole perimeter; for Ciric III lake, the transect covers the western shore. We used also the ringing method, especially for passerines . Results and discussions During the years, we identified in Ciric area 80 birds species (table 1), 52 being breeding species (65%) and another 7 probably breeding species (figure 1). It is obviously that this great number of the breeding species it is possible because the birds can find habitats for nesting. Must of the breeding species are forest birds species (especially passerine species). We do not know if there exist any really correlation but we noticed, especially during the last two springs, that at the beginning of the breeding season the birds seem to divide their distribution areas. In forest, on the eastern slope, the Turdidae and Sylviidae families species are dominant, than on the western slope the Fringillidae familys species are more numerously. We suppose also that two woodpeckers species are probably breeding species Picus canus and Dendrocopos medius because they are present all the year in this territory and we heard their mating calling in spring, especially in the north eastern part of the forest. Between the breeding species, is present the Hobby (Falco subbuteo) which began nesting on the high buildings from Iai in the last three four years and was seen frequently search for him food in Ciric area. The pairs number is small in the territories around the lakes but it is increasing if we are going far away, especially on the eastern slope. This part of the Ciric forest is more peaceful then the rest because there is present only the way to the Iais town airport, so the human presence is no so great like near the lakes.

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Ornithological observations in Ciric area Iasi county _________________________________________________________________________________________

B PB NB

Figure no 1. Breeding status of the birds species identified in Ciric area (Iai): B breeding species, PB probably breeding species, NB non-breeding species. We must point out the fact that only 15 species are typically for the wetlands. The explanation for this very small number of aquatic or semi-aquatic birds consists in the scarcity of the paludous vegetation. The birds need reedbeds or hydrophyle vegetation in order to build their nests and to hide them in dangerous situation. By the other hand, the human pressure is very high. First, very close to lakes are present a lot of buildings and summer gardens where the Iais inhabitants come to recreate them. There is present a large number of sporting fishing men, especially during the warm season, despite the fishes present in the lakes waters are small and without economical importance. Sometimes, especially on the surface of Ciric I lake, it is possible to meet people which are coming to boating. The aquatic and semi aquatic birds species are present only in passage and in very small groups. For this reason we must notice the presence of the Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) like breeding species this bird species recorded a declining trend and has an unfavorable conservation status in Europe. Also like breeding species appear: Gallinula chloropus (sometimes with two breeding periods), Fulica atra (irregular breeding) and reedbeds passerines (Acrocephalus arundinaceus, A.scirpaceus and Emberiza schoeniclus). Between the probably breeding species are two birds that are living close to water: Larus ridibundus and Alcedo atthis. We did not find the nests of these birds but we saw the both during the breeding season and we saw also juvenile flying birds. Maybe these species are breeding in other side and the birds are coming only to nourishing here. If we regard the birds phenological status (figure 2), the summer visitors are dominant (56.25%), following by the sedentary (22.50%) and passage species (18.75%).

345

Carmen Gache _________________________________________________________________________________________

birds species number 50 40 30 20 10 0 SW WV S P

Figure no 2. The phenology status of the birds species identified in Ciric Area (Iai): SW summer visitors, WV winter or rare winter visitor, S sedentary species, P passage species. During the winter, there are present large groups of Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) during the 2003s winter, 16 exemplars were living close to the buildings from the eastern shore of Ciric II accumulation and in 2004, we found a group of 28 exemplars in the same area. Sometimes, the inhabitants try to drive away the Long-eared Owls and in the 2002s winter, it was necessary to call the authorities (Environmental Protection Agency) in order to confiscate one arm and ammunition from a hunter despite the owls are under the protection of the hunting Romanian law. The differences between the Ciric area and Romania birds phenology are not significantly. As we see in the table 1, the aquatic birds and the raptors species appear only in passage because the Ciric areas conditions are not favorable for these species. The birds species number identified in the Ciric area (Iai) is small because the wetland s habitat is not so representative, so the aquatic and semi-aquatic birds are present only in passage, in spring or in autumn. The most of the forest birds species, which are representative for the Ciric area avifauna, are present with small populations. The human pressure is high, influencing the breeding species presence and the breeding pairs numbers, especially close to the lakes shores. We are not thinking that during the next years this situation will become more favourable for birds.

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Ornithological observations in Ciric area Iasi county _________________________________________________________________________________________

Table no. 1 Birds species identified in Ciric area Iai: phenology and breeding status No. Species Ciric Romania Breeding phenology phenology species 1. Ixobrychus minutes SV SV B 2. Ardea cinerea SV SV, RW 3. Ciconia ciconia P SV 4. Cygnus olor P, SV PM 5. Anas platyrhynchos P PM, WV 6. Anas crecca P P, WV, SV 7. Buteo buteo P PM 8. Falco tinnunculus P PM 9. Falco subbuteo SV SV B 10. Gallinula chloropus SV SV B 11. Fulica atra P PM 12. Larus ridibundus SV PM B? 13. Larus argentatus cachinans SV S 14. Streptopelia decaocto S S B 15. Cuculus canorus SV SV B 16. Athene noctua S S B 17. Asio otus WV S 18. Apus apus SV SV B 19. Alcedo atthis SV PM B? 20. Upupa epops SV SV B 21. Jynx torquilla SV SV B 22. Picus canus SV S B? 23. Picus viridis S S B 24. Dendrocopos major S S B 25. Dendrocopos syriacus S S B 26. Dendrocopos medius S S B? 27. Dendrocopos minor SV SV B 28. Galerida cristata S S B 29. Alauda arvensis SV PM B 30. Riparia riparia SV SV B 31. Hirundo rustica SV SV B 32. Delichon urbica SV SV B 33. Motacilla flava SV SV B 34. Motacilla alba SV SV B 35. Troglodytes troglodytes SV, RW SV, RW B 36. Erithacus rubecula SV SV B 37. Luscinia luscinia SV SV B 347

Carmen Gache _________________________________________________________________________________________

No. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75.

Species Phoenicurus ochruros Phoenicurus phoenicurus Saxicola rubetra Oenanthe oenanthe Turdus pilaris Turdus philomelos Turdus merula Acrocephalus schoenobaenus Acrocephalus scirpaceus Acrocephalus arundinaceus Hippolais icterina Sylvia curruca Sylvia borin Sylvia atricapilla Phylloscopus collybita Regulus regulus Parus palustris Parus caeruleus Parus major Aegithalos caudatus Sitta europaea Certhia familiaris Oriolus oriolus Lanius collurio Garrulus glandarius Pica pica Corvus corax Corvus monedula Corvus frugilegus Corvus corone cornix Sturnus vulgaris Passer domesticus Passer montanus Fringilla coelebs Fringilla montifringilla Serinus serinus Carduelis chloris Carduelis carduelis

Ciric phenology SV SV SV SV WV SV SV SV SV SV SV SV SV SV SV P P S S P P, SV P SV SV S S P S S S SV, RW S S SV P P SV S 348

Romania phenology SV SV SV SV PM, WV SV PM SV SV SV SV SV SV SV SV SV SV S S S S S SV SV S S S S S S PM S S PM WV SV S S

Breeding species B B? B B B B B? B B B B B B B B? B B B B B B B B B B B B B

Ornithological observations in Ciric area Iasi county _________________________________________________________________________________________

No. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80.

Species Pyrrhula pyrrhula Coccothraustes occothraustes Emberiza citrinella Emberiza schoeniclus Miliaria calandra

Ciric phenology WV SV S SV SV

Romania phenology S S S PM PM

Breeding species B B B B

Explanations: P bird species in passage, WV winter visitors, RW rare winter visitors, SV summer visitors, S sedentary species, PM partial migratory species, B breeding species, B? probably breeding species

References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Gache, Carmen, 2002 - The bird faunas dynamics in the Prut River basin, Publ. R.O.S., 15, Cluj-Napoca Mndru, C.V., 1958 - Stud.Cerc.St. biol., st.agric., IX, 1: 97 103, Bucureti Mititelu, D., Vialariu, Gh., 1967 - An. St. Univ. Al. I. Cuza Iai, s. II.a, XIII, 1: 131 135 Munteanu, D., 2001 Dicionar poliglot al speciilor de psri din Romnia, ed. a II- a, Publ. S.O.R., 14, Cluj Napoca Papadopol, A., 1965 - Com.Zool., : 159 181, Bucuresti Papadopol, A., Mndru, C.V., 1967 - Com.Zool.: 89 126, Bucureti

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Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 ________________________________________________________________________________________

ACTUAL STATUS OF THE CORNCRAKE (CREX CREX) IN THE NORTHEASTERN PART OF ROMANIA
BY

CARMEN GACHE1, S. TRELEA2

Key words: corncrake (Crex crex), habitat, populations trend The corncrake (Crex crex) is a globally threatened bird; the information about the real situation of corncrake in Romania were not sure before the year 1997 when the Romanian Ornithological Society organised a national survey for this species. The estimated population of corncrake in Romania is about 20000 22000 males (pairs). This is the first special study regarding this bird species realised in the north - eastern part of Romania. We give here information about the birds distribution, the habitats and the trend of population, based on our observations beginning from 1997.

Introduction The corncrake (Crex crex) is a globally threatened bird species; in the Western Europe, the corncrake populations are very small (France, United Kingdom) or are near disappeared (Spain, Switzerland). In France, the corncrakes population decreased with 40% during only 8 years. The principal reasons of this dramatically decrease are the loss of suitable habitat (humid meadows and wetlands) and the earlier mechanisation mowing (destroy the nests and kill the chicken, too young to fly and escape in the nearest territories). The information about the actual situation of corncrake in Romania was not enough because it does not exist one study especially for this species. In 1997, the Romanian Ornithological Society organised a national census of the corncrakes population, with the financial support of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) from the United Kingdom. In this project, thirty-nine volunteers worked; we tried to cover the most part of our country, but, unfortunately, the volunteers number was not enough in the southern part of Romania. This program had three important aims: to estimate the Romanian corncrakes population; to identify the suitable habitats in our country; to achieve the distribution of the corncrake on the Romanian map. There were organised field observations in May and June 1997, using the standard field counting methods. The volunteers visited 69 study areas (5 x 5 km2, selected in the U.T.M. system); the corncrake was found in 59 areas: from these, in 46 areas, the
______________________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai 2 Bucovina Rdui Center of Studies

Carmen Gache and S. Trelea _________________________________________________________________________________________

corncrake was present in May and June, in 5 areas was counted only in May and in one study area was found only in June. The Romanian corncrakes population was estimated between 10000 20000 pairs (2). Meadows, hay fields and grassland represent the suitable habitat (3). The corncrake was present in very different habitats, but the maximum of abundance was in those territories where the vegetation was a mosaic of meadows, grassland and cereals cultivated band (wheat, barley). We did not find the corncrake on large surfaces with suitable habitats and, sometimes, these areas without corncrakes are nearly to territories where this species are breeding (1). In the Danube Delta, the corncrake was present also in areas cultivated with potatoes (PK59 and PK28, D. Hulea, 1997) unusually habitat for corncrake, Further studies (D. Munteanu, 1998, F. Feneru, 1998 - 1999) found this species in the mountain meadows also. In fact, the corncrake distribution is point-like and lineal following the riverine meadows. Methods of study The corncrake (Crex crex) counting use the males calling is a dissyllabic sound which is more strongly during the night (between 23 h 03 h). In June, the males call during the day also. The climatic conditions influence calling activity it is reduced in the windy nights. We did nocturnal field trip to estimate the corncrake breeding populations; the nocturnal counting give very good results because the corncrake males are territorial birds. We did, also, day - time field trip to identify the suitable habitat and to observe the corncrakes biology. Our field observations began in 1995 and we covered different areas in the north eastern of Romania (Suceava county, Botoani, Iai). The field trips were organised between 10 15 May and 25 June. We visited the next areas (in U.T.M. system, we give a localitys name for each area): MN19 (Rdui), MP10 (Mneui), MP00 (Glneti), MP20 (Dorneti), LP90 (Putna), LN86 (Cmpulung Moldovenesc), MP84 (RduiPrut), MP83 (Viioara), MP63 (Hudeti), MP92 (Ichimeni), MP80 (Hneti), NN09 (Dngeni), NN19 (Stnca), NN25 (Vldeni), NN34 (ignai), NN03 (Belceti), NN52 (Holboca), NN11 (Osoi), NN60 (Costuleni), NM89 (Gorban). Results and discussions The corncrake male (Crex crex) was identified in the breeding season in different investigated areas: Rdui (Suceava), Dorneti, Mneui, Glneti, Cmpulung Moldovenesc, Rediu, Rdui-Prut, Stnca-tefneti, Gorban, Miorcani, Viioara, Ichimeni, Calu Alb Havrna, Dngeni, Hlceni, Vldeni, Bora, Larga Jijia, TignaiVntori, Bosia, Chicerea, Osoi, Costuleni, Belceti-Tansa. Usually, the males counted number was more great in May that in June. This is possible because part of birds go away to others territories (in May the corncrake is in the migration period) or because the climatic conditions were unfavourable (in 1997 and 338

Actual status of the corncrake (Crex crex) (...) _________________________________________________________________________________________

1999, in some villages, we did not cover the all counting points because part of the roads were covered by the rainfalls in June). In May, the males conquer the breeding territories, so, part of them will go in the nearest areas. We observed a change of place from the cereals fields to the meadows and grasslands. Exceptionally, we found the same males number in May and June (in 1997, we counted six corncrake males in the area MP20) or a biggest number in June than in May (in 1997, in May, three males were present in the area MP92 and in June we found for males). We saw that the corncrake has a high fidelity for the breeding territory and the changes of place are very short no more than 300 m; this fact give a great accuracy to corncrake s census. Only few times we met more large changes of place for example, between 8 - 12.06.2001, a male go away on a distance about 500 m along the Sucevia Rivers meadow, without any visible reason. In the visited areas, the corncrake (Crex crex) was present in areas covered with suitable habitat (humid meadows and grasslands, dry meadows and grasslands, cereals fields), but in unusually habitats, also. In 1999, between 8 16 Mai, we listened daily two males, with a very strong calling activity, in the racecourse perimeter from Rdui. In 2001, we counted one male during the whole breeding season in a potatoes field, in the south eastern part of Ochiuri pounds; in 2003, we found once again the corncrake in an cultivated area with potatoes, maize and wheat, following the Sucevia Rivers meadow (three males in May and only one in June). Also an exception is the presence of three males in June 2002, in a meadow forest with high herbs between the trees, in the MP20 area we are thinking that, in May, these birds were present in a nearest dry meadow (the distance is around 500 m). In some visited areas MP80, NN03 and NN52 the suitable habitat covers more or less large surfaces, but the corncrake is absent. In the areas NN03 and NN52, the corncrake absence is due the small suitable habitat surfaces, but in the area MP80, the humid grassland is very large on the tail of Hneti Lake. In some areas, the small number of the corncrakes males is due to the point like distribution of the suitable habitats in the areas MP92 and NN25, there are only very small surfaces of humid meadows and grasslands. In other areas, the territories with good habitats where we did not found the corncrake are adjacently occupied territories. We are thinking that the intensive grazzing is a possible reason for this absence, because there the corncrakes habitat was humid grassland and dry meadows. We cannot exclude, also, like stress factor the great number of turned wild cats and dogs, which could eat the corncrakes eggs and kill the juveniles. The changing of habitat forces the birds to look for new breeding territories. For example in the area MP20, the counted number of corncrake males decrease constantly from the studys beginning. In 1997, we found six males on a surface about 1,5 km2 covered by dry meadows, with high herbs (25 30 cm); in 1999, on the same surface, we counted only three males. In May 2002, a middle part of this area was plough and we saw three turned wild cats there; on 12th 13th May, we listened four males with very 339

Carmen Gache and S. Trelea _________________________________________________________________________________________

strong calls, including during the day (on 12th May, at 12h05 oclock). On 20th May, we identified only two males at 300 m distance from initial territory and in June, we found three males, but one humid meadow, between the trees of a riverine forest. We are thinking that those were the same birds, which change slowly the place, searching suitable and safety territories. In 2003, the ploughed area was extending to 23 hectares and we listened two corncrake males in a small nearest territory with humid meadow. The biggest corncrakes effectives were recording in the areas where the habitat was a mosaic of meadows, grasslands and cereals fields (wheat, barley, oat and rye) and which were situate on the riverine meadows, on humid territories, frequently near swampy or floodable areas. In 1997, we counted a very big number of corncrake males in two areas with different aspect. The biggest number was finding in the area NN09, on the floodable Jijia Rivers valley, in a swampy region. There, 17 males were counting in May, on a surface of 780 de hectares covered with bands of humid meadow and wheat fields. In June, we listened only 12 males, but this decreasing could be apparently because the access on the villages roads was reducing due the abundant and prolonged rainfalls. In the second area, MP83, we found a more high density despite the presence of a more small number of birds. In May, we listened 14 males: nine males were counted on a humid meadow with a surface of 105 hectares, another four males were present on a surface of 5 hectares, covered by humid grassland and one male was singing in wheat field of 50 hectares. In June, we recorded only 10 males (in the humid meadow we found five males, the others numbers remaining the same). We cannot see often the corncrake (Crex crex) but not because this birds is really a rare species. The corncrake has a hidden life and a cryptic plumage, which give it a very good camouflage in its suitable habitats. We saw the corncrake only two times belong our studies. A first observation is from the autumn migration period (15.10.1995) two birds were flying just at 8 10 m, in front of us, from the small herbs of the humid grassland on the tail of Belceti-Tansa Lake. The second observation is from June 2001, when we heard the corncrake male calling in a humid meadow, near the Cmpulung Moldovenesc town. The male permit us to approach at 5 m, when he took it flying. The bird goes down at 45 m distance and, going through the herbs, come back in 15 20 minutes and began his calling. We disturb once again the male and he was flying to 20 m distance. We can saw his approaching through the herbs to the initial point, but the birds did not call again. Our studies pointed out the lineal and point like distribution of the corncrake in this part of Romania, following also the riverine meadows. It is obviously that the corncrake (Crex crex) has a negative trend of its population, with a slowly decrease belong the years. In this moment, this species is not in a immediately dangerous in Romania. If we take care about the dramatically regress in the Western Europe, it is usefully to protect the corncrake (Crex crex) now and no more late.

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References 1. 2.
3.

Carmen, Gache and colab., 1997 Corncrake survey of Romania, Final report, Romanian Ornithological Society, Cluj Napoca Munteanu, D. & colab., 2002 Atlas of Romanian Breeding Birds, 2nd edition, Publ. S.O.R., nr. 16, Cluj Napoca * , 1996 Globally threatened birds in Europe: Action plans, Council of * * Europe Publishing, Germany, p. 205 244

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STRUCTURAL MODIFICATIONS OF THE SHEEP LIVER PARENCHYMA IN FLUKE INFESTATION


BY

DIANA GHEEU1, ANCA NEAGU1, GIANINA COMNESCU1

Keywords: Fasciola hepatica L. 1758, helminthoma, hepatocirrosis, hemorrhagia, fibrosis A light microscopical examination was made of the liver tissues n fluke infestation (Fasciola hepatica) at sheep. The microscopic examination revealed the multiple modifications of hepatic tissues in acute and chronic invasion: hemorrhage, vacuolation, necrobiosis of hepatocits and replacing newly formed connective tissue; the chronic form leads to hepatocirros.

Introduction Sheep and other fluke receptive species almost permanently and concomitantly have numerous species of parasites of which pathogenic action compete at the economic losses (Olteanu, 1973). The cosmopolitan presence of intermediate hosts in their different types of biotops explain the permanent possibilities of flukes infestation in goats, sheep, cattle, small and bigger mammals including human being; a well known epidemic episode has been registrated in France, region of Lyon between 1956 1958 (Olteanu,1996). In Romania the first infestation in human being was observed by Nicolae Leon in 1908 (Olteanu, 1996). The pathogenic action of Fasciola hepatica begins with the ingestion of encysted metacercaria (the stage preceding the adult) with vegetation or freshwater (Dulceanu, 1982). The diagnosis can be made on the gall bladder and bile duct (Olteanu, 1973; Lee,1992) where adult flukes may be observed in chronic invasion (Olteanu,1973). Hemorrhagic (small red) points on Glissons capsule indicate an acute invasion (the perforation made by young flukes penetrating this capsule) (Dulceanu, 1996; Olteanu, 1973 et al.). Materials and Methods The pieces of liver with flukes were fixed for light microscopy in 10 % formaldehyde and Bouin mixture, dehydrated in ethanol and amylic alcohol, embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 5 microns. They were stained with hemalaun-eosine and examined with a NOVEX microscope and photographed with a Canon EOS 1V.
____________________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Diana Gheteu and all. _________________________________________________________________________________________

Results and Discussions The helminthoma reveals the liver fluke fixed with the oral sucker in the lumen of the biliary radicle: we can see the destruction of the radicle cubical cells (Fig. 1). The internal part of the helminthoma has white blood cells, nearby, collagen fibers, indicating an older lesion (Paul, 1982); the external zone is limited by a fibrillary area (Fig. 1.a) detailed in Fig. 2, where we can see a massive fibrosis, the result of isolation reaction of the host (Paul, 2001). A massive lymphatic infiltration, as a defense reaction (Paul, 2001) to a foreign body of parasitic provenience can be seen in Fig. 3. The parasitic granuloma is immunitary granuloma (Crespeanu, 1992). Young flukes migrate through the digestive walls to the liver, penetrate Glissons capsule. Its target is biliary radicles. They can also locate in the lungs (Paul, 2001) and other organs of the host. The prints of the migration through the liver tissue are marked by destruction of the normal architecture of the liver lobules. The spines prints (Fig. 4.a) indicate a recent location of the fluke which produced a massive hemorrhage (Fig.4.b) and destruction of the tissue. We can see also a regeneration center limited by connective tissue (Fig. 4.c) nearby vacuolization of cells, first reversible lesion of an aggressed cell (Teleman and others, 1998) that are increased their volume - binucleate hepatocites (Fig. 4). Some cells near the path of the fluke have increased their metabolism and their hepatin use, so, in HE coloring the liver tissue aspect become similar to a sponge. The cells membrane become more permeable to serum albumin and globulin that will go into the mitochondria so the cytoplasm of the liver cells become granular (Paul, 1987). After that they enter in necrosis (Fig. 5). In chronic infestation with flukes the general result is hepatocirrosis from which a microscopic aspect (Fig. 6) reveals the disorganized limit of lobule (Fig. 6.a), newly formed blood vessels (Fig. 6...b) and connective replacing all ill areas (Fig. 6.c). Usually a new (acute) infestation upon the chronic disease (us we discovered in our cases) leads to the death of the animals (Olteanu, 1973). Conclusions In their migrations, young flukes destroy the tissues they met with their spines, causing massive hemorrhage. The destructed vessels are immediately replaced but the hepatocits are increasing their metabolism, become vacuolated and finally enter in necrobiosis because of the hipotrophia. The architecture of normal lobule is changed, newly formed connective tissue replace the destructed areas and the final results can be the hepatocirrosis. Regeneration of small liver affected territories is possible after the acute faze of fasciolosis. In the case of helminthoma, the result of host-parasite relationship, if the parasite is fixed in the gallbladder, can obstruct it. The helminthoma indicate a chronic invasion. 358

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References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Dulceanu, N.,1986 - Parazitozele animalelor de ferma, Ed. Ceres. Bucureti, Dulceanu, N., Lungu V., 1982 - Patologia i clinica bolilor parazitare medicalveterinare , Ed. Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti Crespeanu, F., 1992 - Rev. Med. Vet, 168 Lee, C., Zimmerman, G .L., 1982 - Am.J.Vet. Res., 53/1992 Niulescu, V., Gherman, I., Feldioreanu, T., 1964 - Parazitologie clinic, Ed. Medical, Bucureti Olteanu, Gh., 1973 - Fascioloza, Ed. Ceres, Bucureti Olteanu, Gheorghe, 1996 - Parazitozoonoze,. Ed Viaa medical romneasc, Bucureti Paul, Ioan,1987 - Curs de anatomie patologic, Ed. Inst. Agronomic - Iai Paul, Ioan, 2001 - Etiomorfopatologie veterinar, vol. III, Ed. Inst. Agronomic - Iai Paul, Ioan, 1982 - Diagnosticul morfopatologic veterinar, Ed. Ceres, Bucureti Teleman,, S., Butcovan, D., Vasile-Pandrea I., Plmdeal, P., 1999 Morfopatologie Lucrari practice, Ed. Sperana, Iai

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Fig. 1. Helminthoma with Fasciola hepatica: it can be observed the destruction of cubical cells of the radicle, a) fibrosis (3,3X4) HE

Fig. 2. Fibrosis - detail (3,3X100) HE

Fig. 3. A massive lymphatic infiltration, as a defense reaction to a foreign body of parasitic provenience (3,3X10) HE 360

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Fig. 4. Modifications liver structure: a) prints of the spines, b) hemorrhage, c) connective tissue limiting a regeneration center, nearby, the vacuolization of hepatocites (3,3X40) HE

Fig. 5. Vacuolation and necrobiosis of hepatocits (3,3X100) HE

Fig. 6. Hepatocirrosis: a) limit of destructed lobule, b) blood vessel, c) newly formed connective tissue replacing ill areas (3,3X10) HE 361

Diana Gheteu and all. _________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig. 7. Helminthoma with Fasciola hepatica - cross section (10), HE

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MORPHOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF LIVER PARASITE TREMATODES IN SHEEP


BY

DIANA GHEEU1, ANCA NEAGU1, GIANINA COMNESCU1

Keywords: Fasciola hepatica L. 1758, intestine diverticula, uterus, eggs, shell gland, helminthoma A light microscopical examination was made of the liver tissues n fluke infestation (Fasciola hepatica) in sheep. We oberved orientation and details from the ovary and the uterus, essential for the determination of the parasite, yolk glands (indicating mature individuals), shell gland, irregular shapes of the eggs in the uterus, the parenchyma. We took liver samples from adult sheep (between one and four years old), forced sacrifices in the abatory of Valea Adnc. The provenience of these sheep is around the city of Jassy of Romania. For the condition of this geographic area the literature provides the existence of Fasciola hepatica L.,1758 and Dicrocoelium lanceolatum together (Olteanu,1973). At the time of our research, October 2002 -June 2003, we determined only Fasciola hepatica.

Introduction The first description of the liver fluke was made by Jehan de Brie in 1379. In Romania the first infestation in human was observed by Nicolae Leon in 1908 (Olteanu, 1996). The favorable environment factors for fluke infestation were studied by C. B. Ollerenshau (Olteanu, 1993). In Romania the first infestation in human was observed by Nicolae Leon in 1908 (Olteanu, 1973) who studied also the copulation and Laurers canal importance (Leon, 1927). Important studies on the fasciolosis impact in Romania were written by Gh. Olteanu who discovered the first case of infestation with Fasciola gigantica Cubbold 1855, other agent of fasciolosis in Romania (Olteanu, 1973). There are numerous methods for coproovoscopic diagnosis (investigation during the life of animals) but they are used with immune-biological diagnosis (sometime false positive) (Olteanu, 1973). The diagnosis of the parasite presence in a geographic area needs the investigation method after the death of parasited mammals (Dulceanu, 1996, One, 1998 and others). Materials and Methods The pieces of liver with flukes were fixed for light microscopy in 10 % formaldehyde and Bouin mixture, dehydrated in ethanol and amylic alcohol, embedded
____________________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Diana Gheeu and all. _________________________________________________________________________________________

in paraffin and sectioned at 5 microns. They were stained with hemalaun-eosine and examined with a NOVEX microscope and photographed with a Canon EOS 1V. Results and Discussions The longitudinal (Fig.1) and cross sections (Fig. 2) revealed dorsoventrally flattened Trematodes (flukes). In these sections we were able to locate the spines buried in the tegument. The tegument of Fasciola hepatica and other flukes has been studied at electronic microscope by Threadgold and Burton (1963), Lee quoted by Cheng (1974) who found mitochondria in the cuticle and that is why they considered the cuticle part of the tegument as a living structure proving a high metabolic zone. Below the tegument we found longitudinal and also circular muscle layer (Fig 3.c) passing through the parenchyma (Fig.3.d). Details from longitudinal section reveals the oral sucker (fig.4.a), the pharynx (4.b) and the acetabulum (a large ventral sucker, without any pore, fixing the worm) with their longitudinal and circular muscle (Fig.5). Observing the biramus intestine (intestinal ceca) (Grass, 1961, Wallace, 1997 and others) and intestine diverticula (Fig. 2.d) we found one layer of intestinal cells (Fig.6) as the literature provides (Dawes, 1968, quoted by Cheng 1974) On the right side of the fluke, in its superior half lies the branched ovary; a detail (Fig. 8) reveals an ovary diverticula with germinative epithelial cells. The longitudinal section also reveals the uterus (Fig.1, Fig.7) and the branched ovary of which we provided a detail (Fig. 9). The highly branched testes are in the second half of the worm (Radu, 1958, Olteanu, 1973, Wallace, One, 1988, and others). In the cross section we also observed the yolk gland (vitellaria) (Fig. 2, Fig 8) all along both lateral sides of the worm. We observed the spines and the cuticle on the epithelial cells layer and eggs showing the terminal part of the uterus approaching the genital papilla with the genital pore. Around the ootip (genital intersection- the place of the fecundation of eggs) (Leon, 1927, Radu, 1958 and others) the section reveals the shell (Mehlis) gland. So, the eggs we can see in the ovary must be matures. Fasciola eliminates not embryonate eggs. The embryo develops outside the body of the worm and the host (Radu, 1957, Olteanu, 1973, Dulceanu, 1982, and others). The mature eggs of Fasciola hepatica have operculum, thin shell, granular yellowish-brown contents that fills the whole egg, no blastemeres. They are large worm eggs (130 145 m in leight, 70 - 90 m in width), a nearly regular ellipse and nearly similar poles, symmetrical, strongly barrel-shaped sidewalls. The fertilized egg is surrounded by a great mass of yolk cells (Thienpont, 1986). On longitudinal section passed through the uterus and genital intersection revealed irregular shapes (Fig. 8) of what we considered immature eggs seeing their location (Fig. 1.e, Fig. 7). 352

Morphological and structural aspects of liver parasite Trematodes in sheep _________________________________________________________________________________________

Conclusions: In our samples of liver histologically processed and stained HE we were able to identify some aspects of internal structure in liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica). We have identified mature individuals of Fasciola hepatica in biliary radicles of which longitudinal and cross section we provided to observe: the cuticle, the spines of tegument with their typical shape; the disposition of the ovary in the front part of the fluke and by the presence of the testis in the second half (both sides of the fluke body) and the presence of yolk glands have indicated only mature individuals. The result of host-parasite relationship is, in chronic fasciolosis, the helminthoma, the host isolating the fluke by fibrosis, trying unsuccessfully to reduce the hemorrhage and toxic actions of the parasite (Niulescu, 1964, Paul,1987, end others).

Fig. 1. Helminthoma longitudinal section with Fasciola hepatica fixed in a biliar radicle; a)oral sucker, b) acetabulum (ventral sucker), c) pharynx, d) uterus, f) shell gland

Fig. 2. Cross section through Fasciola hepatica: a) cuticle covering the spines, b) parenchyma, c) vitellaria, d) intestine diverticula, e) hemorrhage, f) spines (3,3 X 40) 353

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Fig. 3. Detail from longitudinal section presenting: a) spines, b) cuticle, c) muscle layer, d) parenchyma (3,3 X 100) HE

Fig. 4. Detail presenting the oral sucker and the pharynx (3,3X60) HE

Fig. 5. Detail with ventral sucker (3,3X60) HE

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Fig. 6. Detail from intestinal diverticle (3,3X100)

Fig. 7. Uterus with eggs (3,3X40) HE

Fig. 8. Detail with eggs with irregular shapes from uterus (3,3X100) HE

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Fig. 9. Detail from ovary with irregular shaped eggs (3,3x100) HE References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Cheng, Th. C., 1974 - General parasitology, Academic Press, N.Y, U.S.A. Dulceanu, N., 1986 - Parazitozele animalelor de ferm, Ed. Ceres, Bucureti Dulceanu, N., Lungu, V., 1982 - Patologia i clinica bolilor parazitare medical-veterinare , Ed. Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti Grass, Pierre-P., 1961 - Zoologie, I - Invertbrs, Masson et Cie diteurs 120, Paris Leon, N., 1927 - Annales de Parasitologie humain et compare - Extrait, Tome V, N 3, Julliet Niulescu, V., Gherman, I., Feldioreanu, T., 1964 - Parazitologie clinic, Ed. Medical, Bucureti Olteanu Gh., 1973 - Fascioloza, Ed. Ceres, Bucureti One, V., One, I., 1998 - Ghid de diagnostic n bolile parazitare la animalele de ferm, Ed. Ceres, Bucureti Paul, Ioan, 1987 - Curs de anatomie patologic, Ed. Inst. Agronomic, Iai Radu, V.V., Radu, Gh., 1958 - Zoologia nevertebratelor, vol. I, Bucureti Thienpont, D., Rochette, F., 1986 - Diagnosing helminthiasis by coprological examination, Ed. Janssen Research Foundation, Beerse, Belgia Wallace, R.l., Taylor, W.K., 1997 - Invertebrate zoology - A Laboratory Manual, Pretince Hall Inc., N.Y.

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THE USE OF BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS IN THE EVALUATION OF IASI WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT PERFORMANCES
BY

LUMINIA ICONOMU1, IOANA REDINCIUC2

Key words: biological purification, bio-indicators, activated sludge, plant performance Besides other environmental factors, water is of major importance both to human society and to biological diversity, currently in retrogression. The alarm signal is due not so much to the physical exhaustion of water as to its pollution. In this context, an increased exigency regarding the protection of the natural water system through prevention of pollution is imperious. Such exigency must be also transposed to the quality control of the process of waste water purification. It is well known the fact that treated waste waters - effluents of treatment stations - finally reach the natural water system - through emissaries. The purification process should be therefore rigorously controlled and made efficient. The current paper refers to the biological monitoring (through the use of protozoa as bio-indicators) of the quality of active sludge and of the effectiveness of the biological treatment process in the Wastewater Treatment Plant of the Iasi City. At the same time, we propose some ways to improve the biological purification process, with the objective of an advanced reduction of organic matter and ammonium in waste waters, so as to obtain an effluent with an advanced purification degree and therefore with a lower potential impact on environment.

Introduction Water, that for a long time has been considered sufficient and whose existence has been given for granted, may become a limitation factor of the economic development in the future decades. The raising pressure is currently due to the extension of pollution, the exhaustion of some underground reserves, the lowering of subsoil water level and the decline of aquatic ecosystems. The danger is due not so much to the physical exhaustion of the water, but to its pollution, phenomenon primarily caused by the antropic impact. We refer both to pollution caused by industry, agriculture, domestic activities, and to the insufficient purification of waste waters, finally released into emissaries. Pollution of water basins has ever worse repercussions on hydrobionts and in many countries biodiversity is passing through a strong retrogression process. Many species have disappeared and many more are in danger of extinction. [1] The juridical system that comes to support water protection in our country includes the Water Law 107/1996 and the Government Decree HG 188 of March 2002. The letter establishes the conditions for the release of waste waters into the aquatic
___________________________________ 1 DAP of Iai 2 R.A.J.A.C. of Iai

Luminia Iconomu and Ioana Redinciuc _________________________________________________________________________________________

environment and approves the NTPA 011, NTPA 002 and NTPA001 norms, based upon the European norms. At European level, mention should be made of the 1997 promoted Framework Directive whose environmental objective is to reach a good status for all underground and surface waters within 2010. In this context, besides other measures, an increase in exigency is indispensable with regard to the quality of the waters released into emissaries by the wastewater treatment plants, exigency transposed into an increase of the effectiveness of the purification process, which requires a rigorous analytical physical-chemical and biological control. The current paper refers on one side to the biological control of the purification process with activated sludge and, on the other, to its use in the amelioration of the biological purification process. The study was carried out by the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Iasi. The criteria to estimate the performance of the purification stations and of their purification effectiveness were mainly developed when the elimination of carbon compounds, respectively of organic matter, became a necessity. Nowadays, standards and norms in force are more exigent in as far as N and P are concerned, as they are the main nutrients that can lead to the appearance of the eutrophisation phenomenon in the receiving waters. In the purification stations with activated sludge, aeration tanks represent ecosystems exposed to extreme conditions, characterized by a total dependency from the organic allochthonous substratum and by an intense rhythm of matter and energy going in and out. Like any biological system, the biocenosis from the treatment aero-tank with activated sludge has a structure based on components and factors and a dynamic in time and space [3] (fig.1). In the biocenosis of active sludge a detrital network is established, where protozoa play a very important part. [3]. The substratum that assures the necessary food and energy is represented by organic substances, the dissolved oxygen and nutrients, respectively nitrogen and phosphorus salts from the wastewater. This allows the increase of primary degraders, most of them being heterotrophic bacteria and, to a lesser extent, fungi and flagellata. The next link, of the decomposers, represented by rhizopoda, ciliata, rotifera and nematoidea, develops depending on food availability. Thus, dispersed bacteria become food for the heterotrophic flagellata and bacterivorous ciliata, which, in turn, become prey for carnivorous organisms.

The use of biological indicators in the evaluation () _________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.1 STRUCTURE -abiotic components: technological structure of the plant - biotic components: - degraders - bacteria - fungi - flagellata - consumers - flagellata - ciliata - rhizopoda - metazoa - abiotic factors - biotic factors - in space: trophic chain - in time: the succession of dominant groups

DYNAMIC

Although most of the ciliate species are able to resist in precarious environmental conditions, the special conditions in the active sludge limit their presence to a reduced number of species, in correlation with the organic loading of the active sludge and with the other dimensioning parameters. Thus, ciliata have become a performance indicator for the biological purification process. Generally, the identification of flagellata and ciliata, the quantitative analysis of their diffuseness as well as the proportion between dominant groups of organisms can provide us with information on the biological purification process in the bioreactors with activated sludge. Materials and methods This study was undertaken during the period January 1 - October 30, 2003, by daily monitoring the sludge from biological point of view. The monitoring included the identification of the species and the estimation of their diffuseness according to the Srmek-Husk method. Based on the results obtained and computed for each month, the dominant groups of protozoa were established and, depending on their dominance an evaluation of the effectiveness of the purification process with active sludge was carried out. On the other hand, there was made a correlation with the following parameters the organic loading of the sludge (ION), expressed in kg BOD5(5-day biochemical oxygen demand/kg MVS; biomass, expressed in volatile matter in suspension (MVS), mg/dm3; efficiency of the elimination of organic matter (BOD5), %; efficiency of the elimination of ammonium (NH4), %.

Luminia Iconomu and Ioana Redinciuc _________________________________________________________________________________________

Results and discussions The protozoa species role of immediate indicator can be observed by looking at the increase of the efficiency of the waste water purification process in the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Iasi. Thus, in January, for an organic loading of the sludge ION=0.53 kg BOD5/kg MVS, the dominant group of protozoa in the biocenosis of activated sludge was that of mobile ciliata, followed by fixed ones and by flagellata. This situation indicates a mediocre purification of the biodegradable organic matter (BOD5) and of the ammoniacal nitrogen, signifying that the biomass quantity, the age of the sludge and the low temperatures were insufficient for the completion of a nitrification process. During the two following months the situation remained similar. In April (fig.2), a high organic loading was recorded as well in the aeration tanks of the station. The efficiency of the purification of organic matter and ammonium remained low. In the biocoenosis of active sludge there was an increase of the number of mobile bacterivorous ciliata (40% among the individuals of the biocoenosis) and of fixed bacterivorous ciliata (30%), associated with values of ION>0.5. The dominant mobile species was Aspidisca lyncaeus, while the fixed one was Vorticella convallaria. Noticing the lack of effectiveness of the active sludge for the reduction of the ammonium quantities (oxygen consuming substance that, once it arrives to the emissary, respectively the Bahlui River, leads to the lowering of the O2 concentration and therefore has a negative impact on hydrobionts), we tried to increase the biomass quantity in the aeration tanks as well as the age of the sludge (as it is known that nitrification bacteria need a longer growing time). Thus in August (fig. 3) we could notice that, for a biomass increase from 1452 to 1812mg/dm3, there appeared modifications in the structure of the biocoenosis while the proportion between the main groups of organisms changed as well. The dominant group became Rhizopoda, represented by the species Arcella vulgaris (15-19 individuals / microscopic field); there appeared rotifera, organisms indicating a good oxygenation and an old age of the sludge. Among mobile ciliata, the best represented are the species Aspidisca costata, Colpidium colpoda, Chilodonella cuculus,, while among the fixed ones - Vorticella convallaria and Epistylis digitalis. The presence of this association in the active sludge indicates an increase in the effectiveness of the purification process. The efficiency of elimination of organic matter was of 84.9% - in comparison with 70.3% in April and 69.6% in January - while the efficiency of ammonium elimination was of 88,7% in comparison with 22.7% in April and 22.5% in January. A further increase of the biomass in the aeration tanks led to a decrease ION to 0.28 kg CBO5/kg MVS/day in October and to an increase of the efficiency of the station in the elimination of ammonium 96.8%. During that period, the Arcella vulgaris rhizopod, associated with an advanced nitrification process, had remained dominant in the biocoenosis of the activated sludge. The rest of organism groups were present in relatively equal proportions. The diversity was lower, as only 3 species of mobile ciliata and 4 species of fixed ciliata were identified. The presence of rotifera in a number of 3-4 10

The use of biological indicators in the evaluation () _________________________________________________________________________________________

individuals / microscopic field (10x) and of the gastrotrich Chaetonotus sp. 1 individual / microscopic field (10x) is characteristic for an older age of the sludge, obtained through the increase of the biomass quantity in the aeration tank and diminishing of the excess active sludge. Looking at the proportions of the main groups of organisms during the period January - October (fig.4), we can notice that, if in the first part of the year mobile ciliata, followed by fixed ones were dominant, starting with June rhizopoda, mainly tecate rhizopoda started to develop and than to be dominant, indicating a sufficient oxygenation of the active sludge and a good purification. In parallel, looking at the variation of the main parameters registered in the effluent during the same period, it can be noticed that the lowest value of NH4, BOD5 and organic matter (COD-Cr) was recorded in August, corresponding to the peak of the development of tecate rhizopoda, respectively of the Arcella vulgaris species. The graphic of the efficiency of the reduction of the organic charge and of ammoniacal nitrogen (fig. 5) shows that, starting with June, it began to raise, reaching its peak in August, and later it began to diminish very little. Conclusions The analysis of microfauna made during the study period on the activated sludge of Iasi Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant, shows that the dominance of microfauna groups changes in relation to the environmental and operational condition of the plant. A microfauna rich in small flagellates, free-swimming ciliates as: Colpidium colpoda, Glaucoma scintilans and peritrich ciliates: Vorticella microstoma and Opercularia spp. is associated with low values of MVS (1448-1459 mg/l), high values of sludge load (0.52-0.63 kg DBO5/kg MVS/day), high final effluent DBO5 and ammoniacal-N concentration as can be observed in the results recorded in January and May. On the contrary, at low loading, high values of MVS (1890-2450 mg/l) and large sludge age the distribution between groups is more uniform, crawling and attached ciliates beeing more abundant. At low sludge loading (0.28-0.42 kg DBO5/kg MVS/day) the in dominant ciliates species were: Aspidisca costata, Chilodonella cucullus, Vorticella convalaria and Epistylis digitalis. A particular attention was addressed to relationship between microfauna and N removal. During the summer period when higer temperatures, higer DO (dissolved oxygen) concentration in aeration tank and larger sludge age enable complete nitrification, testate amoebae was the dominant group, represented by Arcella vulgaris. Observation on the activated sludge microfauna, identification of flagellates, free-swimming, crawling and attached ciliates and the identification of the dominant group of the microfauna allows diagnosis of the particular state of functionality of the plant. 11

Luminia Iconomu and Ioana Redinciuc _________________________________________________________________________________________

References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Foissner, W., Berger, H., Schaumburg, J., 1999 Informationberichte des Bayer, Landesamtes fur Wasserwirtschaft, Heft 3/9 Madoni, P., 1994 A Sludge Biotic Index (S.B.I.) for the Evaluation of Biological Performance of Activated Sludge Plants based on the Microfauna Analysis, Wat. Res., 28(1) Madoni, P., - Biological Approach to Sewage Treatment Process: Current Status and Perspective, Centro Bazzuchi, Perugia Musta, Gh., 1998 Hidrobiologie, Ed. Universitii Al. I. Cuza, Iai Vaicum Lydia Maria, 1981 Epurarea apelor uzate cu nmol activ, Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste Romnia, Bucureti *** U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1999 Nitrogen Control

12

Epistylis Tokophrya procumbes sp. 3% 3% Vorticella microstoma 24% Staurophrya sp. 3%

Stentor sp. 3%

Aspidisca lynceus 70%

Chilodonella cucullus 5%

Trachelophyllu m sp. 1% Chilodonella uncinata 9%

Vorticella convallaria 64%

Hemiophrys sp. 0%

Colpidium colpoda 9%

Colpidium Euplotes sp. 5% campylum 1%

April 2003 0% 10% 0% 30% 20% 40% fixed ciliata nematoda

flagellata rhizopoda

mobile ciliata rotifera

Fig. no. 2

ION =0.63 kg BOD5/Kg MVS

MVS = 1448 mg/dmc BOD5=70.3 %

NH4= 22.7%

Podophrya sp. Carchesium 4% polipinum 15% Epistylis digitalis 29%

Vorticella microstoma 22%

Amphileptu s claparedii 2%

Aspidisca costata 49%

Vorticella convalaria 30%

Colpidium colpoda 29%

Chilodonell a cucullus 20%

August 2003 7% 14% 7% 37% flagellata fixed ciliata


Fig. no. 3 ION =0.42 kg BOD5/Kg MVS

21% 14% rhizopoda nematoda


NH4= 88.7%

mobile ciliata rotifera

MVS = 1812 mg/dmc BOD5=84.9 %

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Fig. nr. 4 The proportion between the main group of organisms during the period January- October 2003
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 months 7 8 9 10

flagellates sessile ciliates rotifers

free- sewimming ciliates rhizopods nematods

Fig. nr. 5 Efficiency in the reduction of organic matter and of ammoniacal nitrogen, year 2003
100 90 80 70 60 % 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 months 6 7 8 9

CBO5 CCO-Cr NH4

15

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 ________________________________________________________________________________________

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING FOOD DISPONIBILITIES AND FEEDING BEHAVIOUR OF REED PASERINES
BY

CONSTANTIN ION1 AND OVIDIU POPOVICI1

Key words: reed paserine; diet; feeding behaviour The present study aimed at listing aquatic birdforms and their food as well as their behaviour concerning the use of trophic reserves in two periods of time: July 15 27, 2003 - the reproduction period of warblers and September 11 13, 2003 - the migration period at Iezar- Dorohoi (470 68 N/ 260 23 E). The types of the Acrocephalus species bearing distinct ecological requirements used the same habitats for finding food. During the reproduction period, the challenge for gaining the food variety is to be noticed only among the specimens of the same species. During fall (migration), the challenge among the different types of warblers and the one among the specimens are very moderate. The seasonal dynamics and the daily dynamics of the reed arthropods are acutely significant in ensuring the food reserves for the Acrocephalus species and in decreasing the competition among them. Another element of great importance is represented by the weather conditions. It was observed that the activity performed by warblers and the competition for food is more intense after rain, wind and low temperatures.

Introduction Diet represents an important element in ensuring the birds cycle of life. The abundance and diversity of food, as well as the seasonal changes within an ecosystem most often interrelate both with the number of bird species and also with the number of specimens. The consistency and the characteristics of food are vital for the formation of energetic reserves, highly necessary to determine the biological rhythm of each specimen. The existence of food diversity within an ecosystem will lead to a large diversity of species, where they can establish nesting spots or spots where they can halt when migrating. The research done by us consists mainly in listing the reed paserine in a wet Moldavian area, as well as exploring its existing food accessibility. Aquatic birdforms which make nests and search for food, as listed by us, belong to the type called
________________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Constantin Ion and Ovidiu Popovici _________________________________________________________________________________________

Acrocephalus (the Sylviidae family). The arthropods, and especially insects, are their favorite food. During the pre-reproductive periods of chick care and the pre-migration, aquatic birdforms compete among each other about the use of the food availability, and consequently, they are forced to take advantage of various feeding niche. (Bolshakov, Casimir, 2000) The Acrocephalus species that we had under observation have different ecological needs during the reproduction period, and during the migration period they use the same habitats. (Chernetsov Nikita, 999, a) Materials and Methods The present study aimed at listing aquatic birdforms and their food as well as their behaviour concerning the use of trophic reserves in two periods of time: - July 15 27, 2003 - the reproduction period of warblers - September 11 13, 2003 - the migration period Several trips were carried out to the accumulation lake Iezar, at 1 km Northern distance from Dorohoi (the district of Botoani) on the valley of Jijia. Iezar Dorohoi has a 640 ha surface and its geographical location is 470 68 N/ 260 23 E. (Guic O, 1982). There is typically aquatic and paludal vegetation in this area, suitable for the existence of several rich trophic reserves. The now existing phytocoenoses belong to the following vegetal associations: Glicerietum maximae, Lemnetum trisulcae, Caricetum acutiformis- ripariae, Eleocharitetum palustris, Bolboschoenetum maritimi, Festucetum arundinaceae, Typhetum angustifoliae. (Guic O, 1982). The pool borders are all covered with phytocoenoses belonging to the Phragmitetum australis association, and which head towards the center and extend over larger and larger surfaces. The potential draining of the lake led to the setting up of a border vegetation comprising: Ranunculus pedatus, Carex vulpina, Equisetum fluviatile, Lemna minor, Typha angustifolia, Phragmites communis, Mentha longifolia. Different aquatic birdforms were captured with the help of ornithological nets. These nets are 24 meter long and 2 meter high and were set in the flooded reeds on the pool borders. In the first stage of the observations, during the reproduction period, the typically birdform abundance was also established by means of the acoustic method of observing, highlighting, according to their singing, the number of breeding pairs and their corresponding species. The feeding behavior of warblers was analyzed using the visual transectal method and also through direct observations from fixed points. In the ornithological nets the following specimens were caught: Acrocephalus arundinaceus, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, and Acrocephalus scirpaceus, and one single exemplary of Locustella fluviatilis (on the 27th of August 2003).

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Similarly, our research took into consideration the biodiversity of arthropod communities in the studied ecosystem in order to view the food availability highly necessary for the aquatic birdforms. Moreover, several data collections were conducted using the entomological net. The collections were completed at the limit point between the reed located on the lake and the plant vegetation on the border, in the meadows surrounding the water luster and also under the reed surface. During the first period of observations, we put together an important amount of samples, which were collected during the three daytime moments (in the early hours of the morning, at noon, and in the evening) with the purpose of grasping any change in the structure of arthropod communities in the course of a whole day. One piece of evidence was provided by the captured arthropods in the entomological nets after 50 sweeping through the vegetation. The arthropods seized this way were introduced in plastic bags, preserved in 80% alcohol and afterwards analyzed in laboratory. The evidence finally came out in a total amount of 564 arthropods. Results and discussions The diversity and the abundance of aquatic birdforms are tightly connected with the diversity and the abundance of food that is searched by birds. The species of birds monitored by us are the warblers belonging to the Acrocephalus genus: Acrocephalus arundinaceus, Acrocephalus schoenoabenus, Acrocephalus scirpaceus. The specialized literature shows that the food for Acrocephalus is mainly made of insects, a few spiders, snails, small vertebrates and sometimes even fruit and seeds, with the exception of the reproduction period. (Cramp S., 1992, Trnka, Alfred, 1995, Stoate C., 1995) The techniques of catching prey for the Acrocephalus type are very close to those of the Acrocephalus scirpaceus species, but the moves for food capturing are less swift. In comparison with the marsh warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) tends to eat closer to the ground even at the bottom of vegetation. Catching insects from trees or bushes (willow Salix or oak Quercus) seems to be a frequent practice. (Cramp S., 1992) The diet for Acrocephalus scirpaceus is primarily represented of insects and spiders and occasionally of vegetal food. Acrocephalus scirpaceus represents an opportunistic species, flying outside the reeds too, in order to find extra food. (Chernetsov Nikita, 1999, a, b, Grim Tomas, 1996) The food on Acrocephalus schoenobaenus consists mainly of insects, but also of vegetal components, except during the reproduction period. This type of bird looks for food prevailing in the thick, low vegetation, made of bushes and willows as well as in the farming labors and more rarely in the bush periphery. (Chernetsov Nikita, 2000, Cramp S., 1992, Bolshakov, Casimir, 2001) According to our observations, the great reed warbler tends to eat closer to the ground, even at the bottom of the vegetation, and uses prey of bigger shape than that of 295

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the other species of warblers. The distances it flies through the bushes are very often rather long, reaching a few hundred meters. On nice weather, the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) enters the farming areas and the meadows which surround the lake in order to find food. As our research indicates, when collecting arthropods, the great reed warblers fly in tandem during the reproduction period, but when the migration period comes, the pairs are no longer together, each specimen looking for food on its own. In the morning, their trips occur repeatedly at short intervals of 10 to 15 minutes and afterwards starting with noontime they get less and less frequent. The food is not eaten outside reeds; it is caught, carried near the nest and crumbled. Odonats are endowed with a greater mobility and are highly preferred by the great reed warblers in comparison with other arthropods, and this fact was chiefly acknowledged visually in the course of the transects undertaken. It was observed that Acrocephalus scirpaceus (the reed warbler) is an opportunistic species making a few hundred meter trips outside reeds in order to look for extra food, which comprises either Coleoptera or Odonats. The reed warblers flights are low, very close to the water or ground level. Its wanderings recur at intervals of 30 to 40 minutes during a whole day, with an estimated break between 2 to 5 oclock in the afternoon, and, as it was assessed, insects and snails are consumed, sometimes at the place of their snatching. The flights are rectilinear, as those of the other specimens studied by us, without any erections, turnovers, or sudden changes of position. During the reproduction period, the male and the female look for food together and very seldom isolated. Sometimes, one partner may remain at the nest place and the other go out and search for food. The pairs are no longer together when the fall of the year comes, the Reed warbler flying alone to get food. Furthermore, it was investigated and acknowledged that the Acrocephalus schoenobaenus (Sedge warbler) feeds itself particularly in an area of low vegetation. Unlike is the other species, we have observed that it very often searches areas of bulrush as well. The Sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) is an introvert species, making fairly short and discreet flights through the aquatic vegetation or the ground vegetation near the water borders. It was also proved that Acrocepahlus schoenobaenus may be a very altruistic species, prone to chick care and the ones to provide food to the nest is not strictly one member of the clouting pair, but also one or two specimens who act as nursers. They are a real support in nursing the chicks and also provide extra food to the nest. Our research confirms that food is consumed especially in the reeds and the bulrush which are to be found in the aquatic surfaces. When migrating and having to look for food, warblers make up a real team, acting in groups of 4 or 5 exemplars. The results of the entomological nettings were associated with those of the ornithological captures. During the warblers reproduction season (the month of July), in the wet area which we investigated, the richest are the Diptera, the Aranea, and the Hymenoptera (see 296

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table 1). The presence in a rather large number of the Acrocephalus arundinaceus and Acrocephalus schoenobaenus species is tightly connected with a greater number of the above mentioned groups of arthropods. The warblers have the tendency to fly from the reed towards the farming areas and the meadows which surround the lake, especially during this period. Having in view the number of prey hiding in the reeds, (number of arthropodes exemplaires captured in one day= 235) (see table 1), we consider that both the Acrocephalus arundinaceus and the Acrocephalus scirpaceus feed inside the reed covered extensions, but also make use of the trophic reserves which are to be found around the waters. The Sedge warblers (Acrocephalus schoenobaneus) focus more on the reed areas, where they can come across other species of arthropods representing their food. Regarding the feeding strategies, Acrocephalus scirpaceus carry out longer travels in order to feed and (the same as Acrocephalus arundinaceus) to catch mobile insects such as odonats. However, due to their mobility and size, the net caught odonats are not in a direct proportional number with their plenty in the net captures performed. The largest number of captures belonged to the Acrocephalus arundinaceus (22 exemplaires/10 ha) and Acrocephalus scirpaceus species (10 exemplaires/ 10ha) which was also examined by means of visual observations, and according to which, it was acknowledged that the largest number of breeding pairs belonged to the Acrocephalus arundinaceus (8 breeding pairs/ 10 ha) and Acrocephalus scirpaceus (6 breding pairs/ 10 ha) species. In the second stage of observations, the greatest abundance of captures in the ornithological nets was ascribed to the Acrocephalus schoenobaneus species. With the help of the performed visual observations, in the course of three succeeding days, the dominant proved to be Acrocephalus schoenobaenus. Within the entomological captures carried out during this stage, the greatest number of insects belongs to the Homoptera order, followed by the Diptera order (see table 2). The food availability differs greatly from those in the first period of observation (summer, the month of July) which led to a different placing of the warbler species in that area. It was acknowledged that during the fall Acrocephalus schoenobeanus (8 captures) becomes the richest species both in Iezar Dorohoi and also in North East Moldavia. During the month of July, the amount of warbler captures (from different species) in Iezar was very high (22 specimens) and a lot smaller at the beginning of September (12). After the reproduction period, adults feed themselves intensively and after the chicks start to fly, the adult specimens migrate southwards. The youngster remains for a while in the same place; they gain weight and, at the end of August and during September start migrating. 297

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The very small number of captures at the beginning of September is especially due to the cold wave which occurred in North East Moldavia (average temperatures between 15 20 Celsius degrees during the day and 10 18 Celsius degrees during the night), due to the wind (4, 5 on the Beaufort scale) and also to the very thick fog. The birdforms, pertaining to the warblers of the Acrocephalus type, travel in migration particularly at night, at a 6 10 meter height above the water and only after the rain. The wind represents a serious element for the birdforms as it favors the flights on very long distances and in rather short periods of time. (Schaub Michael, 2001). Having in view that during fall, the flying orientation is North South and also that during our observations the wind had a South-North, South-North-North orientation, we have acknowledged that during this investigation period, the migration ceased for a whole week. Throughout the performed ringing it was observed that the greatest number of captures was recorded in the morning in a 2 to 3 hour interval during sunrise. Within this time, the food availability is represented by Araneea, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera (see grafic 2). At the Iezar lake, the greatest number of warblers for this time of day belongs to the Acrocephalus arundinaceus and Acrocephalus schoenobaenus species, but they are also to be found in a fairly big number in the evening. According to the annotations in the specialized literature (Cramp S., 1992, the Sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) and the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) make frequently use of the food reserves both in the early morning hours and also before dawn. The Reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) is a lot more active species, looking for food all day long, when the arthropod communities suffer changes in their content. At noon, the most abundant seizures are the Homoptera whereas in the evening the most frequent are the Diptera. The marsh warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) uses a more varied food. Its need for caloric energy is bigger because it flies a much longer migration distance (The EBCC Atlas of European Breeding Birds, Their distribution and abundance, 1997), compared with the Acrocephalus schoenobaenus. Although the two species are very much alike concerning their size and the rapport between the body length and the wing length. The data in the specialized literature (Chernetsov Nikita, 1999, a, b, 2000) pertaining to the analysis of stomach content are the same with ours regarding the documentation on the food availability. Conclusions The types of the Acrocephalus species bearing distinct ecological requirements used the same habitats for finding food. During the reproduction period, the challenge for gaining the food variety is to be noticed only among the specimens of the same species. During fall (migration), the challenge among the different types of warblers and the one among the specimens are very moderate. 298

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The seasonal dynamics and the daily dynamics of the reed arthropods are acutely significant in ensuring the food reserves for the Acrocephalus species and in decreasing the competition among them. Another element of great importance is represented by the weather conditions. It was observed that the activity performed by warblers and the competition for food is more intense after rain, wind and low temperatures. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Bolshakov, Casimir, Bulyuk, N., Victor, Sinelschikova Alexandra, 2000 Study of nocturnal movements of migratory paserine, recaption of ring birds in high mist-nets, Die Vogelwarte, 40, p.250-257 Bulyuk Victor, 2003 - Relationship between realization of juvenile dispersal in the Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) and weather conditions, Die Volgewarte, 42, p.85 Chernetsov Nikita, Manukyan Andranik, 1999 - Zoologial Institute, Rusian Academy of Sciences, Annual Reports, St. Petesburg, p. 101-106 Chernetsov Nikita, Manukyan Andranik, 1999 - Avian Ecol. Behav. 3, p.9-63 Chernetsov Nikita, Manukyan Andranik, 2000 - Foraging strategies of Sedge Warbler (Acroxcephalus schoenobaenus) on migration, Die Wolgelwarte, 40, p.189-197 Cramp S., 1992 - The Birds of Western Palearctic, vol. VI, Royal Society fot the Protection of Birds, Oxford University Press, p.146-249 Guic O., Grigora Ciprian, 1982- Dorohoi, Mic ndreptar turistic, Edit. SportTurism, Bucureti Grim, Tomas, Honza, Marcel, 1996 - Effect of habitat on the diet of reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) nestlings, Folia Zoologica 45 (1), p. 31-34 Stoate, C., Moreby, S., J., 1995- Premigratory diet of trans-Saharan migrant passerines in the western Sahel, Bird Study 42 (2), p. 101-106 Schaub Michael, Jeni Lukas, 2001- Stopover durations of three warbler species along their autumun migration route, Oecologia, 128, p.217-227 Trnka, Alfred, 1995, - Dietary habits of the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) young, Biologia 50 (5), p. 507-512 *** 1997- The EBCC Atlas of European Breeding Birds, Their distribution and abundance, Published by Academic Press San Diego, CA 92101

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Table 1. Abundance and dominace of arthropodes captured in July month No Taxon Abundance Dominance (%) 1 Araneae 33 14 2 Collembola 4 1.7 3 Thysanoptera 6 2.5 4 Heteroptera 2 0.85 5 Homoptera 53 22.5 Seria Auchenorrhyncha 27 11.4 Seria Stenorrhyncha 26 11 7 Hymenoptera 28 11.9 8 Coleoptera 10 4.2 9 Diptera 99 42.1 Subordinul Nematocera 67 28.5 Subordinul Brachycera 32 13.6 TOTAL 235 Table 2. Abundance and dominace of arthropodes captured in September month No Taxon Abundena Dominana (%) 1 Araneae 5 4 2 Odonata 1 0.8 Subordinul Zygoptera 0 Subordinul Anisoptera 1 0.8 3 Heteroptera 7 5.7 4 Homoptera 49 40 Seria Auchenorrhyncha 48 39.3 Seria Stenorrhyncha 1 0.8 5 Hymenoptera 13 10.6 6 Coleoptera 5 4 7 Neuroptera 1 0.8 8 Diptera 41 33.6 Subordinul Nematocera 6 4.9 Subordinul Brachycera 35 28.6 TOTAL 122 .

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N u m b e r of i n d i v

i d u
a l s

Acrocephalus arundinaceus

dimineata

amiaza Acrocephalus schoenobaenus

seara Acrocephalus scirpaceus

Grafic 1. Medium situation of the warblers captures in a diurn cycle

120
number of individuals

100 80 60 40 20 0 morning
Araneae Odonata Heteroptera Coleoptera

noon
Collembola Orthoptera Homoptera Diptera

evening
Ephemeroptera Thysanoptera Hymenoptera

Grafic 2. Medium situation of the arthropodes captures in a diurn cycle

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THE CONSERVATION OF THE TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATES FROM THE PROTECTED AREAS AND NATURAL RESERVES OF MOLDAVIA
BY

IORDACHE ION1, ADRIAN OPREA1, STEFAN ZAMFIRESCU1 CONSTANTIN ION1, ELENA ION1

Key words: vertebrates, protected areas, natural reserves of Moldavia- Romania The studied area is located in eastern part of Romania and comprises all natural reservations from districts of Moldavia. Our studies reveal the present situation of the flora, vegetation and the terrestrial vertebrates fauna on every natural reservation and protected areas. In the present paper we discuss of the biodiversity of terrestrial vertebrates species, included in I.U.C.N. the Red List for Romania.

Introduction Between 1994-2001 a group of botanists and zoologists from the University Al. I. Cuza Iasi undertook a vast study that comprised all the natural, floristic, forest, zoological and landscape reservation from the departments of Galai, Vrancea, Vaslui, Bacau, Neamt, Suceava, Botoani and Iai. Local or governmental laws protect all the reserves that have been studied. Materials and Methods. For each reserve we made shifts in the lands (fields) in different periods of the year in order to observe the succession of the vegetation and to complete, as exhaustive as possible, the floristic and fitocoenological inventory. The working methods consisted of itineraries; some transects of vegetation were also made. At some time the fauna was also inventoried in order to complete our study. In the case of terrestrial fauna we presented the data taking into account the existent biodiversity and pointing on the species that are on The Red List of I.U.C.N. based on the criteria of the International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources in 1994 and according to the Bern Convention in 1979. We have also taken into account the agreement concerning the Protection of Euroasiatic Migratory Water Birds adopted at Hague on the 16th of June 1995 and The Status of The Conservation of the Species of Birds in Europe elaborated by BirdLife International in 1994- Federation that is in charge the Protection of birds. In the end we made evaluations about the status of conservation in each reservation.
_________________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Iordache Ion and all. _________________________________________________________________________________________

Results and disscusion. Flora and Vegetation. The natural reserves from the Departmemnt of Galai are submitted to a strong anthropo-zoogenus impact due to the fact that they are situated near either urban conglomerations (the case of the Garboavele Forest situated near the town of Galati where a chaotic and uncontrolled tourism is practised, the forest being also a place of recreeation for the people of Galati) or near villages (the reservation of Breana- Roscani, Poganesti-Suceveni and Hanul Conachi). It is stated that today, the floristic and fitocoenological biodiversity is unaltered, but in some places a certain type of alteration has begun that is some weeds started to appear and in the future they could become threats for the flora and vegetation specific to this protected areas. In order to continue, to preserve this reservations as unaltered as possible, severe measures should be taken their including supervision and restriction of natural increase of some wooden species. (For example Robinia p. in the Hanul Conachi reservation or Acer negundo in the Garboavele reservation) or of some herbaceous species that become weeds. All these four natural reserves from the Department of Galai have a flora and vegetation typical for the area of silvosteppe, which is characteristic for the respective zone. Many vegetal species or vegetal associations are rare for our country and the forests have a major role in preserving the biodiversity in this region. In the Department of Vrancea there have been studied 13 natural reserves: floristic, faunistic, forest, landscape of mixed type. All there reserves are situated in a typical forest zone in submontaneous, montaneous, and subalpine belt (eg. Goru Peak). The forests are typical for this zone of vegetation, being represented by Spruce Fir mixed with Pure Fir, Beech, or mixed forests. In the natural reservation of the Goru Peak we can also meet Juniper (Pinus mugo); it is the only a natural reserve in the department were this species exists. Due to the fact that all the reservations are situated far from the big cities, they are well preserved, keeping thus the floristic, fitocoenological, and faunistic biodiversity for which they have been declared reservation. In the Vaslui Department the seven natural reservations that have been studied are under national laws (or local laws) and they represented either islands of the natural silvosteppe vegetation of the Central Moldavian Plateau (forest reservations) or paches of natural steppe vegetation. The reservations constitute refuges of floristic rarities for our country (Caragana frutex, Ephedra distachya, Bellevalia sarmatica) and of some rare associations for the vegetation of Romania (associations with Quercus pedunculiflora, Q. daechampii or Quercus pubescens, typical steppe associations: Meoticojoria- Festucetum valesiacae, Botrichloetum ischaemi, Stipetum capillatae). In the Department of Bacau six nature reserves have been studied ; forest, floristic, landscape, zoological or mixed type. The vegetation of these reserves is made of either pure Spruce Fir or mixed with foliate or Beech, sometimes with Quercus dalechampi. 280

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We can also see ,on small areas ,associations of rocks, mountain bogs and fitocenoses with junipers on the Sandru Mare Peak in the Nemira Mountains. In the Nemira Mountains at Izvorul Alb Darmanesti we can meet also Taxus baccata , situated at the same level with the Beech ,with remarkable specimens reaching almost 17 metres in height .The Nemira Mountains are the only region in our country where the species Saxifraga cymbalaria growes. Some of the reserves have a protection role for the affluents that border the localities in which they found. Some examples could be the reservations of Magura and Fetele Targului near the town of Targu Ocna . The study of Bacau Department reservations revealed their floristic richness, the existence of some species that are both for this region and for our country, and the great diversity of types of vegetation. Thus, we may say that the conservation status of all the reservations is good. In the Department of Neamt we have studied twelve natural reservations of the following types: forest, floristic, landscape or mixed. In these reserves there are some vegetal species considered rare or even endemic for the Romania flora such as: Astragalus pseudopurpureus in the natural reservation Cheile Sugaului; Silene zawadskii, Campanula carpatica and Hieracium pojoritense in Cheile Sugaului ; Taxus baccata in Cheile Bicazului, at Pangarati and in Padurea Gosman Tarcau; Larix decidua ssp. carpatica at Polia cu crini from Ceahlu Mountains; Seseli hippomarathrum in the natural reservation situated in the village Dumbrava Rosie the only place of existence from our country, and so on. In the nature reserves we can find out some unique or rare vegetal communities for the vegetation of our country, such as: Thymo pulcherrimi-Poetum rehmannii , and Seseli gracile Festucetum pallentis in Cheile Bicazului ;Pulmonario rubrae-Fagetum, Taxetosum baccata in Pangarati,Gosman-Tarcau and Padurea Nemtisor; Saxifraga cuneifoliae-Laricetum in Ceahlau; Artemisio baumgarteni-Gypsophiletum petraea, Saxifraga luteo-viridis-Silenetum zawadzkii and Juniperetum sahinae in Cheile Sugaului, etc. Of all Moldavias departments, in the Suceava Department we can find the largest number of 27 natural reservations, which are situated in all areas and belts of vegetation of these territories. All these reserves preserve an extremely rich and divers flora, with many floristic elements, endemic or rare in Romania, with interesting and still very little human altered vegetation. Among such elements of the flora that are extremely valuable, we can mention the following species: Andryala levitomentosa, Campanula carpatica, Melampyrum saxosum, Pynus sylvestris f. turfora, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Trolius europaeus, Ligularia sybirica, Ligularia glauca, Betula nana, Euonymus nana, Arctostaphyllos uvaursi, Cochlearia pyrenaica, Leontopodium alpinum, Cypripedium calceolus, Thesium kernerianum, Fritillaria meleagris, Drosera rotundifolia, Andromeda polyfolia, 281

Iordache Ion and all. _________________________________________________________________________________________

Lysimachia thyrsiflora, Trietalis europaea, Carex chordorriza, C. loliacea, Pedicularia sceptrum-carolinum s.a. As a result of studing the vegetation in this department, a new scientific coenotaxon was described, that is the association Eriophora vaginati/ Betulum nanae ass.nov, whose fitocoenosses were frequently identified along the water flows of the mountain peaks of Mestecani. We also evidence the very good status of conservation of all the natural reservations, the Agency for the Protection of the Environment being actively involved in the management of each protected area. Though in the Department of Iasi the protected areas are not very numerous, these reservations are inhabited by some rare floristic species in our country, such as: Carpinus orientalis, Caragana frutex, Quercus pubescens, Euonymus nana, Orchis purpurea, Ulmus laevis. Some natural reserves are extremely interesting: the secular hayfields of PontoSarmatian type from Valea lui David, for the typical steppe reservation, secular BeechTrees (Dealul Mare-Hrlu) for the forest hills, The Forests Catalina- Cotnari, Rocani, Uricani for silvosteppe forest and the Dealu Repedea reservation for paleontological, botanical and landscape interest. The Department of Botosani has a smaller number of floristic or forest reserves. In this region there are some species quite rare in Romania such as: Schivereckia podolica, in reservation Stnca tefneti (the only region of our country in which this species exists); Taxus baccata, a species protected by law in Romania, exists in reservation Tudora; the forest Stuhoasa- Suharau has a Secular Beech Forest with selected trees; the forest Vorona as well. The peat bog Dersca is in fact an euthrophic marsh unique for the north of Moldavia, having a characteristic flora. The forest Ciornahal- Calarasi is a typical forest for the northern silvosteppe with Cotinus coggygria at the northern limit of the areal in Romania. The lakes Dracani-Sulia and Ezer-Dorohoi represent humid important areas for the conservation of the specific aquatic and paludous flora and fauna. To all these nature reserves we can also add the Codrul Eminescian from Ipoteti, preserved for the memory of our great poet, where there is an authentic landscape, reflected in many of his poems. The fauna. In our present study we have included only the results that refer to the terrestrial mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. According to the criteria of the International Union of the Conservation of Natural Resources (IUCN), 1994, the European terrestrial vertebrates that are on The Red List can be grouped after the following categories: critically endangered (CR); vulnerable (VU); endangered (EN); with low risk (LR); data deficient (DD). a. Species critically endangered (CR): Birds- Numenius tenuirostris, ReptilesVipera ursinii b. Vulnerable (VU): Mammals, order Chiroptera- 7 species: Rhinolophus euriale, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Rhinolophus mehelyi, Barbastella barbastellus, Myotis bechsteini, Myotis capaccinii, Myotis emarginatus, order Carnivora- 1 specie: 282

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Vormela peregusna; order Rodentia- 6 species: Spermophilus suslicus, Mesocricetus newtoni, Spalax graecus, S. leucodon, Eliomys quercinus; Birds, order Pelecaniformes1specie: Pelecanus crispus; order Anseriformes-4 species: Anser erythropus, Aythya nyroca, Branta ruficollis, Oxyura leucocephala; order Falconiformes- 3 species: Aquilla heliaca, Aquilla clanga, Falco naummani; order Gruiformes- 2 species: Crex crex, Otis tarda; Reptiles, order Testudines- 1 specie: Testudo graeca. c. Endangered (EN): Mammals, order Carnivora- 1 specie: Mustela lutreola, order Artiodactyla- 1 specie Bison bonasus; Reptiles, order Serpentes- 1 specie: Vipera ursinii. d. Low risk (LR): Mammals, order Chiroptera- 6 species: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. blasii, Miniopterus shreibersii, Myotis myotis, Nyctalus lasiopterus, N. leiseri, order Rodentia- 10 species: Sicista betulina, Chionomys nivalis, Micromys minutus, Microtus tatricus, Mus spicilegus, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinius avellanarius, Myoxus glis, Sciurus vulgaris, Cricetulus migratorius; Birds, order Pelecaniformes- 1 specie: Pahalacrocorax pygmaeus, order Falconiformes- 2 species: Circus macrourus, Haliaetus albicilla, order Gruiformes- 1 specie: Tetrax tetrax, order Charadriiformes- 2 species: Glareola nordmanni; Amphibians: order Anura- Bombina bombina, Hyla arborea,order Urodela: Triturus cristatus. e. Data deficient (DD): Birds- order Passeriformes- Loxia scotica;, Amphibians: order Urodela: Triturus dobrogicus. In table 1 we synthetized the number of terrestrial vertebrate species for each department. In the case of the departments of Botoani and Iai, we also included as protected area the Valley of Prut River, state border with Republic of Moldavia, which is inhabited by a number of species of birds. In addition an ample research of Prut River drainage basin resulted in a Ph. D. thesis (1). We can find a similar situation in the departments of Bacu and Neam where the ornithofauna was studied for a period of 30 years, here being included the storage lakes on the river Bistria and that of Middle Siret River Middle course (6). The list of endangered vertebrate animals (IUCN) includes birds such as Otis tarda (vulnerable) and Tetrax tetrax (low risk species). It is worth mentioning that these two species disappeared from Romanias fauna. Only Otis tarda appears accidentally in the west of the country and Dobrogea. Tetrax tetrax appears very rarely in Dobrogea. With regard to the protected terrestrial vertebrates from Moldavian natural rezerves, we have to say that, there are species that, in our country, have become rare or critically endangered that are not included in the IUCN Red List, 1994. This is the case of Grouse- Lyrurus tetrix from the Rodna Muontains, then there are vulnerable species such as the Crane-Grus grus, Black-Winged Stilt- Himantopus himantopus, AvocetRecurvirostra avosetta, Black Stork- Ciconia nigra, Three-Toed Woodpecker- Picoides tridactylus, Stock Dove- Columba oenas, Warbler- acrocephalus scirpaceus etc. Some birds considered as vulnerable in Europe can be found as hatching birds in the humid areas of the Prut basin, but they are in small number. This is the situation 283

Iordache Ion and all. _________________________________________________________________________________________

of: Ardeola ralloides, Platalea leucorodia, Ardea purpurea, Coracias garrulus, Merops apiaster, Luscinia svecica cyanicula. If we have a look at the Statute of the Conservation of the Species of Birds in Europe, 1994 (BirdLife Conservation, Series no. 3) (11) and then we refer to the species of birds from the studied areas of Moldavia, we can consider: Platalea leucorodia, Circus macrourus, Aquilla clanga, Aquilla heliaca as endangered; Phalacrocorax pygmaeus, Botaurus stellaris, Ixobrichus minutus, Ardeola raloides, Ardea purpurea, Ciconia ciconia, Tadorna tadorna, Tadorna feruginea, Anas querquedula, Aythya nyroca, Milvus migrans, Falco vespertinus, Lyrurus tetrix, Perdix perdix, Coturnix coturnix, Crex crex, Grus grus, Scolopax rusticola, Limosa limosa, Bubo bubo, Asio flammeus, Lullula arborea, Alauda arvensis, Anthus campestris, Phoenicurus phoenicurus, Hippolais palida, Emberiza cia, Emberiza hortulana, E. melanocephala as vulnerable. Referring to the animal of cynegetic interest, we must say that the international and national agreements as well as the existent legislation are not sufficient for the protection of many species. We can see that in the major parts of big game (Red Deer, Roe Buck, Bear, Wild Boar) the real effective is under the optimal one. The main causes are: the cutting down of large forest areas, the diking of some large humid areas, the disregard of environment laws, the roads building, and the non-ecological tourism. Among herbivorous mammals, the Reed Deer and the Roe Buck must be protected also in the future. The Black Goat was colonized in the Ceahlu and Vrancea Mountains where it has a good natural growth. Among the carnivorous mammals: the Lynx, the Wolf and Badger have become rare and therefore severe protection measures must be taken; the Otter is met only on the Prut Valley and the Wild Cat (Felis silvestris), rare enough, appears in the forests of Bucovina. Among rodents, the Marmot (Marmota marmota) is met in the Rodna Mountains and it is a species protected by law. Among the birds of cynegetic interests, the Hazelhen (Tetrastes bonasia) appears on the list of the birds that can be hunt but in reality this species is now very rare and must be protected by law. As we can see from Table no. 3, the Mammals that belong to the Red List, present in the protected areas from the departments of Moldavia are: order Chiroptera- 2 vulnerable species: Rhinolophus hipposideros, Barbastella barbastellus and 3 with low risk species: Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum, Myotis myotis, Miniopterus schreibersi; order Artiodactyla- one endangered species: Bison bonasus appears in a reservation from the Department of Neamt (Vanatori Neamt); order Rodentia- 3 low risk species: Sciurus vulgaris, Muscardinius avellanarius, Glis (Myoxus) glis. The Birds on the Red List are: order Pelecaniformes- 1 low risk species: Phalacrocorax pygmaeus; order Anseriformes- 3 vulnerable species: Anser erythropus, Aythya nyroca, Branta ruficollis; order Falconiformes- 2 vulnerable species: Aquila clanga, Aquila heliaca and 2 low risk species: Circus macrourus, Haliaeetus albicilla; order Charadriiformes- 1 low risk species: Gallinago media. 284

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The Reptiles on the Red List comprise: Vipera ursinii moldavica, as critically endangered and: Vipera ursinii; as endangered. There is also a species of turtle- Emys orbicularis with low risk. The Amphibians from the Red List comprise two species of Anura order, with low risk: Bombina bombina and Hyla arborea and a species from Urodela order, with low risk: Triturus cristatus. Taking into account also the Bern Convention, 1979, referring to the Wild Life and Natural Habitats Convention, we can motive that the Red List is much more complete, almost all the existent species are being included. Our results are compared to the I.U.C.N. Red List, drawn up on the I.U.C.N. criteria, which is more recent and which comprise more and better defined categories. Conclusions. 1. The vertebrate terrestrial animals existing in the protected areas, reservations and zone from Moldavia, find themselves in a status of conservation similar to the general parameters of the whole Europe. 2. Among the characteristics of the studied area we indicate the disappearance of some species of birds as Otis tarda and Tetrax tetrax. Black Grouse (Lyrurus tetrix) is critically endangered because of the small number of individuals existent in the mountain area. 3. Many vertebrate animals decreasing populations are the result of the anthropic impact that destroyed many natural habitats (making agriculture, tourism, hunting, forest exploitation, pisciculture, diking, extractive industry). 4. Concerning the quantitative and qualitative component of the fauna, we consider that further studies are needed, in order to render a more real image of all the species situation and to reason the species listing in the Conservation Statute. Table no 1. The terrestrial vertebrate from the natural reservations and protected areas Number of species (number of protected species) Class Galati Vrancea Vaslui Bacau Neamt Suceava Botosani Iasi Amphibians 10 (3) 11 (3) 9 (3) 14 (3) 14 (3) 12 (3) 13 (3) 12 (3) Reptiles Birds Mammals Total 8 (1) 6 (1) 7 (1) 10 (1) 10 (1) 9 (1) 186 (4) 42 (9) 9 (2) 9 (2)

108 (1) 142 (1) 120 (5) 198 (4) 198 (4) 22 (1) 32 (5) 18 (3) 44 (10) 44 (10)

192 (9) 220 (10) 36 (3) 42 (8)

148 (6) 191 (10) 154 (12) 266 (18) 266 (18) 249 (17) 250 (17) 293 (23)

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Tabel no 2 The protected species from the natural reservations of Moldavia belonging to the Red List Department Classes of terrestrial Species included in the Red List and no. of vertebrates species Galati Mammals Sciurus vulgaris 6 species Birds Crex crex Reptiles Emys orbicularis Amphibians Bombina b., Hyla arborea, Triturus cristatus Vrancea Mammals Rhinolophus hipposideros, Sciurus 10 species vulgaris, Mus spicilegus, Muscardinius avellanarius, Glis (Myoxus) glis Birds Crex crex Reptiles Emys orbicularis Amphibians Bombina b., Hyla arborea, Triturus cristatus Vaslui Mammals Sciurus vulgaris, Spalax leucodon, 12 species Muscardinius avellanarius Birds Phalacrocorax pygmaeus, Aythya nyroca, Aquila clanga, Aquila heliaca, Crex crex Reptiles Emys orbicularis Amphibians Bombina b., Hyla arborea, Triturus cristatus Bacau Mammals Sciurus vulgaris 8 species Birds Aquila clanga, Aquila heliaca, Crex crex Reptiles Emys orbicularis Amphibians Bombina b., Hyla arborea, Triturus cristatus Neamt Mammals Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Rh. 18 species hipposideros, Miniopterus schreibersi, Myotis myotis, Barbastella barbastellus, Bison bonasus, Sciurus vulgaris, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinius avellanarius, Glis glis Birds Aquila clanga, Aquila heliaca, Circus macrourus, Crex crex Reptiles Emys orbicularis 286

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Amphibians Suceava 13 species Mammals

Birds Reptiles Amphibians Botosani 17 species Mammals Birds

Reptiles Amphibians Iasi 23 species Mammals

Birds

Reptiles Amphibians

Bombina b., Hyla arborea, Triturus cristatus Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Rh,. hipposideros, Miniopterus schreibersi, Myotis myotis, Barbastella barbastellus Sciurus vulgaris, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinus avellanarius, Glis glis Aquila clanga, Aquila heliaca, Circus macrourus, Crex crex Emys orbicularis Bombina b., Hyla arborea, Triturus cristatus Sciurus vulgaris, Muscardinius avellanarius, Glis glis Anser erythropus, Aythya nyroca, Oxyura leucocephala, Aquila clanaga, Aquila heliaca, Circus macrourus, Haliaeetus albicilla, Crex crex, Gallinago media Vipera ursinii moldavica, Emys orbicularis Bombina b., Hyla arborea, Triturus cristatus Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Rh,. hipposideros, Barbastella barbastellus, Miniopterus schreibersi, Myotis myotis, Sciurus vulgaris, Muscardinius avellanarius, Glis glis Phalacrocorax pygmaeus, Anser erythropus, Aythya nyroca, Oxyura leucocephala, Aquila clanaga, Aquila heliaca, Circus macrourus, Haliaeetus albicilla, Crex crex, Gallinago media Vipera ursinii, Emys orbicularis Bombina b., Hyla arborea, Triturus cristatus

287

Total no. of species existing on the earth

Tabel no 3. The General situation of the terrestrial vertebrates No. of endangered species in Total no. of Total no. of Europe species in species from the Romania reservations of Moldavia 91 species 44 species Chiroptera-13species vulnerable 7 low risk 6 Carnivora- 2 species vulnerable 1 endangered 1 Artiodactyla- 1 species endangered 1 Rodentia- 16 species vulnerable 6 low risk 10

No. of endangered species in the reservations of Moldavia

Mammals 4100 species

Chiroptera- 5 species vulnerable 2 low risk 3

Artiodactyla- 1 species endangered 1 Rodentia- 3 species low risk 3

288

Birds 8860 species

388 species

228 species

8860 species

388 species

228 species

Reptiles 6046 species

24 species

10 species

Pelecaniformes-2 species vulnerable 1 low risk 1 Anseriformes-4 species vulnerable 4 Falconiformes- 5 species vulnerable 3 low risk 2 Gruiformes- 3 species vulnerable 2 low risk 1 . Charadriiformes- 3 species critically endangered 1 low risk 2 Passeriformes- 1 species data deficient Serpentes- 2 species critically endangered 1 endangered 1 Testudines- 3 species 289

Pelecaniformes 1 species low risk 1 Anseriformes 3 species vulnerable 3 Falconiformes- 4 species vulnerable 2 low risk 2

Charadriiformes- 1 species low risk 1

Serpentes- 2 species critically endangered 1 endangered 1 Testudines- 1 species

Amphibians 4020 species

17 species

14 species

endangered 1 low risk 2 Anura- 2 species low risk 2 Urodela- 2 species low risk 1

low risk 1 Anura- 2 species low risk 2 Urodela- 2 species low risk 1

290

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References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Gache, Carmen, 1998 - Dinamica ornitofaunei din bazinul superior i mijlociu al Prutului, Tez de doctorat, Univ. Al. I. Cuza, Iai, 1998 Gache, Carmen, Ion, I., 1999 - Anal. Univ. Al. I. Cuza Iai (T. XLIV) Ion, I., 1992-1993 - Anal. t. Univ. Al. I. Cuza Iai (T. XXXVIII-XXXIX), s. II-a, Biol., 1992-1993, 157-162. Ion, I., Carmen, Gache, 1997 - Anal. Banatului, t. Naturii 3, 65-69, Mititelu, D., Baraba , N., 1976 - Stud. Comunic., Muz. Bacu, Rang, C., 1998 - Studiu dinamicii unor comuniti de psri din bazinul mijlociu al rului Siret incluznd zonele lacurilor de acumulare, Tez de doctorat, Univ. Al. I. Cuza Iai. Srbu, I., Oprea, A., Tnase, C., 1995 - Bul. Grd. Bot. Iai, (T. 5), 169-188. Srbu, I., Oprea, A., Tnase, C., 1997 - Bul. Grd. Bot. Iai, (T. 6), 175-198. Srbu, I., tefan, N., Coroi, M., Oprea, A., Tnase, C., Ciurscu, t., 1997 Bul. Grd. Bot. Iai, (T. 6), 205-220. tefan, N., tefan, P., Davidescu, G., 1995 - Bul. Grd. Bot. Iai, (T. 5), 159165. Tucker, G, M, Heath, M., F., 1994 - Birds in Europe- Their Conservation Status. BirdLife International Cambridge

Terrestrial species from Romania


3% 5% 18%

Mammals Birds Reptiles Amphibians

74%

Fig. 1 Terrestrial species from Romania

291

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Terrestrial species from Moldavia


5% 3% 12%

Mammals Birds Reptiles Amphibians


80%

Fig. 2. Terrestrial species from Moldavia

Endangered species
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Europa Romnia Moldova

al s

Bi rd s

til es

M am m

R ep

Fig. 3. Endangered species

292

Am ph

ib ia n

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004

CHANGES IN BIODIVERSITY OF DECAPODS (DECAPODA, CRUSTACEA) FROM ROMANIAN BLACK SEA COAST
BY

SINZIANA MICU1, VALERIA ABAZA2

Keywords: Black Sea, biodiversity, neozoa influx, perennial macrophyte. In our study we make an analysis about the present composition of the decapods fauna from the Romanian littoral. We established that there is a tendency of recovering in decapods effectives, due to the neozoa influx of brachyuran species from Mediterranean waters The disappeareance of perennial macrophyte, which constituted favourite biotop for many decapods from the stony infralittoral caused the disappeareance of invertebrates species. We also discussed about the main factors, which lead to disappeareance of species and the main cause is degradation of favourite biotopes.

Bental studies about ecological changes of species have described the communities and associations of living forms, which lived on the hard or soft substratum (Bacescu, Gomoiu). The antropic influence concentrated in hydrotechnical constructions (the Danube-Black Sea canal) the development of maritime navigation, including the building of new harbours, the local discharge of sewage and industrial waste are the activities which have had the greatest impact on biodiversity of species from Black Sea. The biggest and the most vagile species changed their biotopes, adapting to live on a new substratum. The smaller sized species, which werent so mobile and were sheltering in the anfractuosities in the stones, had disappeared, covered by sand or mud or decreased their number of populations. The main cause was the degradation of their favourite biotopes, as a result of terrigeneous pollution or winter hard frost. Increasing eutrophication produced a quantitative and qualitative decline in the macrophytobentos. Fishing with the bottom trawl was another fact that destroyed the perennial macrophyte (Cystoseira barbata covered the bottom substratum, with 20-25 years before), which were the favourite biotop for many bottom species. The favourite biotop of decapods is the hard substratum covered by algae and because of that, their populations decreased also, after 1980, but recently, it can hardly observe a tendency of recovering in biodiversity.
_______________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai 2 I.N.C.D.M. Constana

Snziana Micu and Valeria Abaza _______________________________________________________________________________________

Our study is based on bibliography, studies about decapods from Romanian Black Sea coast, and on personal observations. Samples were collected by free diving, using a hand net, at 2-3m depth, in Agigea-Eforie Sud and Vama Veche, and by trawling at north of Constana. The average of depth, for colleting decapods by trawling was 1012m. The small sized species of Suborder Natantia are the most affected by these changes in their biotopes. In 1980 there were 11 species of decapods living on a hard substratum, Pachygrapsus marmoratus, Pilumnus hirtellus, Xantho poressa and Rhitropanopeus harrisi were the most frequent among them. The big sized species: Crangon crangon, Palaemon adspersus, Palaemon elegans, which were very abundant in the past (19601970), were in the most critical situation. Palaemon adspersus, the most appetizing shrimp of the Romanian decapods was considered almost disappeared. In 2002-2003 we found frequently Palaemon adspersus, more abundant than before at least from Agigea to Eforie Sud. Athanas nitescens lives in anfractuosities in the stones and became very rare in 1980. We found frequently and even at variable depths between 0.5-12m. Hippolyte inermis, Lysmata seticaudata, Philocheras fasciatus, Philocheras trispinosus are considered as disappeared from 1980 (Gutu). In 2002 we found a specimen of Philocheras fasciatus at 2-3m depth, near Agigea dam. From anomurans, Diogenes pugilator is constantly found in our samples and lately it is frequent. We mention the presence of Diogenes pugilator in juveniles shells of Viviparus acerosus and Rapana venosa, about 3cm in length. It seems that there is a tendency of restablishing of a new equilibrum for populations of Clibanarius erythropus. We mention for the first time the presence of Clibanarius erythropus in the juveniles shells of Rapana venosa, about 3cm, at 5m depth, near Agigea dam. Callianassa pontica and Callianassa truncata, mentioned only on the basis of the larvae found on the Romanian coast are considered as disappeared. They were absent in our samples. Pisidia longicornis is frequently again for our littoral. In 2002-2003 we found it in our samples, in the stony superior infralittoral from Agigea-Eforie Nord, among mussels. A better situation is recorded for Brachyura with which out of 10 species known in the past in the fauna of the Romanian littoral, 9 are still present today. If we mention that Macropodia czerniawskii was also rare in the past, practically all the species and subspecies survived. The presence of exotic species Callinectes sapidus and Eriocheir sinensis, originating from Mediterranean waters is a new factor of increasing in biodiversity. They are big sized predators. Adults feed on mollusks, dead and alive fish, shrimps, benthic macroinvertebrates, mollusks spat. Juveniles feed mostly on benthic 18

Changes in biodiversity of decapods (Decapoda, Crustacea) (...) _______________________________________________________________________________________

macroinvertebrates, small fish, dead organisms and this is a reason for being worried about the effects they can produce on autochtonous fauna of invertebrates. Among the species of crabs, which became very rare for our waters, we mention: Liocarcinus arcuatus, Carcinus aestuarii, Eriphia verrucosa. We have to remark that excepting collectings from 1980, 1993-1994 and 20022003, the others were not made especially for decapods: systematical collectings made from a large number of stations were made only in the 60-70s by Bcescu and collaborators. Agigea was the most studied locality along the years, here being a station of marine researching. Tab. 1. Decapods found in 2002-2003 on Romanian littoral Name of species Situation of species 1930-1970 1980 2002-2003 Hippolyte varians frequent very rare very rare Hippolyte inermis very rare disappeared Lysmata seticaudata very rare disappeared Athanas nitescens frequent rare frequent Processa pontica rare disappeared Palaemon adspersus abundant rare frequent Palaemon elegans abundant frequent frequent Crangon crangon abundant abundant frequent Philocheras fasciatus rare disappeared very rare Philocheras trispinosus frequent disappeared Callianassa pontica rare disappeared Callianassa truncata very rare disappeared Upogebia pusilla abundant frequent frequent Clibanarius erythropus rare very rare rare Diogenes pugilator abundant frequent frequent Pisidia longicornis frequent rare frequent Macropodia czerniawskii very rare disappeared Callinectes sapidus rare Carcinus aestuarii frequent frequent rare Liocarcinus arcuatus frequent frequent rare Liocarcinus vernalis abundant frequent frequent Rhitropanopeus harrisi abundant rare frequent Xantho poressa abundant frequent frequent Eriphia verrucosa frequent rare rare Pilumnus hirtellus abundant frequent frequent Brachynotus sexdentatus abundant frequent frequent Eriocheir sinensis rare Pachygrapsus marmoratus abundant rare frequent 19

Snziana Micu and Valeria Abaza _______________________________________________________________________________________

Between 1930-1970 there is a constant presence of decapods in our waters, but it can hardly observe a decreasing of number of populations. Between 1970-1980 it is observed a decreasing of number of species, because of the eutrophication influence. From 1980 to 1990 the number of decapods species is drastically reduced. Only 30% from decapods species survived. Stony, fitophyl, thermophyl and halophyl species were considered as disappeared. After 1990, the intensity of eutrophication and pollution of marine waters has been decreasing, not because of the non-polluting measures, but the economical collapse, after 1989, in the Black Sea river countries. There is a tendency of increasing in biodiversity thanks to maintaining the long term marine pollution at a low level. 2003 year was the first year without a mass algal blooming. Decreasing from 2001 is not a real one, it is because of the lack of researches. In the end of our study we can say that: - an increasing in biodiversity is possible through recovering autochtonous populations or extension of populations of species from Bulgarian or Ucrainean waters, - neozoa influx is another possibility of increasing in biodiversity. In the latel 8 years there are mentioned 2 species of brachyuran decapods: Callinectes sapidus and Eriocheir sinensis. Unfortunately, we assum that they will have a negative impact on ecosystems, if they establish real populations, -there are still missing the fitophyl shrimps because of disappearing of perennial macrophyte, -we mention for the first time the presence of pagurans Diogenes pugilator in juveniles shells of Viviparus acerosus and Clibanarius erythropus in juveniles shells of Rapana venosa. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Andriescu, I., 1977 - Biologie des eaux saumatres de la Mer Noire, IRCM, Constana. Bcescu, M., 1967 - Fauna R.S.R. Crustacea, vol. IV, Fasc. 9: Decapoda, Editura Academiei R.S.R., Bucureti. Bcescu, M., Muller, G., Skolka, H., Petran, A., Elian, V., Gomoiu, M-T., Bodeanu, N., Stnescu, S., 1965 b - Ecologie marin, vol I, Acad. R.P.R., Bucureti, p.185-344. Bcescu, M., Gomoiu, M-T., Bodeanu, N, Petran, A., Muller, G.I., Chiril, V., 1967a - Ecologie marin, vol. II, Ed. Acad. R.S.R., Bucureti, p.7-167. Bcescu, M., Muller, G, Gomoiu, M-T, 1971 - Ecologie marin, vol. IV, Ed. Acad. R.S.R., Bucureti, p.1-357. Enzenross, R., Enzenross, L., Bingel, F., 1997 - Turkish Journal of Zoology, 21, p.113-122. 20

Changes in biodiversity of decapods (Decapoda, Crustacea) (...) _______________________________________________________________________________________

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

Galil, B., Froglia, C., Noel P., 2002 - CIESM Atlas of Exotic Species in the Mediterranean, Crustaceans, CIESM Publisheres, Monaco, p.110-136 Gomoiu, M-T., 1975 - Cercetri Marine, IRCM, Constana, 8, p.105-117. Gomoiu, M-T., 1976 - Cercetri Marine, IRCM, Constana, 9, p.119-142. Gomoiu, M-T., 1981 - Cercetri Marine, , IRCM, Constana, 14, p.109-127. Gomoiu, M-T., 1985 - Cercetri Marine, IRCM, Constana, 18, p. 191-200. Gomoiu, M-T., ignu, V., 1990 - Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Medit.,Monaco, 32, p.2. Gomoiu, M.T., Skolka, M., 1998 - An. Univ.Ovidius Constana, Seria Biologie- Ecologie, vol. II, p.181-202. Guu, M., 1980 - Trav. Mus. Hist. Nat. Gr. Antipa, 21, p.103-109. Mamaev, V., Aubrey, D., Eremeev, V., 1995 - Black Sea Bibliography 19741994, United Nations Publications, New York, p.98-110. Micu (Tilic), D., 2002 - Comunitatea cu Ficomatus enigmaticus- un nou tip de asociaie faunistic n epibioza substratului dur din infralitoralul romnesc al Mrii Negre, Lucrare de licen, Iai, p.16-90. Normant, M., Chrovak, M., 2002 - Oceanologia, 44 (11), p.123-125. Petran, A., 1997 - Black Sea Biological Diversity, United Nations Publications, New York, vol IV, Petrescu, I., Blescu, A., 1995 - Trav. Mus. Hist. Nat.Gr. Antipa, 35, p.99146. Petrescu, I., Papadopol, N., Nicolaev S., 2000 - An. Univ.Ovidius Constana, Seria Biologie- Ecologie, vol. IV, p.222-227. ignu, V., 1972 - Cercetri Marine, IRCM, Constana, 4, p.153-167. ignu, V., 1975 - Cercetri Marine, IRCM, Constana, 8, p.91-104. ignu, V., 1975 - Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Medit., Monaco, 23, p.131-132. Zaitsev, Y., Ozturk, B., 2001 - Exotic species in the Aegean, Marmara, Black, Azov and Caspian seas, Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Istanbul, Turkey, pp102-127 Zaitsev, Y., Mamaev, V., 1997 - Biological Diversity in the Black Sea, a Study of Change and Decline, United Nations Publications, New York, vol. III, p.49-70.

21

Tab.2. Name of the authors who made researches about decapods from Romanian Black Sea coast Species Hippolyte varians Leach, 1814 Hippolyte inermis Leach 1815 Lysmata seticaudata Risso 1816 Athanas nitescens Leach 1813 Processa pontica Sowinsky 1882 Palaemon adspersus Rathke 1837 Palaemon elegans Rathke 1837 Crangon crangon Linnaeus 1758 1930-1970
+ Bacescu + Bacescu + Bacescu + Bacescu, Tiganus + Bacescu + Bacescu + Bacescu + Bacescu

1971-1980
+ Gutu, Tiganus + Bacescu + Bacescu + Gutu, Bacescu + Bacescu + Bacescu, Gutu + Bacescu, Gutu, Tiganus + Bacescu, Gutu

1981-1990
-

1991-1995
-

1996-2000
+ Micu + Micu, Abaza + Micu, Abaza + Micu, Abaza

2001
+ Micu + Micu + Micu + Micu, Abaza

2002-2003
+ Micu, Abaza + Micu + Micu + Micu, Abaza

+ Petrescu + Petrescu, Micu + Micu

+ Petrescu -

Species Philocheras fasciatus Risso 1816 Philocheras trispinosus Hailstone 1835 Callianassa truncata Giard et Bonnier 1890 Callianassa pontica Czerniavsky 1884 Upogebia pusilla Petagna 1792 Clibanarius erythropus Latreille 1818 Diogenes pugilator Roux 1828 Pisidia longicornis Linnaeus 1767 Macropodia cyerniawskii Brandt, 1890

1930-1970
+ Bacescu + Bacescu + Bacescu + Bacescu + Bacescu + Bacescu + Bacescu + Bacescu, Tiganus + Bacescu

1971-1980
+ Bacescu + Bacescu + Bacescu + Bacescu + Bacescu, Gutu + Bacescu, Gutu + Bacescu, Gutu + Bacescu, Gutu -

1981-1990
-

1991-1995
-

1996-2000
+ Micu + Micu + Micu -

2001
+ Micu, Abaza + Micu + Micu -

2002-2003
+ Micu + Micu + Micu + Micu, Abaza + Micu -

+ Petrescu -

+ Petrescu, Micu -

23

Snziana Micu and Valeria Abaza _______________________________________________________________________________________

Species Callinectes sapidus Rathbun 1896

1930-1970
-

1971-1980
-

1981-1990
-

1991-1995
-

1996-2000
+ Gomoiu, Skolka, Petrescu, Nicolaev + Micu, Abaza -

2001
+ Gomoiu, Skolka

2002-2003
+ Gomoiu, Skolka, Papadopol + Abaza -

Carcinus aestuarii Nardo 1847 Liocarcinus arcuatus Leach 1815 Liocarcinus vernalis Risso 1818 Rhithropanopaeus harrisi Maitland 1874

+ Bacescu, Andriescu + Bacescu + Bacescu + Bacescu

+ Bacescu, Gutu + Bacescu, Gutu + Bacescu, Gutu + Bacescu, Gutu

+ Petrescu -

+ Petrescu -

+ Abaza -

+ Petrescu + Petrescu

+ Petrescu + Petrescu

+ Micu + Micu

+ Micu, Abaza

+ Micu, Abaza

Xantho poressa Olivi 1792

+ Bacescu

+ Bacescu, Gutu

+ Petrescu

+ Petrescu, Micu

+ Micu, Abaza

+ Micu

+ Micu

24

Species Eriphia verrucosa Forskal 1775 Pilumnus hirtellus Linnaeus 1766 Brachynotus sexdentatus Risso 1827 Eriocheir sinensis H.Milne-Edwards 1853 Pachygrapsus marmoratus Fabricius 1787

1930-1970
+ Bacescu, Andriescu + Bacescu, Andriescu + Bacescu Vasiliu

1971-1980
+ Bacescu, Gutu + Bacescu, Gutu + Bacescu, Gutu -

1981-1990
-

1991-1995
-

1996-2000
+ Micu + Micu + Micu + Gomoiu, Skolka + Micu, Abaza

2001
+ Micu, Abaza + Micu, Abaza -

2002-2003
+ Micu, Abaza + Micu, Abaza + Micu -

+ Petrescu + Petrescu -

+ Petrescu -

+ Bacescu, Andriescu

+ Bacescu, Gutu

+ Petrescu

+ Petrescu, Micu

+ Micu

+ Micu, Abaza

25

D eca p od a

d iv e r s it y t r e n d

30

25

No. of species

20

15

10

0 1 11 21 31

41

51

61

71

Fig. 1.Decapoda diversity trend

26

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 _______________________________________________________________________________________

ECOLOGICAL FISH FEEDING STRATEGIES IN AQUACULTURE


BY

COSTIC MISIL1

Keywords: aquaculture, fish feed management; trout and carp diets, water quality Starting from the existing literature data, and also backed up by the results of his own investigations, the author of the study synthesizes the relations established between the basic elements of the fish feeding management in aquaculture. The leading idea considered is that, with a view to contributing to the societys durable development, aquaculture should harmoniously combine the economic with the ecological concerns. Consequently, a performant feed management should maintain aquaculture as an efficient human activity, affecting in no way the ecological equilibria of the aquatic ecosystems. Besides evidencing the importance of precise knowledge on the ecosystems natural food, the basic aspects contributing to a suitable selection of the additional feeds are analysed, together with the methods for their processing, storage and administration. The paper demonstrates, as based on original data, that in the case of both cyprinides and rainbow trout, the utilisation of qualitatively inadequate or of unsuitably processed feeds, alongwith the selection of unproper feeding methods or rations in exces reduce the fish production, cause a higher catabolite ratio and higher ratios of noningested food. At the same time, some concrete measures for the protection of the aquatic medium for aquaculture are put forward.

Introduction Closing of the second Millenium finds out the worldwide aquaculture as a human activity in definite progress. Only over the 1994-1998 period, the rhythm of aquaculture development all over the world was of about 11%. On the other hand, the total farmed fish production exceeded 30% of the global aquacultural biomass, (fig.1) and increased 3 times in this period, from 10.2 million tonnes, i.e. 11.4% of total fisheries landings in 1994, to 39.4 million tonnes, i.e. 31.1% in 1998 (MISRA et al., 2003). Such a trend is based on the increased availability and large-scale utilization of aquaculture feeds, paralleled by improved methods of water quality management, disease control and general performant tehnologies in fish husbandry. Nowadays, most developing countries and many developed ones have extended the use of artificially compounded aquafeeds for farmed fishes and invertebrates. This is due to their extremely profitable character, for both breeding of less valuable from an economic viewpoint species, although largely utilized in the alimentation of poor countries
___________________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Costic Misil _________________________________________________________________________________________

people, facing the problem of insufficient food (carp, tilapia and catfish), and high valued species intended for luxury and rich markets from the developed countries (shrimp, salmon, trout, yellowtail, seabass, a.s.o.).
Fig.1: World fish production between 1994 and 1998 (MISRA et al., 2003)
45 40 35 Million tonnes 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 10.15 39.43

31.1%

11.4%

1994

1998

Fig.2: World aquafeeds production between 1990 and 2000 (CHAMBERLAIN, 1993)
5 4 3 2 1 0 2.9 4.6

Million tonnes

1990

2000

2. Fish feeding management in aquaculture The increased use of aquafeeds has stimulated the rapid development of the production sector, which became one of the fastest expanding agricultural industries in the world. Some statistical data evidence the increase of the world aquafeeds production (fig.2) in the 1990-2000 decade, from 2.9 to 4.6 million tons, which means an average yearly growing ratio of up to 30% (CHAMBERLAIN, 1993; TACON, 1996). Such a tendency of modernizing fish feeding in aquaculture was manifested in Romania, as well, starting with 1989, both by the stimulation of performant feeds imports and by the realization of autochtonous receipts. 244

Ecological fish feeding strategies in aquaculture _________________________________________________________________________________________

A suitable managemet of farmed fish feeding in aquaculture should be based on a holistic approaching of the phenomena, so that to reach optimum levels of efficiency and profitableness, without affecting, in any way the ecological balance within the ecosystem. In other words, the economic interests should harmoniously match the ecological one. That is why, the researchers concerns remain still focused on the preparation of diets that should fully meet the alimentary requirements of reared organisms, known as varying considerably from one species to another, or even within one and the same species, among individuals of different age or sex (for example, with the same food, common carp and eel females grow faster than male fish, unlike the channel catfish and tilapia, male fish, grow faster than female fish). According to the fish feeding habit (herbivorous, omnivorous or carnivorous), a certain assortment structure of the diets is selected. The selection criteria of the ingredients incorporated include both their chemical composition and cost, and equally their digestibility level, so that the ratio of catabolites released in the environment should be minimum. Also, the quality of the raw materials and finite products handling and storage, alongwith the feeding method employed and amount of daily ration represent significant elements, conditioning the extent of food acceptance and consumption, the quantity of noningested wastes included, and especially bioconversion efficiency. Consequently, by mens of food, one may control both the amount, quality and cost of the production obtained on one hand -, and the health condition of the captive fish stock, the quality of basins water (fig. 3), especially, on the other. 3. Selection of the adequate fish food type The most important element in fish feeding managemet is the selection of appropriate feeds, able to satisfy all nutritional requirements of farmed fishes. The three categories of feeds commonly used in aquaculture are: wet feeds with moisture contents of 50-70%, moist formulated feeds with moisture contents of 20-40% and dry pelleted feeds with moisture contents of less than 10%. Since problems are associated with the distribution, handling, utilization, storage and quality of wet feeds and moist feeds, more and more dry feeds are manufactured either by steam pelleting or by extrusion pelleting. The results of the nutrition investigations performed all over the world have been materialized in the existence of several fodder types, meeting the requirements of a large range of options, as to: diversification on species and age; control of floatability; particle stability in water; pigmentation degree; the protein/energy ratio; the content of drug substances; pollution prevention, a.s.o.

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A proper selection of the adequate fodder assumes firstly knowledge of the six major classes of nutrients that assure the organisms energy and take part in tissues maintenance and growth: proteins, lipids, hydrocarbons, minerals, vitamins and water. The optimum physiological requirements for such nutrients differ considerably as a function of species, age and sex, and equally as a function of the available natural food. Thus, a diet containing 30-35% crude protein is vieved as optimum for carp rearing, while the optimum amount of protein for the rainbow trout lies between 38 and 50%, namely: 38-42% for the one year old rainbow trout; 40-45% for fry and fingerling 246

Ecological fish feeding strategies in aquaculture _________________________________________________________________________________________

ones, and, respectively 45-50% for the sires (BATTES et al., 1975; MISAILA et al., 1976; WATANABE et al., 1987; MORALES et al., 1994). One should mention the fact that attainment of the percent level of raw protein in the diet is a necessary, yet not sufficient condition, once known that, simultaneously, at least two other legal requirements should be met, related on the side -, to the nature of the incorporated protein and on the other - to the protein/energy ratio in the diet. For example, in rainbow trout feeding, besides the large amount of raw protein required in the diet, it is necessary that at least 50% of this protein should be of animal origin, while in its turn - half of it should come from fish meal, an aspect much less restrictive in the case of common carp and other reared cyprinides. The strict observance of such requirements is sometimes neglected in practice, the economic losses recorded evidencing the necessity of a professional type of feeding management. Our data evidenced that the production losses caused by protein deficiency in the common carp diet amount to 28.4% (fig. 4), while the percent ratio decrease between the animal and the vegetal protein (AP:VP) in the rainbow trout diet (fig. 5), from 44: 56 to 0:100, caused a production loss of 51.7% (MISAILA et al., 1990; 2002).
Fig.4: Common carp weight gain as a function of food protein level
700 600 g/piece/162 days 500 400 300 200 100 0 40% FCP 30% FCP 20% FCP 633 100% 100% 541 85.5% 453 71.6% 71.6%
FCP = food crude protein FCP = food crude proteins

Variants

247

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Fig.5: Rainbow trout weight gain as a function of AP:VP food percent ratio
70 60 g/piece/100 days 50 40 30 20 10 0 AP:VP 44:56 44:56 AP:VP 20:80 20:80 AP;VP 6:94 6:94 59.4 100% 100% 53.9 90.7%
AP = % animal protein AP = % animal proteins AP = animal proteins VP = vegetal proteins VP = % vegetal protein vegetal proteins

44.1 74.2% 74.2% 28.7 48.3% 48.3% 0:100 0:100

Variants

Nevertheless, the proteins from the recipe may be saved through their partial substitution with lipids or even carbohydrates, on condition of keeping an optimum protein:energy (P:E) ratio. For example, for the normal development of common carp juveniles (C1+), the value of the P:E ratio is of 90-95 mg/kcal (MAGOUZ, 1990) while, for the common carp fryies (C0+), the value recommended for this ratio is of 109 mg/kcal (MEDALE & GUILLAUME, 1999), worth mentioning being the fact that its possible diminution, up to 75 mg/kcal, might be obtained by substituing the protein with easilydigestible lipids, which does not affect fish growth. Increasing the lipid level in common carp food by addition of fish oil, as well of soya and sunflower oils - led to certain additional production growths, up to 6-7% (STEFFENS, 1977). In the case of the production carp (C1+), fed with low protein level diets (27-33% crude protein), fodders plastic performances were improved by the addition of sunflower oil. Therefore, the partial substitution of the protein with 5-10% lipids (fig. 6), resulting in decreasing of the P:E ratio from 101 to 73 mg/kcal led to the obtention of some supplementary weight gains of 12-26%. A possible explanation might be that the organisms energetic requirements are taken over by the lipids, wihe the proteins are more efficiently employed for plastic purposes. An important characteristics of the additional aquafeeds is the presence in their composition of some ingredients of fishing origin (such as fish oil, fish meal, crustacean byproduct meals, trash fish etc.). Such products represent between 50-70% by weight of compound aquafeeds for most farmed carnivorous finfish species, and between 25 and 50% by weight of the marine shrimp diets (MISRA et al., 2003).

248

Ecological fish feeding strategies in aquaculture _________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.6: Common carp weight gain as a fonction of P:E food ratio


80 70 g/piece/64 days 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
101.6 101.6 mg/kcal. mg/kcal 86.6 86.6 mg/kcal. mg/kcal 73.7 73.7 mg/kcal. mg/kcal
P:E ==protein:energy (mg/kcal) P:E proteins : energy (mg/kcal)

66 59 100% 112%

74.5 126%

Variants

Fig.7: Rainbow trout fry weight gain fed with Spirulina biomass as partial (trial 1) and total (trial 2) substitute of fish meal
4000 3500 mg/piece/60 days 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0
Control Control S 10% S 10% Control

3662 3060
100% 100%

2989 97.5% 97.5%

100%

S= S = Spirulina Spirulina

1186
32.4% S 100%

Trial 1

Trial 2

As the necessity of fish meal exceeds by far the predictable stocks, several alternative ingredients, that might support a durable development of aquaculture in the present millenium, have to be considered. Among such alternative ingredients of animal origin, mention should be make of: meat meal, blood meal, shell fish meal, flour obtained from poultry farming subproducts, etc. The list of substituents of vegetal origin is much more ample, including different types of biomass (of bacterian, algal and fungus type), as well as soya, sunflower or even cereal groats. Replacement of fish meal represents quite a laborious step as, besides its high protein (60-65%) and energy (2.720 kcal/kg) content, this fodder type is characterized by a total digestibility of the forage (TDF) of 70%, and a biological value of the proteins (BVP) characterized by a high content of essential aminoacids, especially methionine, cystine and lysine, 72% of these essential aminoacids occurring as balanced ratios. 249

Costic Misil _________________________________________________________________________________________

Usually, a group of 2-3 ingredients is being formed (meat meal, soya groats, fodder yeast, wheat bran, dicalcic phosphate, fodder aminoacids, etc), in precisely calculated participation ratios, able of substituting a certain fish meal ratio. The unidirectional fish meal substitution, especially with vegetal non-balanced kinds, defficitary of essential aminoacids, causes significant retards as to fishes bodily weight (figs. 7 and 8) to which in the case of trout and of other carnivorous species certain perturbations of the alimentary behaviour should be added, such as exacerbation of cannibalism (MISAILA et. al 1980; 1981a; 1981b). The advances recorded in the substitution of fish meal with alternative ingredients are related both to the development and utilization of modern techniques of aquafeeds processing and production, and to the elaboration of some new diets, extending the utilization of some specific additives, such as feeding stimulators, free aminoacids, fodder enzymes, probiotics, immunostimulators, etc. In this way, the ingredients digestibility and the biological value of the incorporated proteins are improved, while the ratio of catabolites released in the growing medium is reducing. For example, incorporation of natural zeolites from vulcanic tuffs in the concentrated food of farming animals has benefic effects on the general physiological condition, the growing increase included, as well (MUMPTON et al.,1977; TORII, 1978). The observation was made that enriching of the rainbow trouts food with 15% Mirsid tuff (MISAILA et al., 1990) induces an additional weight gain of 14% (fig. 9).
Fig.8: Weight gain in rainbow trout fingerling fed with Cladophora and Scenedesmus biomass as partial (5%) fish meal substitute
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 39.4 100% 28.5 74.9% 26.5 67.2%

g/piece/80 days

Control

Cladophora Scenedesmus Variants

250

Ecological fish feeding strategies in aquaculture _________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.9: Weight gain in rainbow trout fingerling fed diet containing 15% natural zeolites from Mirsid volcanic tuffs
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

44.5 39 114.1% 114% 100%

Weight gain (g/piece/77 days

Control

Tuff 15%

Variants

Such effects may be explained by the more efficient utilization of the nitrogen present in food (the protein retention increasing with 16%), as a result the additives protective effect versus the toxic levels of the ammonium occurring in the digestive tract. 4. Selection of the aquafeeds processing, handling and administration methods A suitable and relatively uniform grinding of all ingredients from the diet contributes to the obtention of a homogeneous mixture, increases granules stability in water and favourizes an uniform access and the hydrolyzing action of the digestive fluids. Even the raw materials with a superior chemical composition will give poor results if grossly ground. For example, only fine grinding of the soya groats, which represent 1/5 of the trout diet (fig. 10), leads to additional growth increases, up to 10%, comparatively with an identical composition diet, yet with grossly ground soya groats Besides the increase of the plastic performances of diets, a fine grinding of the compounding raw materials represents, too, a means of protecting waters quality, if considering that the more complete assimilation of the ingested food lowers the content of catabolites released in the environment. Feed pelleting for aquaculture represented an immense leap, regarding both fish balanced feeding with modern diets, including vitamino-mineral, biostimulating, drug, immunoprotecting microcomponents and reduction of the losses of noningested food, which increases nutrientsinput into the ecosystem. More than that, besides an easy handling and the advantages of storage and preservation they present, pelleted fooders permit a perfect sizing of alimentary particles to fishesdimension, favourizing the introduction of automated feeding in industrial-type farms. All such facilitaties brought about an unparalleled extension of granulated food application in aquaculture. Some researches (MISAILA et al., 1995) performed on the common carp evidenced that granulation increases fodders price by 10-15%, however, the additional production thus obtained may exceed by 50% the one attained with an 251

Costic Misil _________________________________________________________________________________________

identical composition, yet nongranulated diet (fig. 11). Finally, it is obvious that the fine ingredient grinding and a optimal finished feeds particle size, which affects the growth and feed conversion efficiency, represent equally important management elements, from both economic and ecological points of view.
Fig.10: Weight gain in rainbow trout fingerlings, as a function of grinding fineness of the soya groats from diets
60 50 g/piece/77days 40 30 20 10 0 49 44.5 100% 110.1%

Control

Fine groats

Variants

Fig.11: Weight gain in common carp, as a fonction of the type of supplementary food
300 252 250 g/piece/145 days 200 150 100 50 0 165 100% 100% 152.7% 152.7%

UNPELLETED PELLETED

Variants

Storage of dry, pelleted diets requires optimal levels of moisture and temperature. Under poor storage conditions, serious problems in feeds may arise from loss of vitamins, contamination with toxins, very dangerous for fishes, and from the effects of oil rancidity. The aquafeds preserved in deposits should be labelled in 252

Ecological fish feeding strategies in aquaculture _________________________________________________________________________________________

accordance with national and international regulations in force, a strict inventory of the inputs and outputs being made. However, in some fish farms, the classical administration of unpelleted feeds, preceeded by their moistening, is still applied. Also, dry pellets are administered using the traditional hand feeding method , except of a few modern marine farms or some intensive or superintensive, freshwater stockfarms, in which automated feeding devices have been introduced. They may be operated by means of a programmed clock or through self-feeding of fishes which, on the basis of conditioned reflexes, provoke the release of some parts of their daily ration. In aquaculture, the daily food ration is calculated as a percent of total weigth of the fish population from an aquaculture pond . To this end, feed equations or feeding charts establishing the necessary percent as a function of fish size, water temperature and total biomass of the batch are applied (LEITRITZ, 1969; GUILLAUME et al., 1999). Besides feeding in restricted amounts (according to the ration), food administartion ad libitum (i.e., in excess) up to apparent satiation is practised, for catching the moment in which fishes start not eating, any more. The literature data recommends, with a certain reserve, of course, feeding ad libitum, as well as the utilization of feeding devices based on conditioned reflex, as a result of a higher food consumption - in spite of the fact that the increases recorded exceed the ones obtained by rationalized feeding. For example, in the case of the one year old rainbow trout, reared in cages and fed ad libitum (MISAILA et al., 1979), an additional production of 41%, has been obtained, comparatively with the rationalized feeding (fig.12), at an additional feed consumption of 35%. From an ecological viewpoint, of special interest are exclusively the feeding methods of limiting as much as possible the losses of non-ingested food. These leftovers become organic wastes which, together with the dead natural biomass and the excretory products (catabolites) released by the fish under culture, is associated with high BOD, the toxicity of NH3, SH2 and CH4 contributing to the eutrophication and, further on, pollution of the ecosystem in which the aquaculture is practised. 5. Influence of aquaculture on water and sediment charging with nutrients Naturally, both water and the sediments of aquatic basins are exposed to an evolutive process of nutrient accumulation which, depending on the local hydrometeorological and biological conditions, may be slower or faster. Since the introduction of aquaculture activities, the eutrophising pressure upon the ecosystem has been considerably higher. Theoretically, any agglomeration of captive and artificially fed fishes induces a local organic water and sediments charging, which is proportional to the reared biomass. The main overflown nutritive elements are C, N and P, however, such elements produce unequal effects on the eutrophication processes. According to STUMM et al. (1971), the algal N requirement is more than 16 times higher than that of P, so that small P amounts may eutrophise to a considerable extent, which means that P may serve as a synthetic index of some waters organic charge. 253

Costic Misil _________________________________________________________________________________________

A rainbow trout commercial diet, with 40% crude proteins, contains around 1.5% P (TACON et DA SILVA, 1983), which means that, with each tonne of pelleted food, 15 kg P are being introduced into the ecosystem. If the FCR value is 1, there follows that this amount of P is introduced into water for each tonne of produced trout. From this input, the amount of P fixed in the carcass (0,48%) - i.e., 4.8 kgP/tonne of fish is subtracted, thus resulting a remanent charging of water and sediments of 10.2 kg P for each tonne of delivered trout. If diets digestibility and the biological value of proteins are lower, the FCR value increases and, consequently, the amounts of remanent P also arise, reaching values of 32.7 kg/tonne of fish, if the value of food conversion is of 2.5 (fig. 13).
Fig.12: Weight gain in the one-year-old rainbow trout as a function of feeding method
50 g/piece/100 days 40 30 20 10 0 32.7 100% 100% 46.4 141.9%

RATIONALLY AD LIBITUM

Variants

Fig.13: Remanent phosphorus into water in rainbow trout fed with six diets containing 40% crude protein, but different FCR values
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

37.2 32.7 25.2 17.7 7.2 0.8 0.8 10.2 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 2.0 2.0 2.5 2.5 2.8 2.8

kg P / tonne fish produced

FCR values (kg ingested food / 1 kg weight gain )

Apart from their theoretical character, such calculations evidence the amplitude that the uncontrolled exploitation of the aquatic resource might reach, alongwith the 254

Ecological fish feeding strategies in aquaculture _________________________________________________________________________________________

absolute necessity that the management of fish feeding, in aquaculture, should be viewed as a basic concept, substantiated on strategies of both economic and ecological nature. Conclusions 1. In order to preserve aquacultures benefic character for mankind, this activity should efficiently produce useful biomass, in parallels with maintaining the quality of the aquatic environment. Such purpose requires, beyond any doubt, a professional type of fish feeding management, capable of obeying both economic and ecological criteria; 2. The literature data, our own results included, evidence that the utilization of qualitatively unsuitable or unproperly processed fodders, alongwith the application of inadequate foddering methods or excess rations reduce the production of both cyprinides and rainbow trout and increases the catabolite ratio and that of noningested food; 3. The measures taken for protecting the quality of the aquatic medium, already in force in some reputed in such problems countries, e.g., Demnark, Norway, France, etc., represent conditions for obtaining the notifications necessary in aquaculture farms operation referring mainly to: making the farmers conscious of the necessity of a suitable processing of the raw materials, as well as the utilization of granulated fodders, which assures the protection of waters quality; prohibition, by legal means, of unsuitably conditioned fodders, with ecologically unacceptable digestibility; permanent granting of a strictly specialized technical assistance, for the fish farms; adequate equipments of the nutrition laboratories, that would permit differentiation of the authentic fodders from the forged ones, containing substituients with unsuitable digestibility, as well as the possibility of an operative control of the catabolite ratio. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Battes, K. W., Misaila, C., Artenie, Vl., 1975 - Brevet RSR nr.68.334 Chamberlain, G.W., 1993 - World Aquaculture, 24 (1):19-29 Cutuhan M., 1979 - Symp.on prod and use of fish meal, Bucureti, C, 1-C. 13 Guillaume J., Kaushik S., Bergot P., Metailler R. (ed), Nutrition et alimentation des poissons et crustaces, INRA Editions, IFREMER 485 p. Leitritz E., 1969 - Die Praxis der Forellenzucht, Ed.P.Parey, Berlin, New York Magouz F.I., 1990 - Studies on optimal protein and energy supply for tilapia (O. niloticus), in intensive culture, Teza de doctorat, Univ. GottingenGermania Medale Francoise, Guillaume J.,Nutrition energetique, in:Guillaume J. et col. (ed.), Nutrit. et alimentation des poissons et crustaces, INRA Ed., IFREMER 485 p. Misaila C., Battes K.W., Artenie Vl., 1976 - Brevet RSR nr.68.335 Misaila C., Misaila Elena. Rada, 1979 - Tr. St.Stejarul, Limnol. 7, 391-395 255

Costic Misil _________________________________________________________________________________________

10. 11 12. 13. 14. 15 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

Misaila C.,Artenie Vl., 1980 - Trav.Station Stejarul, Limnol. 8, 107-115 .Misaila C., Misaila Elena Rada, Caraus I., 1981a - Trav.Station Stejarul, Limnol. 9, 345-352 Misaila C., Misaila El. Rada, Caraus I., 1981b - Trav.Stat. Stejarul, Limnol. 9, 353-361 Misaila C., Misaila Elena Rada, 1986 - Referat tiinific parial, tema ICAS, 8., 46, D Misaila C., Misaila Elena Rada, Marton Al., Bucur N., 1990 - Lucr.S.C.P. Piscicol Iai, 1, 223-230 .Misaila C., Misaila Elena Rada, 1990 - Lucr.S.C.P. Piscicol Iai, 1, 191-200 Misaila C., Watson J., Misaila Elena Rada, 1995 - Lucr. Simpoz. Interna. AQUAROM95, Galai, 223-228 Misaila C., Misaila Elena Rada, 2002 Analele t. Ale Univ. Al.I.Cuza din Iai, vol. omagial, 266-273 Misaila C.K., Das B.K., Mohanta K.N., 2003 - Farmer International file, vol. 17, 1, 16-17 i vol.26, 2, 16-17 Morales A.E., Cardenete G., Dela Higuera M., , Sanza A., 1994 - Aquaculture, 124, 117-126 Mumpton Fr. A., Fishman P.H., 1977 - J. of Animal Sci., vol.45 (9) Steffens W., 1977 - Fish Nutrit. and Feed Develop., Internat. Seminary, Hungary, 76-93 Stum W., Leckie J.D., 1971 - Adv. Water Pollut. Res., 5 (III-26):1-16 Tacon A. G. J., Da Silva S. S., 1983 - Aquacultura, 31, 11-20 Tacon A. G. J., 1996 - Internat. Milling Directory, Uxbridge, Turrer-RAI, 90108 Torii K., 1978 - Nat. Zeol. Occ. properties use, ed. Sand L.B., Mumpton Fr.A., Perg. Press, Oxford and N.Y., 353-371

256

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PTEROMALIDAE (HYMENOPTERA: CHALCIDOIDEA) NEW TO ROMANIA (I)


BY

MIRCEA-DAN MITROIU1

Key words: Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae, genera and species new to Romania The genera Arthrolytus Thomson, 1878 and Eulonchetron Graham, 1966, and the species Arthrolytus discoideus (Nees, 1834), Eulonchetron torymoides (Thomson, 1878), Glyphognathus laevigatus (Delucchi, 1953), Sphegigaster brevicornis (Walker, 1833), Seladerma tarsale (Walker, 1833), Systasis longula Bouek, 1956, Coelopisthia areolata Askew, 1980 and Meraporus rambouseki Bouek, 1961 are recorded for the first time in Romania. For four species, Romania is the eastern limit of their distribution.

Introduction Two genera and eight species of pteromalids found for the first time in Romania are presented in this note. They belong to the subfamilies Miscogasterinae and Pteromalinae. For each species information on the collected material, the geographical distribution, as well as their hosts, is given. The species in each subfamily are presented in alphabetical order. Material and Methods All the individuals except those of Coelopisthia areolata Askew and Eulonchetron torymoides (Thomson), which were reared in laboratory in 1998 and 2003, were collected using a sweeping net, during the summers of 1998 and 2001. Results Subfamily Miscogasterinae Genus Glyphognathus Graham, 1956 Glyphognathus laevigatus (Delucchi, 1953) Identified material: 1, Rodnei Mountains, 29. VIII. 2001, on grasses. Geographical distribution: Czech Republic, Hungary, Montenegro, Sweden, United Kingdom /10/. Romania is so far the eastern limit of its distribution. Biology: primary parasitoid of Agromyzidae (Diptera) /10/.
_______________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Mircea Dan Mitroiu

Note: Some characters of this specimen are intermediate between G. laevigatus (Delucchi) and G. laevis (Delucchi). Antenna with combined length of pedicellus and flagellum about 1.30 times the breadth of head. Sixth funicular segment subquadrate, the others distinctly longer than broad. Head in dorsal view about 2 times as broad as long. Gastral petiole about 1.5 times as long as broad. Body green with bronze reflects dorsally and laterally. Graham /9/ also states that G. laevigatus is very close to laevis (p. 213). Genus Seladerma Walker, 1834 Seladerma tarsale (Walker, 1833) Identified material: 1, Vratec (Neam county), 8. VII. 1998, on grasses near coniferous forest. Geographical distribution: Czech Republic, Greenland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom /10/. Graham /9/ states that In British Isles it is the commonest species of the genus and may be found almost everywhere, even in large cities (in parks and other suitable places). (p. 202). Romania is so far the eastern limit of its distribution. Biology: primary parasitoid of Agromyzidae (Diptera) /9, 10/. Genus Sphegigaster Spinola, 1811 Sphegigaster brevicornis (Walker, 1833) Identified material: 1, Valea lui David Natural Reserve (Iai county), 8. V. 1999, on steppe vegetation. Geographical distribution: Ireland, Italy, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom /10/. Biology: primary parasitoid of Agromyzidae (Diptera) /10/. Genus Systasis Walker, 1834 Systais longula Bouek, 1956 Identified material: 1, Vratec (Neam county), 18. VII. 1998, on grasses near mountain stream. Geographical distribution: China, former Czechoslovakia /10/. Biology: unknown. Subfamily Pteromalinae Genus Arthrolytus Thomson, 1878 new genus to Romania There are nine Palearctic species of Arthrolytus known so far /10/. Four species are parasitoids of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera), other four are associated with galls of Cynipidae (Hymenoptera) on Quercus and one species was reared from acorns attacked by Curculionidae (Coleoptera) /6, 8/. 86

Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) new to Romania (I)

Arthrolytus discoideus (Nees, 1834) Identified material: 1, Popricani (Iai county), 8. VI. 2001, on vegetation near apple orchard. Geographical distribution: Caucasus, Czech Republic, Germany, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom /10/. Biology: unknown. Flight period: VIII-IX /9/, but also earlier (VI) considering the present record. Genus Coelopisthia Frster, 1856 Coelopisthia areolata Askew, 1980 Identified material: 52 and 1 reared together from an unidentified lepidopteran pupa collected under a fallen tree trunk in a deciduous forest, Brnova (Iai county), 23. VI. 1998. The adults emerged through a single round lateral hole at the anterior end of the pupa. Geographical distribution: Germany, United Kingdom /10/. Romania is so far the eastern limit of its distribution. Biology: gregarious endoparasitoid in lepidopteran pupae (unknown species). Note: The fact that a female managed to find a very well hidden host demonstrates the great host location ability of this species. Genus Eulonchetron Graham, 1966 new genus to Romania Two species of Eulonchetron are known: E. torymoides (Thomson) in Europe and North America, and E. sinense Huang & Liu in China. A very long and narrow gaster characterizes the adults of these species. Eulonchetron torymoides (Thomson, 1878) Identified material: 6 and 7 reared from galls of Pontania viminalis (L.) (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae) on leaves of Salix sp., Asu (Bacu county), 6. VIII. 2003. Geographical distribution: Canada, Croatia, former Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Germany, Sweden, United Kingdom /10/. Romania is so far the eastern limit of its distribution. Biology: primary parasitoid of gall-making Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera) /1, 9, 10/. Genus Meraporus Walker, 1834 Meraporus rambouseki Bouek, 1961 Identified material: 1, wings rudimentary, Rodnei mountains, 17. VIII. 2001, on grasses at about 1900 m altitude. Geographical distribution: Bulgaria (Stara Planina mountains /4/), former Czechoslovakia /10/. 87

Mircea Dan Mitroiu

Biology: unknown.
Acknowledgements: I thank Prof. Dr. Ionel Andriescu, Al. I. Cuza University, for kindly revising the manuscript.

Bibliography 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Askew, R. R., 1962 Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. Lond., 31 (1-2): 1-3; Askew, R. R., 1980 Syst. Ent., 5: 1-6; Boucek, Z., 1955 Acta Ent. Mus. Nat. Pragae, XXX (462): 305-330; Boucek, Z., 1961 Acta Ent. Mus. Nat. Pragae, XXXIV (579): 55-95; Boucek, Z., 1965 Acta Faun. Ent. Mus. Nat. Pragae, 11: 5-38; Boucek, Z., 1967 Acta Ent. Mus. Nat. Pragae, 37: 635-647; Bouek, Z., 1968 Acta Ent. Mus. Nat. Pragae, 12 (132): 231-260; Bouek, Z. & Rasplus, J. Y., 1991 Illustrated key to West-Palearctic Genera of Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), INRA, Paris, pp. 143; 9. Graham, M. W. R. de V., 1969 Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent., Suppl. 16: 1908; 10. Noyes, J. S., 2003 Universal Chalcidoidea Database. World Wide Web electronic publication, http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/chalcidoids/index.html [accessed 25-NOV-2003].

88

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004

HYMNOPTRES PARASITODES (CHALCIDOIDEA, HYMENOPTERA) DU POU DE SAN JOS - QUADRASPIDIOTUS PERNICIOSUS COMSTOCK (DIASPIDIDAE, HOMOPTERA) DE LA ZONE CENTRALE DE LA MOLDAVIE (ROUMANIE)
PAR

IOAN MOGLAN1

Mots-clef: pou de San Jos, complexe parasitaire, parasitodes, lefficience des parasitodes On a analys 2162 individus de parasitodes de Quadraspidiotus perniciosus collects de 4 localits de la Moldavie et on a identifi sept espces de la surfamille Chalcidoidea, les familles: Encyrtidae (Zaomma lambinus), Aphelinidae (Aphytis proclia, Aphytis mytilaspidis, Pteroptrix dimidiata, Archenomus longicornis et Coccophagoides similis ) et Thysanidae (Thysanus ater). En notre cas, dans tous les chantillons et dans toutes les localits, lespce dominante a t A. proclia. En ce qui concerne lefficience des parasitodes, les pourcentages de parasitisme ont eu, en gnral, de faibles valeurs, tant comprises entre 4,0% Scobleni 1997 et 11,7% Bucium 1982. Lespce la plus efficiente a t A. proclia qui a parasit entre 4,0 et 11,1% de Q. perniciosus.

Le pou de San Jos est un ravageur cosmopolite, qui produit des dgts remarquables surtout dans les pays des zones tempre et mditerranene (Balachowsky et Mesnil 1935). En Roumanie, il est rpandu dans toutes les rgions du pays, tant mentionnes plus de 80 espces des plantes attaques (Svescu 1982). Des dgts remarquables produits notamment au pommier. Des tudes concernant le complexe parasitaire de Quadraspidiotus perniciosus ont t ffctues partout dans le monde. En Roumanie, ainsi des tudes ont t ffctues par Rogojanu (1955) en Transylvanie qui mentionne deux espces de parasitodes (Aphytis proclia et Aphytis mytilaspidis) puis Margareta Booc (1965) pour la mme zone mentionne trois espces (Pteroptrix dimidiata, Archenomus maritimus et Thysanus ater) et Andriescu et Veronica Saucinianu (1972-1973) qui mentionnent pour les zones souscarpathique et montagneuse de la Moldavie sept espces (Tab. 1). Matriel et mthode Les observations et les chantillonages du matriel (des branches de pommier avec des larves et des femelles de Q. perniciosus) ont t ffctus dans deux localits du dpartement Vaslui (la ferme Crng prs de Brlad en 2001 et Tutova en 1995 et 1996) et dans deux localits du dpartement Iai (Bucium, 1982 et Scobleni, 1997).
_______________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Ioan Moglan

Les branches avec des larves et des femelles de Q. perniciosus sont mises dans des bocaux (une branche en longueur de 10-15 cm dans un vaisseau). Les bocaux ont t couverts par un tissu serr. Les parasitodes ont t ramasss priodiquement et sont mis en alcool thylique 80% dans des prouvettes. Rsultats En total, nous avons obtenus et analyss 2162 individus de parasitodes (457 Brlad, 1390 Tutova, 277 Bucium et 38 Scobleni) et on a identifi sept espces de la surfamille Chalcidoidea, les familles: Encyrtidae (Zaomma lambinus Walker), Aphelinidae (Aphytis proclia Walker, Aphytis mytilaspidis Le Baron, Pteroptrix dimidiata Westwood, Archenomus longicornis Nikolskaja et Coccophagoides similis Masi) et Thysanidae (Thysanus ater Walker). En Europe, le complexe parasitaire de ce ravageur comprend 28 espces (Domenichini 1969, Ferrire 1965, Nikolskaja et Jasnosh 1966, Andriescu et coll. 19721973, Kosztarab et Kozar 1988, Erds 1964, Blahutiak 1987), en Roumanie neuf espces (Andriescu et coll 1972-1973) (Tab. 1). Tab. 1. Le complexe parasitaire de Q. perniciosus dans certain pays de lEurope No Lespce RO MD Russie H Europe Occidentale (1) (2) (3) (4) 1. Zaomma lambinus Walker + + 2. Aphytis proclia Walker + + + + + 3. A. maculicornis Masi + 4. A. mytilaspidis Le Baron + + + + + 5. A. aonidiae Mercet + 6. A. moldavicus Jasnosh + + 7. Pteroptrix dimidiata Westwood + + + 8. P. chinensis Howard + 9. Archenomus maritimus Nikolskaja + + + 10. A. bicolor Howard + 11. A. longicornis Nikolskaja + + + + 12. Hispaniella lauri Mercet + + 13. Aspidiotiphagus citrinus Craw + + 14. Coccophagoides similis + + 15. Physcus testaceus Masi + 16. Prospaltella fasciata Malenotti + + 17. P. aurantii Howard + + 18. P. perniciosi Tower + + 19. Thysanus ater Walker + + 20. Polynema fulmecki Soyka + 21. Erythmelus goochi Enock + 112

Hymnoptres parasitodes (Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera) ()

No

Lespce

RO

(4) 22. E. gracilis Howard + 23. Anagrus atomus Linn + RO-Roumanie; MD Rep. de la Moldavie; H Hongrie; 1 daprs Goanta et col. 1974; 2 - daprs Nikolskaja et Jasnosh 1966; 3 - daprs Erds 1964 et Kosztarab et Kozar 1988; 4 - daprs Domenichini 1969 et Ferrire 1965 En notre cas, dans tous les chantillons et dans toutes les localits, lespce dominante a t Aphytis proclia (Tab. 2 et Tab. 3). Tab. 3. Labondance et la dominance des speces de parasitodes de Q. perniciosus dans les localits Bucium et Scobleni, dpartement Iai Bucium Scobleni No Lespece 18.6.1982 11.6.1997 A D A D 1. Aphytis proclia 218 79.7 37 97.5 2. Coccophagoides similis 43 15.5 1 2.5 3. Aphytis mytilaspidis 8 2.9 0 0 4. Zaomma lambinus 6 2.2 5. Archenomus longicornis 2 0.7 TOTAL 277 38 En ce qui concerne lefficience des parasitodes, les pourcentages de parasitisme ont eu, en gnral, de faibles valeurs, tant comprises entre 4,0% Scobleni 1997 et 11,7% Bucium 1982 (Tab. 4). Tab. 4. La parasitation de Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Aspects investigues No Localit dont ont t analyses parasites parasites par (nr) (%) A.proclia (%) 1. Brlad, 17.7. 2001 142 4.2 4.1 2. Brlad, 22.8. 2001 171 9.3 8.8 3. Brlad, 29.8. 2001 157 6.7 6.4 4. Brlad, 29.9. 2001 208 11.5 11.1 5. Tutova, 18.9. 1995 267 5.2 4.9 6. Tutova, 29.8. 1996 116 7.2 6.4 7. Bucium, 18.6. 1982 317 11.7 9.5 8. Scobleni, 11.6. 1997 97 4.0 4.0 113

MD (1)

Russie (2)

H (3)

Europe
Occidentale

Ioan Moglan

Lespce la plus efficiente a t Aphytis proclia qui a parasit entre 4,0 et 11,1% de Q. perniciosus (Tab. 4). Andriescu et coll. 1972-1974 mentionnent pour A. proclia des pourcentages de parasitisme de 18,5%.

Bibliographie 1. 2. 3. Andriescu, I. i Veronica, Saucinieanu, (1972-1973) Lucrrile Staiunii Stejarul, Ecol. Terestr i Genetic, 239-252. Balachowsky, A. et Mesnil, L., 1935 - Les insectes nuisibles aux plantes cultives. Part 1, Etabl. Busson, Paris. Booc, Margareta, 1965 - Studiul sistematic i ecologic al Chalcidoidelor din Transilvania (autoreferat al Lucrrii de Disertaie pentru obinerea titlului de doctor n tiine Biologice). Univ. Babe-Bolyai Fac. de Biologie-Geografie Cluj. Domenichini, G., 1969 - OEPP/EPPO. Public. Ser. A, 48, 41- 44 Erds, J., 1964 - Chalcidoidea III. Fauna Hungariae 73, XII Ktet, Hymenoptera II, Akadmiai Kiad Budapest Ferrire, Ch., 1965 - Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae dEurope et du Bassin Mditerranen (I). Ed. Masson et C-ie, Paris. Goan, I.K., E.S., Sugonjaev i E.M. Danig, 1974 - Shchitovki i lozhnoshchitovki i ich estestvennye vraghi. Izd. Cartia Moldoveneasc, Chiinu. Kosztarab, M. & Kozar, F., 1988 - Scale insects of Central Europe. Akadmiai Kiad, Budapest, Hungary. Kozar, F. & Sugonjaev, E.S., 1979 - Folia Entomologica Hungarica, XXXII, 2, 234-236 Nikolskaja, M.N., i V.A., Jasnosh, 1966 - Afelinid evropeiskoi ciasti SSSR i Kavkaza (Chalcidoidea, Aphelinidae). Izd. Nauka MoskvaLeningrad Rogojanu, V., 1955 - Studii i Cercetri tiinifice, Seria a 2-a, tiine Biologice, Agricole i Medicin, 6 (3-4): 73-87 Svescu, A., 1982 - Coccoidea, pp: 255-353, n: Tratat de Zoologie Agricol. vol. 2, Ed. Acad. RSR Bucureti

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

114

Tab. 2. Labondance et la dominance des speces de parasitoides de Quadraspidiotus perniciosus dans les localits Brlad et Tutova, dpartement Vaslui Lespece 17.7.2001 A D 32 91.4 1 2.9 Brlad 22..8.2001 29.8.2001 A D A D 86 95.6 168 91.8 1 1.1 5 2.7 2 2.2 1 0.6 2 1.1 1 1.1 3 1.6 4 2.2 90 183 Tutova 18.9.1995 29.8.1996 A D A D 1150 99.6 230 97.5 2 0.2 6 2.5 2 0.2

Aphytis proclia Coccoph. similis A. mytilaspidis Zaomma lambinus P. dimidiata Thysanus ater TOTAL

29.9.2001 A D 134 89.9 3 2.0 4 2.7 5 3.4 3 149 2.0

2 35

5.7

1154

236

115

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 ________________________________________________________________________________________

EFFETS SECONDAIRES DES CERTAINES SUBSTANCES UTILISES DANS LA CONSERVATION DU BOIS BIODTRIOR
PAR

MINA MONEAGU1 ET MARIANA MUSTA1

Mots cls: conservation, biodgradation, bois, biocide Le bois support de la structure des biens culturaux necessite des traitements de conservationrestauration par lesquels on arrte les processus de dgradation biologique, phisique et chimique. On a constat que les substances et les matriaux avec lesquels on intervient ont des diverses effets secondaires qui conduisent la rduction de la rsistence des objets laction permanente des facteurs de dgradation. Nous nous sommes proposs suivre leffet de certains biocides (permthrine, Liberon, Timpest, formol, DDT) sur des essences de bois biodtriores (sapin, tilleul, cerisier, chne) pour pouvoir supprimer certains effets ngatifs qui puissent apparatre.

Introduction Les oeuvres dart qui ncessitent des interventions de conservation-restauration sont exposes au risque dtre agresses, dans une diffrente mesure, juste par les matriaux ou les mthodes avec lesquels on intervient. Les objets ne sont pas dorganismes vifs, capables dautorparation; les interventions se cumulent, tant plus ou moins rversibles. Dans cetouvrage, on prsente un expriment ralis pour lobservation des effets secondaires des certaines substances (biocides, substances de nettoyage) utilises dans des diverses oprations de conservation-restauration des biens culturaux faits en bois (sapin, tilleul, cerisier, chne), matriel extrment important pour le Patrimoine Culturel de la Roumanie. Materiaux et methodes Ltude a t faite sur des chantillons de bois biodgrad, de quatre essences (sapin, tilleul, cerisier, chne) faonnes du support de bois de certaines iconostases et icones qui devaient tre conserves et restaures. Ainsi, on a faonn des fragments du: bois de sapin de la traverse de licne Saint Nicolas (XIXeme sicle); bois de tilleul dune colonne de liconostase de lglise Saints Empereurs Constantin et Helene (XIXeme sicle);
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Mina Moneagu et Mariana Musta _________________________________________________________________________________________

bois de tilleul dune traverse de liconostase de lglise du village Dobrov (XVIIeme sicle); bois de cerisier de liconostase de lglise Nicori (XIXeme sicle); bois de chne de la traverse de licne Saint Martyre Haralambie (XIXeme sicle) de lglise Nicori. Les fragments de bois biodgrad de 1 cm2 ont t immerses pendant 24 h dans les substances testes-biocides ou substances de nettoyage-priode aprs laquelle les preuves ont t sches. Les biocides utiliss lexpriment: permthrine cis-trans 0,3% dans le solvant nafta 2% - produit Phase; permthrine dans le shellsol D 70 (6,1: 3,32) produit Kremer; Liberon (propiconazol 0,31%, deltamthrine 0,31%, tebuconazol 0,021% dans les solvants aliphatiques); Timpest (1 diclorbenzen 10,25, DDT technique aux 72% isomere p.p, 7gr/l, essence de trbenthine, cire dabeille, cire Carnauba) produit Mario Mazzoni; formol 38%. On a analys aussi des chantillons traites avec une solution de soude caustique 3%, utilise souvent pour nettoye le verso des icnes, et un fragment de bois de tilleul trait avec DDT, pendant les anne passes. Les preuves ont t soumises la mtalisation en vide pour pouvoir tre analyses au microscope lectronique balayage. Les observations se sont realises principalement sur les sections longitudinales; on a suivi les differences entre les chantillons traits et les preuves temoin. En mme temps, on a observ aussi ltat de conservation du bois et la prsence de certaines substances trangres provenues des traitements antrieurs. Les analyses ont t realises au microscope MEB TESLA BS 300 et BS 340, les images tant agrandies jusquaux valeurs 390-5800 x. Les investigations au microscope lectronique ont t effectues l'aide de madame l'assistante dr. Irina Toma. Les photos ont t realises sur un film AZO avec sensibilit 100 et, ensuite, prpares dans le Laboratoire Photo de la Facult de Biologie de Iassy. Rsultats et discussions 1. Le bois de sapin dtrior la preuve temoin (fig.1) la structure tait un peu affecte, en s'observant des coupures au niveau de parois des vaisseaux de bois et au niveau des fibres de sclerenchyme, on a constat aussi des rares sediments solides. la diffrence de la preuve temoin, aux preuves traites avec biocides ont paru certaines modifications structurelles du bois qui peuvent tre expliques toutes seules si on les considre comme l'effet des diffrents traitements.

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Au fragment trait avec permthrine dans le solvent nafta on a remarqu des distances entre les fibres, des sdiments solides, des coupures, des exfoliations au niveau des parois des fibres et des vaisseaux. la variante trait avec Liberon, la structure tait affecte par une dgradation meanique, les fibres de sclerenchyme ayant les parois ci et l , en s' observant des sediments solides la surface (fig.4) tel qu la variante trate avec permthrine. Aux variantes trates avec Timpest (fig.5) et permthrine dans le shellsol D 70 (fig.3) on na pas constat des modifications visibles au momment de lanalyse, mais des phnomnes faibles des exfoliations au niveau des parois des fibres, des rares sdiments solides. 2. Le bois de tilleul dtrior Dans le cas du tilleul, on a choisi pour analyse plusieures variantes traites avec des differentes substances, parce que le tilleul est lune des essences les plus souvent utilises confectionner les biens de patrimoine et, tant une essence molle, cest plus facile soumise la dgradation, donc ncessite une protection particulire. Au cas de la preuve temoin, les investigations ont montr le fait que la dgradation tait plutt de nature mcanique, la microstructure du bois tant moins affecte. Nous mentionons que les preuves analyses ont t masivement attaques par les insectes, fait qui a conduit la destruction partielle du bois; on ne peut observer des lments structuraux intactes que dans des ptites rgions. Au niveau des parois cellulaires des vaisseaux de bois, on constate des phnomnes mcaniques dgradatifs. Souvent, des petits sdiments solides taient visibles sur les parois des vaisseaux, mais sans une importance distincte. Dans le cas de lpreuve traite avec permthrine dans le solvant nafta, on observe que ce traitement a affect la structure du bois, conduisant lexfoliation partielle de certaines couches de lpaisseur des parois cellulaires (surtout S1 et la partie externe du couche S2). On a constat des coupures au niveau des parois, l agrandissement des distances entre les lments histologiques (fig.7). Lexfoliation du paroi cellulaire conduit lamincissement et, implicitement la rduction de son rsistance. Comme dans le cas des traitements avec dautres substances, la production de lexfoliation partielle du paroi cellulaire pourrait tre provoque moins par la mme substace que par la modification du volume au cours du traitement, par le gonflage du bois et, ensuite, lapparition des fissures dans les parois des lments composants de celui-ci au moment de la revenue aux dimenssions initiales. Dans le cas des fragments traits avec permthrin dans le shellsol D 70, laction destructive plus intense sobserve au niveau des fibres ligneuses qui ont suffert des fissures, des coupures, des modifications de volume par rapport la variante tmoin. On a constat aussi des nombreuses adhrences et agglutinations du matriel solide, des formes diffrentes, sur les parois des vaisseaux mais aussi sur ceux des fibres ligneuses. Au cas de la preuve traite avec Liberon, on a remarqu des modifications spciales dans la rgion du paroi, situes prs des ponctuations. Ici ont eu lieu des exfoliations partielles de certaines zones du paroi cellulaire, des coupures et 421

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discontinuits, ce qui conduit une diminution de sa rsistence. Mais laffectation ne touche pas un degr alarmant, mme si toutes les zones analyses ont prsent tels signes de dgradations. Dans les variantes traites avec Timpest, laction agressive de la substance utilise a produit lapparition des fissures dans les parois cellulaires, surtout autour des ponctuations, aussi des sdiments solides (fig. 10). Les vaisseaux spirals nont pas prsente des modifications dans la structure des parois cellulaires. On a observ aussi la prsence des sdiments solides ou cristalines, ce qui reprsente un aspect favorable, parce quon exclut une action prolonge de la substance utilise dans le traitement laffectation tant pour une priode limite. Les preuves traites avec soude caustique 3% ont present les dgradations les plus evidentes. La structure du bois a t profondement affecte, les phnomnes dgradatifs entravent lidentification des lments histologiques du bois (fig. 11). Les plus affectes on tt les parois des fibres ligneuses; certaines ont souffert un phnomne de collapsus qui a produit la rduction de la rsistence du matriel ligneux. On a observ des agglutinations, des adhrences, des aglomrations solides, des coupures au niveau des grossissements des vaisseaux de bois.. Au cas du traitement avec DDT, on a mis en vidence sur les parois des vaisseaux des sdiments de matriel solide et les grossissements annels du trajet des vaisseaux de bois prsentaient un aspect discontinuu (fig.12) Ces constantations sont trs importantes en ce qui concerne linterventions en vue de conserver les biens de patrimoine. La structure du bois tant beaucoup affecte par laction des biocides on peut accelerer le procssus de degradation. 3. Le bois de cerisier dtrior La preuve tmoin prsentait vaisseaux et fibres dont lintegrit fut detruite cause du processus de bioddegration. Les vaisseaux annells et spirals de bois, rarement rticuls et prsentent des nombreuses ponctuations simple. Souvent, on a pu observer linteriour des vaisseaux de sediments des matriaux solides nonuniformes. Aux valeurs plus leves du degr dagrandir limage, on a observ la structure intacte des parois des vaisseaux de bois. Ceux-ci avaient un aspect compact, sans fissures ou microsediments de reziduu solides (fig.13). Dans le cas des preuves traites avec permthrine dans le solvant nafta, ct des aspects prsents, on a mis en relief des coupures au niveau des grossissements, des discontinuits des parois des fibres de bois, des exfoliations des vaisseaux de bois (fig.14). Le traitement avec Liberon appliqu aux preuves de bois de cerisier degrad, fut un peu agresif, conduisant laparition des phnomnes degradatifs videntes au niveau des fibres de bois, ruptures des grossissments au niveau des vaisseaux ponctus, fibres de bois visiblement degrades. la variante traite avec soude caustique 3% ont paru certaines modifications la difference de lpreuve tmoin. La structure du bois de cerisier affecte dj par 422

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lattaque des insectes a souffert des dgradations aprs le traitement avec solution de soude caustique 3%. Cest ainsi quon a observ des coupures discontinuits et exfoliantions des parois des vaisseaux, spcialement ceux rticuls, aussi comme des sdiments des petits cristales de soude caustiques, surtout au niveau des grossissements annels, aussi comme sur les parois des fibres ligneuses (fig.16). ct de la dgradation soufferte pendant le traitement, la persistence de ces microparticules de soude caustique sur les parois des vaisseaux de bois peut conduire, en temps, la dgradation progressive du bois. Cela est caus par le fait que, en contact avec les vapeurs deau dans lair, certaines particules peuvent se disoudre, conduisant lapparition de petites gouttes des solutions dans la structure du bois. Ainsi, laction corosive prolonge peut-elle provoquer des dgradations massives du tissu ligneux dans une courte priode. Le bois trait avec formol a prsnt rares phnomnes dgradatives au niveau des grossissements logus on na pas remarqu des sediments des matriaux solides sur les parois des vaisseaux (fig.17). 4. Le bois de chne dtrior De toutes les preuves analyses, la chne a prsent les plus faibles traces de dgradation fait dtermin par sa structure qui a comme composantes des nombreuses fibres ligneuses avec un petit diamtre et avec des parois trs gros. L preuve temoin prsentait des modifications dgradatives des discontinuits au niveau des parois, des exfoliations et des adhrences des matriaux solides (fig.18). Lchantillon trait avec soude caustique 3% a souffert des modifications de structure, en sobservant des distances des lements histologiques de la structure du bois (par des phnomnes de deshydratations force les parois ont reu un aspect rid), lapparition des fissures, des fentes dans les parois des vaisseaux et des fibres, des aglomrations de matriel solide, adhrent la surface des fibres (fig.19). Nos recherches ont mis en vidence que lintervention applique la conservation des biens de patrimoine ne peut pas tre fait au hazard et avec toute sorte de substances. Le but de lintervention doit tre larrte du processus de biodgradation et lassurance dun tat de conservation prolonge. Tel que lon constate, lintervention avec biocides de natures diffrentes provoque des modifications structurelles du bois biodgrad, plus ou moins graves, en fonction de la substance utilise et de la nature du bois. Des biocides utiliss pour lexpriment, on a mis en evidence les effets ngatifs de la permethrine dans le solvant nafta. Il simpose, quavant de commencer le traitement, faire des investigations concernant les effets des substances utilises, tenant compte du fait que certaines pices du patrimoine peuvent avoir un valeur significative. De nos recherches, on a dduit que les substances utilises la conservation des biens du patrimoine doivent accompir certaines qualits: 423

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avoir une grande efficacit dans des petites concentrations, au sens dintroduire un minimum de quantit de substance trangre dans lobjet, pour lui assurer la protection; - prsenter une reactivit chimique rduite au but deviter les possibles interactions avec les materiaux de loeuvre (une attention particulire necessitent les objets composs comme le bois polychrome, le bois avec mtal, des couverture dun libre recouvert en peau etc.); - ne pas rester des reziduus, qui puissent tre dangereux pour les materiaux de lobjet, ne pas former des pellicules qui exfolieront en temps; - ne pas modifier laspect des matriaux; - tre rsistentes la dcomposition chimique et photochimique (stabilit); - se volatiliser lentement; - tre facile manevrer; - avoir une toxicit rduite pour limiter au maximum les possibles inconvenients pour les conservateurs, pendant les traitements; - tre cologiques. De ltude effectu il rezulte que les biocide test produisent des inconvenients mineurs (Liberon, Timpest) ou assez importants (permethrin dans le solvant nafta, soude caustique). Conclusions Dans nos recherches nous nous sommes proposs suivre les possibles effets ngatifs des certaines substances usuelles (biocides, solutions de nettoyage), prenant en observation certaines pices degrades realies des diffrentes essences ligneuses (sapin, tilleul, cerisier, chne). la suite des analyses effectues on tire les conclusions suivantes: 1. Aprs avoir trait diffrents espces de bois avec des substances chimique, on a constat les dgradations suivantes: - exfoliations des couches des parois cellulaire des fibres; - fissures, coupures, discontinuits au niveau des parois des fibres; - dformations, modifications de volume avec des distances entre les elements histologiques; - sdimentation des matriaux solides adhrents aux diffrentes elements histologiques. 2. Des biocides utiliss lexperiment, permthrin dans le solvant nafta, fut la plus agressive cause de sa composition chimique et sa volatilit trs leve. Les preuves de sapin, tilleul, cerisier ont t visiblement modifies par lexfoliation des couches des parois cellulaire et par lapparition des distances entre les elements histologiques. 3. Les preuves traites avec permethrin en shellsol D 70 prsentent des nombreuses adhrences de matriel solide, aussi comme des phnomnes dgradatives. 424

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Le traitement avec Liberon (propiconazol 0,31%, deltamthrine 0,31%, tebuconazol 0,021% en solvants aliphatiques) a caus des exfoliations et discontinuits au niveau des parois des vaiseau en bois. 5. Le traitement avec Timpest (1 diclorbenzen 10,25, DDT technique aux 72% isomere p.p, 7gr/l, essence de terbenthine, cire dabeille, cire Carnauba) a caus lexfoliation des couches du parois cellulaire et ladhrence des materiaux solide aux parois des fibres. 6. Le bois de sapin fut plus rsistent aux traitements appliqus par comparaison avec le bois de tilleul ou cerisier, mais, en change, plus sensible que le bois de chne. 7. La chne a t lessence de bois la plus rsistente laction des facteurs de dgradation biologique ou chimique parce que, ct du fait celle-ci prsente des parois fortement gros et lignifis contient des tanins qui lui confrent rsistence et durabilit. 8. Le traitement avec soude caustique 3% fut trs agressif pour toutes les essences de bois, leffet de la substance tant double, pendant et aprs laction du traitement, des cristales de soude caustique qui restent dans la structure du bois, seront reactivs dans la prsence de leau, agissant corosivement. la suite des experiments realiss, nous concluons que les substances testes naccomplissent pas les conditions ncessaires pour leur utilisation dans la conservation des oeuvres dart. La permthrin en solvant nafta, cause de la ractivit chimique et la volatilit leve, a prodiut lexfoliation des couches des parois cellulaire, ce qui conduit la reduction de la rsistence du bois. La permethrine dans le shellsol D 70, Liberon, Timpest ne sont pas indiqus pour traiter le bois biodgrad cause des sdiments solides qui peuvent affecter la structure du bois. Nous considrons que nos recherches doivent tre continues au sens de trouver une formule adquate une conservation favorable des biens de patrimoine. Bibliographie 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Caneva, G., Nugari, M.P., Salvadori, O., 1997 - La biologia nel restauro, Nardini Editore, Firenze. Castelli, C., (et les collaborateurs), 1996 - vol. I, Nardini Editore, Fiesole, p.329-334. Mauro Matteini, Archangelo Moles, 1999 - La chimica nel restauro, Nardini Editore. Musta, M., 1998 - Insecte duntoare bunurilor de patrimoniu, Editura Universitii Al.I. Cuza, Iai. Shawn, M.C., Schniewind, A.P., 1990 - Studies in conservation, vol. 35, nr. 1, pp. 26-32.

4.

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Fig. 1 Brad (martor) 1420x

Fig. 2 Brad n permetrin cu petrol (770x)

Fig. 3. Brad n permetrin cu shellsol (760x)

Fig. 4. Brad n Liberon (890x)

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Fig. 5. Brad n Timpest (720x)

Fig. 6. Tei martor (2500x)

Fig. 7. Tei n permetrin cu petrol (2500x) Fig. 8. Tei n permetrin cu shellsol (2600x)

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Fig. 9. Tei n Liberon (790x)

Fig. 10. Tei n Timpest (870x)

Fig. 11. Tei n sod caustic (5500x)

Fig. 12. Tei n DDT (1800x)

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Fig. 13. Cire (martor) (4300x)

Fig. 14. Cire n permetrin cu petrol (480x)

Fig. 15. Cire n Liberon (1310x)

Fig. 16. Cire n sod caustic (1140x)

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Fig. 17. Cire n formol (700x)

Fig. 18. Stejar (martor) (1190x)

Fig. 19. Stejar n sod caustic (1150x)

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BIOSEMIOTIC DIMENSIONS OF COLONIAL ANIMALS


BY

GHEORGHE MUSTA1, MARIANA MUSTA1

Key words: colonies, castes, polyetism, social animals, biosemiotics, semiotic dialogue Colonial animals form a functional entity which frequently behaves like a superorganism. In the case in which the individuals of a colony are physically related among them, their morphofunctional differentiation may occur, so that some of them become compatible with the organs of some pluricellular individuals. Morpho-functional differentiation occurs, too, within colonies in which the individuals are not physically connected among them. Thus, in the case of social insects (ants, white ants, bees, wasps, etc.), the colonies are differentiated into castes while, for a much more extended labour division, the phenomenon of polyetism (within which the individuals according, to their age -, develop certain activities) is also to be observed. Individuals morpho-functional differentiation and the coordination of their activities within the colonies cannot be developed without a permanent dialogue. In our opinion, the semiotic dialogue is an essential condition of colonial life, contributing to the understanding of colonial animals semiotic dimensions.

Introduction According to Edward O. Wilson (1980), the term of colony refers to the fact that its members are either physically united or differentiated in reproductive and sterile castes, which have both characteristics. Consequently, a colony may be formed, too, of not physically related among them individuals. However, their differentiation and the formation of some castes are necessary. The society thus formed may be so well organized that it behaves like a superorganism. In such situation, social insects represent real colonies; they may form a society that works as a superorganism. However, what should one mean by social or eusocial animals? Citing again Edward O. Wilson, social organisms are characterized by the common possession of three characteristics, as follows: - individuals of the same species cooperate in taking care of the nestlings; - a productive labour division is working, involving more or less sterile individuals, that act on behalf of the nest fecund partners; - a superpositions of at least two generations of the life stages is to be noticed, capable of contributing to the colonys activities, so that the progeny helps the parents during a certain period of their life. To such conditions there respond the social insects belonging to the groups of ants, white ants, bees and some of the wasps.
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In these cases, the colonies generated by a queen (sometimes, even a small group of queens) are divided into castes, that any be of workers and/or soldiers. In superior ants, a temporary polyetism, similar to that of ants had been developed (i.e., the workers execute works according to their age, in the absence of any morphological differentiations). In heteronomous colonial animals, where the individuals are physically united among them, individuals differentiation is so ample that no similarity is possible. They play different, well-established parts, behaving like organs of a whole organism or superorganism. In the case of hydrozoa and syphonophoa, no castes are present, although the individuals differentiated as to the presence or absence of the reproduction function depend on one another along their life cycle, all depending by the whole, the whole depending on each individual. Labour division being perfectly achieved, all individuals participate to the realization of the wholes programs. Social animals form a functional whole. From the moment in which several individuals are associating for living together, they should participate to the accomplishment of the wholes programs (i.e., to the optimum functioning of the society). Labour division requires individuals morphofunctional differentiation. The fact that, compulsorily, the reproduction function is not fulfilled by all individuals any more, induces a first differentiation, solved apparently, in the simplest possible manner by the modification of the somatic formula. From the beginning, two categories of individuals are differentiated within the society: the reproductive and the sterile ones. The latter ones should execute different works. If the activities are so much differentiated among them that not all individuals are capable to execute them, then morphofunctional differentiations occur. The soldiers or the fighters that should necessarily be stronger will be bigger and provided with more efficient weapons (very strong mandibles, the head proportional to the mandibles and to the effort required from their part). If the workers charges are different, then their dimensions are also different, even if they belong to the same family. For example, in the Formicoxenus nitidulus species, besides the male, female and semifemale (semiworker), other 4 categories of workers with dimensions varying between 1.5 and 3 are present. If some living reservoirs are needed for food, then some of the workers will fulfill this function. They will have an enormous belly. In the Proformica nasuta species which is a mellipherous species the honey deposited by a worker may feed some hundreds of working ants for almost a week. If the works to be executed are not so difficult that they may be made by any worker, then these should not be differentiated either morphologically or by their dimensions. Nevertheless, as already mentioned, the phenomenon of polyetism appears. The workers perform successive works, as a function of their age. If, nevertheless, under certain circumstances, the fulfillment of activities already passed beyond by some workers is required, they will return and will execute the respective works. The castes and the polyetism open large perspectives in works distribution, while specialization on a certain direction becomes almost a profession. In the absence 452

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of some specialized professionals, a society cannot work properly. The above-mentioned aspects lead to the differentiation of some individuals from heteronomons colonies where the partners are physically linked among them -, which act as organs. Individuals differentiation within the social organisms is similar to the existence of organs. If crawfishes and scorpions have strong claws, for both attack and defense, in social insects such organs are represented by soldiers caste. They assure protection, they are mobile, coordinating their actions so that to defend the colony. If the target refers to the food reservoirs that should not be altered or lost, remaining yet available to the workers then such organs do appear. The honey-bearing ants fulfill ideally the double function of reservoir and fodders. In the case of Myrmecocystus chortideorum, the foddering ant has such an enormous belly, that it cannot move anymore. It hangs on the ceiling, distributing food to the others. On one side, these foddering ants are fed, on the other, they feed other workers. Labour division covers all the necessities in the colony. A careful analysis of a colonys life would evidence no fissure in its functioning. More than that, its organization is so perfect that the relations among castes and between the forms of polyetism are balanced as a function of the colonys condition. A certain type of relations occurs in peace times, and another one when a predatory expedition is prepared, or when, in the colonys life, major modifications induced by certain factors are produced. How do such things happen? Which are the mechanisms permitting such an organization and functioning? For a thorough understanding of the situation, a semiotic analysis of colonies organization - that is, of the social lifes organization should be necessarily developed. In the absence of the communication among individuals, and also in the absence of coordination according to the program of the whole no association among individuals is possible. Biosemiotic dimensions of insect colonies As biologists, the authors of the study understand perfectly that one cannot talk of life, of the existence of a living being, in the absence of its communication with the peristasis, with the cosmic ocean. Communication is developing exclusively through signals, no matter which their origin is. They are emitted by certain structures, being received and dechiphered by other structures. The branch of science that studies the signals and their deciphering in the living structures is biosemiotics. That is to say that biosemiotics studies the function of signals and of symbols in the human and non-human communication. Jacob von Uexkll introduced the notion of umwelt, for defining the universe that surrounds us, in the form we perceive it. Consequently, each being has an Umwelt of its own, as each one should perceive ones universe. For entering the umwelt, an object should be first discovered and then some of its characteristic should be grasped. Starting from the ideas of Uexkll, Konrad Lorenz created a new science, ethology i.e., the science of behavior. A. Sebeok observed that each animal dialogize 453

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with the environment, considering that ethology is nothing also but a special case of semiotics; consequently, he created the term of zoosemiotics. Biosemiotics found out that communication is present at all levels in nature or, one of lifes characteristic is exactly the capacity of emitting and deciphering signals. In its simplest form, the semiotic discourse appeared concomitantly with the process that generated living beings. This means that the individuals of a species do not live insolatedly, but, on the contrary, in a tight semiotic interaction; in their turn, the species are also existing within such an interaction. It is therefore quite normal that the signals transmitted by an individual or by a species to be received and interpreted by other individuals or other species. In this way, an ecosemiotic discourse with vital significance for both individuals and species may be developed. Jesper Hoffmeyer draws the attention in presenting his principles on biosemiotics that it is the signals, and not the molecules, that represent basic units in the study of life. There results from here that it is mainly not the structure, but the signals quality and significance that is of major importance in vital phenomena. Organisms represent pattern builders. They form their models as a function of the extent to which they know reality. They emit and receive patterns with a certain significance for their whole life. The pattern does not represent a sum of structures, but a complex of signals with vital significance, present in the organism. The same Jesper Hoffmeyer asserts that the living organism is a swarm; this law of Hoffmeyer is capital for underst anding the structure and functionality of pluricellular organisms and, consequently, of colonial structures. The pluricellular organism is not simply a sum of cells. These cells are tightly connected among them, and are reciprocally informing one another. They communicate, take actions and unite their efforts for assuring functioning of the whole. The same holds time for the individuals in a colony, be they physically united among them or not. Cells or in the case of complex organisms individuals differentiation granted their high capacity of transmitting and receiving information (in a biosemiotic dialogue), so that the whole organism manipulates as large as possible parts of the environment in both space and time thus favourizing according to the ideas of Uexkl the largement of the so-called Umwelt. The connection among the individuals of a colony may be accomplished through a multitude of signals, that may be of chemical, tactile, visual, acoustic, electrical etc., nature. It is not impossible that the feromones acting as chemical substances involved in the communication among the individuals of the same species had been the first signals utilized by the living structures. Feromones should have circulated among procaryotes ancestral cells. From the moment in which the first pluricell - organisms characteristic for metazoa - started to be formed, the hormones substituted feromones in the establishment of intercellular links. Form the moment in which the first photosensible formations appeared, the communication means became larger and larger. 454

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The acoustic receivers provided new ways of communication, much more subtle and much richer. However, the appearance of a new signaling system does not automatically exclude the other ones, as no biosemiotic system of communication is obsolete. Thus, chemical communication in the living structures is universal. More than that, chemical communication is applicable, as well, among different species, especially among those involved in a symbiotic living together. W.L. Brown and Thomas Eisner proposed the term of alomones, for defining interspecific chemical signals. The chemical substances may be transmitted in all media, in either dark or light, in the vicinity or at considerable distances. It is accepted the idea that less than a microorganism of a feromone may persist as a signal for hour or days, over distances of hundreds or thousands meters. Their synthesis is quite a simple process, while their spreading raises no problems. Once more, feromones act ideally in the communication among microorganisms, too. Nevertheless, it is known that each signal should be received and decoded. Each signal represents a piece of information, which may have vital functions. That is why, some special receivers are needed, once known that such signals are not addressing all living beings; on the contrary, they are selective, even strictly selective. One of the shortcomings characterizing chemical communication is its slow propagation rate. Instead, its persistence in the environment is considerable. Feromones cannot be modulated in frequencies, nor can they be variable in intensity and time. Instead, one and the same species may emit a multitude of feromones, as due to the numerous types of glands it possesses. Some mammals have up to seven modalities of synthesizing and emitting feromones, while the bees and the ants may have more than 10 exocrine glands which emit feromones involved in social organization. Thus, a bee possesses hypopharyngeal, labial, genal glands, the Nanasov, the Kaschevnikov gland, etc. Their functions are different, as follows: honey combs cleaning, dissolution, digestion, honey combs building, larvae feeding, queens taking after, control of the colony, etc. Chemical communication is supported by the tactile one. The latter is essential for colonial forms. Ants communicate easily among them simply by touching their antennae. The password of crossed antennae becomes extremely efficient in the inter/ individual relations, in different situations, such as: orientation, gathering, food signaling, signaling out of a peril, investigation, feeding, conciliation, parents-nestlings relations, etc. In the case of aphides, tactile communication causes the appearance of winged forms. Also, tactile communication is indispensable to gregarious locusts in organizing their migration. The quite numerous activities developed in an anthill and, equally, the activities of food gathering and processing are based on tactile communications. Visual communication is operating, no doubt, only in conditions of light. However, the eyes of certain insects may be so highly perfected in a certain direction that orientation may be made by sun or by stars. Some ants may see the stars even in the daylight. 455

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The communication possibilities among individuals are multiple. It goes beyond saying that any society formed of individuals is based on principles of communication and of dialogue among the partners. A colony is not a simple sum of individuals, it is a functional whole. Any structure is more than the sum of its component parts, as it acquires some additional characteristics, while its compounding clements loose some of their own characteristics. Being part of a colony, its individuals may loose part of their independence, coming to depend on both one another and on the whole structure. They will obey the wholes program and will accomplish it to the extent to which they will succeed in communicating among them. How could one understand, then, the perfect coordination of all the activities developed by ants in their anthill? How could otherwise the fungus-cultivating ants of the Atta genus coordinate their actions and grow real fungus gardens, if not by communicating among them on one side and with the fungi or the other? There is no mistake here. Ants do communicate with the fungi. Very difficult to explain, however, is the manner in which, besides labour division, their morphological differentiation occurs. Ants of the Atta genus are considerably differentiated as a function of the mission they have to accomplish, namely: - the big individuals, having the strongest mandibles, climb the trees and cut the leaves from the petiole, leaving them to fall down. These are the cutting ants; - other ants smaller than the first ones with sharp and very biting mandibles, work on the ground, cutting up smaller or larger pieces, to be then transported to the anthill; these are the tailor ants; - even smaller ants, but with long legs, carry to the anthill the pieces of cut up leaves. As the leaves they carry are bigger than them, covering their body during the transport, they are called umbrella-carrying ants; - the umbrella carriers, or the carrying ants, deliever the pieces of leaves to the chopping ants; provided with strong mandibles, they crumble the leaves, masticate them and then fertilize them with their own excrements, depositing the material in the substrate prepared for the fungus culture; - the gardener-ants, which are even smaller, are extremely active. They impregnate the substrate with fungus spores and, when the fungi begin to grow, they cut them at the bottom, the resulting pieces (which are not eaten) being deposited on the substrate, to act as a fertilizer. The ants feed themselves with the juices imbiding at the level of the cuttings. Here, a callus is being formed, which creates some more or less spherical formations, known as ants turnip tops. These constitute the basic food of the fungus-cultivating ants. In most cases, the formation of turnip tops is synchronous with the hatching of a new larva generation. For assuring the reserve of spores, the reproducing females have special rooms at the level of their mandibles, where the fungus spores are deposited. As one may observe, a highly organized symbiotic mutualism operates here between ants and fungi. 456

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Acromyrmex octospinosus cultivates fungi of the Leucopirine group. The culture is perfectly organized, functioning faultlessly. Sometimes, however, these fungus cultures are attacked by a parasite fungus, Escovopsis from Ascomycotina. The damages may be, sometimes, considerable. To get rid of such parasite fungi, Acromyrmex octospinosus learned to cultivate bateria of the Streptomyces genus, known as secreting antibiotics, thus inhibiting the Escovopsis attack. This means that a superior type of symbiosis is created, for a biological combat of the fungus which is actually only what humans nowadays do in the economically developed countries. Symbiotic mutualism is largely occurring in the world of ants. It is known that ants grow aphides. They eat aphides sweet excrements and, for having them, ants cultivate them and take care of them in a very special manner. These aphides are also known as cows of the ants. The Crematogaster lineolata species protects the aphides by building around them shelters made of earth, while Crematogaster pilosa makes the shelters from a cellulose paste quite similar to the cardboard. The ants of the Oecophylla smaragdina species grow some butterfly caterpillars of the Lycaenidae family, as they feed with secretions, occurring on the top of some special hairs. They do not only protect them and build shelters to them, but also take them to pasture on the trees leaves, during the day, driving them back to the shelter in the evening. All the above observations seem to belong to science fiction, however they are mere realities of the living world, that should be fully understood and explained. Two aspects are of prime importance here, namely: the semiotic dialogue developing among the members of the same family during labour division and in the activities coordination, and the semiotic dialogue among the species performing the symbiotic mutualism. One should not insist on the fact that, in the absence of communication among partners, nothing will work. One should also go beyond the nave interpretation according to which the behaviour of inferior (subhuman) beings is mechanical, instinctive, fastened in behavioural genetic schemes. The investigator discovers the cooperation among partners, the dialogue developing an exchange of not only necessary but, sometimes, highly subtle information. An ant calls her sisters when she discovers a new source of food, but not in any way, and not all of them. The pieces of information are provided in a precise manner, being called together only the number of ants corresponding to the amount of food discovered. Consequently, each action is highly adequate to its purpose. The circulating information are precise and suitable. Such a language is perhaps a bit too anthropomorphic, yet it is the only one that permits a correct judgement of the situation. Even more subtle appears to us the relation among species within the phenomenon of symbiotic mutualism. Fungus cultivation by the ants of the Atta genus, and not only, attained a hardto-imagine perfection. The assimilation and improvement of the working techniques raised no special problems. They are simply learned and transmitted from one generation to another. The problem is elsewhere: wherefrom do ants know so precisely fungis 457

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living requirements? How do they establish the optimum conditions of temperature, humidity and ventilation? Taking all risks, the authors assert that this is impossible in the absence of a semiotic dialogue among partners. Which are then the signals on the basis of which things advance? We do not know. They may be chemical, electrical or of other nature, yet the semiotic dialogue remains a must. Even the simple positive answer which the partner gives in certain situation is a form of communication, as well. A colonys functionality is based on the semiotic dialogue developed among the partners of the same family. The morphofunctional differentiation of the individuals in a colony (castes, polyetism) is performed through highly organized biological mechanisms. If, in the colonies in which its individuals are physically linked among them, the formation at the expense of some members of some so-called organs is a subsequent stage, one should accept that, in the colonies of social insects, too, a similar sort of organs represented by different types of castes or polyetism forms, leading to the fulfillment of some indispensable functions for the realization of the colonys integrality are differentiating. In the absence of a semiotic dialogue among partners, nothing will happen. Consequently, the biosemiotic dimensions of the colonial structures are obvious. Conclusions Colonial animals form unitary, global structures, which are sometimes completed as a superorganism, no matter if its individuals are physically united or not among them. In the evolved forms, of the social animal colonies-type, a morphofunctional differentiation of the individuals is manifested, which permits labour division. This process may be accomplished, too, in the absence of individuals morphofunctional differentiation, as the phenomenon of polyetism in which the individuals perform, as depending on their age, successive functions is installed. Labour division and the coordination of all the activities performed within the colony cannot be accomplished without a semiotic dialogue among partners. Its realization involves various types of signals (chemical, acoustic, visual, etc.). The paper aims at providing some convincing explanations to the behaviour of the individuals forming a colony, as based on a biosemiotic-type dialogue, developed both among the colonys individuals, on one side, and among them and the representatives of other species, with which a symbiotic mutualism is realized, on the other.

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References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Barnes, D. Robert, 1974 Intervertebrate Zoology. Third Edition: W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, London, Toronto Chebanov, Sergey, V., 1998 Totality of semiosphere. Sign. Systems Studies. 26: 417-424 Emmeche, Claus, Kalevi, Kull, Frederik, Stjernfelt, 2002 Reading Hoffmeyer, rethinking biology. Tartu University Press, Estonia Kull, Kalevi, 1998 On semiosis, umwelt, and semiosphere. Semiotica: 120 (3/4): 299-310 Margulis, L., Schwartz, K.V., 2000 Five Kingdoms, Third Edition, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York Musta, Gh., Musta, Mariana, 2001 Origine, evoluie i evoluionism, Vasile Goldi University Press, Arad Musta, Gh., Musta, Mariana, Costic, Mihai, 2004 Regnurile lumii vii, Ed. Venus, Iai Sebeok, Thomas, A., 1972 Perspectives in Zoosemiotics. The Hagne: Mouton Sebeok, Thomas, A., 2001 Global Semiotics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press Radu, V.G., Radu, V.V., 1967, 1972 Zoologia nevertebratelor, vol. I, ed. a IIa i vol. II, Ed. Did. i Ped. Bucureti

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Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 _________________________________________________________________________________________

EVOLUTIVE STRATEGIES OF COLONIAL ANIMALS


BY

GHEORGHE MUSTA1, MARIANA MUSTA1

Key words: colonial animals, evolutive strategies, homonomous colonies, heteronomous colonies, astogeny In the animal world, and not only, formation of colonies represents an evolutive strategy. Association of several individuals and the formations of colonies, as based on the physical link among partners, leads to the manifestation of some morpho-functional modifications that grant to the whole structure thus formed superior qualities, and a well-established integrality. The individuals differentiation gets highly extended, so that some them seem to be organs of the whole, while the colony acquires the aspect and characteristics of a metazoon. Which are the ways through which the formation of some highly established and functional colonies may be obtained? In the following, the author will suggest some possible explanations.

Introduction The term of colony may have different meanings as depending on the group of organisms under consideration. The members of a colony may be physically united (as is the case of Sponges, Coelenterates, Briozoa, Urochordata), or they may be differentiated in primitive and sterile castes or castes possessing both characteristics (e.g., ants, bees, white ants). The colony may be formed of similar individuals, which live independent lives, although they are connected among them (Codonosiga botrytis, Codonocalsium umbelatum), of similar individuals (homonomous colony) which communicate among them through the digestive tube (hydrozoon coelentera such as: Obelia dichotoma, Eudendrium ramosum), or of morphofunctionally-differentiated individuals (heteronomous colony), which communicate among them and perform specific functions, absolutely necessary for the whole entity (Siphonophora, Briozoa etc.). The colony is represented by a society formed of individuals which, from a certain level of morphofunctional organization on, may accomplish the functions of a well-organized and individualized organism or supraorganism. What is the Cristatella mucedo, an individual or a community? What is, instead, the sinophoron Physalia physalis? In both cases, the colony is spatially well-delimitated, acting as a functional whole, some of its individuals acting as true organs. Why are we then talking of colony and not of individuals? Because the individuals are so much differentiated that, at a certain moment, it is difficult to say
_______________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

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whether they are only individuals playing a certain role within the whole, or they are well-differentiated organs with precise functions in the system. The individuals morpho-functional differentiation within a colony seems to be a highly organized strategy of the colonial forms. Is this rule characteristic also to the colonies in which the individuals are not morphologically connected among them? According to the observations of Durkheim and Wheeler, the society represents a supraorganism which evolves towards an ever increasing complexity, by means of differentiation and integration processes. Consequently, within a society, two apparently contradictory principles seem to act, namely: differentiation and integration. Differentiation can be only achieved being actuated by integration. Any morpho-functional differentiation occurs only on condition that its main effect is assemblys integration. Differentiation is produced under a perfect and unitary control. Similary with the fact that differentiation is performed exclusively to the interest of integration, and of a higher interdependence among the compounding parts, integration cannot be attained and cannot become dominant in the absence of a multiple and intense differentiation. When integration attained its maximum point, the term considered is no longer that of colony, but of individual. In the colonies in which the individuals are physically connected among them, differentiation goes even farther, up to the point in which some individuals seem to be the perfectly functioning organs of a whole (which is a superorganism). The question may be, nevertheless, put in a different manner, if considering the colonies in which some of its individuals are not physically connected among them, namely: does not the attainment of integration necessitates the morphofunctional differentiation of some individuals, remainders of other organs existence? It should be like this. This might be so if some castes characteristics to the social insects (ants, bees, white ants) act simply as organs performing certain functions. The caste represents a group of individuals within the society, which plays one or several roles. Sometimes, the group forming a cast is not only playing a part, but it may differentiate itself by a peculiar morphological conformation. In a society of insects, the phenomenon known as polyetism may be met. The term of polyetism defines a certain labour division within the society. The different activities may be executed by two individuals which differ among them only as to their age. It may also happen that some workers should return to performing some of their previous roles if this is a must of the society in a certain moment of time. Such a case may be considered as age polyetism. Nevertheless, in such cases, too, the individuals functional differentiation plays the same part as in the morphologically integrated colonies; this refers to the realization of certain functions. Once known that the functions of a metazoon are fulfilled by certain organs, in such case, the individuals differentiated into castes or in a well-defined polyetism behave as organs. The evolutive strategy seems to be similar. 440

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Deciphering of the way in which these morpho-functional differentiations occur, and of the meaning of such evolutive strategy is an absolutely fascinating research. Evolutive strategies in colonial animals The formation of coelenterata colonies is well-known. The authors interest is to find out why the option towards complex colonies formation was preferred to that of the organization of individuals with an ever increasing complex structure which would mean an morpho-physiological progress. It appears that the formation of colonies represented quite an important way among the other evolutive strategies. How are the colonies formed Hidra viridis is a solitary polyp. Even if it multiplies through budding, the polyps-sons get detached and live idependently. Multiplying through sexed ways, the egg-cell will contain all hereditary information necessary for the formation of a new individual. The same information is acquired by the individuals formed through budding. They, too, form ovules and spermatozoa. Nevertheless, in certain hydrozoa species, the polyps formed through budding are no longer separated; instead, they remain attached to their mother, thus forming a colony. The colony is simple, homonomous, its individuals having a common gastric cavity. It may be either of momopodial-or simplodial-type, or it forms a lawn of individuals, connected through stolons. In some species, the individuals of the colony are seen as suffering morpho-functional modification, which leads to the appearance of a heteronomous colony. Something is happening here. The genetic information gets different from one individual to another. The colony represents an advantage, as food is assured to all individuals, even to those that were not able to catch it. Gradually, the individuals come to depend on one another, the colony gets established and is manifesting as a whole. Thus, polyps differentiation begin. The first ones to be differentiated are the gonozooids, which take over the function of sexed multiplication. Thus, the gastrozooids remain to assure exclusively the feeding function. Differentiation advances, individuals with protection functions being then formed. In this way, in Hydractemia carnea, dactylozooid (with functions of active defence) and acantozooids (with functions of passive defence) are formed. Gonozooids having a rapid evolution, generate medusae which, besides the reproduction function, take over, too, the one of species spreading. It is assumed that individuals morpho-functional differentiation is controlled by certain genes which means that some polyps different structure is given by the existence of some different genes. What happened, then? Some different mutations which make such differentiations possible did appear? A normal polyps transformation into a gonozooid and the evolution, from this point up to the formation of medusae with a much more complex structure than that of the polyp, involve necessarily some major genes. That is why, the following question arises: how did these genes appear? Did some successive mutations subsequently leading to major transformations, up to the level of medusae 441

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take place? If a multiple of alele genes is involved, how could their canalized appearance be explained? It is obvious that a whole set of genes act for a dactylozoons formation, while others are involved in the differentiation of a gonozoon or a medusoon. These genes control the differentiated formation of such individuals. Sexed reproduction is realized through eggs. How do these genes reach the level of gonozoon? Were they from the beginning in the genetic information of the individual forming the colony (the oozoon)? It is quite improbable that the hereditary dowry characteristic for a population of individuals from a colonys structure is occurring, from the very beginning, in a latent state, and ready to action in certain evolutive moments. This would support the idea of performance. More probably, such genes should have appeared at certain moments, in the course of time. But when and where did they appear? In the genetic information of the metamorphosized individuals? Were the transformations possibly accumulated in time and the structures were gradually improved or not? The transformation of some normal polyps into medusozoon is impressive, indeed. If the genetic modifications are characteristic to each individual, how can be explained the fact that some of these types (gastrozoa, acantozoa, dactylozoa), although not participating to sexed reproduction, do transmit their genetic accumulation? How did the information reach the gonozoa, in the sexual cells? We shall leave aside their vehiculation according to the ideas of Darwin, K. Ngeli or A. Weismann. Such a transfer between individuals is not possible. And yet, the informational accumulations seem to be stored in the zygotes genetic information, although they belong to the colonys hereditary dowry. Caution! The egg cell characteristic to a colonial species does not contain only the own hereditary information of an individual (as one might believe), but of the whole colony. Where can the egg cell accumulate all the information from? How is it possible that the genes of each type of metamorphosized individual reach the egg cell? Which is the difference between the genetic dowry characteristic to a species with a homonomous colony and of one with a heteronomous colony? The colony represents a society of individuals. They live together and depend on one another during their lifetime, forming an unitary whole, an entity, a colony. In these situations, does the egg belong to a certain individual or to the colony i.e., to the society of individuals? If a colony belongs to an endemic species, which would be represented at a certain moment only by that colony no matter how large or small is it would this mean that the egg is of the species? Wouldnt it belong to an individual? Such a perspective makes the confusion total. The species does not produce eggs, it does not multiply. It is only the individuals that multiply, it is they that form eggs, the species being maintained by individuals reproduction. In the form it happens, reproduction is performed by individuals, however it is written in the species programme. All reproductive behaviours characteristic to a species belong to the individuals, yet they are dictated by the species programmes, being recorded in the individuals genetic information. In the reproduction performed by the specialized individuals of a colony, there occur a highly subtle element involved in 442

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the process of reproduction, an incredible evolutive strategy of the species. From the moment in which, in a colony, labours division gets intensified, and some of the individuals give up species reproduction a function taken over by specialized individuals -, the latter ones are obliged to include in the sexual cells all genetic characteristic of the individuals that take part to the formation of the whole i.e., of the colony. Gradually, the egg looses the role it has, of genetically transmitting the realization of a certain kind of individual, acquiring instead the function of transmitting the features to the whole entity. The egg of a colonial species becomes the exponent of the colony and not only of a single type of individuals, even if they are gonozoa. In such a situation, the colony appears as a true superorganism. Such a situation may seem absurd. It only seems, however. The discussion is developed around the term of population as an organization level, thus attributing to it all the characteristics of an organizational level. However, we are not capable of understanding the whole it forms. Could we somehow imagine that, in solitary species, there might exist individuals having not registered in the genetic information all the species characteristics? This is not possible it would be nave from ones part to accept such an idea. Consequently, in this situation, too, the egg contains not only the information belonging to an individual but, equally, of the whole species from which it comes. This is correct reasoning. Nevertheless, how does the genetic information characteristic to acantozoa reach the level of the reproducing cells of the gonozoa? Things are quite complicated, indeed. All cells belonging to the individuals from a colonys level come from the egg cell, in the same manner in which all cells of a human body come, also, from the egg cell. This means that the cells contain all the genetic information necessary for re-building the whole. As, in coelentera, the individuals, and the colonys regeneration capacity is extremely high, the whole colony may be re-built from any framgement of it. Consequently, the cells contain the same genetic information why, there, then occur within a colony so many and different forms of individuals? The genetic information is the same, yet it is not read in the same manner in all cells. Reading depends on a multitude of factors. Part of the genes are blocked in certain parts of the colony, at certain individuals, while in other individuals other genes are blocked, and others are operating. Which are the factors that induce a different reading? They may be possibly cells position within the colony, the relations among cells, the environments different influence, etc. Individuals association within a colony assumes their submission to the wholes superior programs. Such submission increases with colonial integralitys increasing. This is as if, in the genetic information, new and new programmes executed by the compounding parts (i.e., by the individuals) are registered. The programs are not common for all individuals, yet they address in a differentiated manner certain categories of individuals which, by obeying them, begin to be morphofunctionally differentiated. 443

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In a heteronomous colony, the individuals are differentiated as a function of the whole entitys interests. Do the individuals themselves attempt at being modified? Why some of them become gastrozoa, while others become acantozoa or gonozoa? Do they choose certain functions by themselves? Probably not, more likely these functions are imposed to them by the whole, being selected exclusively to the interest of the whole. There seem to exist rather imposed programmes, that should be executed. Depending on them, only certain genetic information different from one category of individuals to another are utilized. The major transformations occurring within a colony are not probably provoked by equally major transformations of the gena type but, rather new relations among genes are established, as a function of the new programmes that come to be imposed. They seem to be required by an internal tendency of the whole (the colony) towards the accomplishment of certain functions. Taking upon ourselves the risk of be viewed as Lamarck supporters, we should nevertheless consider this factor i.e., the internal tendency of human beings towards progress. The transformation of a colonys individuals is occurring neither randomly nor chaotically, instead it is imposed by precise necessities. Whose are these necessities, however? By no means of the individuals taken separatedly , but of the whole. No matter how anachronical this would seem, one may grasp an internal desire, i.e. some interests of the whole. The evolutive strategy of the colonial forms is based on the individuals morpho-functional modifications, which makes them capable of performing certain functions. The differentiation may go so far that, at a certain moment of such process, nothing of the initial pattern is any longer recognizable. How are these morpho-functional differentiations taking place? In the beginning, all the individuals in a colony are similar. The gastrozoa perform the feeding function. They should catch the prey much easier and deposit it better for digestion in better conditions. They may become bigger and stronger. Their tentacles are larger and their gastric cavity more spacious. They might possibly be supported by neighbouring individuals, which are also gastrozoa. They may group together, 2-3 or more, in a single place, yet a more substantial helps for getting the prey is felt as necessary. This would be much more simple to realize, and also over a much more extended territory, whether gastrozoa have some catching filaments with powerful cnydoblaste batteries. Could this possibly be a solution? If so, then it might be put in practice. How? Through the transformation of some polyps into catching filaments. Well, but the distance is too large, and the transformations much too ample. Yet, nothing is impossible. A model, a pattern should be found out applicable in all possible cases, in all kinds of similar colonies. Where from could such a pretention hade started? Probably from the colonys interest the interest of the whole. So, what? Would this mean that some canalized mutations of the genes, leading to the appearance of 444

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individuals with such a type of organization, and capable of performing this necessary function, are to follow? The assumption is so nave that it deserves nothing but immediate abandon. Then, such a transformation, which was seen as highly real, had only randomly occurred, without a command or at least a wish from the part of the whole? This solution is even more nave than the preceeding one. The modification was the result of a necessity, and was developed as a function of the wholes possibilities. One should belive that the internal tendency of the whole had been manifested first, followed by the implementation of a certain program, adequate to such transformations. After such implementation, the program will be finalized by means of the interrelations functioning among genes, as well as by various genetic modifications. Everything seems to depend on the architect genes that read and process the genetic programs. The strategy of colonial systems seems to be similar to the strategy of metazoas constitution, through a similar association of numerous individuals which are, however, unicellular. Labours division within the whole permits the shifting towards organs formation. The manner in which they appear is, to a considerable extent, different, however, essentially, they seem to represent the same organizational scheme. A colonys complexity increases with the morpho-functional differentiation of the compounding individuals. At the same time, its integrality increases, too, so that the question arises whether a colony or a well-established individual is involved. What is Physalia physalis or Velella spirans? Are they colonies? Their body is so unitary, the individuals behave as well-individualized and organized organs so that it seems hardly probable that they actually are different individuals belonging to a colony. Even in the case of Halistemma pictum, which is a primitive formation, the individuals are highly differentiated, forming an unity from the colonies. At their upper side, there occurs the pneumatophore (the syphonozoon) which performs the colonys vertical movement. The pneumatophore possesses gasogenous genes, which assure vesicles filling. There follows the series of nectozoa, which resemble the medusae, assuring colonys vertical movement through propulsion mechanisms. On the stolon one may find series of individuals grouped in formations named chormidiae. A chormidia is formed of a phylozoon, which has the aspect of a bractea that protects the respective individuals formation. In each chormidia, one may find highly developed gastrozoa, linked to the catching tentacles, provided with strong nematocyste batteries. The catching tentacles, which capture and paralyse the prey, may playing a protection role. Some of the individuals named paplones have the aspect of a sack. From paplones and gastrozoa, the long, catching tentacles are formed. The gonozoa, well developed, too, may have the shape of a sack (with the primitive forms), or of a medusoid gene in the more evolved ones. The batteries of individuals, i.e., the chormidiae, are repeating along a stolon, which is penetrated by a gastric cavity that assures the connections among all individuals. The stolon and all the chormidiae form the so called chormus or the colonys body. The chormidiae are well-organized, functional, even independent in some species 445

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a case in which they live alone (being thus called eudoxiae). The colony is characterized by a continuous growth. The new chormidiae are formed in the vicinity of the pneumatophores, the old ones occurring at the opposite end. The situation is comparable to the formation of proglottes in the case of tape worms. That is why, the detachment of some chormidae is not surprising. Halistemma pictum is a primitive species, in which the chormidae are arranged linearly. In the evolved forms - such as Stephalia coron, Physalia physalis, Velella spiralis , the chormidae are arranged concentrically under the nectazoa. The colonys behaviour is quite complex. The zoozoa, perfectly integrated within the wholes functions, behave as if they were the organs of an unique organism. Coordination of the individuals activity is performed by means of nervous formations. Each metazoa has its own nervous system, which coordinates the contractions, being nevertheless connected to the rest of the colony again through nervous formations, so that they may respond to any signal launched by the colonys individuals. The gastrozoa may develop independent activities of preys catching, although, frequently, there are several individuals that take part in the capture of a bigger prey. The paplones seem to be some auxiliary digestive organs, with the function of pumping the food along the stolon. Quite interesting is the fact that the whole colony starts from an egg cell. The whole genetic information is to be found in the egg cell, from which the haired larva (the planule) is born. The ciliated larva puts the basis of the whole colony. Its ectodermis gets thickened and start to generate the buds of the nectozoa and of the pneumatophores, then of the other categories of individuals. A certain area remains functional, like a meristeme, generating new chormidia series. In this way, the so-called astogeny i.e., colonys ontogenesis occurs. The egg cell is the carrier of the whole genetic information necessary to the colony, no matter how complicated is it. That is, the egg cell carries the information of the whole society of individuals. Along the evolution of the colonial forms, from the homo- up to the heteronomous ones, characterized by a complex structure, one may grasp the increasingly complicated evolution of the genetic material deposited in the egg cell. The egg is not of an individual, as we usually consider, yet it is of the colonys. The genetic material should register all individual differentiation, all new morpho-functional accumulations of the whole. The colony represents a form of shifting toward pluricellular individuals. The cells that get associated in colonies should include this association in their genetic programme. Even if the cells are morpho-functionally differentiating, they have in their genetic information the program of the whole (i.e., of the colony). In the case in which the differentiation of structures within the colony is so extended that some of the individuals gave up their reproduction function, then it is compulsory for the individuals taking over such functions to register the whole genetic information of the colony. Such a principle is perfectly valid, too, for the structure and functionality of the solitary metazoon organisms. In this way, one may understand the individuals gathering within syphonophorous or within other heteronomous colonies. Assemblage is so perfect that 446

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some of the individuals seem to represent organs of the whole, functioning as a wellindividualized whole. Having all these in view, one may assert, without erring too much, that, in the case of syphonophores, the body is formed of organs represented by individual organisms. In the case of metazoa, the organs are formed at the expense of the embryonary foils. In the heteronomous colonial forms, the so-called organs are forming in different ways, although the final function is the same. One should therefore understand from here that the need of organs becomes a necessity for the accomplishment of the morpho-physiological progress. This cannot be achieved without labour division, without the intervention of some specialized structures. As a matter of fact, it seems that the manner in which these organs are forming is not important. In the case of coelentera, two ways through which the morphofunctional progress occurs may be differentiated. Polyps evolution may be followed in the coelentera series. If, in Hydrozoa, the polyp is simple, with an undivided gastric cavity, in Scyphozoa - in situations in which the biological cycle is present the polyps gastric cavity is divided into four cells, through four septae. In Octocoralli, the gastric cavity is divided into eight cells through eight septae. These septae have a complex structure, as follows: their edges have the so-called mesenteric filament, with hairy and glandular cells, the septae have muscles: transversal muscles, on the posterior side, which grant septas narrowing and gastric cavitys enlargement, and a septal retracting muscle, on the ventral side, each with the role of folding the septa in longitudinal direction. At the basis of septae, the gonads are localized. The polyps structure gets complicated, while the functions are separated, being localized in a special type of organs. In the polyps oral part, a pharynx on which the septae are inserted is differentiated. Inside, the pharynx is lined by an ectodermis. Liquids circulation in a certain direction is assured by a hairy ditch, called syphonoglyphe. Its cillia form a water current that penetrates the interior of the gastric cavity, while the cillia from the rest of pharynxs epithelium intensify the water current that leaves the body. The organs are well-individualized and perfectly functional for the requirements of such organisms. The tentacles are situated above the loculi, while the gastric cavity penetrates them up to the pinule. Septae have an endodermic origin, however the two dorsal septaes edges have long cilia on their longitudinal bands, which delimitate a ditch, evidencing, too, endoblaste cells. These bands are ectodermic, originating from the pharyngean ectodermis. The transversal and the longitudinal muscles are originarily formed at the expense of the endodermis. Gonades are, also, of endodermic origin. In the case of Hexacorallia, polyps structure is even more intricate, which may be explained by the high number of tentacles and septae that form the so-called cells and inter-cells. The number of septae is so high that it delimitates the digestive tube through mesenteric filaments (which evidence a quite complex structure). Gastric cavity is divided both by scleroseptae and in the forms possessing a skeleton sarcoseptae. 447

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Here too, the tentacles are found above the cells, their number corresponding to the number of cells. With several species, the mesenteric filaments continue, in their inferior part, with a long and thin filament, rich in cnydoblaste cells, called aconitum. Such filaments, which are extremely mobile, are both attack and defense organs. They may be drawn out either through the buco-annal orifice or through some apertures that penetrate the bodys wall, known as cinclydes, being quite similar to syphonofores tentacles or catching filaments. Of interest here is not to discuss some structures, but to underline that polyps morphophysiological progress involves differentiation of certain structures, which occur as a result of certain cells and tissues grouping and specialization. Where is this tendency of forming organs coming from? Is their structuring a necessity, indeed, when the organisms claim higher living standars? Which factors determine the individualization, intrication and specialization of certain organs? Is this, indeed, an internal requirement of the organism, of the species? If so, does this involve the immediate occurrence of canalized mutations, meant at assuring their production? Such question have been already asked. However, under discussion here are not the individuals subjected to metamorphoses, but some structures, specific to the organism, that suffer modifications canalized in a certain direction. It is as if some function should be performed, and modification or creation of new organs occurs. Should digestion be enlivened? This may be realized by gastric cavitys dividing into compartments. How? By the creation of septae. Are they not sufficient? Then, their number should be increased. Are they not perfectly functionall? Then, their structure may be complicated. Is the involvment of a single embryonic foil not sufficient? It does not matter, another one may participate, too, to structures realization. Does the organism need some additional protection structures? The solution is the presence of some filaments provided with nematocyste batteries. This is the probable pattern that may be applied. However, at whose expense is this formed? Does it matter, any more? Important is that they are forming. The solution is similar to that applied for the realization of other organs. The observation may be therefore made that polyps structure has become extremely complex, involved here being the formation of organs and only some individuals differentiation within a colony. In the case of heteronomous colonies, a certain intrication of the wholes structure is also occurring, yet the solution is different. The role of organs is taken over by some individuals. The filaments or the catching tentacles which support the gastrozoa in foods procuring are similar to antozoas filaments, although they are formed in a different manner. Such homologous organs are to be noticed in the animal world in other cases, too. Actually, do not dolphins wings play the same role as the sharks ones? The fact that their origin is different is not important. Essential is that they perform the same function, with the same efficiency. The authors have therefore drew the attention on two different manners of increasing the organisms morpho-physiological progress, within one and the same phylum. Which of them is more efficient? Probably, the one of the direct formation of 448

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organs, once it is so largely applied. This does not mean, nevertheless, that syphonophores of the Physalia, Stephalia or Velella type are not liable to improvement and adaptation to the mode of life and environment corresponding to their evolution level and, consequently, to their living requirements. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Barnes, D. Robert, 1974 Intervertebrate Zoology. Third Edition: W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, London, Toronto Margulis, L., Schwartz, K.V., 2000 Five Kingdoms, Third Edition, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York Musta, Gh., Musta, Mariana, 2001 Origine, evoluie i evoluionism, Vasile Goldi University Press, Arad Musta, Gh., Musta, Mariana, Costic, Mihai, 2004 Regnurile lumii vii, Ed. Venus, Iai Radu, V.G., Radu, V.V., 1967, 1972 Zoologia nevertebratelor, vol. I, ed. a IIa i vol. II, Ed. Did. i Ped. Bucureti

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Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 _________________________________________________________________________________________

MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF THE JUVENILES BELONGING TO COMPLEX RANA ESCULENTA FROM CIRIC RIVERS BASIN (IAI)
BY

ANDREEA NICOAR1

Key words: water green frogs, morphometry, polymorphism, River Ciric Distribution of morphometric characters (parameters and colour pattern) is given for the identification of water green frogs from Ciric Rivers basin. Many anuran species exhibit striking colours or dorsal pattern polymorphisms, and also provide an excellent instrument to answer questions related to evolution and maintenance of polymorphisms.

Introduction European water green frog complex consists of three species: Rana ridibunda Pallas 1771, Rana lessonae Camerano 1882 and Rana esculenta Linnaeus 1758. Hybrid individuals of Rana esculenta usually have intermediate characters between the parental species; for this reason the study used morphometric method to identify the three species [6]. Morphometric measurements were made starting Boulenger (1885, 1891). Later, (1923, 1927) Terentjev run biometrical studies and found correlation (0.5-0.9) between the morphometric characters. Berger (1964, 1966) [2,3], Gnther (1968, 1973), Wijnands (1976) [17] and Gubanyi (1992, 1995) [9,10] also run deep biometrical investigations. In 1878 Camerano described the species Rana esculenta lessonae while Boulenger (1898) considered it as a variety of Rana esculenta. Starting with Berger (1966) [3] for scientists was more and more obvious that Rana esculenta is the hybrid of Rana ridibunda and Rana lessonae[8]. Polymorphism can be defined as simultaneous occurrence of two or more discrete and genetically based phenotypes in a population where frequency of the rarest type is higher than might be maintained by recurrent mutation (Ford, 1975) [11]. Factors that affect movement of the pigment include temperature, light, and humidity. Warm and dry conditions result in contraction of the pigment granules making the frog pale; cold and damp conditions facilitate the dispersal of pigment making the frog appear darker. The hypothesis that phenotypic plasticity is an adaptation to environmental variation rests on the two assumptions that plasticity improves the performance of
______________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Andreea Nicoar _________________________________________________________________________________________

individuals that possess it, and that it evolved in response to selection imposed in heterogeneous environments [4]. Material and method Ciric Rivers basin is located in the southern part of Moldavian Plain (Fig. 1) and belongs to geographic unit of Jijia-Bahlui Depression included in Moldavian Platform. It has a surface of approximately 54 km. River Ciric is a left side affluent of River Bahlui. It springs from Popricani and Rusului Hills and after 20 km enters the Iai town. Maximal altitude is 205 m [1]. River Ciric has a varied hydrological potential represented by underground and surface waters. The ponds existing on river itinerary have an anthropogenic origin. They were created by river repeated damming aiming at regulation of the water quantity in River Bahlui, contributing to prevention of floods. Ponds cover about 127 ha and contain 2,405,000 m. 60 juveniles captured in August, September and October were analyzed. Individuals captured by hand or using the sweep net were released after data collection. Measurements were made on living individuals, in the field and in the laboratory, on the right side of the body. A vernier callipers, with an error of 0.1 mm was used. Dorsal and ventral colour morphs were differentiated according to Ishcenko [5]: Maculata: can be recognized due to presence of dark spots 2-3 or 6-7 mm diameter, with varied numbers and distribution. Hemimaculata: similar with maculata but with 2-6 spots only. Burnsi: spots are missing. Punctata: many little spots, like points. Hemipunctata: number of points is smaller than in punctata Fig.1 Physico-geographical location of the morph. River Ciric basin (Iai county map, 1993) Striata: shows an intensely green median line (usually found in combination with other morphs). 258

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These six fundamental morphs can be combined resulting complex morphs like hemimaculata-hemipunctata, maculata-punctata etc. [5]. These morphs can be used to answer questions about frogs population structure and distribution. There are three colour patterns on frogs ventral side: nigricollis-nigriventris (N/N, with pigmented abdominal and orofaringian/oral regions), albicollis-nigriventris (A/N, with orofaringian region depigmented while abdominal region pigmented) and nigricollis-albiventris (N/A; only with orofaringian region pigmented). Ventral side depigmentation is for albicollis-albiventris morph [5]. 15 morphometric parameters of juveniles were analyzed: L (body length, distance between tip of the muzzle and cloak orifice); L.c. (head length, distance between tip of the muzzle to the edge of occipital orifice); Lt.c. (head breadth, measured at mandible base), D.r.o. (distance between rostrum and eye); Sp.c.r. (space between rostral edges, measured n dreptul anterior eye region); D.n.o. (distance between nostril and eye); L.o. (eye length); Lt.p. (breadth eyelid); Sp.p. (interorbital space); Sp.n. (space between nostrils); L.tym. (tympanum diameter); F. (femur length); T. (tibia length); D.p. (hindleg first toe length); C.int. (tuberculului tarsial length). 12 morphometric indices were calculated: L/L.c., L.c./Lt.c., D.r.o./D.n.o., L.o./L.tym., Sp.p./Sp.n., Lt.p./Sp.p., F./T., 2T./L., L./T., L/D.p., T./C.int, D.p./C.int. Both for morphometric parameters and indices were calculated: maximal values (MAX), minimal values (MIN) and mean values (M), standard deviation (DS), standard error (ES), modal value (MOD). Results and discussions 1. Data regarding the biometry of juveniles from Rana esculenta complex Most important biometrical variables are: body length (L), tibia length (T), metatarsal tubercle length (callus internus, C.int.) and hind legs first toe length (digitus primus, D.p.) Table 1 shows the mean, maximal and minimal values, standard deviation and standard error. Body length of analyzed juveniles is between 1.7 and 4.95 cm, having the mean values of 2.610.09 cm. Tab. 1 Morphometric measurements in juveniles from Rana esculenta complex No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Parameters L L.c. Lt.c. D.r.o. SP.c.r. D.n.o. MIN 1.7 0.77 0.63 0.3 0.22 0.12 MAX 4.95 1.78 1.84 0.78 0.9 0.36 259 M 2.61 1.04 0.89 0.43 0.44 0.19 MOD 2.3 0.88 0.7 0.4 0.48 0.18 DS 0.71 0.20 0.24 0.10 0.11 0.04 ES 0.09 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.005

Andreea Nicoar _________________________________________________________________________________________

No. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Parameters L.o. Lt.p. Sp.p. Sp.n. L.tym. F. T. D.p. C.int.

MIN 0.24 0.12 0.22 0.15 0.13 0.47 0.45 0.22 0.09

MAX 0.62 0.35 0.5 0.39 0.41 2.58 2.64 0.71 0.35

M 0.34 0.19 0.32 0.23 0.21 1.28 1.31 0.37 0.16

MOD 0.34 0.15 0.32 0.2 0.2 1.4 1.24 0.31 0.13

DS 0.07 0.04 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.50 0.52 0.13 0.08

ES 0.009 0.005 0.009 0.007 0.009 0.06 0.06 0.01 0.01

3 of the 12 indices calculated in our study are most important in order to identify the three species: T/C.int., D.p./C.int i L/D.p. (tab. 2) [3, 9, 12, 16, 18]. Tab. 2 Biometrical indices in juveniles from Rana esculenta complex No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Indices L/L.c. L.c./Lt.c. D.r.o./D.n.o L.o./L.tym Sp.p./Sp.n. Lt.p./Sp.p. F./T. 2T/L L./T. L/D.p. T/C.int. D.p/C.int. MIN 1.99 1.04 1.72 1.14 0.95 0.43 0.76 0.30 1.64 4.83 3.46 1.52 MAX 3.43 4.51 3 2.46 2.29 0.86 1.14 1.21 6.6 9.7 15 4.2 M 2.47 3.53 2.26 1.63 1.39 0.61 0.98 1.003 2.06 7.15 8.38 2.38 DS 0.23 0.65 0.27 0.30 0.19 0.09 0.06 0.12 0.63 0.94 1.94 0.58 ES 0.03 0.08 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.009 0.01 0.08 0.12 0.25 0.07

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Indices most used to distinguish between the three species are tibia length/inner metatarsial tubercle length and tibia length/inner metatarsial tubercle height (Wijnands and Van Gelder, 1976). A. Gubanyi and Z. Korsos (1992) considered body length/first toe length and tibia length/inner metatarsal tubercle length as most relevant indices [9, 17]. In order to avoid misinterpretations during discriminant analysis T/C.int. index was used to make a prediction about the number of individuals of each species, represented in tab. 3. Tab. 3 Number of individuals of each species from different discriminating values of T/C.int. index: References Species Discriminating No. of values individuals Rana lessonae <7 13 Rana esculenta 7-9 24 Berger (1966) Rana ridibunda >9.5 14 Rana lessonae - esculenta 1 Rana ridibunda - esculenta 8 Rana lessonae <7 10 Rana esculenta 6.5-8.6 7 Gunther (1975) Rana ridibunda 26 Rana lessonae - esculenta 6 Rana ridibunda - esculenta 11 Rana lessonae <6 3 Wijnands & Rana esculenta 6-8.5 26 Van Gelder Rana ridibunda > 8.5 25 (1976) Rana lessonae - esculenta 3 Rana ridibunda - esculenta 3 Rana lessonae < 9.5 36 Rana esculenta 9-10.4 7 Regnier & Neveu Rana ridibunda 6 (1986) Rana lessonae - esculenta 11 Rana ridibunda - esculenta Rana lessonae <8 23 Rana esculenta 8-9.5 18 Polls-Pellaz (1991) Rana ridibunda 16 Rana lessonae - esculenta 3 Rana ridibunda - esculenta Rana lessonae 6-7 14 A. Gubanyi, Z. Rana esculenta 7.2-8 10 Korsos Rana ridibunda 10-11 10 (1992) Rana lessonae - esculenta 2 261

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Cogalniceanu & Tesio (1993) Joly, Pagano, Morand (1994)

Rana ridibunda - esculenta Rana lessonae Rana esculenta Rana ridibunda Rana lessonae - esculenta Rana ridibunda - esculenta Rana lessonae Rana esculenta Rana ridibunda Rana lessonae - esculenta Rana ridibunda - esculenta

<7 7-9.5 > 9.5 <7 6.6-9 >9

24 13 34 13 11 22 20 1 6

Tibia length/inner metatarsal tubercle length reported to hind leg first toe length/inner metatarsal tubercle length permitted the identification of 18 specimens of Rana ridibunda (), 26 of Rana esculenta () and 16 of Rana lessonae (). Thus, in aquatic habitats from Ciric Rivers basin the three species were found in the following proportion: 30% Rana ridibunda, 43.3% Rana esculenta and 26.6% Rana lessonae (Fig. 2).
16 14 12 10 T/Cint 8 6 4 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Dp/Cint Fig. 2 Distribution of Rana esculenta complex's species against Dp/Cint. and T/Cint. discriminant index 3 3.5 4 4.5

Application of variation for juveniles measured in Ciric Rivers basin permitted the identification of 15 specimens of Rana ridibunda () (25%), 34 of Rana esculenta () (56.6%) and 11 of Rana lessonae () (18.3%) based on indices T/cint and L/Dp (Fig. 3).

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16 14 12 T/C.int. 10 8 6 4 2 3 4 5 6 7 L/D.p. 8 9 10 11

Fig. 3 Distribution of Rana esculenta complex's species against L/Dp and T/Cint. discriminant index

Most abundant specie was Rana esculenta hybrid with a percentage of 43-56%. Rana ridibunda represented 25-30% of the total population while Rana lessonae 1825%. Vancea et al. (1989) found in Mirceti (approx. 40 km from Iai) small pure populations of Rana lessonae and for this reason we think that the species is far for being absent in Iai county [7, 15]. 2. Polymorphism of Rana esculenta complex juveniles The 60 analyzed juveniles from Ciric Rivers basin presented 3 simple dorsal morphs and 8 combined dorsal morphs. Simple dorsal morphs found were 33.3% maculata (M), 13.3% - hemipunctata (Hm) and 3.3% - punctata (P). Complex morphs which represent adaptive reserve of population were: maculata-punctata (MP) 21.7%, maculata-striata (MS) 11.7%, maculata-punctata-striata (MPS) 3.3%, hemimaculatastriata (HmS) 5%, hemimaculata-punctata (HmP) 5%, burnsi-striata (BS) 1.7%, hemimaculata-punctata-striata (HmPS) 1.7% (Tab. 4). Tab. 4 Dorsal morphs identified of Rana esculenta complexs juveniles Morphs M Hm P MP MS MPS HmS HmP HmPS BS No. of 20 8 2 13 7 2 3 3 1 1 individuals % 33.3 13.3 3.3 21.7 11.7 3.3 5 5 1.7 1.7 The most frequent ventral chromatic variations were albicollis-albiventris (AA) 50% and nigricollis-albiventris (NA) 45%. The other two ventral morphs were found in lower proportion albicollis-nigriventris (AN) 3.3% and nigricollis-nigriventris (NN) 263

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1.7%. Abdominal colour is very important for aquatic species because influence individuals survival against aquatic predators. Tab. 5 shows that 95% of specimens had a white abdomen, thus heavily observed by natural enemies. Tab. 5 Ventral morphs identified of Rana esculenta complexs juveniles Morphs NN AA NA AN No. of individuals % 1 1.7 30 50 27 45 2 3.3

Polymorphism gives the species capacity to populate different habitats while the presence of more complex morphs (8 types, observed in 50% of individuals) indicate the fact that Rana esculenta complexs species from Ciric Rivers basin show adaptive plasticity. Polymorphism within a population reflects the adaptive capacity under environmental conditions, especially offers camouflage in different microhabitats. Thus polymorphism is low when environmental factors are uniform, and is high when these factors are varied. The colour is highly determined by substrate [5]. Merrell and Rodell (1968) [11] observed in the field a higher proportion of burnsi morph among Rana pipiens survivors than among dead individuals after an episode of winter mortality. That percentage of burnsi higher in spring than in previous autumn is also consistent with higher burnsi overwintering survival. These data are not the result of planned experiments. Various correlation of colour pattern were tested during different seasons, including susceptibility to desiccation, stress resistance, emergence of adults, diseases, fecundity, mating preference, length of larval period, size at metamorphosis, juvenile size, adult size, tadpole growth and survival rate (Acris sp. - Nevo, 1973; Gray, 1977, 1983; Crinia sp. Main, 1961, 1968; Walker, 1966; Bull, 1977; Hyla regilla -Jameson & Pequegnat, 1971; Phelsuma ornata - Travis & Trexler, 1984; Blouin 1989a; Pseudacris triseriata Mathews, 1971; Hoppe & Pettus, 1984; Rana arvalis - Ishchenko & Shchupak, 1974; Rana pipiens - Merrell, 1965; Merrell & Rodell, 1967; Gill, 1970; Merrell, 1972; Dapkus, 1976; Corn, 1981) [11]. Most of these studies found no correlation between morphs and specific traits. Hoppe & Pettus (1984) measured nine variables and found two statistically significant correlation but these disappeared when a correction for multiple comparisons was made. Nevertheless, few examples of fitness traits correlated with colour pattern exist. The survival difference between Rana pipiens morphs suggested a correlation with some tolerance to physiological stress (Merrell & Rodell, 1968; Dapkus, 1976). Some data (Nevo, 1973) suggested a correlation with resistance to diseases in Acris crepitans [11]. Only four studies used an experimental approach to test direct selection on the polymorphism itself: Wendelken (1968), Gray (1978), Tordoff (1980) and Morey 264

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(1990). Two of the four studies found that predators preferentially ate non-matching morphs (Tordoff, 1980; Morey, 1990). The mechanisms behind the selective maintenance of colour and/or pattern polymorphism have been investigated in 19 species. Most of these studies attempted to determine if some fitness-related trait was correlated with morph type, and were mostly inconclusive. Although only four studies investigated direct selection by predators on polymorphism itself, two of these demonstrated differential selection (albeit in the laboratory) [11]. Conclusions Morphometric investigations of green frog juveniles permitted the identification of the three species: Rana ridibunda, Rana esculenta and Rana lessonae in Ciric Rivers basin. Most frequent species was Rana esculenta, individuals representing half of population. Morphometric indices are not always valid for taxonomic identification in the field but several biometrical investigations showed an overlap of the morphometric measurement of taxa [3, 9, 17]. Morphology is determined by phylogeny and environmental factors, thus existence of many morphs is a result of an unpredictable and heterogeneous environment [13]. Variety of dorsal morphs found in field could be result of distinct microhabitats (25 types of microhabitats and 10 colour patterns). The most frequent ventral morphs were albicollis-albiventris (50%) while 95% specimens had white abdomen, being more difficult to observe for natural enemies. We believe that the simplest explanation for the maintenance of colour pattern is indeed direct selection by visually oriented predators. Well-designed studies are needed on the effects of predation on morph frequencies in the field. This remains a wide-open and potentially rewarding area of study. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Barbu N., Ungureanu Al., 1987 Geografia municipiului Iai, Ed. Univ. Al.I. Cuza, Iasi Berger L., 1964 An. Zool., Warszawa, tom XXII, 13: p.31-38 Berger L., 1966 An. Zool., Warszawa, tom XXIII, p.303-324 Van Buskirk J., Relyea R., 1998 - Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 65: 301328 Crlig Tatiana, 2002 - Particularitile biologice i comportamentul speciei Rana dalmatina Bonap. (Amphibia, Anura) n Codrii Centrali, Tez de doctorat, Academia de tiine a Republicii Moldova, Institutul de Zoologie, Chiinu Coglniceanu D., Aioanei F., Bogdan M., 2000 - Amfibienii din Romnia Determinator, Editura Ars Docendi, Bucureti Coglniceanu D., Tesio C., 1993 - Amphibia-Reptilia, 14: 90-93 Csata Z., 1997 - Acta 1997, vol. 1, Muzeul Naional Secuiesc, Muzeul Secuiesc al Ciucului, Sf. Gheorghe 265

7. 8. 9.

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10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

Gubanyi A., Korsos Z., 1992 Amphibia Reptilia, 13: 235-243 Gubanyi A., 1995 Miscellanea Zoologica Hungaria, tom 10, p. 117-125 Hoffman E., Blouin M., 2000 - Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 70: 633665 Joly P., Pagano A., Morand A., 1994 Zoologica Poloniae, 39/3-4: 493-499 Pagano A., Joly P., 1998 Alytes, 16 (3-4): 15-23 Valenciuc N., Davideanu Gr., Tnase C., 1992/1993 An.t. Univ. Al.I. Cuza, s. Biologie animal, Tom XXXVIII, Iai Vancea S., Fuhn I., Stugren B., 1989 Stud. Univ. Babe-Bolyai, Biologia, XXXIV, 2, Cluj-Napoca; Zamfirescu tefan, 2002 Studiul amfibienilor din bazinul mijlociu al Prutului Tez de doctorat, Univ. Al.I. Cuza, Iai Wijnands H.E.J., Van Gelder J.J., 1976 Netherlands Journal of Zoology, 26 (3): 414-424 Wijnands H.E.J., 1978 Zool. Jb. Syst.Bd. 105, S, p.337-346

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BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
BY

MIRCEA NICOAR1

Key words: biodiversity, extinction, conservation Biodiversity consists of abundance of living entities on Earth, genes carried by these, and complexity of ecosystems they form. Biodiversity conservation studies species and habitats endangered by human activities, priority having key species whose extinction leads to extinction of many species in the area. Conservation efforts will be focused on rescue of species threatened with extinction, proper administration of actual protected areas and establishment of new protected areas.

Introduction Biodiversity represents the variety and variability of living organisms in ecological complexes in which they occur. There are: ecological diversity, referring to species number in a given area; genetic diversity and cultural (human populations). Biodiversity conservation is a synthetic discipline (taxonomy, ecology, biogeography, environmental geography, genetics and population biology) aiming at natural world protection and management [3]. Ecological economy studies biodiversitys economical value. It is a crisis discipline at the same time, founded as scientific domain because none of the traditional disciplines was not enough comprehensive to decipher and at the same time reduce dangers addressed to biodiversity. Study object Biodiversity conservation studies species and habitats endangered by human activities but also efficiency of active protection measures, priority having key species, whose extinction (or significance decrease) leads to extinction of many species in the area (extinctions in cascade). On the other hand, reintroduction of key species does not compulsory lead to reinstallation of initial conditions. There is a complex of factors that threaten species and habitats so studies have a social, economic, politic, and ethic character. Because of the risk that argument of immediate benefits related to economical development to lead to nature and traditional culture destruction, conservationists actions are not only scientific but also politic and educational, by collaboration with governmental and local decision factors and with local communities.
__________________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Mircea Nicoar _________________________________________________________________________________________

Traditional societies considered environmental hazards (fires, floods, earthquakes) as results of action against Gods wish. Religions: Tao, Shinto, Hindu and Buddhist value and protect natural areas for their capacity to produce intense spiritual experiences. European colonists educated in Bible (Genesis) spirit as well as adepts of other monotheist religions savagely exploited the nature, considering uncultivated areas as haunted by bad spirits. Colonies administrators (e.g. Mauritius, Tobago, India) made connection between clearing and erosion, respectively drought/drying and famine. World Wildlife Fund (1989) defined biodiversity as abundance of living entities on Earth, genes carried by these, complexity of ecosystems they form. Biodiversity is characterized on 3 levels: - specific/biological diversity (bacteria, protozoa, fungi, plants and animals); - genetic diversity (genetic variation of species, populations, and individuals; - ecosystem diversity. Biological diversity is the result of two processes: speciation and extinction. Global biodiversity increased in geological time. Local biodiversity may increase by immigration and decrease by emigration. Biodiversity (species richness) is assessed at local (Tab. 1), regional and global scale. How many species exist? Circa 1.8 millions species were scientifically described among which: 56% insects, 14% plants, 3% vertebrates; 15% of all live in the ocean. Table 1. Biological diversity hosted by forest ecosystems in Romania (source ICAS, 2002) Number of species pointed out Taxonomic units in Romania in forest in virgin and ecosystems quasi virgin forests superior plants 3567 1251 x trees 58 58 27-51 shrubs 118 118 31-84 forest grasses 1075 1075 x mammals 102 43 36 birds 387 over 250 over 156 reptiles 30 15 13 batrachians 20 16 15 freshwater fish 91 21 13 Extinctions Extinction = death of a group of organisms due to a rapid environmental change (disequilibrium in habitat, new species introduction, excessive hunting, food species extinction). Five mass extinctions occurred in geological time. Actual extinction rate 184

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(the 6th mass extinction) is 100-1000 times higher than in the past and is exclusively anthropogenic. Extinction causes are: - natural: climate and habitat modification, predation/competition from behalf of invasive/exotic species, diseases due to micro parasites (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa) or macro parasites (helminths, arthropods); - anthropogenic: habitat destruction, fragmentation, and degradation, pollution, climate global change, overexploitation (excessive hunting/harvesting), that lead to phantom habitats (e.g. empty forests in western Europe), predators/competitors introduced by man; - synergic: acid rain, clearing, poaching. Extinction types are: - global when the species is not found on the globe anymore; - local when the species does not appear in wildness in the old area; - in wildness when the species is met only in captivity; - ecologic when few individuals still exist but the species lost the role in community. Mass extinctions are catastrophic events that killed more than 60% of total species existent on Earth. 95% of world total species are extinct, 90% by natural causes (climate changes, asteroids). E.g. aurochs (Bos primigenius) became extinct in Europe in 1627 (Tab. 2), bird dodo (Raphus cucullatus) from Mauritius in 1680. 23 species were lost in Australia (40 species in the world) in the last 200 years. At present one species becomes extinct per year. Extinction normal rate is several species per year. 2-10 species are annually lost due to other causes than natural (volcanic eruptions, floods, violent climate changes at local level). Rates of extinction were estimated as: - 1 million species between 1975-2000 (Fig. 1); - 1-11% of the species become extinct each decade (10 years); - 50% of the total Earth species in the 21st century.

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0,4 Percentage of taxa that became extinct 0,3 Birds 0,2

0,1 Mammals 1600 1700 1800 Year 1900 2000

Fig. 1. Extinction rates for mammals and birds (Smith et al., 1993) Table 2. Species of mammals and birds extinct in Romanian fauna (Drugescu, 1994 and Zoocinegetical Encyclopedia, 1996) Species Extinction period Observations aurochs centuries XV-XVI (Bos taurus primigenius) forest horse after 1700 (Equus cabalus silvaticus) steppe marmot (Marmota bobac) 1800 Saiga antelope 1800 (Saiga tatarica) elk 1813-1850 reappeared after 1960 (Alces alces) ure ox 1762 reintroduced in some (Bison bonasus bonasus) reserves alpine partridge 1884 (Lagopus mutus) alpine marmot 1890-1900 reintroduced in some (Arctomys marmota) mountains rock partridge 1920 Alectoris graeca saxatilis) beaver 1824 reintroduced in 1998 (Castor fiber) 186

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Species lammergeyer (Gypaetus barbatus aureus) black/brown bald vulture (Aegypius monachus) grey bald vulture (Gyps fulvus fulvus) small vulture (Neophron percnopterus)

Extinction period 1934 1960 1960 1980

Observations

IUCN established (1996) 10 categories of population conservation: - extinct - vanished in wildness - in imminent danger - in peril - vulnerable - dependent on conservation - nearly threatened - insufficiently known - with incomplete data - unevaluated. Categories 2, 3 and 4 are considered threatened with extinction [9]. Protection by population conservation The 4th Wild Areas World Congress occurred in 1987. Many national parks were created in order to protect charismatic mega fauna (lions, tigers, bears) national symbols, elements of tourist interest. Conservation efforts will be focused on: - rescue of species threatened with extinction; - proper administration of actual protected areas; - establishment of new protected areas. It is difficult to legally protect a species if there are not certainties on it (see interspecific hybrids). Taxonomists described 10-30% of the world while many species became extinguished before described. More specialized taxonomists should be formed. A conservation plan requires: - existence of a large number of individuals of the species in decline; - possibility of protected areas establishment for habitat protection. Population minimum size means the smallest population presumed to have good chances to survive in a predictable future. It was estimated (Schaffer, 1981) as 10,000 individuals for invertebrates and 500-5,000 individuals for vertebrates respectively [3]. Small populations are especially threatened due to 3 types of causes: - genetic (loss of genetic variability, sterility, genetic drift). 187

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Migrations between small populations, even at a low frequency, attenuate genetic drift, minimizing the loss of genetic variability. Endogamy leads to fertility decrease and endogamy crisis. These effects raised serious problems to populations maintained in captivity (zoological gardens, growth centres). - demographic (fluctuations, birth/mortality rate variation). Population effective size, meaning the individuals capable of reproduction, must be considered as well. Demographic variation is called demographic stochasticity. - environmental (predators, competition, diseases, food resources, natural catastrophes such as: fires, floods, drought). Accidental variation of environmental factors (physical, chemical, biological) is called environmental stochasticity. Population minimum area means the habitat necessary to maintain population minimum size. An area of 10,000-100,000 ha was estimated for small mammals (Schonewald-Cox, 1983) while 980-2420 ha for grizzly bears (Noss and Cooperrider, 1994) [3]. A conservation plan takes into account: - environment (in what habitats/on what surface the species exist); - distribution; - biotic interactions (food, competitor species, diseases, predators, parasites); - physiology (use of food resources, vulnerability); - demography (population size and stability); behaviour (reproductive, intraspecific communication, intraspecific competition/cooperation, survival); - genetic (genetic determinism of morphological and physiological individual variability). Effective protection of species rare/threatened depends on understanding their relations with the environment, and knowledge of species status (species natural history/ecology) as well. This is realized by species monitoring (inventories, investigation, demographic studies) as follows: - repeated inventories show if a population is numerically stable, increasing or decreasing; - investigation estimates species density in a certain community. By sampling, population size is estimated. - demographic studies assess growth, reproduction, survival rates. Monitoring permits knowledge of rare species status. Long term monitoring shows species/population response to environmental changes; allows distinguishing between normal fluctuation and tendencies on long term. Survey regards: - phenomena occurred in ecosystem (temperature, precipitations, humidity, soil acidity, water quality, soil erosion, etc.); - communities (plants species, type vegetal cover, biomass on each trophic level, etc.); - populations (number of individuals within species). Passive observation does not solve problems leading to extinction. Increasing populations size and responsible reintroduction is necessary. Since 1988 within IUCN 188

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framework exists a Group of Experts for Species Introduction (G.S.R.) with over 400 de reintroduction projects achieved in over 80 countries (Stanley Price and Falcon, 1996) [9]. LIFE Nature Programme is concerned with reintroduction in Europe of large carnivores, birds and reptiles [5], [6]. 3 types of Programmes for new populations of animals and plants constitution are used in practice: - reintroduction in an area not occupied by species anymore, but initially occupied; Wolfs were reintroduced since 1995 in Yellowstone National Park. In U.S.A. were also reintroduced: pilgrim eagle, Californian condor (Gymnogyps californianus), blacklegged polecat (Mustella nigripes), grizzly bear. In Romania, chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) was reintroduced in Rodnei Mountains in 1964 [1], [2]. These programmes have a high educational value and require existence of growth centres or bringing population from another location. Population reintroduction is also called translocation or reestablishment or relocation. - increase of population dimension when individuals sampled in another area or obtained in captivity are introduced in a population in order to enrich genetic fund; - introductory, that involve plants and animals removal outside of historical area when initial area is so degraded that reintroduction of original populations is impossible. Special attention is paid to avoid degradation of new environment/ecosystem or to put in danger native populations. Individuals introduced must not spread within wild populations diseases contracted while in captivity. Marmot (Marmotta marmotta) was introduced in Retezat Mountains. Attentive monitoring and implosion procedures are necessary in order to assure rapid elimination of the species introduced when problems for other species arise. Problems of ethics related to conservation methods might arise. For a successful reintroduction programme, transparency in public relation is essential (goal explication, programme requirements) to assure that local population help, involve or at least not oppose. Techniques of soft release are recommended instead of hard release. Animal introduced in a new habitat will be assisted until capable to survive alone (temporarily in cages, to accustom to the new area. The ones abruptly released might disperse in opposite directions, far from the protected area, so the programme fails. A training of the animals bred in captivity is necessary: species behaviour is taught (attention paid to imprinting phenomenon possible!). E.g. for headstarting: turtle offspring obtained in captivity are protected while in vulnerable stages and than released in wildness. This is the proceeding in Romania for Hermanns tortoise in the National Park Porile de Fier (since 2001). There is a growth centre at Eelnia (Mehedini) where tortoise eggs are incubated. Successful reintroduction programmes also have a high educational value, e.g. the tamarind (Leontopithecus rosalia) reintroduced in Brasil, Arabian gazelle (Oryx leucoryx) reintroduced in Oman desert and turned into a national symbol [4]. Such programmes became a support element for protection policy, a source of jobs. Less 189

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rentable hunting led to Swiss Alps repopulation with Capra ibex at the beginning of the 20th century. In order to constitute new plant populations special treatments such as arson, competitive vegetation removal with selective herbicide, earth digging or removal of the grazing animals are applied; e.g. for the Californian species belonging to family Boraginaceae - Amsinckia grandiflora [5]. Among popular contra arguments: - costs are too high: e.g. millions of $ for a few ugly birds! - lack of necessity: e.g. why do we need wolves when other countries have plenty? - inefficiency: increased mortality recorded in captivity (e.g. polecats) - pseudoethics: e.g. let the last individuals of a species to extinguish without torture them in captivity (zoological gardens)! Conservation strategies - in situ (preservation on-site): most recommended on long term because species natural evolution only occurs in wildness. - ex situ (preservation off-site): very expensive (maintenance of an African rhinoceros or elephant in a zoological garden costs 50 times more than in a national park) but recommended when a species extinct in wildness (due to increased anthropogenic pressure and too small population) has no chance to recover through on-site techniques, e.g. Davids stag (milu) Elaphurus davidianus, Franklins tree (Franklinia altamaha). Among facilities for ex situ techniques: - for animals: zoological gardens, hunting funds, aquariums, centres or growth in captivity; - for plants: botanical gardens, forest parks, seeds banks; - mixed or for integrate conservation (ex and in situ) consists of monitoring and management of species rare and threatened within small protected areas. Threatened species exhibition in zoological gardens has a proved educational effect. Among the techniques used in zoological gardens: - crossed nursing; - artificial insemination; - artificial incubation; - embryos transfer (ovules of rare species are implanted after artificial fertilisation in surrogate mothers chosen from commune species); - freezing of biological material (ovules, sperm, tissues, embryos) sampled from species threatened with extinction (frozen zoological gardens), aiming at future cloning (e.g. Tasmanian wolf). Some seeds are recalcitrant/refractory: germinate immediately or die (e.g. tropical species) so freezing is not a solution in this case. On the other hand, tissue cultures or periodical cuts from mother plant might be proceeded. Protected areas By protecting 50% of the habitat surface, 90% of the species will survive. By protecting only 10% of the habitat surface, almost 50% of the species will be maintained. 190

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There are different protection levels and regimes: - Natural reserves Cover a territory usually smaller than 1000 ha, mainly representing original ecosystems (of zoological, botanical, forest, palaeontological, limnological, speleological, marine or mixed interest) or not affected by human activities, or biocentres. A natural reserve part of the most important natural legacy of a state is a "national natural reserve" (Tab. 3) [8]. There are: - integral natural reserves where any activity which modifies natural equilibriums is prohibited; - partial reserves for certain species conservation (ure ox, chamois); - special reserves for certain biological ensemble elements only. Buffer zones where eventual activities harmful to natural resources will respect an adequate juridical regulation are established around natural reserves. - Landscape protected areas Usually cover a surface larger than 1000 ha with ecosystems fragmented but important for biodiversity and ecological stability conservation, with characteristic landscape features or specific forms of historical sites. - National parks Harmoniously combine nature protection with tourism development. Usually cover a surface larger than 1000 ha mainly consisting of ecosystems substantially unaffected by human activities or with landscape unique and natural structures. Represent national biocentres and the most important natural legacy where nature protection takes priority against other activities. It is the most complex form of nature protection and brings important incomes to national economies. A national park consists of 3 distinct zones: - zone of proper scientific reservation where only scientists access is permitted; - buffer zone accessible to tourism organized on certain itineraries; - prepark zone with role in tourism systematization of the entire park. Zoning of limits and areas inside a national park aims at 3 major goals: - protection of biodiversity and vulnerable sites; - public access to recreation and environmental education; - sustainable development of local communities. - Protected sites Usually have a surface smaller than 1000 ha mainly representing biocorridors, interactive elements or biocentres of local or regional importance. May also be a zone with a stable animal and plant population, minerals and fossils, sites used in scientific, cultural or educational purposes, as well as parts of nature modified by man: mainly water reservoirs, brushes, parks, gardens and quarries. - Nature monuments Are punctual ecosystems, linear or small (associations or species of animals or plants threatened by extinction, secular trees, unique geological phenomena, fossil sites), generally smaller than 50 ha, with scientific, cultural, ecological, esthetical or landscape 191

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significance, especially uncultivated: rocky formations, cliffs, canyons, dunes, sections of water courses, springs, lakes. A unique natural monument representing a part of the most important natural legacy of a state is a national natural monument (e.g. caves, abysses, natural cascades). Habitat conservation was born from respect and deep love for nature [7]. First form of intervention to protect species of plants and animals threatened with extinction consisted of national parks establishment. Alexandru Borza (1928), director of the Cluj Botanical Garden said about the goal of a national park: refuge for nature: plants, animals, geological monuments and at the same time a wonderful school, naturalistic research, love for nature and true patriotism, as well as place for recreation and fun for people. National parks were aimed at nature and environment protection by: - increased control upon field, landscape and living environment; - biodiversity conservation; - protection and administration of especially beautiful natural zones; - development of "natural tourism" as an alternative to mass tourism. Natural tourism offers an alternative to mass tourism developed on seasonal and commercial bases and spares populations deep-rooted sense of local and regional identity. Natural tourism increased at an annual rate of 10-30% while total tourism increased at a rate of 4% annually. Protected area is a terrestrial and/or marine zone with natural and cultural resources, especially dedicated to biological diversity protection, managed by legal means. The six administrative categories of protected areas, established by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) are: - Category I - scientific reserve: protected area mainly administrated for scientific research and conservation of native genetic fund; - Category II - national park: protected area mainly administrated for ecosystem protection, and leisure; - Category III - natural monument: area or natural objective mainly administrated for conservation of specific natural features; - Category IV - natural reserve: protected area mainly administrated for conservation of characteristic life environments that may be of geological, palaeontological, speleological, floristic, forest or fauna interest; - Category V - landscape reserve: contains relief forms or vegetal associations with a high aesthetic value. Conservation aims at maintaining natural beauty integrity. - Category VI - protected area with resources managed, mainly administrated for adequate use of natural ecosystems.

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Table 3. Total surface of natural areas protected in Romania (according to Law 5/2000) Surface of Romania 23,839,100 ha Surface of natural areas protected 1,234,608 ha Percentage realised by natural areas protected 5.18% Among which: Danube Delta occupies from country surface 2.43% International legislation role International agreements, conventions and treatises together with their annex protocols have a vital role for biodiversity conservation (Fig. 2) because: - migratory species exist; - trade with biological products is being carried out; - biodiversity is a good of whole mankind [6]. Most significant and effective international conventions agreed were: - Ramsar Convention regarding wetlands of international importance especially as waterfowls habitat (1991); - Paris Convention regarding protection of world cultural and natural heritage (1990); - Bern Convention regarding conservation of wildlife and natural habitats in Europe (1993); - Washington Convention regarding international trade with endangered species of wild fauna and flora (CITES, 1994); - Rio de Janeiro Convention regarding biological diversity (1994); - United Nations Convention for control of desertification in countries severely affected by drought and/or desertification especially in Africa, adopted at Paris, June 17th, 1994.

References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Bleahu M., 1995 Rev. Terra XXI, nr. 3 Mohan Gh., Ardelean A., Georgescu M., 1992 - Rezervaii i monumente ale naturii din Romnia, Editura Scaiul, Bucureti Primack R.B., Ptroescu M., Rozyilowicz L., Ioj C., 2002 - Conservarea diversitii biologice, Editura tehnic, Bucureti Categories of species framed within The Red List - IUCN 1994 - World Conservation Monitoring Centre Council Directive 79/409/EEC on the conservation of wild birds, Luxembourg European Red List of Globally Threatened Animals and Plants, 1991 United Nations, New York Legea nr. 5/2000, privind regimul ariilor naturale protejate, conservarea habitatelor naturale, a florei i faunei slbatice 193

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8. 9.

Legea nr. 152/2000, privind aprobarea Planului de amenajare a teritoriului naional, Seciunea a III-a zone protejate Threatened Animals 1996 IUCN Red List, The IUCN Species Survival Commission

90 80 Number of protected areas 70 60 50 40 30 20 10


Before 1950 1950-1959 1960-1969 1970-1980 2000

Period Fig. 2. Number of protected areas in Romania (1972 - Stockholm Convention)

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DATA REGARDING THE MUSSELS POPULATION STRUCTURE (MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS LMK.) FROM THE AREA OF AGIGEA DYKE
BY

ALIONA NOVAC1, ANCA - NARCISA NEAGU1, I. MIRON1

Key words: Mytilus galloprovincialis, biometry, sex-ratio, gonads structure, gametogenesis cycle. This paper offers data concerning some biometrical aspects and also the structure of sexes of a reprezentative sample of the mussels population (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk.) from the area of the Agigea dyke, cropped from a natural substratum at the depth of 15 m. As a result in the collected sample in October, 2003, the individuals from the size class 60 70 mm are predominant and the histological analysis of the gonads showed the predominance of male individuals and an inactive gametogenetic phase in both sexes.

Introduction The controlled growth of mussels on artificial supports is possible if in the sea medium exists some early sapling made of by natural population of mussels (AbadaBoudjema Yamina Madiha, 1996). That is why it is necessary to evaluate the reproductive potential and structure of sexes of these natural populations. Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. sex - ratio presented by the majority of the authors is 1:1 (Vorobyov, 1938, quoted by Zayka and others, 1990; Kudinsky and others, 1985; Kudinsky and Shurova, 1990), but it may variate depending on different medium factors and also the gathering season. The histological studies of the mussels gonads have shown that the active reproduction period of these species begins in April May period and goes on until August September period with an interuption of 4 6 weeks during the hottest period (Kudinsky and others, 1985; Comnescu and others, 1995; Neagu and others, 1998). In Vorobyovs opinion (1938, quoted by Zayka and others, 1990), the ratio 1 : 1 is typical for the young individuals, but among the mussels that have achieved the age of 3 years males are the predominant ones. In the sector of Sevastopol, Kiseleva (1972, quoted by Zayka and others, 1990) showed that the males represent only 20 30 % of the adult individuals. Kudinsky and Shurova (1990) on the basis of their research conclude that in unfavourable conditions, the females become predominant in the mussels population. It can be said that this fact may represent a kind of adaptation to the maintenance of mussels populations in unfavourable conditions.
__________________________________ 1 Al. I. Cuza University of Iai

Aliona Novac and all. _________________________________________________________________________________________

This study represents a step in an attempt of evaluation of the natural mussels stock, as a source of sapling for the controlled growth. Materials and methods This research has been made on the basis of a sample represented by 77 individuals of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. The collecting of samples was made in the area of Agigea dyke, at 1 km distance from the shore, at a depth of 15 m, in October, 2003, with a scuba diver. The samples has been fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The following types of analysis have been made: biometrical analysis, consisting in measuring of length (L) and height (H) of the valves by means of sliding callipers, being established 6 size classes, with an interval of 9.9 mm, after the method of Zayka and others, 1990 (Fig. 1). histological analysis of gonads, belonging to 65 individuals, by classical histological methods that led to the obtaining of permanent microscopical pieces that have been stained with hemalaun eosine and photographed with a NOVEX microscope with a Canon EOS1V.

Height (H)

Length (L)

Fig.1. Scheme of method of measuring mussels valves: L - length, H height. Results and Discussions From the biometrical analysis it can be noticed that: the majority of analysed individuals are mature, with the size between 3 7 cm. The weight of young youthful individuals is reduced (6 9 %) (Fig. 2): it can be noticed a positive correlation between the length and the height of the valves in all the categories with the mention that the correlation ratio decreases 28

Data regarding the mussels population structure Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. () _________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig. 2. Frequency of mussels individuals (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk.) from every size class (mm)

21% 19% 18%

9% 6%

27%

10.1-20.0 20.1-30.0 30.1-40.0 40.1-50.0 50.1-60.0 60.1-70.0

with the growth of individuals. This means that the speed of growth of individuals is much greater, than the height of the valves, especially in individuals from the big size classes with considerable length, where the ration of correlation is very close to zero (Fig. 3, 4).
Fig. 3. The correlation between the length of the valves and their height at mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk.), in the size class of 10.1 - 20.0 mm
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Height (H) (mm-1)

y = 0.5632x + 4.2434 R2 = 0.7863

Length (L) (mm-1)

29

Aliona Novac and all. _________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig. 4. The correlation between the length of the valves and their height at mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk.), in the size class of 60.1 - 70.0 mm
350

Height (H) (mm-1)

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660

y = 0.1563x + 203 R2 = 0.0324

Length (L) (mm-1)

From the histological analysis it is noticed that: male individuals represent 47%, from the total number of analized individuals, and the females 25%. The remained 28% are unidentified individuals from sexual view point, because of the lackh of gametes, or due to a preliminary expulsion of gametes, or because of gonadic involution (Fig. 5);
Fig. 5. Sexual ratio of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk.) population

Males 47%

Unidentificable 28%

Females 25%

it has been noticed that in every size class males are dominant. individuals of big dimensions end up the elimination of gametes earlier than those of smaller dimensions (Fig. 6). 30

Data regarding the mussels population structure Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. () _________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig. 6. Stages of sexual cycles of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. individuals, according to the size classes, in October, 2003

100%

% of sexes

80% 60% 40% 20% 0% cl. 2 cl. 3 cl. 4 cl. 5 cl. 6

with gametes in the process of elimination with eliminated gametes unidentificable

Size class

the samples have been collected at the beginning of October, 2003, during the period following the sexual elements elimination. In the male gonads are noticed some follicles still being in the period of gametes expulsion, as well as follicles with eliminated gametes. In female gonads the ratio of follicles with eliminated gametes is greater (Fig. 7). Conclusions: This study allowed us to underline the following aspects: the structure of mussels population: males - 47%, and females 25%. Sex ratio is 1.88 : 1 . The rest of 28% are unidentificable individuals from sexual view point. it has been stated that the individuals from 60 70 mm size class are predominant and they are mature from sexual view point. in males, as compared to females, there is noticed the predominance of follicles with gametes in the process of elimination and with eliminated gametes. In females the emptied follicles are predominant. This proves the tendency of gonades to enter the inactive fase during the period of winter.

References 1. Abada-Boudjema Yamina Madiha, 1996 Cinetique, croissance, production et composition biochimique de deux bivalves mytilides, Perna perna (L.) et Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lmk.) du littoral Algerois, These de doctorat du Museum National dHistoire Naturelle, 241 p. Comnescu Gianina, Haimovici S., Bejenaru Luminia, Miron I., 1995-1997 Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al. I. Cuza, Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom XLI-XLIII, p. 163 168 31

2.

Aliona Novac and all. _________________________________________________________________________________________

3. 4. 5. 6.

Kudinsky O. Yu., Martynova N. V., Stoletova T. V., 1985 Biologhicheskie osnovy akvakultury v moryakh evropeiskoi chasti SSSR, Moskva, Nauka: 169 180 Kudinsky O. Yu., Shurova N. M., 1990 Biologiya morya, N. 5, p. 43 48 Neagu Anca, Comnescu Gianina, Miron I., 1998 1999 Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al. I. Cuza, Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom XLIVXLV, p. 201 205 Zayka V., Valovaya N., Povciun A., Revkov N., 1990 Mitilidy Chernogo morya, Izd. Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 205 p.

32

Data regarding the mussels population structure Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. () _________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig. 7. Different stages of female (a, b, c) and male (d, e, f) gonads follicles: a gonad with not eliminated gametes, b gonad with partly eliminated gametes, c gonad with almost completely eliminated gametes, d gonad with not eliminated gametes, e gonad with partly eliminated gametes, f gonad with almost completely eliminated gametes. The arrows point to the follicles with gametes.

33

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 _________________________________________________________________________________________

GRGRIA GALICOL SMICRONYX JUNGERMANNIAE REICH. (COL; CURCULINIDAE), UN PERICULOS AGENT DE LIMITARE A RSPNDIRII SPECIILOR DE CUSCUT
BY

PERJU TEODOSIE1, TNASE MARIANA2, ION OLTEAN1, MONICA PORCA1

Speciile de cuscut sau torel (Cuscuta spp.) se nscriu n lista factorilor de risc pentru producia multor plante cultivate, prntre care: trifoiul, lucerna, inul, rchita s.a., fiind o plant periculoas, care degradeaz calitatea produciei acestor plante. Aceasta a determinat ca cercetrile de sistematic, biologie, ecologie i combatere a cuscutelor s constituie preocupri constante din partea unor remarcabili specialiti Prodan (1915). Speciile de cuscut constituie o problem major de combatere, acestea infestnd n mod curent culturile de leguminoase perene (Tnase Mariana, 1999; Mateia, 2001) Pe plan mondial se cunosc 67 de specii de grgrie din genul Smicronyx, care se hrnesc pe seama tulpinilor i florilor de cuscut, ndeosebi din zona Europei Centrale i de Est (Kasionov, 1999). Insecta este cunoscut i sub sinonimiile de Smicronyx coecus (Gyll) i S. variegatus (Gyll). Grgria face parte din familia Curculionidae, subfam. Eurrichyninae (Harde, Leuse, 1970). n zona Palearctic se cunosc cele mai multe specii de Smicronyx (Endrdi, 1974). Grgria este rspndit in Ungaria (Horvath, 1984, 1990), Fed. Rus (Haritonov, 1955; Arnoldi, 1963; Kovalev, 1973; inkarenko, 1983; Zerova i col. 1984), Jugoslavia/Serbia (Lekic, 1970; Stojanov 1961), Belarus (Kasionov, 1999), Germania (Diekmann, 1986; Harde i Leuse, 1970). n aceste ri insecta infesteaz tulpinile speciilor de Cuscuta trifolii, C. compostina, C. pentagona, C. europaea. Alte specii ale genului Smicronyx sunt rspandite n unele ri din Asia, respectiv India i Pakistan i America de Nord (Anderson, ). n Kazahstan hameiul este puternic infestat de S. coecus Reich (= politus Boh), dar i de ctre grgria S. scops Tourn (inkarenko, 1980). n ara noastr insecta S. jungermanniae Reich a fost semnalat faunistic alturi de specia S. Coecus Reich (= politus Boh), din mai multe localiti din Transilvania (Petri, 1912) i din Dobrogea (Neacu, 1972). Mai recent, ntre 1997-2000 insecta a fost inclus n obiectivele de cercetare n cadrul unei teze de doctorat privind biologia i combaterea speciilor de cuscut care duneaz culturile de trifoi (Tnase Mariana, 1999). Morfologie: Adultul are corpul alungit, de 1,6-2,2 mm lungime i de culoare nchis. Elitrele sunt relativ lungi, acoperind complet abdomenul i prevzute cu solzi.
________________________________ 1 USAMV of Cluj Napoca 2 University of Sibiu

Perju Teodosie and all.

Larva, de tip curculionid, apod i eucefal, are corpul ndoit caracteristic, de 1,5-2,5 mm lungime i de culoare galben (Neacu, 1974;Diekmann, 1984), (fig. 1a,1b). Ciclul biologic: Specie polivoltin, evolund 2-3 generaii pe an. Ierneaz insectele adulte, n stratul superficial al solului, n apropierea plantelor gazd (Lekic, 1970). Conform cercetrilor acestui autor grgria, care se dezvolt pe speciile de cuscute, parazite pe trifoi (C. trifolii), duneaz florile acestei plante gazd; ajung la completa dezvoltare i formeaz insecte de talie semnificativ mai mic i totui, aparinnd speciei S. jungermanniae Reich. Plante gazd: n Jugoslavia/Serbia insecta infesteaza tulpinile i florile speciilor de Cuscuta europaea, C. pentagona Eng, C. tifolii Chris i diferite plante spontane (ruderale) figurnd pe lista organismelor de carantin care, la rndul lor paraziteaz plantele cultivate, prefernd speciile de lucern, trifoi, cartof, morcov (Stojanovic, 1961). Planta-gazd Cusuta spp. ntlnete condiii optime de dezvoltare n terenuri nelucrate, ruderale, pe care cresc diferite buruieni i pe care le paraziteaz, n general in terenuri nelucrate. Larvele grgriei se hrnesc cu sucul celular din esuturile fragede ale pereilor galelor care se formeaz pe tulpinile palntelor de cuscut. Galele au forma unor urne, globuloase sau conice, de 2-3 mm lungime i 1-2 mm lime (Lekic, 1970), (fig. 2). Combatere: Msurile agrofitotehnice, mijloacele fizicomecanice i chimice de combatere sunt cele care se practic. Selectarea seminelor de trifoi nainte de semnat, extirparea vetrelor de trifoi infestate, fie prin ardere, fie prin tratamente chimice (tratamente cu produse din grupa dinitro-orto-crezolilor). Procentul ridicat de tulpini de cuscut, infestate, purtnd gale caracteristice cauzate de grgrie a incitat pe specialitii din protecia plantelor pentru a ntreprinde cercetri privind valoarea acestor insecte (grgrie), n calitate de poteniali ageni de combatere pe cale biologic a cuscutei. n acest context, sub coordonarea Institutului Internaional de Combatere Biologic (C.A.B.) s-au organizat grupe specializate de cercettori n Europa (n Jugoslavia) i Asia (India i Pakistan), (Lekic, 1970; Baloch i colab., 1968; Sinkaran, 1973). Rezultatele cercetrilor ntreprinse pe plan mondial au condus la clarificarea multor aspecte de sistematic, biologie i ecologie, mai puin ns n ce privete utilizarea practic a grgriei fitofage n combaterea speciilor de cuscut. Cercetrile n-au fost abandonate, cutndu-se cile de nmulire i rspndire a grgriei n culturile de plante cultivate sensibile la infestarea lor cu specii de cuscut (Lekic, 1963; Kovalev, 1973; inkarenko, 1973; Tiurebaev, 1977; Schroeder, 1993). Datele publicate de Neacu (1973), conform crora n culturile de trifoi infestate de cuscut s-a stabilit o densitate de pn la 1000 de grgrie la metru patrat, sugereaz marea capacitate de nmulire a grgriei i sperana c se va rezolva i metoda creterii insectei n biolaboratoare respectiv utilizarea ei n combaterea pe cale biologic a speciilor de cuscut. O mare densitate a populaiei de grgrie a fost nregistrat i n judeul Sibiu, n culturile de trifoi (Tnase Mariana, 1999).

36

Grgria galicol Smicronyx Jungermanniae Reich. (Col; Curculinidae) ()

Bibliografie 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Baloch, G.M., A.I., Mohiddin, 1967 - Techn. Bull. of the Common Wealth Institute of Biological Control, 8:149-158. Diekmann, L., 1986 - Coleoptera, Curculionidae, 36 (1), 119-181. Endrdi, S., 1971 - Fauna hungariae, Curculionidae, V, 10 (8). Haritonov, N.B., 1955 - Boriba s zarazihoi v ovoscinih sevooborotoh. Sad i Ogorod, 8, Moskva. Horvath, Z., 1983 - Nvenyvedelem, 9, 501-508. Karasiov, V., 1999 - Intern. Entomol. Tagung, Basel. Abstracts, p.201. Kovalev, G.V., 1973 - Proc II Intern. Symp. Biol. Contr. Weeds: 166-172. Leki, M. B., 1970 - Proc. I-st Intern. Symp. on Biol. Contr. Weeds, 1969:21-24. Mateia M. C., 2001 - Sntatea plant., 32:25 Neacu, P., 1973 - Peuce, Zoologie, V:81-91 Petri, K., 1912 - Siebenburgens kferfauna. Kronstadt. Schroeder D., 1992 - Review Report by C.I.B.C., European Station I.I.B.C., Delemont, Switzerland. inkarenko, V. A., 1980 - Vrag poviliki. Zasch. Rast. 11:44 Stojanovi, D., 1961 - Plant. Prot., 63-64, 89-94. Tnase, Mariana, 1999 - Cercetri privind rspndirea, structira speciilor, efectul parazitar i combaterea cuscutei. Tez doctorat. USAMV; fac. Agricultur, Cluj-Napoca Tiurebaev, S. S., 1977 - Vestnik Selskhoz. Nauke Kazahstana, 18, 116-117. Zerova, M. D. i colab., 1961 - Evropeiskoi ciasti SSSR. 175-202, 203-211. Kiev

37

Perju Teodosie and all.

Fig. 1. Smicronyx jungermanniae Reich.: a adult; b larv; c gal (seciune) n tulpin de cuscut (incarenco).

Fig. 2. Gale n tulpini de Cuscuta trifolii, cauzate de grgria galicol (S. jungermanniae Reich.) (orig.).

38

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 _________________________________________________________________________________________

SYNECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF A WHEAT FIELD GROUND BEETLES COMMUNITY FROM LETEA (BACU DISTRICT)
BY

IRINEL E. POPESCU1 AND TEFAN R. ZAMFIRESCU1

Keywords: wheat field, ground beetle community, synecological analysis, boundary conditions effect Among the 17 identified ground beetle species, Anisodactylus signatus, Brachinus psophia, Harpalus distinguendus, Poecilus cupreus and Pseudophonus rufipes were the most important ones. These species proved to be ecologically similar. Most species achieved maximum dominance in June. In space, some species were dominant near the edge of the wheat field while others reached their maximums toward the middle of the field. This reveals different stages of species migrations from the edge to the interior. The highest diversity was identified near the wheat field edge proving, thus, the boundary effect and, consequently, the importance of the edge non-crop habitats. Over time, the diversity seems to grow from May to the end of July and to decline afterward, most probably due to aestivation. The crop field marginal habitats are a potential source of agroecosystem diversity and a source of pest natural enemies.

Introduction Evidence suggests that vegetative diverse plant communities support diverse and abundant insect natural enemy communities. Vegetation both in and surrounding agricultural fields may be used to enhance natural enemy populations. The effects of boundary conditions on abundance and species richness of these populations may be proved by the study of ground beetle assemblages [7]. Materials and methods The research was carried out in a wheat field area (20 ha) which is a part of a wider wheat cultivated area (102 ha) of the Farm no. 2 of the company S. C. Selbac, from the village Letea Veche, Bacu district. Before 25.09.1995, the study area was planted with anion. The seeding season was between 15 20.10.1995. Ground beetle sampling was carried out by rain covered Barber pitfall traps (18 20 cm deep and 10 cm in diameter). Each trap was repeatedly filled with 300 ml of formalin (4%). Four groups containing 3 traps each were placed respectively at 5 m, 10 m, 15 m and 50 m from the wheat field boundary. The 3 traps within a group were placed at 10 m from each other. Pitfall trap setting was on 1.05.1996. Samples were taken every 15 days. Till
________________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Irinel E. Popescu and tefan R. Zamfirescu _________________________________________________________________________________________

the 15.07.1996, 60 samples had been taken. They were grouped on 4 sampling distances and 5 sampling dates. Species abundance values were used to compute the dominance, constancy and ecological significance indices of each species. Dominance (D) in an analytical index that gives the proportion in which one species participates to the productivity of the community (D=(nA/N) 100, nA the number of individuals of species A, N total number of individuals of all the recorded species). Constancy (C) is an analytical index that expresses the continuity of the presence of a population in a certain habitat (C=(nsA/Ns) 100, nsA the number of samples that contained species A, Ns the total number of samples). Ecological significance (W) in a synthetic index that represents the relationship between the structural index (C) and the productivity index (D) of the community (W=(CAxDA) 100, CA the constancy of species A, DA dominance of species A). [9]. The next step was to outline the similarity of species and sampling sites. A similarity index estimates the affinity of different populations belonging to a community and, through the species composition, the similarity of the habitats. We calculated the similarity using two different coefficients Sorensens similarity coefficient (Qs=2j/(a+b)) and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity (in this case similarity = 1-dissimilarity) coefficient ( BCd =

(xik + x jk )

xik x jk

). Sorensens coefficient considers the number of

samples that contained species A and B together (j), the number of samples that contained species A (a) and the number of samples that contained species B (b). BrayCurtis coefficient considers both species presence and species abundance (i, j two cases (two rows of the abundance matrix); k the variable (the column); xik number of individuals of k variable in i case; xjk - number of individuals of k variable in j case). The obtained data were used for a cluster analysis that would graphically reveal the abovementioned similarities. The linkage method was the unweighted pair groups average one [1, 3]. Then, the data were used for calculating the diversity indices Shannon Index and Simpson Index [6]. The Shannon index formula is H ' =
th

p log p
i

where pi decimal

fraction of i species individuals. Using the value of H one can calculate the species abundance equitability which reveals how different is the studied community compared to an ideal equitable community. The equitability formula is J ' =

H' where Hmax the value of H H 'max

calculated with the same number of species, but equal pi values [1, 5, 6, 9].

174

Synecological analysis of a wheat field ground beetles community () _________________________________________________________________________________________

The values of the indices, the equitability and the number of species, for every sampling site and period, were plotted against each other in order to obtain graphical images of the diversity of the ground beetle communities. Results and discussions During the research of the wheat field from Letea Veche we identified 17 ground beetle species: Anisodactylus signatus Panzer, Amara similata Gyllenhal, Bembidion sp., Brachinus explodens Duftschmid, Brachinus crepitans L., Brachinus psophia Serv., Calathus ambiguous Payk, Calosoma auropunctatus (Herbst), Carabus cancellatus Illiger, Carabus violaceus L., Cicindela germanica L., Harpalus cupreus L., Harpalus distinguendus Duftschmid, Poecilus cupreus L., Pseudophonus rufipes De Geer, Pterostichus melas Creutzer and Scarites terricola Bon. The values of the analytical indices (Figure 1.) showed that the most constant species were Anisodactylus signatus, Brachinus explodens, Brachinus crepitans, Brachinus psophia, Carabus cancellatus, Harpalus distinguendus, Poecilus cupreus and Pseudophonus rufipes. The wheat field ground beetle community was dominated by Anisodactylus signatus, Brachinus psophia, Harpalus distinguendus, Poecilus cupreus and Pseudophonus rufipes. The same species had the greatest ecological significance, which means that they simultaneously contributed to the edification of the community structure and biomass. Some highly constant species (Brachinus explodens, Brachinus crepitans, Carabus cancellatus) with low ecological significance were represented by few individuals. Therefore, their contribution to the biomass of the ground beetle community was relatively low. Although some species were less abundant, their ecological role may be important. For instance, predators, as Carabus cancellatus, are normally rarer than pray species, but they are important for the continuity of the community matter circuit.
1 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 Anisodactylus signatus Harpalus distinguendus Brachinus explodens Brachinus psophia Calosoma auropunctatus Pseudophonus rufipes Brachinus crepitans Cicindela germanica Carabus cancellatus Calathus ambiguus Carabus violaceus Harpalus cupreus Poecilus cupreus Pterostichus melas 0 Amara similata Bembidion sp. Scarites terricola C D W

Figure 1. Ground beetle species constancy (C), dominance (D), ecological significance (W) 175

Irinel E. Popescu and tefan R. Zamfirescu _________________________________________________________________________________________

The temporal dominance figure (Figure 2.) shows that the highly dominant species were Harpalus distinguendus on 15.05.1996, Brachinus psophia on 30.05.1996 and on 30.06.1996, Poecilus cupreus on 15.07.1996 and Pseudophonus rufipes on 15.07.1996.
0,6

0,5

0,4

0,3

15.05 30.05 15.06 30.06 15.07

0,2

0,1

0
Amara similata Carabus cancellatus Bembidion sp. Pseudophonus rufipes Anisodactylus signatus Calosoma auropunctatus Harpalus distinguendus Pterostichus melas Brachinus crepitans Brachinus psophia Cicindela germanica Brachinus explodens Calathus ambiguus Harpalus cupreus Poecilus cupreus Carabus violaceus Scarites terricola

Figure 2. Ground beetle temporal dominance figure The ecological significant species became more or less dominant from a sampling period to another: Anisodactylus signatus and Brachinus psophia dominance reached maximum at the end of June and decreased in July; Harpalus distinguendus dominance was maximum in the middle of May and decreased toward middle of July; Poecilus cupreus reached its highest dominance in the middle of June and then declined; Pseudophonus rufipes achieved its maximum dominance in the middle of July. The spatial dominance figure (Figure 3.) revealed that the most dominant species were Poecilus cupreus at the 5 m and 15 m sampling sites, Brachinus psophia at the 10 m sampling site, and Harpalus distinguendus at the 30 m sampling site. The dominance of Brachinus psophia and Poecilus cupreus decreased toward the middle of the wheat field, while for Anisodactylus signatus and Harpalus distinguendus the dominance increased toward the wheat field interior.

176

Synecological analysis of a wheat field ground beetles community () _________________________________________________________________________________________


0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 5m 10m 15m 30m

Harpalus distinguendus

Anisodactylus signatus

Brachinus explodens

Calosoma auropunctatus

Pseudophonus rufipes

Brachinus crepitans

Brachinus psophia

Calathus ambiguus

Carabus cancellatus

Cicindela germanica

Carabus violaceus

Harpalus cupreus

Poecilus cupreus

Pterostichus melas

Amara similata

Bembidion sp.

Figure 3. Ground beetle spatial dominance figure The analysis of the similarity of the ground beetle species (Figure 4.) outlines that the important species are highly alike with respect to the ecological conditions. Thus, Anisodactylus signatus, Brachinus psophia, Carabus cancellatus, Harpalus distinguendus, Poecilus cupreus and Pseudophonus rufipes are most similar. They are also fairly similar to Brachinus crepitans, Brachinus explodens, respectively. The other 3 groups include ground beetle species that occurred in the same samples but had low abundance values. The most similar ground beetle spatial assemblages (samples) occurred at 10 m and 15 m ones (Figure 5.). These two samples were similar to the 5 m one. The ground beetle assemblage from 30 m was the most dissimilar sample. Additionally, the plot of the distances among samples (Figure 6.) shows that the 5m sample is more similar to the 15 m sample than to the 10 m one. Therefore, the 15 m ground beetle assemblage seems to have a key position in the similarity figure, and it may be considered as representative for both 10 m and 15 m samples in certain comparisons. The high similarity of the boundary samples may be the result of the boundary conditions effect.

177

Scarites terricola

Irinel E. Popescu and tefan R. Zamfirescu _________________________________________________________________________________________


Harpalus cupreus Calosoma auropunctatus Bembidion sp. Amara similata Scarites terricola Cicindela germanica Pterostichus melas Carabus violaceus Calathus ambiguus Brachinus explodens Brachinus crepitans Pseudophonus rufipes Poecilus cupreus Harpalus distinguendus Carabus cancellatus Brachinus psophia Anisodactylus signatus

0,04

0,2

0,36

0,52

0,68

0,84

Sorensen's Coefficient

Figure 4. Ground beetle species similarity cluster.

30m

15m

10m

5m

0,6

0,5

0,4

0,3

0,2

0,1

Bray Curtis

Figure 5. Ground beetle spatial assemblages similarity cluster

178

Synecological analysis of a wheat field ground beetles community () _________________________________________________________________________________________


0.35 0.28 5m Axis 1 0.21 0.14 0.07 0.07 0.14 0.21 0.28 -0.35 -0.28 -0.21 -0.14 15m -0.07 0.35 30m

-0.07 -0.14 -0.21 -0.28 -0.35 Axis 2

10m

Figure 6. Plot of dissimilarity among ground beetle spatial assemblages from Principal Coordinates Analysis (Bray-Curtis coefficient) The analysis of sample diversity (Figure 7.) emphasizes the above-mentioned hypothesis. The 5 m, 10 m and 15 m samples are more divers than the 30 m samples. The maximum diversity occurs in the 15 m ground beetle assemblage. Despite the high species richness, the lowest diversity was identified at 30 m.

Figure 7. Diversity of the ground beetle spatial assemblages 179

Irinel E. Popescu and tefan R. Zamfirescu _________________________________________________________________________________________

The temporal assemblages diversity analysis (Figure 8.) reveals an obvious increase from May to June followed by a small decrease in July that most probably intensified during summer.

Figure 8. Diversity of the ground beetle temporal assemblages Our results can be explained by the boundary condition effect. The boundary condition effect consists in the increment of the ground beetle assemblage diversity especially in the spring [10]. The ground beetle species emerge in non-crop habitats and spread in crop-fields. Non-crop habitats are very important to ground beetles, as many use adjacent hedges and field margins for shelter, breeding or dispersal [4]. Woody hedges may serve as very important over-wintering sites and as an early season refuge for predatory beetles in corn [8]. The diversity decrease toward midsummer results from high temperatures that trigger aestivation. Maintenance of adjacent non-altered margins would be important for ground beetle community diversity. These communities would potentially contribute to biodiversity in agroecosystems [2]. Consequently, the diversity of pest natural enemies would increase with beneficial effects for the crops.

180

Synecological analysis of a wheat field ground beetles community () _________________________________________________________________________________________

Conclusions During the wheat field investigation 17 ground beetle species were identified. In ground beetle community, the most important species were Anisodactylus signatus, Brachinus psophia, Harpalus distinguendus, Poecilus cupreus and Pseudophonus rufipes. These species proved to be ecologically similar. Most species achieved maximum dominance in June In space, some species were dominant near the edge of the wheat field while others reached their maximums toward the middle of the field. This reveals different stages of species invasions from the edge to the interior. The highest diversity was identified near the wheat field edge proving, thus, the boundary effect and, consequently, the importance of the edge of non-crop habitats. Over time, the diversity seems to grow from May to the end of July and to decline afterward, most probably due to aestivation. The crop field marginal habitats are a potential source of agroecosystem diversity and, so forth, a source of pest natural enemies. Acknowledgement We would like to thank Prof. Dr. M. Varvara for species identification. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Cox, W. G., 1996 - Laboratory Manual of General Ecology. Ediia a VII-a. Ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers. Dring, T. F., Hiller, A., Wehkec, S., Schulte, G., Broll, G., 2003 - Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 98: 133139 Fowler J., Cohen L., Javris P., 2000 - Practical Statistics for Field Biology, second edition. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, New York, Weinheim, Brisbane, Singapore, Toronto, p. 1 259 Holland, J. M., Luff, M. L., 2000 - Integrated Pest Management Reviews 5: 109129 Southwood, T. R. E., 1966 - Ecological Methods with Particular Reference to the Study of Insect Populations. London, Methuen and CO LTD Stiling, P. D., 1996 - Ecology Theories and Applications. ed. a II-a, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Varchola, J. M., Dunn, J. P., 1999 - Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 73: 41-49 Varchola, J. M., Dunn, J. P., 2001 - Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 83: 153163 Varvara, M., Zamfirescu, T. R., Neacu, V., 2001 - Lucrri practice de ecologie manual. Ed. Univ. Al. I. Cuza Iai. Wade French, B., Elliott, N. C., Berberet, R, C., Burd, J. D., 2001 - Environ. Entomol. 30(2): 225234 181

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 _________________________________________________________________________________________

EURYTOMID WASPS (HYMENOPTERA, CHALCIDOIDEA, EURYTOMIDAE) NEW FOR ROMANIAN FAUNA (II)
BY

IRINEL E. POPESCU1

KEY WORDS: Eurytomidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea), Romania, distribution, hosts. We present ten eurytomid wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae) new for Romanian fauna: Bruchophagus parvulus Zerova, Eurytoma castorella Erds, E. elymi Zerova, E. harmoliticola Zerova, E. onobrycola Zerova, Tetramesa brevicollis (Walker), T. brevicornis (Walker), T. cornuta (Walker), T. longula (Dalman) and T. maderae (Walker). For Bruchophagus parvulus Romania is in this moment the western limit of distribution area. Eight species was obtained for the first time from hosts in Romania. Tetramesa brevicollis and T. brevicornis are for the first time mentioned in literature from stems of Festuca valesiaca.

Introduction Previously to present note in Romania there were mentioned about 87 species belonging to Eurytomide family /3/. This number of species appears after we reconsidered the taxonomic status of all recorded species in Romania in the concordance with the last revisions published in this group. The euritomid fauna of Romania is relatively well-known if we compare it with the species number of this family known in adjacent countries of Romania: 116 species in Bulgaria (Stojanova 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002); 49 species in ex-Yugoslavia (Bouek 1977), 99 species in Hungary (Erds 1960), 60 species in ex-Czechoslovakia (Kalina 1989), 20 species in Republic of Moldavia (Bouek 1965), 176 species in the European part of ex-URSS (Zerova 1978), 184 species in Ukraine (Zerova 1978). Materials and methods Two species (Bruchophagus parvulus and Eurytoma onobrycola) were obtained by sweeping. Eight species were obtained by rearing in laboratory conditions: Eurytoma castorella from galls of Tetramesa brevicornis in stems of Festuca valesiaca, E. elymi from galls of T. brischkei in stems of Leymus sabulosus, E. harmoliticola from galls of T. dispar in stems of Stipa pulcherrima, Tetramesa brevicollis from stems of Festuca valesiaca, T. brevicornis from stems of F. valesiaca, T. cornuta from stems of Elymus hispidus, T. longula from stems of Dactylis glomerata, T. maderae from stems of Triticum aestivum.
______________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Irinel E. Popescu

Results and discussions 1). Bruchophagus parvulus Zerova, 1994 Material examined: 1 18.08.2003 Piatra Craiului National Park, Braov. Biology: unknown /7/. Geographical distribution: Palearctic (Israel) /7/. This species is for the first time mentioned in Romania and this country is in this moment the western limit of its distribution area. 2). Eurytoma castorella Erds, 1969 (E. festucarum Erds) Material examined: 11 08.2003, 32 26.02.2004, 3 7.03.2004, 13 12.03.2004 from galls of Tetramesa brevicornis (Walker) (Eurytomidae) in stems of Festuca valesiaca Schleicher (Poaceae) collected on 22.07.2003 at Botanical Garden, Iai. Biology: this species was obtained from galls of Tetramesa brevicornis in stems of Festuca spp. and probably from T. airae (Schlechtendal) from stems of Aira spp. /7/. Geographical distribution: Palearctic (Hungary, Ukraine) /7/. This species is for the first time mentioned in Romania and is for the first time reared from galls of Tetramesa brevicornis in stems of Festuca valesiaca in this country. 3). Eurytoma elymi Zerova, 1978 Material examined: 1 2003, 1 26.03.2004 from stems of Leymus sabulosus (Bieb.) (Poaceae) Tzvelev, collected at Vadu, Constana; 3 8.03.2004, 1 12.03.2004 from stems of L. sabulosus, collected on 1.10.2003 at Agigea, Constana. Biology: this species was obtained from galls of Tetramesa brischkei (Schlechtendal) from stems of Leymus sabulosus /7/. Geographical distribution: Palearctic (southern part of Ukraine, Bulgaria) /4, 7/. This species is for the first time mentioned in Romania and is for the first time reared from galls of Tetramesa brischkei in stems of Leymus sabulosus in this country. 4). Eurytoma harmoliticola Zerova, 1977 Material examined: 2 08.2003 from galls of Tetramesa dispar Zerova (Eurytomidae) in stems of Stipa pulcherrima C. Koch (Poaceae) collected on 3.07.2003 at Valea lui David, Iai. Biology: this species was obtained from galls of Tetramesa dispar in stems of Stipa capillata L. /7/. Geographical distribution: Palearctic (southern part of Ukraine, south-eastern part of Kazakhstan, Bulgaria) /5, 7/.

98

Eurytomid wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae) ()

This species is for the first time mentioned in Romania and is for the first time reared from galls of Tetramesa dispar in stems of Stipa pulcherrima in this country. 5). Eurytoma onobrycola Zerova, 1994 Material examined: 1 9.08.2003 Probota, Iai. Biology: the larvae are feeding in seeds of Onobrychis transcaucasica Grossh. (Fabaceae) /7/. Geographical distribution: Palearctic (Dagestan) /7/. This species is for the first time mentioned in Romania and this country is in this moment the western limit of its distribution area. 6). Tetramesa brevicollis (Walker, 1836) (Isosoma brevicolle Walker; I. hieronymi Hedicke; I. hieronymi Schlechtendal; Isthmosoma hieronymi (Schlechtendal), Harmolita hieronymi (Schlechtendal)) Material examined: 1 7.03.2004, 1 20.03.2004 from stems of Festuca valesiaca Schleicher (Poaceae) collected on 22.07.2003 at Botanical Garden, Iai. Biology: the larvae are feeding inside the stems of few species of Festuca (F. rupicola Heuffel, F. ovina L, (F. glauca), F. rubra L., F. duriuscula L.), making roundly, large galls. Inside one gall there is one larva. One gall have 1,5-2 mm in diameter, being very visible. The galls were found in the wood sides and glades in the coniferous forests. The galls werent found in the very damp and large places /6, 8/. Geographical distribution: Palearctic (United Kingdom, Ireland, Germany, Bosnia Herzegovina, Cechia, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, European part of the ex-USSR, Kazakhstan) /2, 5, 6, 8/. This species is for the first time mentioned in Romania and is for the first time mentioned in literature from stems of Festuca valesiaca. 7). Tetramesa brevicornis (Walker, 1832) (Harmolita ruschkai (Hedicke); Isosoma brevicorne Walker; I. clavicorne Walker; I. clavicornis Walker; I. depressum Schlechtendal; I. ruschkai Hedicke; I. tibiale Walker; I. tibialis Walker) Material examined: 11 12.03.2004 from stems of Festuca valesiaca Schleicher (Poaceae) collected on 22.07.2003 at Botanical Garden, Iai. Biology: the larvae are feeding inside the stems of few species of Festuca (F. rupicola Heuffel (F. sulcata), F. ovina L, F. rubra L.) making galls with different shape and size that make a very visible deformation of the stem. Inside one gall there are many larval chambers. In one gall can be tenths of larvae, every one in his larval chamber. Its a common species found in the steppe regions and in the coniferous and medley forests, usually in sunny and large glades and wood sides /6, 8/. This species was also obtained from stems of Festuca wagneri (Degen, Thaisz & Flatt) Krajina /2/. Geographical distribution: Palearctic (United Kingdom, Netherlands, Germany, Cechia, Slovakia, ex-Yugoslavia (Serbia), Hungary and central region of the European part of the ex-USSR) /2, 6, 8/. 99

Irinel E. Popescu

This species is for the first time mentioned in Romania and is for the first time mentioned in literature from stems of Festuca valesiaca. 8). Tetramesa cornuta (Walker, 1832) (Harmolita agropyrophila Phillips & Emery; H. cornuta (Walker); Isosoma cornutum Walker; I. dissimile Walker; Tetramesa agropyrophilum (Phillips & Emery) Material examined: 1 08.2003 from stems of Elymus hispidus (Opiz) Melderis (Agropyron intermedium (Host) Beauv.) (Poaceae) collected on 23.06.2002 at Botanical Garden, Iai. Biology: the larvae are feeding solitary above the knots inside the stems of Elymus repens (L.) Gould and E. hispidus (Opiz) Melderis (Agropyron intermedium (Host) Beauv (var. trichophorum (Link) Halac.)). The galls are not visible outside the stems. Its a common species found in the steppe regions, wood sides and glades from various kind of forests /6, 8/. Geographical distribution: Holarctic (North America (U.S.A.), United Kingdom, Sweden, Cechia, Slovakia, Hungary, European part of the ex-USSR (Moldova, Ukraine), Kazakhstan) /2, 6, 8/. This species is for the first time mentioned in Romania and is for the first time reared from stems of Elymus hispidus in this country. 9). Tetramesa longula (Dalman, 1820) (Eurytoma longula Dalman; Harmolita dactylicola Phillips & Emery; Harmolita longula (Dalman); Isosoma longulum (Dalman); Tetramesa dactylicola (Phillips & Emery) Material examined: 31 08.2003 from stems of Dactylis glomerata L. (Poaceae) collected on 23.06.2002 at Botanical Garden, Iai. Biology: the larvae are feeding solitary, without making a visible deformation of the stem, above the knots, inside the stems of Dactylis glomerata. Its a common species found in the places where D. glomerata is in great number. The Claridges data (1961) that there are two generations of this species werent confirmed by Zerova (1976) /6, 8/. Geographical distribution: Holarctic (North America (U.S.A.), United Kingdom, Ireland, Germany, Sweden, central region of the European part of the ex-USSR, northern part of Caucasus) /2, 6, 8/. This species is for the first time mentioned in Romania and is for the first time reared from stems of Dactylis glomerata in this country. 10). Tetramesa maderae (Walker, 1849) (Harmolita grandis minutum (Howard); H. grandis (Riley); (H. turkestanica Gussakovskiy); Isosoma apterum Portschinsky; I. grande minutum Howard; I. grandis Riley; I. grande Riley; I. (Philachyra) grande Riley; I. maderae Walker; I. tritici Riley; Philachyra ips Walker; Philachyra aptera (Portschinsky); Tetramesa aptera (Portschinsky); T. grande (Riley); Urios vestali Girault)

100

Eurytomid wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae) ()

Material examined: 1 spring of 2003 from stems of Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae) collected on autumn 2002 from a wheat crop beside Valea lui David hayfields natural reserve, Iai. Biology: this species is a pest of Triticum spp. Rimsky-Korsakov (1914) observed the biology of this species in the southern part of Ukraine. The first generation emerges in April and is apterous. The eggs are put in the very young wheat stems and the larva destroys the vegetative apex damaging the stem. This generation can be a serious pest. The pupa appears to the end of May and the winged adults of the second generation at the beginning of June. The summer generation females put the eggs in the stems above the knots where the larva will feed. The second generation larvae pupating in autumn and this is the over wintering stage. It was proved experimentally that there are two generations of this species by Wedster (1892) and confirmed by Rimsky-Korsakov (1914). In the present this species is seldom found but in the ninetieth century and at the beginning of the twenty century was recorded massive population explosions. The males are a rarity /6, 8/. The association of this species with the following plants: Bromus ciliatus L., Elymus glaucus Buckl. and Hordeum vulgare L. needs confirmation /2/. Geographical distribution: Holarctic (North America (Canada, U.S.A., Mexico), United Kingdom, Madeira, Italy, Hungary, European part of the ex-USSR (Ukraine, Byelorussia), northern part of Caucasus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Iran, Israel, Turkey /1, 2, 6, 8/. This species is for the first time mentioned in Romania and is for the first time reared from stems of Triticum aestivum in this country. Conclusions Together with these ten species presented above the number of eurytomid wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae) recorded in Romania reaches to ninety-seven. Acknowledgements We thanks Prof. Dr. I. Andriescu for his critical review of our research and for the bibliography offered. Our sympathy to Anelia M. Stojanova (University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria) for her support and the bibliography kindly offered. We are grateful to Lucian Fusu who helped us to consult the bibliography in Russian language and followed us for many times in the research area. Our gratitude to Assist. Ciprian Mnzu who confirmed the plant species. We wish to offer our special thanks to Ana and Grigore Davideanu invited the first author in a short expedition at Probota, Iai and to Oliviu Pop who also invited the first author for a research expedition in Piatra Craiului National Park, Braov.

101

Irinel E. Popescu

References 1. 2. Erds, J., 1960 Hymenoptera II. Fmfrkszek II. Chalcidoidea II. 12 (3). Akad. Kiad. Budapest (In Hungarian), (Fam. Eurytomidae: 93-164), 230 pp. Noyes, J. S., 2003 Universal Chalcidoidea Database. World Wide Web electronic Publication. www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/chalcidoids/index.html [accessed 05Sep-2003]. Popescu, I. E., 2002 Morphologic and faunistic research in Eurytomidae and Torymidae families (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) (in Romanian). Report, Al. I. Cuza Universsity of Iai, Faculty of Biology, Department of Zoology and Ecology, Iai, Romania, 106 pp. Stojanova, A. M., 2000 Acta. Zool. Bulg., 52 (2), 31-35. Stojanova, A. M., 2001 Acta Ent. Bulg., 7 (1-2), 7-10. Zerova, M. D., 1976 Fauna USSR, 7 (6), 230 p. Zerova, M. D., 1995 Nat. Acad. of Sc. Ukraine, I. I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, 460 p. Zerova, M. D., Dyakonchuk, L. A., Ermolenko, V. M., 1988 Part 1. Hymenoptera. Naukova Dumka Publ., Kiev (Fam. Eurytomidae: 5790), 157 pp.

3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

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Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004

SMALL MAMMALS SPECIES (MAMMALIA, RODENTIA, INSECTIVORA), THE COLLECTION OF THE NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM, IAI
BY

MARIANA POPOVICI1, IORDACHE ION1

Keywords: Rodentia, Insectivora, systematics, collection In the present paper we present the small mammals species (Rodentia, Insectivora) from THE Museum of Natural History, Iasi. The 43 species of small mammals that exist in Romanian fauna, in of those Museum collection are presented skulls belonging to 33 species, which were collected in Romania from different biotops.

Introduction The small mammals collection of the Museum of Natural History, Iasi was made by Viorica Simionescu and represented the results of over 30 years of collectings effectuated in different places of Romania. (Fig.1.).

Fig1. Small mammals collecting areas


_________________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Mariana Popovici and Iordache Ion

The small mammals were collected in a period between 1950- 1983. Concerning this, the first collection was effectuated for Arvicola terrestris L., 1758 species, at ntorsura Buzului, Covasna district, in 1950 and the last collection was effectuated for Rattus rattus L., 1758 species in the Mehedini district, in 1983. Results Our collection is formed by 3477 of skulls of small mammals belonging to 24 rodents species and 9 insectivores species and were collected from different biotops: subsistence crop (lucerne, corn,), edge, forest, rush-bed. Out of these 3477 of skulls, 2962 beloging to Rodentia, and 515 belonging to Insectivora. Through these skulls, the most repesentative are the male skulls (the right number of them could not be indicated because there are skulls belonging to Microtus arvalis Pall., 1779 in which the sex is not indicated). It was effectuated an apportionment by age: juveniles (602 skulls), subadults (914 skulls) and adults (1961 skulls). The most representative skulls belong to Mus spicilegus Petenyi, 1882 - rodents species (780 skulls), and Sorex araneus - insectivores species (148 skulls), respectively. (Table 3, 4) We are presenting in the next tables the species of small mammals and the place of collectings. In side of the mention the species Talpa caeca Savi, 1822 in the table and in collection this species wasnt recognised by the International Scientific Community as a present species in our country. (Murariu, 2000) Conclusions The Museum of Natural History collection is formed by 33 species from two orders and nine families. All mammals were collected in different places of the eastern Romania, from 5 m altitude (Danube Delta) to 2000 m altitude (Climani mountains). The small mammals collected from montainous zone are, Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber, 1780, Microtus agrestis Pall., 1779, Apodemus agrarius Pall., 1771, Apodemus flavicollis Melchior, 1834, Dryomys nitedula Pall., 1779, Muscardinus avellanarius L., 1758, Myoxus glis L., 1758, Sorex araneus L., 1758 and Sicista betulina Pall., 1773. The most numerous species of small mammals belong to Mus spicilegus Petenyi, 1882, a species with 780 skulls.

404

Small mammals species (Mammalia, Rodentia, Insectivora) ()

References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ellerman, J. R., Morrison-Scott, T. C. S., 1966 - Checklist of Palaeartic and Indian mammals 1758 to 1946, London, pag. 7-713 Ionescu, V., 1968 Vertebratele din Romnia, Ed. Academiei R.S.R., pag. 417444 Murariu, D., 2000 Insectivora, Mammalia, Fauna Romniei, Vol. XVI, Fasc I, Ed. Academiei Romne, Bucureti, 142 pag. Popescu, A., Murariu, D., 2001- Rodentia, Mammalia, Fauna Romniei, Vol. XVI, Fasc. II, Ed. Academiei Romn, Bucureti, 212 pag. Simionescu, V., Varvara, M., 1983 - Analele Stiinifice ale Univ. Al. I. Cuza, Iai, seria nou, Seciunea II, Biologie, tomul XXIX, pag 103-104 Simionescu, V., 1985- Analele Stiinifice ale Univ. Al. I. Cuza, Iai, seria nou, Seciunea II, Biologie, tomul XXXI, pag. 23-27

405

Table 1. The rodents and insectivores species presented in Museum of Natural History, Iai and the places in which they were collected No. Species Collecting areas Maramure Dmbovia Hunedoara D. Dunarii Baia Mare Satu Mare Mehedini Constana Climani Botoani Covasna Vrancea Suceava * * 406 * * Ceahlu Craiova L. Rou Braov Neam Vaslui Bacu Duru Galai Raru Sibiu

Dolj

1 2 3 4 5 6

Sciurus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 Spermophilus citellus Linnaeus, 1766 Cricetus cricetus Linnaeus,1758 Cricetulus migratorius Pallas, 1773 Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber, 1780 Arvicola terrestris Linnaeus, 1758

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Iai

No.

Species Dmbovia D. Dunarii Baia Mare Constana Climani Botoani Covasna Ceahlu Craiova

Collecting areas Maramure Hunedoara Satu Mare Mehedini Vrancea Suceava * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * L. Rou Braov Neam Vaslui * Bacu Duru Galai Raru Sibiu

Dolj

7 8 9.

Pitymys subterraneus SlysLongchamps, 1836 Microtus agrestis Linnaeus, 1761 Microtus arvalis Pallas, 1779

* 10 Ondatra zibethicus Linnaeus, 1766 11 Rattus norvegicus Barkenhout, 1769 * 12 Rattus rattus Linnaeus, 1758 13 Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758

* 407

Iai *

No.

Species Dmbovia D. Dunarii Baia Mare Constana Climani Botoani Covasna Ceahlu Craiova

Collecting areas Maramure Hunedoara Satu Mare Mehedini Vrancea Suceava * * * * * L. Rou Braov Neam Vaslui * Bacu Duru Galai Raru Sibiu

Dolj

14 Mus spicilegus Petenyi, 1882 * 15 Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1771 16 Apodemus flavicollis Melchior, 1834 * 17 Apodemus sylvaticus Linnaeus, 1758 * 18 Apodemus uralensis Pallas, 1811 * 19 Micromys minutus Pallas, 1771 * 20 Dryomys nitedula Pallas, 1779 * * * * * * * * * * 408 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Iai

No.

Species Dmbovia D. Dunarii Baia Mare Constana Climani Botoani Covasna Ceahlu Craiova

Collecting areas Maramure Hunedoara Satu Mare Mehedini Vrancea * Suceava * * * * L. Rou Braov Neam Vaslui * * Bacu Duru Galai Raru * * Sibiu

Dolj

21 Muscardinus avallanarius Linnaeus, 1758 22 Myoxus glis Linnaeus, 1766 23 Sicista betulina Pallas, 1779 24 Sicista subtilis Pallas, 1773

* *

* 25 Erinaceus concolor Martin, 1838 26 Talpa europaea Linnaeus, 1758 27 Talpa caeca Savi, 1822 * * * * 409 * * * *

Iai * * * *

* *

* *

No.

Species Dmbovia D. Dunarii Baia Mare Constana Climani Botoani Covasna Ceahlu Craiova Braov Bacu

Collecting areas Maramure Hunedoara Satu Mare Mehedini Vrancea Suceava * * * L. Rou Neam Vaslui * * * Duru Galai Raru Sibiu Dolj

28 Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 29 Sorex minutus Linnaeus, 1766

Iai * * * * * *

30 Neomys anomalus Cabrera, 1907 31 Crocidura leucodon Hermann, 1780 32 Crocidura suaveolens Pallas, 1811 * 33 Crocidura russula Hermann, 1780

* *

410

Mariana Popovici and Iordache Ion

Table 2. The repartition of skulls on age groups No. Species 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Sciurus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 Spermophilus citellus Linnaeus, 1766 Cricetus cricetus Linnaeus,1758 Cricetulus migratorius Pallas, 1773 Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber, 1780 Arvicola terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 Pitymys subterraneus Slys-Longch., 1836 Microtus agrestis Linnaeus, 1761 Microtus arvalis Pallas, 1779 Ondatra zibethicus Linnaeus, 1766 Rattus norvegicus Barkenhout, 1769 Rattus rattus Linnaeus, 1758 Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 Mus spicilegus Petenyi, 1882 Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1771 Apodemus flavicollis Melchior, 1834 Apodemus sylvaticus Linnaeus, 1758 Apodemus uralensis Pallas, 1811 Micromys minutus Pallas, 1771 Dryomys nitedula Pallas, 1779 Muscardinus avallanarius Linnaeus, 1758 Myoxus glis Linnaeus, 1766 Sicista betulina Pallas, 1779 Sicista subtilis Pallas, 1773 Erinaceus concolor Martin, 1838 Talpa europaea Linnaeus, 1758 Talpa caeca Savi, 1822 Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 Sorex minutus Linnaeus, 1766 Neomys anomalus Cabrera, 1907 Crocidura leucodon Hermann, 1780 Crocidura suaveolens Pallas, 1811 Crocidura russula Hermann, 1780 Total Juveniles 0 3 1 0 76 3 3 5 121 0 23 0 46 164 2 16 47 7 5 0 17 9 0 0 3 0 0 46 5 0 0 0 0 602

Age groups Subadults 1 6 0 1 31 1 8 0 167 0 42 2 51 279 38 50 121 19 28 0 0 0 0 13 6 0 0 2 42 0 6 1 0 914

Adults 5 20 10 2 74 5 16 6 347 2 58 2 107 337 99 89 178 43 111 3 10 5 1 26 69 68 8 100 30 7 81 36 5 1961

411

Small mammals species (Mammalia, Rodentia, Insectivora) ()

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Table 3. Abundance and dominance of rodents species Species Number of skulls Sciurus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 Spermophilus citellus Linnaeus, 1766 Cricetus cricetus Linnaeus,1758 Cricetulus migratorius Pallas, 1773 Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber, 1780 Arvicola terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 Pitymys subterraneus Slys-Longch., 1836 Microtus agrestis Linnaeus, 1761 Microtus arvalis Pallas, 1779 Ondatra zibethicus Linnaeus, 1766 Rattus norvegicus Barkenhout, 1769 Rattus rattus Linnaeus, 1758 Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 Mus spicilegus Petenyi, 1882 Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1771 Apodemus flavicollis Melchior, 1834 Apodemus sylvaticus Linnaeus, 1758 Apodemus uralensis Pallas, 1811 Micromys minutus Pallas, 1771 Dryomys nitedula Pallas, 1779 Muscardinus avallanarius Linnaeus, 1758 Myoxus glis Linnaeus, 1766 Sicista betulina Pallas, 1779 Sicista subtilis Pallas, 1773 Total 6 29 11 3 181 9 27 11 635 2 123 4 204 780 139 155 346 69 144 3 27 14 1 39 2962

% 0.20 0.97 0.37 0.10 6.11 0.30 0.91 0.37 21.43 0.06 4.15 0.13 6.88 26.33 4.69 5.23 11.68 2.32 4.86 0.10 0.91 0.47 0.03 1.31 -

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Table 4. Abundance and dominance of insectivores species Species Number of skulls Erinaceus concolor Martin, 1838 78 Talpa europaea Linnaeus, 1758 68 Talpa caeca Savi, 1822 8 Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 148 Sorex minutus Linnaeus, 1766 77 Neomys anomalus Cabrera, 1907 7 Crocidura leucodon Hermann, 1780 87 Crocidura suaveolens Pallas, 1811 37 Crocidura russula Hermann, 1780 5 Total 515 412

% 15.14 13.20 1.55 28.73 14.95 1.35 16.89 7.18 0.97 -

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 _________________________________________________________________________________________

NEW SPECIES OF PLATYGASTRIDAE (HYMENOPTERA, PLATYGASTROIDEA, PLATYGASTRIDAE) TO ROMANIA FAUNA


BY

OVIDIU POPOVICI1

Key words: Platygastridae, fauna, Romania. In this paper 7 new species for Romanian fauna are presented: Inostemma opacum Thomson, Inostemma curtum Szelenyi, Sactogaster subaequalis Frster, Leptacis curvispinus Kozlov, Pseudaphanomerus hyalinatus Szelenyi, Piestopleura catilla Walker, Amblyaspis tritici Walker. Genres: Pseudaphanomerus, Piestopleura and Amblyaspis, are mentioned for the first time in Romanian fauna.

Introduction: Platygastridae are a group of parasitoid hymenoptera, they are small (1 2 mm), usually black, without iron glance. Most are parasitoids on diptera larvae of Cecidomyiidae family, but there are many species of them which parasite coleoptera and homoptera eggs, or in young larvae of Coccoidea and Aleyrodidae. At present, from this family approximately 1100 species are described in the world, but there are many other species (thousands) (Henri Goulet and John Huber 1993). In Romania, these species were studied by dr. Klaus Fabritius, and by other authors like Kieffer and Szelenyi. Until this moment, in Romanian fauna, 25 species of Platygastridae are cited, comparatively with Germany where 80 species are cited (Buhl, 2001), or Denmark, 109 species, respectively (Buhl, 1994). Material and methods: All species have been collected with entomological netting in vegetation. Results: 1). Inostemma opacum Thomson, 1859 Material examined: 1 collected on 24.08.02 from Iai (Botanical Garden) Host: Contarinia medicaginis Kieffer on Medicago sativa L.; Jaapiella veronicae Vallot on Veronica sp. (Vlug, 1995)
__________________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Ovidiu Popovici

Geographical distribution: Palearctic (Sweden, R. Moldova) 2). Inostemma curtum Szelenyi, 1938 Material examined: 1 collected on 21.08.02 from Iai (Botanical Garden) Host: Unknown Geographical distribution: Palearctic (Hungary, ex-Czechoslovakia, Denmark). 3). Synopeas (Sactogaster) subaequalis (Forster, 1856) Material examined: 2 collected on 15.05.03 from Brnova (Iai district) Host: Unknown Geographical distribution: Palearctic (Germany) 4). Leptacis curvispinus Kozlov, 1978 Material examined: 2 collected on 10.07.02 from Flticeni (Suceava district) Host: Unknown Geographical distribution: Palearctic (R. Moldova) 5). Pseudaphanomerus hyalinatus Szelenyi, 1941 Material examined: 1 collected on 16.07.02 from Bucecea (Botosani district) Host: Unknown Geographical distribution: Holarctic (Hungary, Spain) 6). Piestopleura catilla (Walker, 1835) Material examined: 1 and 1 collected on 14.08.03 from Falticeni (Suceava district) Host: Thomasiniana theobaldi Barnes Geographical distribution: Palearctic (United Kingdom, Denmark, Spain, Moldova, Russia) 7). Amblyaspis tritici (Walker, 1835) Material examined: 1 collected on 16.08.02 from Piatra Craiului Host: associated with Gramineae and Salix sp. Geographical distribution: Palearctic (Scotland, England, Denmark, European part of ex-URRS Acknowledgements We want to thank Dr. P.N. Buhl for his scientific support.

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New species of Platygastridae (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae) for Romania fauna

References:

1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

Buhl, P. N., 1994 - Ent. Meddr. 62, 1 pp. 13 - 24 Buhl, P. N., 1997 - Z. Arb. Gem. Ost. Ent. 15 (5) pag. 21 28. Buhl, P. N., 1999 - Entomofauna, Band 20, Heft 3 pag. 17 52. Buhl, P. N., 2000 - Frustula entomologica, 23 (34) pag. 142 160. Kozlov, M. A., 1987 - Superfamily Proctotrupoidea (Proctotrupoids). Pages 983 1212 in Medvedev, G. S., ed. Keys to the insects of the european part of the USSR, Volume III, Part 2.Amerind, New Delhi, India. Vlug, H. J., 1985 - The types of Platygastridae (Hymenoptera, Scelionoidea) described by Haliday and Walker and preserved in the National Museum of Ireland and in the British Museum (Natural History). 2. Keys to species, redescriptions, synonymy. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 127 (9) pp. 179 224. Vlug, H. J., 1995 - Catalogue of the Platygastridae (Platygastroidea) of the world (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Hymenopterorum Catalogus pars 19. Amsterdam. pp. 168

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NEW SCELIONIDAE SPECIES (HYMENOPTERA, PLATYGASTROIDEA, SCELIONIDAE) FOR ROMANIAS FAUNA


BY

OVIDIU POPOVICI1

Key words: Scelionidae, fauna, Romania. In this paper we present 13 new species for Romanias fauna: Calliscelio ruficollis Kozlov & Kononova Gryon rufiventris Kononova; Gryon fasciatus Priesner; Trissolcus manteroi Kieffer; Trissolcus oobius Kozlov ; Trissolcus djadetshko Rjachovsky ; Trissolcus waloffae Javahery; Trissolcus cantus Kozlov & Le; Telenomus etiellae Kozlov; Telenomus rudis Kozlov; Telenomus pinnatus Kozlov & Kononova; Telenomus lineolatus Kozlov; Trimorus angustipennis Kieffer. Calliscelio genue is cited for the first time in Romania fauna.

Introduction Scelionidae are a hymenoptera parasitoid group, attacking the eggs of different species of arthropods. For this reason, Scelionidae are an important limitative factor for different species of arthropods. Until this moment, in literature, 150 genera with approximately 3000 species described, but there are thought to be over 7000 species in the world (Henri Goulet & John Huber, 1993). In Romania, this family was studied by dr. Klaus Fabritius and dr. Irina Teodorescu. The Hungarian researcher J. B. Szabo had described many species of Scelionidae over the west and north of Romania. As a result, until this moment, in Romania fauna, 77 species of Scelionidae are mentioned. In Ukraine, 148 species of Scelionidae are mentioned by Kononova (1992), 58 species in Denmark (1994) and 56 (2001) in Germany, respectively, by Buhl. Material and methods Almost all the species were collected by entomological netting, sweeping through vegetation, in large plains with lucerne and alongside of the forest. Telenomus etiellae Kozlov, Telenomus pinnatus Kozlov & Kononova, Telenomus lineolatus Kozlov were obtained from Lymantria dispar L. eggs.
_______________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Ovidiu Popovici

The hymenoptera were collected from different places on the eastern part of Romania (Botoani, Suceava, Iai, Bacu districts) and from Constana. Results I. Subfamilies Scelioninae: 1). Calliscelio ruficollis Kozlov & Kononova, 1985 Material examined: 1 collected on 31.08.02 from Bacu, 1 collected on 30.06.02 from Holboca (Iai district). Both of the species were collected from the plaines with lucerne. Host: Unknown Geographical distribution: Palearctic (Ukraine, Uzbechistan) 2). Gryon rufiventris Kononova Material examined: 2 collected on 24.08.99 from Vadu (Constana district) Host: Unknown Geographical distribution: Ukraine, Georgia 3). Gryon fasciatus Priesner, 1951 Material examined: 1 collected on 20.08.02 from Iai (Botanical Garden) Host: Unknown Geographical distribution: Palearctic (Rep. Of Moldavia, Ukraine, Russia) II. Subfamilies Telenominae 4). Trissolcus manteroi (Kieffer, 1909) Material examined: 1 collected on 24.08.99 from Vadu (Constana district) Host: Eurygaster sp., Dolycoris sp., Carpocoris sp., and Staria lunata Hahn. Geographical distribution: Palearctic (Rep. of Moldavia, Armenia, Turkmenia, Russia, Turkey). 5). Trissolcus oobius Kozlov, (1972) Material examined: 1 collected on 24.08.99 from Vadu (Constana district) Host: Aelia sibirica Reut. Geographical distribution: Palearctic (Ukraine, Mongolia) 6). Trissolcus djadetshko (Rjachovsky, 1959) Material examined: 1 collected on 15.08. 02 from Valea lui David Natural Reserve (Iai district) Host: Dolycoris baccarum L. , Eurydema ventralis Kol., E. ornata L., Eurygaster integriceps Put., Carpocoris pudicus Poda. Eurydema oleracea L., Aelia rostrata Boh., Graphosoma lineatum L., Graphosoma semipunctatum F., Holcostethus vernalis Wolff., and H. sphacelatus F. Geographical distribution: Palearctic region 7). Trissolcus waloffae (Javahery, 1968) Material examined: 1 collected on 9.07.2000 from Agigea (Constana district) Host: Aelia acuminata L., Neottiglossa pussila Gmel. Geographical distribution: Palearctic (United Kingdom) 8). Trissolcus cantus Kozlov & Le, 1977 104

New Scelionidae species (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Scelionidae) for Romanias fauna

Material examined: 1 collected on 18.08.02 from Iai (Botanical Garden) Host: Unknown Geographical distribution: Palearctic (Ural) 9). Telenomus etiellae Kozlov, 1967 Material examined: 1 collected on 13.03.03 from Roma (Botoani district) Host: Etiella zinckenella Tr. (8), but we obtained it from Lymantria dispar L. eggs. Geographical distribution: Palearctic (Urali) 10). Telenomus rudis Kozlov, 1972 Material examined: 1 collected on 7.09.02 from Iezer (Botoani district) Host: Unknown Geographical distribution: Palearctic (Mongolia) 11). Telenomus pinnatus Kozlov & Kononova, 1983 Material examined: 1 collected on 13.03.03 from Roma (Botoani district) Host: Euproctis chrysorrhoea L (8), but we obtained it from Lymantria dispar L. eggs. Geographical distribution: Palearctic (Armenia) 12). Telenomus lineolatus Kozlov, 1967 Material examined: 1 collected on 13.03.03 Roma (Botoani district) Host: Unknown.(8), but we obtained it from Lymantria dispar L. eggs. Geographical distribution: Palearctic ( Eastern of ex-URSS) III. Subfamilies Teleasinae 13). Trimorus angustipennis Kieffer, 1908 Material examined: 1 24.08.02 from Iai (Botanical Garden) Host: Unknown Geographical distribution: Palearctic (United Kingdom, Russia) Acknowledgements I want to thank to Dr. P.N. Buhl and Dr. S.V. Kononova for scientific support.

References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Buhl, P. N., 1994 - Ent. Meddr. 62, 1 pp. 13 - 24 Buhl, P. N., 2001 - Platygastroidea. Entomofauna Germanica, Band 4, pag. 43 46. Henri, Goulet, John, Huber, 1993 - Research Branch. Agriculture Canada Publication. pp 558 - 565 Koac, Erhan, Kiliner, Neet, 2003 - Turk. J. Zool. 27 pag. 301 317. Kononova, S. V., 1992 - Fauna Ukraini. Tom 11, vol. 10; Kiev Naukova Dumka; 253 pp. 105

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6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Kononova, S. V., Kozlov, M. A., 2001 - Academperiodika Kiev 2001; 437 pp. Kononova, S. V., Petrov, S., 2002 - Entomological Review, vol. 82, no. 2, pag. 216 222. Kozlov, M. A. , Kononova, S. V., 1983 - Telenominae of the fauna of the USSR (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae, Telenominae), No. 136; 336 pp. Kozlov, M. A. 1987 - Superfamily Proctotrupoidea (Proctotrupoids). Pages 983 1212 in Medvedev, G. S., ed. Keys to the insects of the european part of the USSR, Volume III, Part 2.Amerind, New Delhi, India. Kozlov, M. A., Kononova, S. V., 1990 - Scelioninae of the fauna of the USSR (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae, Scelioninae) No. 161 Nauka Leningrad

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SPECTRAL EVALUATION OF AUTONOMIC CHANGES PRODUCED BY CHRONIC ETHANOL ADMINISTRATION IN RATS


BY

GABRIELA POSTOLACHE1, LUIS SILVA CARVALHO1, VASILE HEFCO2, SORIN STRATULAT3, ISABEL ROCHA1

Key words: Ethanol, Nucleus tractus solitarius, Blood pressure variability, Heart rate variability, Wavelets method; Mathematical tools have been applied to evaluate the autonomic balance. In particularly, it is widely used the fast Fourier transformer (FFT) that is able to produce a power spectrum of the frequencies from a stationary signal. Nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is an important area in the central regulation of autonomic functions. In ethanol addiction, there is an imbalance of autonomic flow but its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the cardiorespiratory responses on acute ethanol application in the NTS and its intravenous administration in normal rats and in a rat model of chronic ethanol consumption (EtOH rats), evaluating, in both conditions, the autonomic balance using a new mathematical tool wavelets method. Mean arterial blood pressure (MBP), ECG, heart rate (HR) and phrenic nerve activity were monitored. Results show a decrease of all the recorded variables both on normal and addict rats for the moderate ethanol doses applied to the NTS; on intravenous administration of ethanol no changes were observed in cardiorespiratory variables. On evaluation of autonomic nervous system using wavelet method, EtOH rats revealed an elevated sympathetic component in comparison with the normal rats. After i.v. administration of ethanol, an increase on the sympathetic mediated component of normal rats was seen by opposition to the decrease of this component observed in EtOH rats. These results suggest the presence of a neuroadaptation elicited to counteract the autonomic imbalance evoked by ethanol addiction. The wavelet method showed to be a good way of evaluating the transient modification of biological signals.

Introduction The caudal medulla is a key area of the central nervous system for determining the autonomic outflow to the periphery both in physiological and pathological conditions. In particular, nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) constitutes the primary autonomic area, that receiving afferent information from receptors located in the cardiovascular system itself or with origin in other central areas belonging to the central autonomic network, is able to integrate and modulate neuronal information. Other two major nucleus of the caudal medulla are those where originates the
_________________________________ 1 Instituto de Fisiologia, Facultade de Medicina de Lisboa 2 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai 3 UMF Iai

Gabriela Postolache and all. _________________________________________________________________________________________

sympathetic information - the rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM) - and the parasympathetic outflow the nucleus ambiguus and dorsal motor of the vagus. Several studies reported that the pathogenesis of ethanol-related neurological disorders is considered to be multifactorial and attributed either to genetic predisposition, nutritional factors or to the neurotoxic effects of ethanol and/or its metabolites [4]. Autonomic involvement, and in particularly, the role of NTS and other central autonomic nucleus in these neurological symptoms are not yet well understood. In a previous work on rats [20], we showed that ethanol microinjections into NTS produced hypothension and bradycardia, which are in opposition to the cardiovascular changes on blood pressure and heart rate observed in acute systemic alcohol administration. Also, brainstem involvement on the genesis or modulation of these effects has been poorly investigated in chronic alcohol administration [9,29,33] despite several studies in alcoholics and social drinkers that reported a decrease on heart rate variability induced by alcohol consumption [15,16,17,23,30]. Attempts to study autonomic function in patients using non-invasive methodology have been the cause of the development of mathematical tools to be applied to biological signals. Heart rate variability was usually assessed in the frequency domain by fast Fourier transform (FFT), autoregressive model (AR), short-term Fourier transform (STFT) and in the time domain by the standard deviation of beat-to-beat intervals (SDRR) and the root mean square of successive beat-to-beat differences in R-R interval durations (rMSSD). The FFT application to heart-rate and blood pressure originates a power spectrum that quantifies both autonomic function and respiratory activity. In human subjects, heart rate variability was described to have two majors oscillatory components [14], one of which, synchronous with respiration, is described as HF ([0.15-0.5]Hz, high frequency) while the other, corresponding to the slow waves of arterial pressure is described as LF (~ 0.1 Hz, low frequency). The power of the LF and HF components evaluated in absolute value, as well in normalized units, together with their ratio (LF/HF) has been specifically designed to estimate the balance between the two branches of the autonomic nervous system. The very-low-frequency (VLF) component, generally below 0.04 Hz, was also identified in human power spectrum, sometimes centred on zero Hz, even if the mean value of the signal has been eliminated. This component accounts for the long-term regulatory mechanisms, mainly related to thermoregulation and humoral factors [27]. Recently, it was shown a significantly better quantitative analysis of heart rate variability using wavelet methods [19, 31]. While FFT, STFT or AR required stationary conditions of the time series and recording intervals greater than 5 minutes, spectral analysis using wavelets gives good approximations of transient or localized phenomena. This monitorization is essential for vital brainstem functional analysis in clinical medicine. Each term in a wavelet series is orthogonal to other which means that there is no redundancy in the representation. Multiresolution analysis provides a simpler and more efficient representation than conventional mathematical representations. 390

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In the present study, we examined the hemodynamic effect of acute ethanol microinjection in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and its intravenous administration in normal rats and in a rat model of chronic ethanol consumption, evaluating, in both conditions, the autonomic balance using wavelets. Material and methods Animals and Chronic Ethanol Consumption The experiments were carried out in male 12-14 week-old Wistar rats (n=15. Rats were maintained on a 12/12 h light/dark cycle, at constant temperature, with free access to food and water and were divided into two groups. One group, control animals, was tested for central microinjections into the NTS and systemic administration of ethanol. The other group of rats (n=6) received ethanol (EtOH; 25% v/v) ad libitum in the drinking water for 12 weeks. Rats were allowed to drink tape water for 1h/day except on week-end. Surgical procedures Twelve weeks after the beginning of chronic EtOH consumption, rats were anaesthetized (-chloralose - 100 mg/Kg, i.p.), treated with a neuromuscular blocker (pancuronium bromide - 4mg/kg/h) and artificially ventilated. The depth of the anaesthesia was maintained by ensuring the absence of a withdrawal reflex before paralyzing the animal and changes on arterial blood pressure and heart rate to pinching a paw after the administration of a muscle blocker. The femoral artery and vein were cannulated for monitoring arterial blood pressure (Sensonor 840, Lectromed Ltd, and UK) and the administration of drugs, respectively. A tracheostomy was made low in the neck. The animal was ventilated with O2-enriched air (Harvard Apparatus Ltd, UK) after the muscular blockade and ventilation was regulated to maintain end-tidal CO2 between 4.5 and 5% (ADC Gas analyzer, UK). Rectal temperature was kept at 36.5-38C by a servocontrolled heating blanket (Harvard Apparatus Ltd., UK). The electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded (Neurolog, Digitimer, UK) from needle-electrodes inserted into three of the four limbs and heart rate derived with the use of an instantaneous ratemeter (Neurolog, Digitimer, UK). The animal head was placed in a stereotaxic head holder (Kopf Instruments, Germany) such that the difference in height between lambda and bregma was zero. The left phrenic nerve was identified and placed in a bipolar silver electrode to record neuronal activity (Neurolog, Digitimer, UK). A craniotomy was carried out to allow the insertion of stimulation microelectrodes in the NTS. Arterial blood pressure, phrenic nerve activity, ECG and heart rate were monitored throughout the experiment. All recorded variables were digitized (Instrutech VR100B, Digitimer, UK) and recorded on videotape. Off-line analysis was made using a computer A/D system with data capture and analysis software (PowerLab 8SP, ChartWindow, UK). 391

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Experimental protocol A multibarrelled glass microelectrode (tip diameter 40-60m) was inserted into NTS using stereotaxic coordinates according to Paxinos and Watson [18]. The barrels of the microelectrode were filled with wood's metal for electrical stimulation (50Hz, 1ms, 20-50A, trains of 5s), glutamic acid (2mM, pH=7.40.1), ethanol (50 mM) and artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The microinjection of ethanol was performed at sites where the previous electrical stimulation and glutamate microinjections have evoked the characteristic hypotension and bradycardia. The volume of each injection (50nl) was controlled using a microscope with a calibrated reticule and CSF microinjections were performed as a control in the beginning of each experiment. Blood pressure, heart rate and phrenic nerve activity changes were recorded on NTS microinjections and intravenously ethanol injection (1g/kg). An electrolytic lesion was performed at the end of experiments to allow stimulation sites to be marked. Histological procedures At the end of the experiment the animal was killed with an overdose of anesthetic and the brainstem was removed and fixed in a 4% paraformaldehyde saline with 30% sucrose solution for 48 hours. The tissue was sectioned serially (60m), stained with neutral red and recording sites were documented with the use of a microscope. Stimulating sites were then identified and drawn onto standard sections taken from the rat atlas of Paxinos and Watson [18]. Data analysis The mean arterial pressure (MBP) and heart rate (HR) values before and after ethanol administration were measured and the peak changes in both variables (MBP var. and HR var.) were used to determine the effect of ethanol on cardiovascular function. Phrenic nerve activity was analyzed by comparing the area under the average integral of nerve activity of 10 inspiratory cycles before stimulation - baseline values - with the value determined during maximal effect of ethanol microinjection. The presence of an effect was considered when the evoked changes were equal or greater the double of the changes observed in basal conditions. In order to perform wavelet analysis of cardiovascular signal, implemented software in our laboratory was used [16]. Shortly, the discrete event series that is the plot of Ri-Ri-1 interval and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) values versus time were resampled according to the Shannon theorem and required 2n samples for good resolution of spectral analysis. Tachogram and SAP signals were decomposed into height wavelet scales (j = 8) using Daubechies 12 (db12) wavelet. We selected wavelets coefficients for details corresponding to signal frequencies between 0.01 and 3 Hz and investigated how the energy in the details signal is distributed in the frequency domain. Low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) components of the signals were obtained by merging the detail signals at scale 6 (0.2-0.5 Hz) and at scales 3, 4 and 5 (0.5-3 Hz), respectively. The decomposed VLF signals corresponded to the detail at scale 7. We calculated spectral 392

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components energy by merging positive wavelets coefficients of LF and HF powersignals. Signals of 30s time length recorded before and after EtOH administration into NTS and intravenously, respectively, in control and chronic EtOH fed rats were analysed. Paired and unpaired t test was used for statistical analysis of ethanol effects on cardiovascular and respiratory parameters both for intra- and intergroup differences. The differences were considered significant where p0.05. Because of large interindividual variation of power spectral values, the Wilcoxon matched pairs test was used for evaluation of ethanol effects on blood pressure variability (BPV) and heart rate variability (HRV). All the procedures of the present protocol using animals were performed according to national and EU laws on animal experimentation. Results Results will refer to two groups of animals (control animals and animals with alcohol addiction) in two experimental conditions: under central activation of NTS neuronal circuits evoked by the microinjection of ethanol and on systemic (i.v.) injection of ethanol through a peripheral vein. Chronic ethanol effect on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) Baseline values for mean arterial pressure, systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate in control rats were 984.9 mmHg, 1164.2 mmHg, 905.7 mmHg (t test, n=9, p<0.001) and 4138.7 bpm (t test, n=9, p<0.01), respectively. Rats with chronic ethanol consumption had a slightly increased MBP (1043.7 mmHg, n=6, t test, p<0.05) and decreased HR (3929.5 bpm, n=6, p<0.05) considered not significant when compared to control group (unpaired t test, p=0.361 and p=0.137 for MBP and HR differences, respectively).The microinjection of ethanol at sites where the previous electrical stimulation and glutamate injection had evoked a decrease in MBP and HR elicited a consistent decrease of MBP and HR of 30 4.9 mmHg (two tailed paired t test, p<0.001, n=6) and 319.6 bpm (two tailed paired t test, p<0.01, n=6), respectively, with duration of response within 1 to 2 minute in control rats (Fig. 1a). Also the frequency of discharge of phrenic nerve has decreased after microinjection of ethanol that provoked a short-term suppression of respiratory activity (10-30s) immediately after the ethanol injection as is better seen in phrenic nerve activity representation in Fig.1a. Ethanol microinjection into NTS in rats with chronic exposure to alcohol produced a decrease of both MBP (of 496.5 mmHg, n=5, p<0.05) (Fig.1b) and HR (of 3515.1 bpm, n=5, p<0.05) (Fig.1.c). The higher BP response to EtOH microinjections was statistically significant in comparison with control group (unpaired t test p=0.540). The cardiac response to NTS EtOH-microinjection did not significantly change in comparison with control group. No changes on respiratory depression were observed 393

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between the two groups of animals. CSF microinjection did not evoke any changes on the recorded variables both in control and ethanol addict rats. Intravenous ethanol injection in control rats produced a triphasic response: first, a slightly increased of MBP (interval between 1-3 minutes) followed by a decrease and then returning to baseline values (974.0 versus 1063.9 mmHg, p<0.05, n=6). No significant changes were observed on HR (39640.2 versus 40813.3 bpm, p=0.090, n=6, paired t test). Ethanol administration intravenously in chronic EtOH fed rats produced a slightly decreased in MBP (1186.9 versus 1206.6 mmHg, p=0.087, n=5) (Fig.1.b). Heart rate did not significantly change after central ethanol application (3908.6 versus 3888.0 bpm, p=0.178, n=5, paired t test) (Fig.3). Also, no significant changes were recorded on phrenic nerve activity both in control and chronic EtOH fed rats. EtOH
BP (mmHg) 140

70

Phr

HR (bpm)

420 380

* ** *

c 394

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Fig. 1. (a) Representative tracing of the changes on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and phrenic nerve activity (Phr) evoked by ethanol microinjection into the NTS of a normal rat. (b) Graph bars showing the changes on mean blood pressure (MBP) elicited by ethanol administration, either centrally (NTS) or peripherally (i.v.), in normal and chronic EtOH fed rats. (C) Heart rate (HR) changes produced by EtOH intravenous and central administration in NTS of normal and chronic EtOH rats. Black and dark grey bars are base-line values before EtOH administration either into NTS or intravenously. Open grey and cross hatched bars are changes in MBP and HR, respectively, induced by ethanol when microinjected into NTS or intravenously in normal and chronic EtOH rats. Values are meansSEM. *P<0.05 ,**P<0.001 vs. control groups.

EtOH effect on heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) a) Effect on HRV and BPV power spectra of the EtOh microinjections in the NTS Representative tracing of systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and RR signals wavelet decomposition can be observed in Fig.2. An increased on HF component both in BPV and HRV is revealed in correspondent details of wavelet decomposed SAP and RR signal to EtOH administration into NTS. In control rats, ethanol microinjection into NTS produced an increase of HF component (parasympathetic mediated) both in HRV and BPV (normalized blood pressure HF=0.9560.012 versus 0.7500.089, paired t test, p=0.053, n=6, and normalized R-R HF=0.9450.017 versus 0.8530.050, paired t test, p=0.050, n=6) (Fig.3 a and b). Spectral analysis showed an increased LF component power in HRV produced by NTS ethanol application, in two rats, but only in one rat LF/HF ratio increased comparative with base-line control. In this animal, an increase in LF was produced only on first moments of ethanol microinjection, the wavelet decomposition showing that the main change to ethanol microinjection was an increase in HF component. If analysis had been made only in frequency domain this behavioural response of NTS neurons to EtOH microinjection would gave false information about EtOH effect on NTS autonomic modulation. A significant decrease of BPV (1311.500525.950 versus 2746.6011148.020 mmHg2/Hz, Wilcoxon test, p=0.008, n=6) was recorded on NTS-EtOH administration. A decreased of HRV was not significant (234.210180.680 ms2/Hz versus 286.481267.940 ms2/Hz, Wilcoxon test, 395

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p=0.187, n=6), but in two rats an increase in HRV was produced by the rise of HF component. SAP

VLF LF

HF

RR

VLF LF

HF

Fig. 2. Representative tracing of wavelet decomposed systolic arterial pressure (SAP) (upper panel) and RR (lower panel) signals recorded on ethanol microinjection into NTS in normal rats. VLF=very low frequency; LF=low frequency and HF=high frequency components.

A similar effect to that evoked in control rats was observed on EtOH microinjection on BPV and HRV in chronic EtOH rats: BPV significantly decreased from 4161.7121438.010 to 1405.210360.080 mmHg2/Hz (Wilcoxon test, p=0.016, n=5) but no changes were seen in HRV (344.09326.18 versus 754.06736.89 ms2/Hz, 396

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Wilcoxon test, p=0.219, n=5). However, in one rat was observed an increased in HRV with an increase in HF power. Ethanol microinjection into NTS produced a rise in parasympathetic flow, reflected especially in BPV. Normalized HF of BPV rose from 0.5460.077 to 0.7940.093 (t test, p=0.044, n=5). The higher HF component in HRV was not statistically significant (0.8800.0674 versus 0.7790.051 in base-line condition, t test, p=0.362) because of presence of two lower power spectral values.
a * * * b

Fig. 3. Mean changes in normalized high frequency (HF) component of systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and RR signals produced by EtOH microinjection into NTS in normal and chronic EtOH rats. Black and dark grey bars are base-line values in normal and chronic EtOH rats, respectively. Open dark bars and horizontally hatched bars are mean changes in HFn in blood pressure variability (a) and heart rate variability (b), respectively, produced by NTS EtOH. Values are meansS.E.M.

Rats with chronic exposure showed a large interindividual variation of LF/HF ratio. Normalized LF component was higher than in normal rats for blood pressure signal (0.4340.083, n=5, versus 0.2500.009, n=6, unpaired t test, p=0.081). The spectral analysis of base-line SAP and R-R signal has been shown no significantly changes in BPV and HRV in chronic rats versus control rats.
a b

* * *

Fig. 4. Changes in normalized low frequency (LF) component of systolic blood pressure and RR signals recorded to ethanol intravenously administered in normal and chronic EtOH fed rats. White bars are base-line values of LF component in normal and chronic EtOH rats. Diagonally and horizontally hatched bars are mean values of LFn in blood pressure variability (a) and heart rate variability (b), respectively, after ethanol intravenously administered. Values are meansSEM.

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b) Effect on HRV and BPV of the peripheral injection of EtOH In control rats moderate doses of ethanol injected through a peripheral vein produced a higher decrease in BPV (from 7932.5086560.010 to 746.700240.520 mmHg2/Hz, Wilcoxon test, p=0.031, n=6) in comparison with the autonomic response elicited, with the same dose, in chronic-EtOH rats (from 2751.743734.980 to 1756.836.2828.871 mmHg2/Hz, Wilcoxon test, p=0.031, n=5). In control rats, alcohol injection produced a non-significant decreased of HRV (from 59.28428.414 to 56.78027.857 ms2/Hz, Wilcoxon test, p=0.219, n=6) that was due to the fact that one rat from this group presented an increased HRV (especially the HF component) and this effect was associated with an augmented hypotensive effect produced by ethanol injection. The stronger decrease of HRV was elicited by ethanol intravenously administered in chronic EtOH rats (20.77912.186 versus 38.93021.874 ms2/Hz, Wilcoxon test, p=0.031, n=5). In chronic animals the intravenous administration of ethanol showed a significant decreased in LF/HF ratio of BPV (normalized LF power of SAP signals decreased from 0.4060.130 to 0.1920.058, paired t test, p=0.0453, n=5) (Fig.4a) in comparison with normal rats where ethanol injection produced an increased in LF/HF ratio (from 0.0550.009 to 0.1340.033, paired t test, p=0.0464, n=6). Intravenously ethanol produced a rise of sympathetic outflow to the heart mainly in normal rats. Normalized LF component of HRV increased significantly (paired t test, p=0.0428, n=6) from 0.08420.022 to 0.2390.039 in normal rats and from 0.15180.059 to 0.1660.056 (t test, p=0.021, n=5) (Fig.4b) in chronic ETOH rats. One rat showed an opposite profile of its HRV spectrum with a decreased LF component being effect associated with a more hypotensive effect evoked by the intravenous ethanol injection. Discussions The primary result of our study was the demonstration that ethanol addict rats have a marked imbalance of its autonomic outflow to the cardiovascular system which is clearly observed when the wavelets methodology is applied to the study of the variability of blood pressure and heart rate of these animals. Data based on a number of prospective, cohort, cross-cultural, and case-control studies in diverse populations consistently reveal that chronic alcohol consumption is associated with hypertension [12,32], arrhythmias [13], cardiomyopathies [22] and increase nocturnal hypoxemia [28] being the underlying mechanisms of these effects unclear. In our experiments in normal and ethanol addict rats, ethanol was microinjected in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), a key area of integration of autonomic afferent information located in the caudal medulla. Efferent information originated at NTS level is conveyed to two major medullar areas: the vagal nucleus where is originated the parasympathetic information and the rostroventrolateral medulla where the sympathetic tone is generated. The balance between these two branches of the autonomic nervous 398

Spectral evaluation of autonomic changes produced by chronic ethanol administration in rats _________________________________________________________________________________________

systems is able to affect the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Direct effects of ethanol microinjections in the nucleus tractus solitarius are poor documented in literature and the existing ones are contradictory. Zhang [33] found in the rat, that low to high ethanol concentrations had no effect on baseline mean arterial pressure, heart rate, or sympathetic efferent discharge when microinjected into nucleus tractus solitarius, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the rostralventrolateral medulla, or the posterior hypothalamus. Conversely, other authors reported that doses of 25 - 200 nmol/site of ethanol microinjected bilaterally in rat dorsal vagal complex and nucleus tractus solitarius elicited a pressor response [29]. Our results show that ethanol microinjection in the NTS lead to hypotension and bradycardia both accompanied by a transient inhibition of the central respiratory drive. The apparent contradictory results of NTS ethanol effects on cardiovascular variables could be due to the different doses of ethanol centrally microinjected. In fact, in our experiments, a moderate dose of ethanol was used and elicited the same changes on NTS mediated cardiovascular and respiratory responses both in normal and chronic EtOH fed rats. In chronic EtOH rats, the amplitude of hypotension and duration of response was higher than those evoked by the same dose in normal rats. These different responses could be due to a decrease on baroreceptor reflex [1] or to an increase in NMDA receptor function [3] or adenosine receptor modulation as suggested by Diao et al [6]. Our results indicate that EtOH microinjection into the NTS increased the HF parasympathetic mediated component of the BP power spectrum, which is in accordance with the observed bradycardia and hypotension that are vagally-mediated. The present work suggests that the impaired autonomic balance produced by chronic EtOH exposure, which is revealed by an increase of the sympathetic flow, is a consequence of a neuroadaptation provoked by the acute increase of parasympathetic flow evoked by each ethanol intake. This hypothesis is sustained by the fact that acute microinjection into NTS returns the power of HF component to normal levels of blood pressure variability spectrum. The effect of ethanol microinjection into NTS on heart rate variability is not clear, being necessary a larger number of data to avoid data distortion that could caused by a complex number of factors such as, among others, diffusion of ethanol in adjacent nucleus, non-specific effect on cell membrane, different modulation of excitatory effect mediated by neurotransmitters and/or neuromodulators. Our analysis of cardiovascular parameters in rats with chronic EtOH exposure shows an imbalance between cardiovascular excitatory and inhibitory neurons. This is revealed by a slight increase of blood pressure, in baseline conditions of chronic EtOH rats, that is resetted to a new balance with new dose of ethanol administration, an effect that is clearly observed in the blood pressure response to intravenous alcohol administration. Furthermore, spectral analysis revealed an augmented low frequency (LF) sympathetic mediated spectral component, especially in BPV, that decreases until reaching normal levels by ethanol administration thus showing the existence of a neuroadaptation to chronic EtOH exposure. 399

Gabriela Postolache and all. _________________________________________________________________________________________

Ethanol effects on neuronal network are similar with addictive drugs. The majority of the systems that are acutely affected by ethanol are also affected by chronic exposure, resulting in an adaptative or maladaptive response that can cause tolerance and dependence. In particular, chronic actions of ethanol likely require changes in signaling by glutamate and GABA receptors and intracellular systems such as protein kinase C [5]. There is an increase in NMDA receptor function after chronic alcohol ingestion, which may contribute to the central nervous system hyperexcitability and neurotoxicity seen during ethanol withdrawal [3]. Arginine vasopressin, acting on V1 receptors, maintains tolerance to ethanol in laboratory animals even after chronic ethanol administration has ceased [10]. Also there are studies that demonstrated the importance of adenosine in mediating the acute and chronic effects of ethanol at multiple levels (i.e., molecular receptors) in the central nervous system [6, 7]. The main result of our study is the non-invasive evaluation of pharmacological induced autonomic changes in a short-term, non-stationary cardiovascular signal analysis. In general, removal of the non-stationary part of the data is necessary before applying other methods such as AR or FFT, STFT. The few existing studies on spectral analysis of cardiovascular signals of the rat, the majority of them using the FFT algorithm, show no clear low frequency (LF) bandwidth delimitation in correlation with sympathetic autonomic modulation. Different authors consider different frequency limits for the LF component in the rat: 0.2-0.8 Hz [2, 25]; 0.047-0.305 Hz [26]; 0.01-0.2 Hz [8]; 0.02-0.6 Hz [11] or an interval with a central frequency of 0.430.02 Hz [24]. In our study, we considered LF frequency between 0.2-0.5 as a result of data that showed that frequency between 0.5-1 Hz are highly correlated with centrally induced respiratory rate [21]. However, if a short-time window is used for spectral analysis, it is likely that the estimations are dominated by parasympathetic modulation. Nevertheless, the situation when drug-induced changes are present - where the response to an external input in an open-loop model is analyzed - is different from spontaneously oscillations in a closedloop system. In conclusion, our results show that the wavelets technique allows the detection of transient events and the onset of autonomic changes with very high temporal resolution. Also, the acutely ethanol effects on cardiovascular function in rats with chronic exposure to EtOH may be the result of reinforcement processes and long-lasting neuroadaptative changes that modulate autonomic balance after short- and long-time chronically ethanol exposure.

400

Spectral evaluation of autonomic changes produced by chronic ethanol administration in rats _________________________________________________________________________________________

References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Abdel-Rahman AA, Dar MS, Wooles WR. 1985 - J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 232, 194-201. Cerutti C, Barres C, Paultre C.1994 - Am J Physiol, 266(5 Pt 2), H1993-2000. Chandler LJ, Harris RA, Crews FT., 1998 - Trends Pharmacol Sci., 19(12), 491-495. Charness ME.1993 - Alcohol Clin Exp Res., 17, 211. Constantinescu A, Diamond I, Gordon AS., 1999 - J.Biol. Chem, 26985-26991. Diao L, Dunwiddie TV., 1996 - J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 278(2), 542-546. Dohrman DP, Diamond I, Gordon SA., 1997 - Alcohol, Health and Research World, 21(2), 137-144. Gonzalez GJ, Cordero VJJ, Feria RM.1995 - J Auton Nerv Syst., 55(1-2), 12330. Gonzalez GJ, Cordero VJJ, Feria RM.1995 - J Auton Nerv Syst., 55(1-2), 12330. Hoffman PL, Ishizawa H, Giri PR, Dave JR, Grant KA, Liu LI, Gulya K, Tabakoff B.1990 - Ann Med., 22(4), 269-274. Japundzic N, Grichois ML, Zitoun P, Laude D, Elghozi JL.1993 - J Auton Nerv Syst., 30(2), 91-100. Klatsky AL., 2001 - Alcohol and cardiovascular disease. In DP Agarwal and KK Seitz, eds., Alcohol in Health and disease, New York, Marcel Dekker, 517-546. Kupari M, Koskinen P. 1998,Novartis Found Symp., 216, 68-85. Malliani A.1995 - Association of heart rate variability components with physiological regulatory mechanisms. In: Heart rate variability, ed. Marek Malik and A. John Camm, Futura Publishing Company, 173189. Malpas SC, Whiteside EA, Maling TJB. 1991 - Brit. Heart J., 65(2), 84-88. Masters JA, Stevenson JS, Schaal SF., 2004 - Biol Res Nurs, 5(3), 222-233. Minami J, Todoroki M, Ishimitsu T, Yamamoto H, Abe S, Fukunaga T, Matsuoka H, 2002 - J Hum Hypertens, 16(5), 345-351. Paxinos G, Watson C., 1997 - The rat brain in stereotaxic coordinates. Acad. Press, London. Pichot V, Gaspoz JM, Molliex S, Antoniadis A, Busso T, Roche F, Costes F, Quintin L, Lacour JR, Barthlmy JC, 1999 - J Appl Physiol 86: 1081-1091. Postolache,G., L. Silva Carvalho, Isabel Rocha, Andreea Hefco, V. Hefco 2002 - Anal. St. Univ. Al.I. Cuza Iasi, s. Biol., Tom XLVIII, 212-225. Postolache G, Rocha I, Silva Carvalho L, Girao P.2003 - Proc. IEEE CCEC, 2083-2086. 401

13. 14.

15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

20. 21.

Gabriela Postolache and all. _________________________________________________________________________________________

22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

Preedy VR., Paice A, Mantle D, Dhillon S, Palmer TN, Peters TJ., 2001 - Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 63, 199-205. Rajan I, Murthy PJ, Ramakrishnan AG, Gangadhar BN, Janakiramaiah N., 1998 - Biol. Psychiatry, 43(7), 544-6. Rubini R, Porta A, Baselli G, Cerutti S, Paro M., 1993 - J Auton Nerv Syst., 45(3), 181-90. Shur MH, Yang CH, Tan PP, Chan SH., 1999 - Shock, 11(3),187-92. Slangen BF, Out IC, Janssen BJ, Peeters LL., 1997 - Am J Physiol., 273(4 Pt 2), H1794-9. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation and clinical use. Circulation 93, 1043-1065, 1996, Van der Borne P, Mark AL, Montano N, Mion D, Somers VK., 1997 Hypertension, 29, 1278-1283. Varga K, Kunos G. , 1992 - Eur. J. Pharmacol., 214, 223-232. Weise F, Muller D, Krell D, Kielstein V, Koch RD., 1985 - Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg., 87(2), 95-98. Wiklund U, Akay M, Morrison S, Niklasson U., 2002 - IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 49(7), 651-661. Wu T, Trevisan M., 2001 - Amer. J. Epidemiol., 153(11), s59. Zhang X, Abdel-Rahman AA, Wooles WR. 1989 - Hypertension, 14, 282-292.

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Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 _______________________________________________________________________________________

PREDATORS INSECTS CONTROLLING APHIS FABAE SCOP. POPULATIONS


BY

PRELIPCEAN CARMEN1, MUSTA GHEORGHE1, ANDRIEV SORINA1, PRELIPCEAN ANDREI1

Keywords: biological control, predators, sinecological analysis; Based on the researches made in 2003 concerning Aphis fabae Scop. colonies installed on 16 plant species from Botoani District area, we identified 19 predator species which limited, through natural ways, some Aphis fabae populations. Those predator species proceed from 14 genera of three families from Coleoptera, Diptera, and Neuroptera Phillum. These investigations concerning the role of each species inside the aphid population limitation, we made a sinecological analysis of the following indexes like: abundance, constancy, dominance, ecological significance and coenotic affinity.

Introduction Aphis fabae Scop is a very dangerous species forming strong colonies on over 200 spontaneous and cultivated herbal species. It has migration and it has primary hosts in plants from species like Phyladelphus, Evonimus and Viburnum, and after that it passes on herbal plants. It forms massive colonies as a consequence of prolification. Their colonies are controlled by many predator species like coccinelides. Predators realized a high limitation of Aphis fabae populations. So that, at the end of June, in July and august, there were identified only few colonies. These colonies have a restoration in Septembre, when they come back on primary host plants. We investigated predator species controlling Aphis fabae populations from different plant species in the environmental conditions of the year 2003. Material and methods The researches were realized in 2003, from spring to autumn period, in seven localities from Botoani District area. There were studied plants attacked by Aphis fabae populations. There were investigated both: primary and secondary host plants, woody and herbal plants, cultivated and spontaneous plants (Table 1). We preserved 1142 individuals from some predator species (larvae and adults). There were identified 19 predator species conjugating their actions for Aphis fabae populations limitations.
_______________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Carmen Prelipcean and all. _________________________________________________________________________________________

For the investigation of each specie role and the contribution of them inside the limitation, through natural ways, we made a sinecological analysis concerning: abundance, constancy, dominance, ecological significance and coenotic affinity. Results and discussions Inside the Aphis fabae colonies installed on 16 cultivated and spontaneous plants, there were preserved 1142 individuals (larvae and adults) from 19 predator species: - Coleoptera Phyllum, Coccinellidae family: 1. Coccinella septempunctata L., 2. Coccinella quinquepunctata L., 3. Coccinella divaricata Oliv., 4. Adalia bipunctata L., 5. A. decempunctata L., 6. Adonia variegata Goeze., 7. Calvia quatuordecimpunctata L., 8. Propylaea quatuordecimpunctata L., 9. Platynaspis luteorubra Goeze., 10. Coccinula quatuordecimpustulata L., 11. Hippodamia tredecimpunctata L., 12. Semiadalia undecimpunctata Schneider, 13. Harmonia quadripunctata Pontoppidan, 14. Scymnus frontalis Fabricius., 15. Scymnus interruptus Goeze; - Diptera Phyllum, Chamaemyiidae family: 16. Leucopis ninae (Tanas.), 17. L.bicolor (Tanas.); - Neuroptera Phylllum, Chrysopidae family: 18. Chrysopa carnea Stephens., 19. Ch. formosa Crauer. It was realized a sinecological analysis for presentation of the role of each species from this complex. Table 2 presents the species depending on their abundance level: Coccinella septempunctata with 697 individuals, after that it follows Adalia bipunctata with 253 individuals, Coccinella quinquepunctata with 45 individuals, Adalia decempunctata with 30 individuals, and some other species with few individuals. Coccinella septempunctata and Adalia bipunctata species are eudominant inside the Aphis fabae colonies. Coccinella quinquepunctata, Adalia decempunctata and Propylaea quatuordecimpunctata species are subdominant. After these species, it follows three recedent species and other subrecedent species. Only Coccinella septempunctata is the eudominant specie. From the same point of view, seven species of all are accessories. The rest of the species are accidental for these aphid colonies. We have to mention than we registered an invasion of Coccinella septempunctata in 2003 (second part of May first part of June period). This invasion was registered in all Moldova District area. The high level of ecological signification index was registered in following species: Coccinella septempunctata (W5), Adalia bipunctata (W4) and Coccinella quinqvepunctata (W3). After them, it follows 13 species with W2 and the rest of them with W1. The high level of coenotic affinity was registered in eudominant species. Through their actions, predator species realized an efficient control in Aphis fabae colonies.

68

Predators insects controlling Aphis fabae Scop. populations _________________________________________________________________________________________

Conclusions Based on the researches made in 2003 concerning the species from seven localities (Botoani District), we investigated the complex of predator species which limits Aphis fabae colonies by natural ways. There were investigated Aphis fabae colonies installed on 16 plant species (cultivated and spontaneous plants, herbal and woody plants). From this point of view there were identified 19 species from 14 genera and three families from Coleoptera, Diptera and Neuroptera Phyllum (Orders). For the establishing of contribution and role of each species to the Aphis fabae Scop. populations limitation, we used a sinecological analysis concerning the: abundance, dominance, constancy, ecological significance index and coenotic affinity.

References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Broussal, G., 1961 - C.R, Ac. Sci., Paris, 3025 3126. Holmanm J. Pintere, A., 1981 - Shidri C.S.A.V. Praha, 1981. Musta Gh., 1986 - Lucr. celei de-a III a conf. de Entomol. Iai 20 22 mai 1983, 583 594. Partzala, D., Valtu G., 1965 Ecel. Aphidoph. Iusut, 279 281, Praha. Star, P., 1904 Ckologra Polska Seria A, XII, 30, 529 554, Warszama. Star, P., 1973 Ann. Zool. et Bot. 84, 1 87, Bratislava.

69

No. Month Localities

7 VII VII VIII VII Host plants Hudum Medicago sativa Hudum Trifolium pratense Curteti Cirsium arvense Melilotus Botoani officinalis Botoani Phaseolus vulgaris Ipoteti Arctium lappa Robinia Botoani pseudaccacia 171 23 24 7 29 1 1 4 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 19 7 2 9 14 Coccinella septempunctata Coccinella quinqvepunctata Coccinella divaricata 2 Coccinula quatordecimpustulata 15 10 7 Adalia bipunctata Adalia decempunctata 1 Semiadalia undecimpunctata 11 Adonia variegata 5 1 4 4 Hippodamia tridecimpunctata Propylea quatordecimpunctata Platynaspis luteorubra Scymnus frontalis Scymnus interruptus Calvia quatordecimguttata Harmonia quadripunctata Leucopis ninae Leucopis bicolor Chrysopa carnea Chrysopa formosa Table 1 Presence of predator species in the Aphis fabae Scop. colonies in 2003 VII VI VII

5 6

1 2 3

8 9

10

14 15 VI V VI VI VIII VI V VII Agafton Hudum Botoani Hudum Botoani Stnceti Baisa Stnceti
Host plants

No. Month Localities

16 VI Hudum Carduus sp. Atriplex hastata Matricharia chamomila Cichorium intibus Zea mays Philadelphus coronarius Euonimus europea Helianthus annuus Achillea millepholium 12 5 11 1 8 6 1 1 1 1 1 143 19 9 1 2 697 228 45 3 6 24 122 1 2 5 10 3
Coccinella septempunctata Coccinella quinqvepunctata Coccinella divaricata Coccinula quatordecimpustulata Adalia bipunctata Adalia decempunctata

13

11 12

8 57 10

253 30

71

11 14 6 12 5 27 17 1 1 1 2 2 2 6 1 1 4 4 1 21 16

Semiadalia undecimpunctata

2 8 2 1 2 2 2

Adonia variegata

2 2

Hippodamia tridecimpunctata Propylea quatordecimpunctata Platynaspis luteorubra Scymnus frontalis Scymnus interruptus Calvia quatordecimguttata Harmonia quadripunctata Leucopis ninae Leucopis bicolor Chrysopa carnea Chrysopa formosa

Table 2. Sinecological analysis of predatory insects from Aphis fabae Scop. colonies
No. Specie Coenotic affinity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 19 19 19 7 38 38 25 0 43 38 0 0 7 0 0

Ecological Abundan- Dominan- ConstanSignificance ce ce cy Index

1 2 3

Coccinella septempunctata Linn, 1758 Adalia bipunctata Linn, 1758 Coccinella quinquepunctata Linn, 1758 Adalia decimpunctata Linn, 1758

697 253 45

61.37 D5 100 C4 21.96 D5 44 C2 3.90 D3 44 C2

61.00 W5 9.66 W4 1.75 W3

44 19 44 31 38 31 38 25 25 31 19 25 25 38 50 33 30 50 30 33 22 33 25 10 22 38 38 25 33 38 33 10 24 33 33 43

30

2.60 D3

25 C2

1.78 W2

67 33 80 40 17 14 20 17 40 75

75 50 25 25 25

72

No. Specie

Ecological Abundan- Dominan- ConstanSignificance ce ce cy Index

Coenotic affinity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 40 20 0 14 0

Propylea 5 quatuordecimpunctata Linn, 1758 Calvia 6 quatuordecimguttata Linn, 1758 Platynaspis luteorubra 7 Goeze, 1777 Adonia variegata 8 Goeze, 1777 Coccinula quatuordecimpustulata 9 Linn, 1758 10 Hippodamia tredecimpunctata Linn, 1758

27 21 17 14 6

2.34 D3 1.82 D2 1.47 D2 1.21 D2 0.52 D1

31 C2 25 C2 31 C2 19 C1 25 C2

0.63 W2 0.45 W2 0.45 W2 0.22 W2 0.13 W2

29 100 29 13 13 13 33 60 60

50 17 75 60 20 17 17 17 33 14 13 17 0 33 61 20 17 17 20 20 20

17 17 20 0 60 40 0 0 0

0 0 0

0 40 0

20 17 17 20 20

20

0 40 0

0.52 D1

13 C1

0.06 W2 73

25 25 25 25

23

No. Specie

Ecological Abundan- Dominan- ConstanSignificance ce ce cy Index

Coenotic affinity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 40 40 67 40 40 15 16 17 18 19 0 67 33 20 20 0 0 33 20 0 0 0 0 20 0 20 0 0 0 0 0 0

11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Leucopis ninae ( Tamas ) Semiadalia undecimnotata Schneider, 1792 Chrysopa formosa Braner, 1850 Chrysopa carnea Stephens, 1836 Coccinella divaricata Olivier, 1808 Harmonia quadripunctata Pontoppidon, 1763 Scymnus frontalis Fabricius, 1787

6 4 4 4 3 2 1

0.52 D1 0.34 D1 0.34 D1 0.34 D1 0.26 D1 0.17 D1 0.08 D1

6 C1 13 C1 19 C1 19 C1 19 C1 13 C1 6 C1

0.03 W2 0.04 W2 0.06 W2 0.06 W2 0.04 W2 0.02 W2 0.0006 W1 74

100 25

100 25 0 25 0 0

No. Specie

Ecological Abundan- Dominan- ConstanSignificance ce ce cy Index

Coenotic affinity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 0

18 19

Leucopis bicolor ( Tamas ) Scymnus interruptus Goeze, 1777

1 1

0.08 D1 0.08 D1

6 C1 6 C1

0.0006 W1 0.0006 W1

75

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004

NATURAL CONTROL REALIZED BY PARASITOID INSECTS INSIDE THE APHIS FABAE SCOP. COLONIES
BY

CARMEN PRELIPCEAN1, GHEORGHE MUSTA1, ANDREI PRELIPCEAN1


Keywords: Aphidae, Aphidiidae, parasitoids, hyperparasitoids, biological control. This paper presents a parasitoid complex realized by 13 insect species from 6 genres of Hymenoptera Phyllum and families such as: Aphidiidae, Megaspilidae, Cynipidae, Pteromalidae and Encyrtidae. These species controlls, through natural ways, the Aphis fabae Scop. populations which are installed on different plants.

Introduction Aphis fabae Scop. is a kind of aphid species very dangerous to cultivated plants. This species realized migrations from Phyladelphus, Evonimus, Viburnum (which are primary host-plants) to over 200 spontaneous and cultivated herbal species. Aphidiides acting as primary parasitoids and they realized certain limitations of some colonies of those aphides. Intervention of secondary parasitoids limited the efficiency of the primary parasitoids. Relationships between primary parasitoids and hyperparasitoids are enough complex and they are presented as a trophic network, characteristic for parasitoid biocoenosis. Material and methods We investigated the role of parasitoid insects in the natural control of these aphides populations. Our researches are based on investigations made in 2003 in seven localities from Botoani District. We investigated Aphis fabae Scop. colonies installed on 10 plant species such as: Phyladelphus coronarius (primary host-plants) and Robinia pseudaccacia, Cichorium intibus, Trifolium pratense, Helianthus annuus, Arctium lappa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cirsium arvense, Medicago sativa and Zea mays (secondary hostplants). There were been preserved 2707 mummies formed by primary parasitoids and they were kept in laboratory conditions for obtaining the parasitoids. They were obtained 13 parasitoid species (3 primary parasitoid species and 19 hyperparasitoid species).

________________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai

Carmen Prelipcean and all. _________________________________________________________________________________________

Based both on dissections and the investigations of mummies after parasitoids hatching of eggs we clear up trophic relationships between species and we realize a new trophic network. For the investigation of each species role inside the biocoenotic complex we made a sinecological analysis of parasitoid species concerning: abundance, constancy, dominance, ecological significance index and coenotic affinity. Results and discussions We collected 2707 mummies formed by aphidiides inside the Aphis fabae Scop. colonies preserved from 10 host-plants, from seven localities in Botoani District (Table 1). In laboratory conditions were been hatching a number of eggs equal both for parasitoids and hyperparasitoids from 13 species as following: Aphidiidae family: Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marsh.), L. ambiguus (Hal.) and L. melandriicola Star. Cynipidae family: Charips arcuatus (Kieff), Ch. carpenteri (Kieff), Ch. melanogaster (Hartig), Ch. minutum, Alloxysta campyla Kieff. and Aloxysta semiclausa Kieff. Megaspilidae family: Dendrocerus aphidum (Rond.) and D. carpenteri (Kieff.) Pteromalidae family: Pachyneuron aphidum (Bch.) Encyrtidae family: Aphidencyrtus aphidivorus (Mayr.) Based on the dissections realized on aphides (at the level of parasitoids larva) and the control of mummies after the hatching of eggs, we manage to establish trophic relationships between species and we draw the specific trophic network especially for this biocoenotic complex (Figure 1). Primary parasitoid species have not much efficiency in the limiting of Aphis fabae populations. However, inside the colonies with few individs from some plants (Arctium lappa, Helianthus annuus, Medicago sativa) the parasitism percentage is between 15-20%. It was been realized a sinecologic analysis for presentation the role of each specie from this biocenotic complex. Table 2 presenting species depending on their abundance level: Pachyneuron aphidis with 938 individuals, Lysiphlebus fabarum with 784 individuals, Aphydencirtus aphidivorus with 745 individuals and Lysiphlebus ambiguus with 161 individuals. After those, there are following some another species with a smaller number of individuals. First three species of them are, in the same time, euconstant, eudominant and with the highest value of ecological significance index. L. ambiguus is the dominant specie, and four species have an accessory or accidental presence inside of complex. Cenotic affinity does not prove than the euconstant and eudominant species have high affinity, and their role concerning to the biocenotic complex stability.

60

Natural control realized by parasitoid insects () _________________________________________________________________________________________

Conclusions Based on the researches made in 2003 concerning Aphis fabae Scop. colonies which attacked 10 plant species from seven localities (Botoani District), we manage to identified 13 parasitoid species from 6 genres of 5 families from Hymenoptera Phyllum. The aphidiide species acting as primary parasitoids, and the others acting as hyperparasitoids (secondary and tertiary). We manage to clear up the trophic relationships between species. We did it by using a specific trophic network of this biocenotic complex. For the establishing the contribution of each specie to the limitation of Aphis fabae Scop. populations, we used a sinecological analysis concerning to the: abundance, constancy, domination, ecological significance index and cenotic affinity.

References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Broussal, G., 1961 - C.R, Ac. Sci., Paris, 3025 3126. Holmanm J. Pintere, A., 1981 - Shidri C.S.A.V. Praha, 1981. Musta Gh., 1986 - Lucr. celei de-a III a conf. de Entomol. Iai 20 22 mai 1983, 583 594. Partzala, D., Valtu G., 1965 Ecel. Aphidoph. Iusut, 279 281, Praha. Star, P., 1904 Ckologra Polska Seria A, XII, 30, 529 554, Warszama. Star, P., 1973 Ann. Zool. et Bot. 84, 1 87, Bratislava.

61

Table 1. Parasitoids complex from Aphis fabae Scop. colonies in 2003 Charips arcuatus Charips minutum Aphidencyrtus aphidivorum 2 2 52 1 2 8 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 3 1 2 2 4 10 4 51 286 287 197 57 2 176 29 86 63 88 8 29 15 67 113 92 26 194 585 31 545 372 293 Lysiphlebus melandriicola Charips carpenteri Charips melanogaster Dendrocerus aphidum Dendrocerus carpenteri Alloxysta campyla Pachineuron adphidis 6 14 78 28 3 2 24 12 26 12 1 13 2 8 8 478 29 15.4 22 1 62 1 1 1 1 Lysiphlebus ambiguus Lysiphlebus fabarum

Nr.

Data

Locality

Host plant

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

27.VII 24.VII 23.VI 12.VI 18.VII 11.IX 4.VI 18.VIII 24.VI 2.VIII 30.VI 6.VII 29.VII

Botoani Hudum Botoani Botoani Botoani Botoani Botoani Curteti Hudum Brehuieti Botoani Rchii Hudum

Robinia pseudaccacia Cichorium intibus Trifolium pratense Helianthus annuus Arctium lappa Phaseolus vulgaris Philadelphus coronarius Cirsium arvense Medicago sativa Medicago sativa Medicago sativa Medicago sativa Zea mays

14 15 16 17 18

27.VII 20.VII 27.VII 3.VIII 2.VIII

Leorda Curteti Botoani Stnceti Brehuieti

Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays 161

4 3 21 2 784

2 1 2 1 8 15 8 1 1 1 10

2 1

1 2 2 2 1 1 9

9 1 1 8 7 11 70 938

21 28 49 4 83 745

39 34 84 19 158 2707

Table 2. Sinecological analysis of parasitoid species from Aphis fabae Scop. colonies
Nr. 1 2 3 4 5 Specie Pachyneuron aphidis Lysiphlebus fabarum Aphidencyrtus aphidivorus Lysiphlebus ambiguus Dendrocerus aphidum Ecological Abundance Domination Constancy Significance Index 938 784 745 161 15 35,00 D5 29,00 D5 28,00 D5 6.00 D4 0,70 D1 67 C4 89 C4 83 C4 39 C2 33 C2 23,45 W5 25,81 W5 23,24 W5 2,34 W3 0,23 W2 Cenotic affinity 1 2 56 3 80 72 4 36 44 29 5 29 29 24 30 6 29 35 29 75 30 7 36 31 25 77 77 8 27 25 12 57 25 9 27 25 12 38 25 10 38 38 40 75 33 11 20 38 24 63 50 12 42 31 25 71 22 13 14 25 12 57 25

63

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Alloxysta campyla Charips arcuatus Charips carpenteri Dendrocerus carpenteri Charips melanogaster Charips minutum Lysiphlebus melandriicola Alloxysta semiclausa

10 9 9 8 8 8 8 5

0,40 D1 0,31 D1 0,31 D1 0,30 D1 0,30 D1 0,30 D1 0,30 D1 0,20 D1

39 C2 28 C2 22 C1 22 C1 36 C2 36 C2 28 C2 22 C1

0,04 W2 0,08 W2 0,06 W2 0,06 W2 0,08 W2 0,08 W2 0,08 W2 0,04 W2

20

11 13

11 13 14

30 0 11 11

44 38 25 25 9

20 43 25 25 9 22

22 29 33 14 30 25 50

64

Zea mays Aphidencyrtus aphidivorus

Fig. 1 Specific trophic network for Aphis fabae Scop. colonies and the parasitoids complex

Medicago sativa Charips minutum

Phaseolus vulgaris Charips melanogaster

Helianthus annuus Charips carpenteri

Aphis fabae Scop.

Lysiphlebus melandriicola

Trifolium pratense Charips arcuatus

Lysiphlebus fabarum

Pachyneuron aphidis

Phyladelphus coronarius

Alloxysta semiclausa

Cirsium arvense

Alloxysta campyla

Arcitum lappa Lysiphlebus ambiguus Dendrocerus carpenteri

Cichorium intibus Robinia pseudaccacia

Dendrocerus aphidum

65

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004

SOME ASPECTS ON THE MODIFICATIONS - IN TIME - THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN TEEN-AGERS FROM SOME RURAL COMMUNITIES OF THE JASSY COUNTY
BY

MARIA TIRBU1, GEORGETA MIU1, MARIA ISTRATE1

Key words: dimension, ratio, growth, acceleration The authors analyze the average values of the main bodily dimensions and ratios - on classes of age and sex - on a group of 1,462 teen-agers (739 boys and 723 girls), between 11 and 16 years, coming from some rural communities in the vicinity of the Jassy city, investigated in 2003, comparatively with the results recorded - in 1985 - on a group of subjects of the same age, from the same places. The main conclusions drawn evidence that todays teen-agers have larger sizes than those studied in 1985, which shows that growths acceleration process is still manifesting. Significant modifications are to be recorded, too, as to the temporary sexual dimorphism, which is shorter, for certain characters, in the present batch, comparatively with the 1985 one. More than that, the actual teenagers evidence a tendency of longilinization, versus the former ones. As to the puberty, taken into study only for girls, it is more early in the present than in the past group, the average age of puberty being of 13 years and 2 months - today - comparatively with 13 years and 9 months - in the 1985 group.

The results of the investigations developed along the year 2003, on a group of 11-16 year old teen-agers coming from some rural communities of the Jassy county considered comparatively with those obtained, by the same methodology, in 1985 illustrate that the acceleration of growing and development in children and teen-agers is in progress. The group studied in 2003 comes, with only one exception (the village of Comarna being replaced by Holboca), from the same places in which similar researches have been performed in 1985, the villages being in the vicinity or quite close to the city of Jassy, which explains the numerous urban influences manifested upon the life of such places.

_________________________________ 1 Romanian Academy, The Iai Branch, Department of Anthropology

Maria tirbu and all. _______________________________________________________________________________________

Materials and method The material of the present study is constituted by a number of 1,462 teen-agers (739 boys and 723 girls), with ages ranging between 11 and 16 years, coming from rural communities situated in the vicinity of the Jassy city. Mention should be made of the fact that investigations on the teen-agers of the same places have been undertaken by the Jassy team of anthropology in 1985 and 1964, as well. The statistical processing of the data collected assumed calculation of the average values and of the standard deviation on classes of age, at the level of each sex, for the main bodily dimensions and ratios. All results obtained with the actual series have been interpreted comparatively with those recorded in 1985 for the series of similar origin. Results The stature is obviously taller with the actual series, comparatively with those of 1985 (Tables I and II). Statures acceleration rates, higher in boys than in girls, increase progressively for both sexes, from 11 to 13 for girls and from 11 to 14, respectively, for boys, so that in the former case, the acceleration rate at the age of 16 is of 1.36 cm comparatively with the maximum one - of 4.69 -, while, in the latter case, it is of 4.16 versus 5.99 with both sexes, the stature increasing at higher rates in the first 3 classes of age, and, on the contrary, at lower rates in the last 2, comparatively with those taken as reference. The maximum growing rates, with slightly higher values in the present series, versus the old ones, occur nevertheless within the same time interval, namely between 11 and 12 years for girls and, respectively, between 13 and 14 years for boys. A differentiated analysis of the growth recorded by statures main segments evidences that, as already known, the inferior member is more affected by acceleration than the bust (sitting stature). The situation is well reflected by the average values of the skelic index, seen as superior in the present series, comparatively with the reference one (with the exception of the 12 year - old boys, when they are equal). More than that - and especially in boys - the differences grow with the age. Nevertheless, one should mention, within the same milieu, that, with both series of girls, the maximum value of the skelic index is recorded at the age of 12, followed by an amplier diminution of its value from 12 to 13 years, for the present series, and highly attenuated in the reference series. In the case of boys, however, although the prepuber pusseu of statures growth occurs - for both series - within the same interval of age (13-14 years), being slightly more intense in the actual series, the maximum value of the skelical index is to be recorded one year later for the 2003 series, comparatively with the 1985 one. Such a situation may suggest that, for the 2003 series, a still higher number of teen-agers are subjected to the prepuber pusseu of statures growth at the age of 15. 364

Some aspects on the modifications - in time - the growth () _______________________________________________________________________________________

The trunks horizontal dimensions record only slight modifications in time. The - generally - very reduced differences favourize the actual series only for boyswidth of shoulders. In the case of girls, shoulders width and - in the case of both sexes - basins breadth, record slightly higher average values in the 1985 series. The result - as reflected, too, by the average values of the acromio-iliac index (Tables I and II) - is a less rectangular shape of the trunk in the actual series, comparatively with the 1985 one. Actually, the average of relatives values of both shoulderswidth and basin breadth are, in both sexes, inferior in the 2003 series, versus the 1985 one, which evidences a slight longilinization tendency of todays teen-agers, comparatively with those in the past. The trophicity characters In absolute values, weight is - on the average - higher in the present series, comparatively with the 1985 one, for both sexes. The differences get more pronounced with age, in the case of boys between 11 and 15, being diminished at the age of 16, and between 11 and 13, for girls, followed again by a diminution, so that in the last 2 classes of age they become negligible. The weight: stature ratio, expressed by the values of the Rohrer index, records differences amounting to maximum 1/2 u.i., which, in the case of girls are - with the exception of the age of 13 - in favour of the 1985 series, while, in boys, it oscillates from one class of age to the other, favourizing one or another of the two series. The assertion may be therefore made that the values of the Rohrer index in girls and for the last classes of age in boys plead for a relative longinilization of the actual series, comparatively with the reference one. Membersperimeters (maximum of arms in flexion and maximum of thigh) record absolutely superior average values for the boys of the present series versus the 1985 one. The situation is similar for girls, with the exception of the last 2 classes of age (15 and 16 years) for arms perimeter. Having all these in view, special mention should be made of the fact that, generally, the acceleration rates are higher in boys than in girls and significantly higher for thighs perimeter versus arms perimeter. By the relative values (members perimeters versus stature), the differences between the two series are attenuating and, more than that, with only one exception (the 11 year old boys), they favour - in the case of the arm - the 1985 series. Puberty Unfortunately, our data on puberty refer exclusively to girls. On the average, the moment of pubertys installation suffered modifications along period there about 2 decades. Indeed, the girls of the actual series have an average age at the puberty with 7 month earlies than those of the 1985 group (i.e. 13 years and 2 months versus 13 years and 9 months). The situation is correspondingly illustrated both by curving of the pubery children frequency on classes of age (Table III), and by the curve of their frequency as a function of the age at menarche (Table IV).

365

Maria tirbu and all. _______________________________________________________________________________________

Thus, the frequency of pubery girls on classes of ages is obviously superior in the actual series versus that of 1985, between 11 and 14 years, but highly inferior at ages of 15 and 16. If, at the age of 16, the difference is very small, being actually caused by a single case of unrealized puberty, - which may be an exception -, at the age of 15 the ratio of pubery children in our series is about 4.5% lower than the value of the 1985 series. The situation might be caused by a heterogenous structure - from the view point of 15 and 16 year old teen-agersorigin. One should also notice that at the secondary schools from the communities taken into study, the number of 15 and 16 year old children is quite low, so that the sample group had to be completed with teen-agers from the agricultural high schools of the communities near Jassy, among them a few children being from more remote places. As to the frequency of pubescent children as a function of their age at menarche, the ratios recorded are clearly superior to our series, comparatively with the reference one, at ages between 11 and 13, and, on the contrary, inferior between 14 and 16 years. Indeed, the ratio of pubery girls below 13 years is of about 80% in the present series, versus about 50% in the 1985 series, while the frequency of those with menarche between 14 and 16 years is of about 20% in the former series comparatively with 50% recorded in the latter. Modifications of sexual dimorphism Statures curves show that the duration of the transient sexual dimorphism, characterized by average values higher in girls than in boys, was not modified, comparatively with 1985, although the sexual differences are more attenuated, in the actual series, up to the age of 13. Instead, at the age of 14, when the boys exceed the girls, the difference in favour of the former ones is - in the actual series - of 2.68 cm versus only 0.37, the value recorded in 1985. In such a situation, crossing of statures curves over the interval between 13 and 14 years should be placed closer to the debut of this interval in the actual series versus the 1985 one. If considering also the first crossing of statures curves, it may be ascertained that the duration of the transient sexual dimorphism became shorter, as, in the present series, the girls exceed the boys in stature over the 10-13 year interval, and not between 9 and 13 years - as noticed with the series investigated two decades ago. A possible explanation might be the result of a rate of growths acceleration higher in boys than in girls, as actually evidenced above. The duration of the transient sexual dimorphism for the become shorter with the actual series comparatively with the 1985 one. Indeed, in the former series, the boys exceed the girls - as to the bust - at the age of 15 and not of 16, as it happened in 1985. The difference in favour of boys is of about 0.50 cm at the age of 15, increasing at 2.62 at the age of 16. Worth mentioning is the fact that, with the 1985 series, the difference in favour of boys at the age of 16 was of 2.07, that is about 0.50 more reduced than with the present series. 366

Some aspects on the modifications - in time - the growth () _______________________________________________________________________________________

Sexual dimorphism at the level of the inferior member evidences no significant modifications from one moment to another. The observation may be nevertheless made that, unlike the 1985 series, with which negligible sexual differences oscillated over the age interval of 11-13 years, in favour of one or another of the two sexes, in the present series the girls exceed the boys at the age of 12 while, starting with the ages of 14 years, with both series, the length of the inferior member records average values clearly superior for boys. As to the sexual dimorphism at the level of the skelic index, expressing the ratio between the inferior member and the bust, it is manifesting in the same direction in both series (boys being more macroskelical than girls, for all classes of ages), although the sexual differences are more pronounced in the present series. Modifications of the sexual dimorphism are to be met, too, at level of shoulders width which, for the present series, is - over the whole interval of 11 to 16 years - slightly higher in boys than in girls while, for the 1985 series, the boys recorded average values higher than the girls only at the age of 16. Transient sexual dimorphism for weight, in absolute value, has a shorter duration in the actual series versus the 1985 one, as a result of the fact the first crossing of the curves of weight increase takes place at an older age in the 2003 series, comparatively with the old one (12 years now comparatively with 10 years in the past) while, on the contrary, the second crossing - at an earlier age (15 years with the actual series versus 16 years in the past). In other words, the girls exceed the boys as to weight, in absolute value, exclusively between 12 and 14 years. The modifications, in time, as to the stature-weight ratio refer to the fact that, while in the actual series the sexual differences are obvious at 11 and 12 years in favour of boys becoming then favourable for girls, in the 1985 series, between 11 and 13 years, the differences are almost negligible and oscillating, becoming obviously in favour of girls only from 14 years on. As to the sexual dimorphism expressed by the values of members perimeters, slight modifications are also to be noticed. Thus, the growth curves of flexed arms perimeter are crossed - in the actual series - two times: once at the age of 12, when the girls exceed the boys, and the second time at 14 years, when the boys exceed the girls. With the 1985 series, the girls register higher values than the boys up to the age of 15 years, the latter ones exceeding the girls only at 16 years. In the actual series, thighs perimeter registers average values practically equal until the age of 11 for both sexes, after which the differences increase progressively with age, in the favour of girls. In the 1985 series, the sexual differences in the favour of girls are relatively constant between 11 and 14 years, increasing only after these ages. Conclusions The analysis performed in the present study evidences the fact that the teenagers of the rural medium suffered - in the last 2 decades - a longinilization process. 367

Maria tirbu and all. _______________________________________________________________________________________

Indeed, both 11 - and 16 year old boys and girls are taller, more macroskelical, with a less rectangular trunk and a stature-weight ratio taking inferior or at least equal values comparatively with the 1985 series. The sexual differences are more pregnant, while the urban-rural differences are more attenuated. Girlspuberty is installing earlier, the average pubescent age being now of 13 years and 2 months versus 13 years and 9 months recorded in 1985. These results from here that the acceleration process is still present, being more intenselly manifested at the level of the vertical segments. In this respect, mention should be made here of the fact that evidencing of the acceleration process necessarily requires a comparison between series coming - in at least 80-90% ratios - from the same regions. As a matter of fact, if comparing our results with those of M. Vasilov and coworkers only 4 years ago (in 1999), important differences are to be noticed in favour of our series. As the time considered for the analysis is too short for justifying such differences, we explain them by the structure of sampling. Indeed, while the teen-agers forming our series come from rural communities in the vicinity of the city of Jassy, the ones constituing M Vasilovs series live in collectivities situated at appreciable distances from the above-mentioned urban agglomeration. Consequently, while in the villages studied by us the influence of urbanization is considerable, in those considered by M. Vasilov such factors are absent on the whole, which explains the fact that the latter series (studied in 1999) is - from a physical view point - inferior not only to the 2003 but also to the 1985 one. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Cristescu M., Glavce C., Georgescu Vl., 1969 - Ann. Roum. Anthropol., Bucuresti. Cristescu Maria, 1996 - Ann. Roum. Anthropol., Bucuresti. Hagen W., 1962 - Rev. dHyg. et Md. Sc. et Univ. Heintz H., Olivier G., 1966 - Acta Facult. Rerum Naturalium Univ. Comenianae. Istrate M., Balteanu A.C., Tudosie A., 1986 - St. cerc. antropol., Bucuresti. Necrasov Olga, Cristescu M., 1969 - Ann. Roum. Anthropol., Bucuresti. Radu Elena, Sandru C., Ciotaru L., Orasanu B., Ciotaru C., 2000 - Ann. Roum. Anthropol., Bucuresti. Rosca Maria-Elena, Stirbu Maria, Tarca Ana, Ghigea S., 1986 - St. cerc. antropol., Bucuresti. Stirbu Maria, Miu Georgeta, Simalcsik Angela, 2003 - Ann. Roum. Anthropol., Bucuresti. Tudosie Adriana, Stirbu Maria, Tarca Ana, Ghigea Silvia, 1992 - St. cerc. antropol., Bucuresti. Vasilov Marieta, 2001 - Dezvoltarea fizic a copiilor si tinerilor (0-18 ani) din judetele Moldovei, Edit. Fund. Altius Academi, Iasi. 368

Table I Position and dispersion parameters for the main bodily dimensions and ratios at the 2003 rural series 11 12 13 14 15 16 Age M M M M M M Dimensions BOYS Weight 34.18 6.62 39.29 7.51 43.41 8.49 49.14 8.62 53.78 10.74 56.78 Stature 140.83 6.65 147.70 7.74 154.50 8.73 161.84 9.06 165.61 9.11 170.00 Sitting stature (Bust) 74.10 3.36 76.50 3.76 79.66 4.78 83.38 4.90 85.02 5.17 87.74 Sy-sol 73.00 4.34 75.08 4.61 79.06 5.19 82.92 5.03 84.71 5.25 85.64 A-A 30.81 1.79 31.20 2.18 32.60 2.45 34.37 2.53 35.47 2.75 36.59 Ic - Ic 22.22 1.54 22.79 1.82 23.41 1.88 24.81 2.06 25.50 2.19 25.87 Perim.of the arm in 20.97 2.29 21.65 2.28 22.58 2.70 23.91 2.34 25.06 2.97 26.03 flexion Perim. of the thigh 40.71 4.13 41.68 3.95 42.64 4.60 44.95 4.03 46.34 4.66 46.87 Indices Rohrer ind. 11.96 1.37 12.06 1.44 11.55 1.48 11.50 1.28 11.72 1.45 11.58 Skelic ind. 91.13 5.05 92.70 4.96 93.60 4.56 94.16 4.59 95.05 6.04 94.09 Ic-Ic/A-A ind. 72.12 3.45 72.05 6.55 71.89 3.78 72.29 3.91 71.97 4.32 70.67 A-A/stature ind. 21.75 0.89 21.09 1.10 21.01 0.87 21.14 0.91 21.31 1.04 21.49 Ic-Ic/stature ind. 15.74 0.84 15.36 1.14 15.12 0.89 15.23 0.81 15.32 0.97 15.20 Perim. fl.arm/stat. ind. 14.64 1.28 14.39 1.40 14.40 1.41 14.64 1.31 14.94 1.44 15.08 369

7.30 6.03 3.76 3.50 1.95 1.78 2.56 4.03 1.33 5.79 4.76 0.90 0.94 1.41

Age Dimensions Perim. thigh/stat. ind. Dimensions Weight Stature Sitting stature (Bust) Sy-sol A-A Ic - Ic Perim.of the arm in flexion Perim. of the thigh Rohrer ind. Skelic ind. Ic-Ic/A-A ind. A-A/stature ind. Ic-Ic/stature ind. Perim. arm fl./stat. ind. Perim. thigh/stat. ind.

11 M 28.38 33.06 142.15 75.07 72.93 30.36 22.32 20.50 40.70 11.91 90.13 73.58 21.33 15.70 14.24 28.41 2.45

12 M 27.98 2.24

13 M 27.35

14 2.31

15 M 27.72 2.52

16 M 27.39 2.32

M 2.50 27.64 GIRLS 6.38 39.06 6.78 46.34 8.11 49.12 7.47 149.43 7.24 156.02 6.57 159.16 3.60 78.01 3.80 82.18 3.68 84.12 4.73 76.46 4.07 79.87 4.20 81.89 2.02 31.06 1.90 32.46 1.84 33.57 1.59 22.81 1.61 24.00 1.70 24.99 2.19 21.44 2.37 22.87 2.46 23.82 4.15 1.23 4.75 3.80 1.00 0.88 1.23 2.42 43.22 11.63 91.56 73.56 20.60 15.22 14.23 28.69 4.55 1.68 4.89 4.03 1.05 1.00 1.63 2.76 47.08 12.08 90.16 73.88 20.66 15.31 14.55 29.93 370 5.04 1.45 4.49 4.07 0.91 0.86 1.47 2.82 48.35 12.14 89.31 74.52 21.00 15.64 14.83 30.16

7.32 51.83 8.23 53.20 7.09 5.53 159.80 5.35 160.06 5.96 3.35 84.67 3.15 85.12 2.76 3.94 81.61 3.62 80.49 4.28 1.61 33.80 1.58 33.44 1.72 1.75 25.45 1.91 25.00 1.84 2.49 24.37 2.49 24.95 2.12 4.35 1.59 5.24 4.38 0.91 1.03 1.63 2.75 50.27 12.61 88.73 75.13 21.09 15.80 15.28 31.30 4.63 1.64 4.77 4.75 0.84 1.00 1.39 2.61 51.45 12.89 88.21 74.70 20.89 15.52 15.02 32.05 3.83 1.61 4.81 5.42 1.20 1.12 1.43 2.47

Table II Position and dispersion parameters for the main bodily dimensions and ratios at the 1985 rural series 11 12 13 14 15 16 Age M M M M M M Dimensions BOYS Weight 31.90 4.33 35.38 5.48 38.89 5.57 44.87 7.75 48.45 9.03 54.92 8.08 Stature 139.40 6.05 145.09 7.25 148.78 7.36 155.85 8.92 160.36 9.19 165.84 7.29 Sitting stature 73.19 2.96 75.32 3.53 77.30 3.58 80.75 4.57 83.43 5.34 86.80 4.27 Sy-sol 66.21 4.11 69.77 5.11 71.48 4.74 75.10 5.27 76.92 4.63 79.03 4.36 A-A 29.85 1.48 30.81 1.69 31.81 1.82 33.20 2.22 34.55 2.57 36.20 2.28 Ic - Ic 22.06 1.29 22.84 1.52 23.72 1.45 24.68 1.78 25.46 1.88 26.68 1.76 Perim.of the arm in flexion 19.95 1.64 20.78 1.76 21.74 1.65 23.22 2.13 24.07 2.64 25.44 2.42 Perim. of the thigh 37.85 2.63 39.16 2.91 40.80 2.91 42.70 3.37 43.59 4.02 45.48 4.19 Rohrer ind. 11.74 1.00 11.53 0.83 11.78 1.01 11.78 1.00 11.63 0.80 12.01 1.29 Skelic ind. 90.51 5.07 92.71 6.48 92.52 5.30 93.07 5.19 92.32 4.42 91.17 5.14 Ic-Ic/A-A ind. 73.97 3.37 74.20 3.90 74.63 3.36 74.41 3.66 73.77 3.59 73.77 3.41 A-A/stature ind. 21.42 0.80 21.24 0.79 21.39 0.75 21.31 0.87 21.54 0.81 21.83 0.97 Ic-Ic/stature ind. 15.84 0.73 15.75 0.80 15.95 0.66 15.84 0.66 15.87 0.68 16.08 0.68 Perim. arm fl./stat. ind. 14.32 1.06 14.32 0.89 14.63 1.00 14.90 1.05 14.99 1.07 15.34 1.31 Perim. thigh/stat. ind. 27.20 1.50 27.00 1.60 27.40 1.70 27.40 1.60 27.20 1.80 27.40 2.20

371

Age Dimensions Dimensions Weight Stature Sitting stature Sy-sol A-A Ic - Ic Perim.of the arm in flexion Perim. of the thigh Indices Rohrer ind. Skelic ind. Ic-Ic/A-A ind. A-A/stature ind. Ic-Ic/stature ind. Perim. arm fl./stat. ind. Perim. thigh/stat. ind.

11 M M

12 M

13

14 6.73 5.30 2.98 3.42 1.97 1.47 1.93 4.16 1.46 4.36 4.67 1.13 0.74 1.19 2.50 M

15 5.85 4.80 2.74 3.47 1.61 1.30 1.86 3.39 1.16 4.56 4.40 0.93 0.73 1.19 2.00 M

16 2.36 6.02 2.59 4.35 1.82 1.87 2.33 4.59 1.82 4.52 5.88 1.13 1.07 1.50 2.90

M GIRLS 32.88 6.13 37.04 6.95 40.23 6.20 46.59 140.84 7.50 146.53 7.41 151.33 6.49 155.48 74.25 3.54 77.06 4.22 79.62 3.61 82.66 66.58 4.67 69.47 4.37 71.71 4.02 72.82 30.30 1.78 31.59 1.77 32.76 1.84 33.58 22.99 1.72 23.99 1.72 25.07 1.67 26.07 20.41 2.08 21.38 2.11 22.19 2.06 23.57 39.79 3.58 41.99 4.36 43.46 3.77 46.46 11.68 89.68 75.90 21.52 16.32 14.49 28.20 1.11 4.70 3.75 0.75 0.75 1.20 2.00 11.69 90.27 75.97 21.57 16.37 14.60 28.60 1.29 5.51 3.66 0.82 0.75 1.25 2.30 11.56 90.15 76.57 21.66 16.56 14.67 28.70 1.23 4.90 4.12 0.84 0.79 1.22 2.20 12.37 88.16 77.76 21.61 16.77 15.16 29.90

51.53 158.08 84.73 73.34 34.71 27.01 25.26 49.37 13.03 86.63 77.93 21.96 17.09 15.99 31.20

53.01 158.70 84.93 73.77 34.86 27.52 25.67 49.96 13.26 86.85 79.10 21.98 17.35 16.19 31.50

372

Table III Percent distribution of pubery and non pubery girls, on classes of age, at the 2003 series, versus the 1985 one 2003 series 1985 series Age Non - pubery Pubery Non - pubery Pubery N % N % N % N % 11 83 95.40 4 4.60 122 99.18 1 0.81 12 76 85.39 13 14.61 115 91.27 11 8.73 13 73 47.71 80 52.29 79 78.21 22 21.78 14 26 14.62 145 85.38 39 38.23 63 61.76 15 14 9.40 135 90.60 4 4.93 77 95.06 16 1 1.35 73 98.65 73 100.00 Table IV Percent distribution of pubery girls as a function of the age at menarche Age 10 11 12 13 14 3.10 % 9.09% 25.72% 40.35% 18.85% Series 2003 1985 1.21% 2.02% 15.78% 34.81% 31.17%

15 2.44% 12.95%

16 0.49% 2.02%

373

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 _________________________________________________________________________________________

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF THE TRANSVERSE PALMARY SULCUS AND OF ITS SIMILAR RIDGE FORMATIONS
BY

ANA ARC1

Key words: transverse palmary sulcus, transversal sulcus, palmar prints Finger prints of 684 men and 700 women coming from 7 Moldavian endogamous rural communities have been taken into study, viewed from the perspective of the incidence of the transverse palmary fold (TPF) and of some similar ridge formations. It was observed that the relatively high degree of endogamy of the communities under study is to be correlated with a high frequency of the classical forms of sulcus I and II (10.20%), which is not only sensibly moving off normality (1-3%), but also coming closer to that of the persons with malformed children (14.55%), or even exceeding the value recorded in infantile autism (9.20%) at mentally-handicapped ones (8.60%), in hearts congenital malformations or other cardio-vasculary diseases (5.35%), at deaf-dumb people (5.45%), in blindness or other severe ocular affections (4.25%) - all coming from the same area, which explains the presence - already by now - of such maladies in the clinical picture of the studied population. The average frequency of the persons having in their palms at least one of the transverse or transversal (special forms) palmary sulcus is - in the series under investigation (24.80% of which 27.48% in men and 22.13% in women) - over 6 times higher than that generally recorded for Europoid populations, in which it does not exceed 5% in men and 2.5% in women. Sexual dimorphism, as well as the bilateral differences in the distribution of the most frequent forms of TPS I and II, agree fully with those recorded in other Romanian and European reference groups, assuming higher ratios in men - comparatively with women - and also their presence on the left palms of both male and female subjects.

Introduction A genetically - determined ridge formation, always present on the palm of Simian monkeys - which also explains its name: Simian line -, the transverse palmary sulcus, or the transverse palmary fold, defined - as early as 1877 by Broca as a perfectly continuous ridge over the whole palm breadth, is to be observed in the human palm, as well, usually associated either with most of various congenital or hereditary maladies or with severe neuropsychical disorders [3, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17], sometimes being nevertheless present in apparently healthy individuals, as a signal or a stigmate of a possible disease, that might be manifested in any of the stages of its carriers - or of ones descendants - postnatal life.
_________________________________ 1 Romanian Academy, The Iai Branch, Department of Anthropology

Ana arc _________________________________________________________________________________________

In its classical form, the transverse palmar sulcus results from the fusion of palms flexion ridges 2 and 3; fusion may be total (without maintaining signs of the two ridges) - this is type I classical sulcus (Fig. 1. Ia - Ib), or it may keep smaller or higher fragments of the two, in this case having the aspect of an intermediary form towards type I - denominated as type II classical sulcus (Fig. 1. IIa - IIb). The two forms of sulcus (I and II) are also known in the literature of the field as transverse sulcus [4, 5, 7]. However, the crease crossing the palm from its ulnar to its cubital side may be, as well, formed exclusively on the flexion ridge 2 - being noted with SF1 (special form 1) or exclusively on ridge 3 - being noted with SF2 (special form 2), (Fig. 1 SF1 - SF2) to which still other two special transition forms SF3 and SF4 should be added (Fig. 1, SF3SF4). These last 4 special forms of sulcus - denominated as such by Weninger and Navratil [17] - have been named by other authors transversal sulcus [1, 3, 4, 5]. According to the classification of Weninger and Navratil, and in full agrement with other specialists of the field [4, 5, 6, 7], to the 2 forms of transverse (type I - II) and transversal (SF1, SF2, SF3, SF4) sulcus, an atypical form (type III) - grouping together palms configurations to which the trajectory of the three main flexion folds, 1, 2 and 3, is slightly different from the normal one (without evidencing elements of palms crossing), assuring shifting towards the palm in which their disposition is normal - should be added. If considering that the transverse (I + II), transversal palmary folds and form III have a different ethiology [1, 4, 5, 8], they will be analyzed separately in the present study. Starting from the above considerations, the author discusses the incidence of palmary sulcus and of its similar ridge formations in some predominantly Catholic populations from Moldavia (counties of Yassy, Bacu and Neam), a region never studied until now from this perspective. Worth mentioning from the very beginning is that the demographic investigations on the 7 Catholic communities taken into study evidenced that, along the 10 decades of the XXth century, they have been characterized by a relatively reduced degree of demographic opening - as suggestively illustrated by an endogamy index ranging between 65% and 85%. However, such a high endogamy is not caused by villages geographical isolation, but, instead, by the still unchanged traditional pattern of marriage, as well as by the mariages contracted between more or less related people - which led to a higher risk of consanguinity and, implicitly, to the spreading, at the level of the communities, of certain pathological genes, the malformative effect of which are to be found, too, in the dermatoglyphic picture of some of the individuals, occurring as signals (deviations from normality) with deep clinical implications, among which one should notice, too, the transverse palmary sulcus, so frequently met in various congenital maladies. Consequently, the populations taken into study from this perspective show, as it will be seen in the following, a similar behaviour to that of the collectivities affected by various maladies, which actually explains the presence already - here of a complex pathological picture, including cardio-vascular, ocular, digestive or pulmonary affections, neuropsychical disorders, etc. Several of these maladies have been declared as having existed, too, in the ancestry of the sulcus carriers, 376

New contributions to the study of the transverse palmary sulcus () _________________________________________________________________________________________

with the risk of their further transmission to the descendants - if considering the stong hereditary character of dermatoglyphics, generally, and of palmary sulcus, especially. Material and methods Along the years 1995-2001, there has been dermatoglyphically investigated, a total number of 1,384 subjects of all ages (684 men and 700 women) - coming from the villages of Sboani and Ghereti (Neam county), Froani and Prjeti (Bacu county), Rchiteni, Hluceti and Butea (Yassy county), all having a predominantly Catholic population, each place being represented (with the exception of Hluceti, with 84 men but again 100 women), by 100 men and 100 women. Analysis of the frequency of palmary sulcus and of its similar ridge formations was based on the classification of Weninger and Navratil [17], considered the most comprehensive one, being also much similar to the one applied for other groups of Europoid population [1, 3, 4, 5, 7]. If considering that the palmary sulcus frequency in populations is quite restricted (1-3%), the analysis of such formations was performed at the level of the whole population taken into study, a procedure applied by other authors, too [3, 4, 5, 7, 17]. For all sulcus forms under analysis, the sexual and the bilateral differences have been evidenced by the ratios of the frequency observed to the total number of hands. Once known, nevertheless, that sulcusoccurrence on one of the hands was not independent on its configuration on the other one (Lestrange M. 1969), the author also calculated the frequency of the persons carrying at least one sulcus form, alongwith following - by means of the bimanuar diagram - the way in which the different types of sulcus are associated among them on the two hands. The working methods applied are the ones usually utilized in the investigations of normal and pathological dermatoglyphics [4, 8, 17]. Results and discussion The data listed in Table 1 - showing the percent distribution, according to hand and sex, of the sulcus forms, by the classification of Weninger and Navratil [17] - show that, both the I - and II - type, and the special or transversal forms and the atypical form III are to be more frequently met on the left hands of subjects of both sexes, wellknown as carriers of most malformative stigmata [8, 9, 10, 12, 17]. As a sex-depending distribution, sulcus types I and II are more frequent in men while, on the contrary, the special forms and types III - in women, the sexual differences being quite low, especially in the last 2 cases. Out of all sulcus forms considered for analysis, the highest occurrence in our sample is represented by type II (7.84%) which, together with type I, amounts to an average ratio of 10.02% (11.55% in men and 8.50% in women) - a value sensibly different from that recorded in demographically-open collectivities (1-3%), but nevertheless close to, or even exceeding the one registered in various congenital and hereditary affections from the same Moldavian region (Table 2), and which may be found out in the whole clinical picture of the populations considered. 377

Ana arc _________________________________________________________________________________________

Out of the 4 special forms of sulcus, more frequently met is SF2 (3.54%), folowed - at an appreciable distance - by SF1 (0.79%) on the last position, and very weakly represented numerically, in equal ratios (0.36%) occurring: SF3 and SF4 (Table 3). The cummulated average weight of the four special forms of Sulcus values, of 5.05% (5.21% in women and 4.90% in men) is more than double comparatively with the one recorded by us for the population of the Maramure region (2.26%). Instead, for form III of transition towards palms normal configuration, our series record au average ratio of only 4.73%, comparatively with 8.14% - the value recorded in the same Maramure population, where the sexual dimorphism favourized the masculine series (10.67% comparatively with 5.46%) while, in this case, it is slightly in favour of the feminine series (5.92% versus 3.51% in masculine ones). The classical type I sulcus, for which the author possesses comparative data on its frequency, in still other Romanian and Europoid reference groups, as well (Table 4), provides - if considering the total number of investigated persons - a double ratio, comparatively with the total number of hands under investigation (of 4.26% and, respectively, 2.13%) - which actually represents one of the highest values versus other Romanian and Europoid populations studied. Such a rare formation is to be met in double ratio in men (5.70% versus 2.86% in women) - known as carriers of most atavic characters [7, 8]. As realization of sulcus on one of the hands is not independent on its configuration on the other one [4, 5] the author calculated, too, the frequency of the carriers of various sulcus forms, alongwith the manner in which they associate on the two hands, differentiated for men and for women (Bimanuar 1 and 2). Therefore, one may observe from Bimanuar 1 that, out of the 684 investigated men, 227 are carriers of at least one or another sulcus form (227/684 = 33.18%), 131 of whom have at least one type I and II (131/684 = 19.15%), 57 - at least one special sulcus form (57/684 = 8.33%), and 39 - least one atypical form III (39/684 = 5.70%). On the whole, the frequency of those carrying at least one transverse (I and II) or transversal sulcus is, on the average, of 27.48% (188/684), being more than 5 times higher than the value recorded in other European masculine reference groups [1, 5, 7]. Another observation to be made is that most of the men carrying sulcus or other similar formations have them disposed on a single hand (15 cases for type I, 73 for type II, 50 for SF and 34 for form III), the remaining 55 cases showing them on both palms, in various combinations, most frequent being the one with the same sulcus type (I with I = 9 cases, II with II= 14 cases, etc). In the cases of women (Bimanuar 2), out of the 700 persons under investigation, 183 evidenced one or another sulcus form (183/700 = 26.14%), 97 of them - at least one I and II forms (97/700 = 13.85%), 58 - at least one transversal or special form (58/700 = 8.28%), and 28 - type III (28/700 = 4.0%), the total weight of the carriers of I and II forms and of special forms being - in this situation - of 22.13% (155/700), comparatively with 27.48%, the value recorded with men, this being about of 10 times higher than the value recorded in other European feminine groups [5, 7]. 378

New contributions to the study of the transverse palmary sulcus () _________________________________________________________________________________________

Another observation to be made from the two bimanuaries is that the sexual differences regarding the frequency of sulcus carriers are mainly registered with types I and II, which favours the masculine series with +5.30%. As in the case of men, the most frequent arrangement of the different sulcus forms in women is the unilateral one (10 cases for type I; 49 for II; 50 for the special forms and 28 for the atypical form III), in the remaining 49 women, the disposition occurring on both hands, associated in various combinations, of which the most frequent is, once more, that with the same type of sulcus (I with I = 4 cases; II with II=16 cases, SF with SF = 8 cases, and only 2 cases of III with III). For types I and II, most frequently met in our sample, and whose clinical implications are well-known [8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15], the analysis followed, too, the ratios of carriers to whom they are present either exclusively on the left hand or exclusively on the right one, or on both hands, simultaneously, an aspect suggesting, too, the carriers degree of affection, once known the pathological significance of their presence even if on only one hand. Indeed, as expected, the prioritary disposition with carriers of both sexes is the one exclusively on the left hand, on specifying that, for type I, a higher frequency is recorded with women (68.75% versus 46.66% in men) while for type II, it is, on the contrary, with men (61.61% versus 50.60% in women). The second position of sulcus I - as to its frequency - is occupied by the bilateral disposition (30% in men and 25% in women), while that of sulcus II - the exclusive disposition on the right palm, which is slightly more frequent in women (31.32% versus 23.30% in men). Taken together, the two forms of sulcus (I and II) combine for their exclusive arrangement on the carriersleft hand, an average ratio of 56.03% (57.89% with men and 53.53% its women) followed, in descending order of value, by their presence exclusively on the right hand (27.27% with women and 23.31% with men), the last position being occupied by the cases in which the two classical sulcus forms occur on carriersboth palms (about 19% for both sexes). Conclusions The dermatoglyphic study of the predominantly Catholic Moldavian populations, considered as to the incidence of the transverse palmary sulcus and of its similar crease formations, has demonstrated the relation existing between the aspect under consideration and the endogamous character of the origin places of such colectivities. Indeed, an unexpectedly high frequency is to be recorded - comparatively with normality - for the classical sulcus (I and II), the average value of which - of 10.02% is not only close to but even exceeds the one recorded in collectivities of individuals (from the same Moldavian areas) affected by severe congenital and hereditary diseases, already present in the spectrum of the pathological picture of such populations. Also, for the classical form of sulcus (type I), the clinical implications of which are among the most important, our series register one of the highest frequencies (4.26%), comparatively with other Romanian and Europoid populations. 379

Ana arc _________________________________________________________________________________________

In close correlation with the above observations, one should also notice a very high number of carriers of at least one transverse or transversal sulcus form, of 24.80% (27.48% in men and 22.13% in women), which is - in the present case - over 6 times higher than the value recorded for other European groups in which it does not exceed on the average - 5% in men and 2.5% in women. However, as to the frequency of sulcus forms I and II (the most frequently considered in the investigations of the field), as a function of sex and laterality, the populations under study may be ranged within the general European behaviour, which assumes their higher incidence in men (11.55% versus 8.50% in women), and on the left palms (12.02% versus 7.37% on the right palms). This general peculiarity has been confirmed, too, by the analysis of the frequency of sulcus I and II carriers, which evidenced that a higher weight of theirs is recorded in men (19.15% versus 13.85% in women), and the preferential distribution for both sexes is exclusively on the left palms (57.89% in men and 53.53% in women).

380

Table I Percent distribution, according to hand and sex, of the transverse palmary sulcus and of its variants (classification of Weninger and Navratil) Sex Men Women Total IIa + IIb I + II Nr of hands Ia + I b investigated L R L+ L R L+ L R L+ L R L+ R R R R 684 684 1368 3.36 2.34 2.85 11.55 5.85 8.70 14.91 8.19 11.55 700 700 1400 2.28 0.71 1.43 8.14 5.85 7.00 10.42 6.56 8.49 1384 1384 2768 2.82 1.52 2.13 9.82 5.85 7.84 12.02 7.37 10.02 SF1+ SF2+ SF3+ SF4(special forms) L R L+R 6.87 2.92 7.28 3.14 7.07 3.03 III L R L+R 3.51 5.92 4.73

4.90 3.95 3.07 5.21 6.43 5.42 5.05 5.20 4.26

Table II Frequency of forms I and II of palmary transverse sulcus viewed comparatively with the one present in various congenital and hereditary maladies in Moldavia Sex Population investigated MH DM PMC OA CVA Down Syndrome Epilepsy Infantile autism Men 11.55 8.00 7.90 12.00 4.50 2.50 46.90 5.90 11.90 Women 8.49 9.20 3.00 17.10 4.00 8.20 23.80 2.90 6.50 Total 10.02 8.60 5.45 14.55 4.25 5.35 35.35 4.40 9.20 MH = mentally handicapped; DM = deaf-mutes; PMC = parents with malformed children; OA = ocular affections (blind ones included); CVA = cardio-vascular affections (heart congenital malformations included) 381

Table III Percent distribution of the special forms of sulcus (transversal sulcus) as a function of sex Sex Men (684) Women (700) Total (1384) Nr of hands investigated 1368 1400 2768 Special sulcus forms (,,transversal sulcus) SF1 SF2 SF3 SF4 9 = 0.65 53 = 3.87 2 = 0.14 3 = 0.22 13 = 0.93 45 = 3.21 8 = 0.57 7 = 0.50 22 = 0.79 98 = 3.54 10 = 0.36 10 = 0.36 Total special forms 67 = 4.90 73 = 5.21 140 = 5.05

Table IV. Frequency of the type I transverse palmary sulcus comparatively with other European populations Ethnic group French (of various ages) Authors Monique Th de Lestrange (1966) Sex Men Women M+W Sample 696 952 1648 N 22 22 44 Frequency % 4.02 1.47 2.55 Safety interval-limits min. max. 2.67 5.82 0.80 2.48 1.84 3.44

382

Ethnic group Austrian (children)

Authors Margaret Weninger and L. Navratil (1957) Jordan J. Pons (cited by H. Wilder Authors (cited by H. Wilder 1955) M. Weninger (1953) Marta Dumitrescu Ciovrnache (1964) C. Vulpe and A. Rudescu (1968)

Sex Men Women M+W Men Women Sex M+W Men Women M+W Men Women M+W Men Women M+W

Sample 316 270 586 390 105 Sample 495 521 557 1078 2535 2659 5194 393 395 788 383 N 13 5 18 15 2

Frequency % 4.11 1.85 3.05 3.85 1.90 Frequency N % 17 3.43 28 15 43 91 53 144 12 9 21 5.37 2.69 3.99 3.59 1.99 2.77 3.05 2.28 2.66

Spanish Ethnic group

Safety interval-limits min. max. 1.89 6.33 0.21 3.49 1.63 4.47 2.13 6.38 0.23 6.88 Safety interval-limits min. max. 1.98 5.52 3.57 1.49 2.89 2.89 1.49 2.33 1.58 1.04 1.65 7.77 4.47 5.36 4.41 2.61 3.27 5.34 4.32 4.07

Romanian (all ages) Romanian (all ages) Romanian (children from the Supper. Basin of Teleajen)

Ethnic group Romanian (all ages from Valley Mara Romanian (all ages the Central Moldavian Plateau)

Authors Ana arc (1973) Ana arc (2003)

Sex Men Women M+W Men Women M+W

Sample 483 512 995 684 700 1384 N 16 9 25 39 20 59

Frequency % 3.31 1.76 2.51 5.70 2.86 4.26

Safety interval-limits min. max. 1.67 5.05 0.60 2.92 1.53 3.49 3.50 6.60 1.50 4.50 2.65 5.60

Bimanuar 1 - scheme on the percent distribution of the association ways of the different sulcus forms on the two hands, with the masculine series One hand O SF III II I Another hand I II III SF

15 79 34 50

1 3 2 7

1 7 3

8 14

384

Bimanuar 2 - scheme on the percent distribution of the association ways of the different sulcus forms on the two hands, with the feminine series One hand Another hand I II III SF O 10 49 25 50 517 1 6 1 8 7 2 4 16 4 O SF III II I

385

Fig. 1. Differents forms of sulcus (Weninger and Navratil)

N (Normal).

Ia.

Ib.

IIa.

IIb.

386

III.

SF1.

SF2.

SF3.

SF4.

387

New contributions to the study of the transverse palmary sulcus ()

References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Chamla Marie-Claude, Sahli A., 1973 - LAnthropologie. Dumitrescu-Ciovrnache, Marta, 1967 - Izd. Nauka. Kherumian, R., 1955 - Anthropologie differentielle (Geneve). Lestrange, Monique, 1969 - Cahier au CRA. Lestrange, Monique, 1967 - Bull. et Mm. Soc. dAnthrop., Paris. Plato, Ch., 1970 - Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. Pradat J., 1985 - Bull. et Mm. Soc. dAnthrop., Paris. Schauman Blanka, Opitz J.M., 1991 - Allan R. Liss. Inc. New York. arc Ana, 1973 - St. cerc. antropol., Bucureti. arc Ana, 1997 - Ann. Roum. Anthropol., Bucureti. arc Ana, 2000 - Jurnal de Medicin Preventiv, Iai. arc Ana, 2001 - Journal of Preventive Medicine, Iai. arc Ana, 2001- Anthropo., Bruxelles. arc Ana, 2002 - Journal of Preventive Medicine, Iai. arc Ana, Barabolski C., 2003 - Journal of Preventive Medicine, Iai. Vulpe C., Rudescu A., 1968 - St. cerc. antropol., Bucureti. Weninger Margareta, Navratil L., 1957 - Mitteilungen d. Anthrop. Gesellsch., Wien.

388

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 _________________________________________________________________________________________

PROSPECTIVE MONITORING OF FISH COMMUNITIES FROM BUZU RIVERS BASIN


BY

DOREL URECHE1, KLAUS WERNER BATTES1, FERDINAND PRICOPE1 AND IONU STOICA1

Key words: prospective monitoring, fish communities, stock, biodiversity, index of biological integrity Prospective monitoring of fish communities from Buzu Rivers basin aimed at assessment of ichthyocoenoses specific structure by use of certain qualitative and quantitative methods, viewing a comparison with prior situation and assessment of ichthyocoenoses affectation degree consequent to anthropogenic activities. 21 fish species were identified in 17 sampling sites compared to prior 24 species. Ichthyocoenoses affectation degree is low, their self-support capacity being nearly intact.

Introduction River Buzu, a right side tributary of River Siret, springs from northern Ciuca Mountains at 1250 m altitude. River surface is 5264 km2 while length 302 km. Main tributaries of Buzu River: Bsca, Blneasa, Srel, Slnic, and Clnu are left side tributaries while Bsca Chiojdului, Nicov, and Buzoel are right side tributaries. Blneasa, Srel and Slnic bring high quantities of sodium chloride in Buzu Rivers water. Ichthyocoenoses prospective monitoring in Buzu Rivers basin aimed at assessment of ichthyocoenoses specific structure by means of qualitative (species structure assessment) and quantitative (estimation of numeric and gravimetric stock, calculation of IBI and other ecological indices) methods. Material and methods Number of sampling sites was fixed to cover all fish characteristic communities as well as changes in species spatial distribution (spreading areas). Number of sampling sites must be statistically assured for results correctness. Species identification was realised based on morphological characters of species collected, using identification keys for each systematic unit as well as species description (characterisation) from literature (Bnrescu P., 1964).
_______________________________ 1 University of Bacu

Dorel Ureche and all.

Gravimetric and numeric stock assessment gives correct and comparable information upon population numbers and biomass at sampling sites for each species and for entire ichthyocoenosis. Those indices also have a high value because give information of maximum importance in case of ecological restoration. Gravimetric (g/100 m2 or kg/ha) and numeric (no. ind./100 m2 or no. ind./ha) stock assessment in running waters is relatively simple because of the easy assessment of total surface surveyed by electric fishing. Quantity or numbers of individuals collected is expressed per conventional surface units (100 m2, 1 ha, 100 linear m, etc.). Ecological indices and fish communities structure: In order to establish fish communities structure and composition at sampling sites, analytical indices (absolute abundance, constancy, dominance) and synthetic (index of ecological significance) were calculated. Special attention was granted to index of ecological significance (W) that gives information upon each species status within community. Fish zones (and subzones) specific to respective basin may be established according to characteristic species (Simionescu V., 1984; Varvara M. et al., 2001). Biodiversity index calculation assessed ichthyocoenoses biodiversity at sampling sites, its value being an important indicator of ecosystem state under anthropogenic impact. Diversity was calculated according to Shannon - Wiener index (Botnariuc N., Vdineanu A., 1982). Index of biological integrity (IBI) calculation gave information upon ichthyocoenoses affectation degree due to anthropogenic impact; the 15 parameters investigated emphasized ecosystem structural and functional changes. Fish populations biological integrity was calculated by means of index of biological integrity (IBI). The index was introduced by Karr J.R. and Dudley D.R. (1981) and Miller A. (1985) to study fish populations from north-American rivers and was largely used after 1990 in U.S.A., France, England, etc. The index uses fish as indicators of aquatic ecosystem state and quality. Results and discussions Fish sampling by electric fishing was run in Buzu Rivers basin at 17 sampling sites located on main course of the river and main tributaries. 21 de species with 1929 specimens were identified. Bnrescu P. (1964) quoted for Buzu Rivers basin 24 fish native species in the river while 3 native species in swamps. Present survey identified 20 native species while 1 acclimatized species - stone moroko (Pseudorasbora parva) in the river. Some of the native species Bnrescu P. quoted for the basin were not sampled: roach, baltic vimba, common carp, northern pike, spined loach. On the other hand, ide (Leuciscus idus) autochthonous species previously unquoted was identified (Table 1). Zander and European perch are present in mid and lower course of River Siret from where the species swim in River Buzu. Compared to Putna Rivers basin, River Buzu is larger in surface but similar in ichthyocoenoses specific structure, both basins with relative clean water without major sources of anthropogenic pollution (Ureche D. et al., 2002). 230

Prospective monitoring of fish communities from Buzu Rivers basin

Figure 1 shows fish species distribution in sampling sites from Buzu Rivers basin. Species distribution was characteristic to existent habitats while species numbers were conditioned by habitat size, and especially by anthropogenic impact recorded. Spieces numbers progressively increased with distance from springs and as habitats became more spacious (Fig. 1). Quantitative variations of absolute abundance and biomass were high and according to ecological conditions existent and also to anthropogenic impact. Specimens number per sampling site varied 0.0 (Slnic, upstream of Spoca) to 376 (Bsca Chiojdului, upstream of Gura Bscei). A total number of 1929 specimens were recorded for the 17 sampling sites. In Buzu Rivers basin numeric stock varied between 1.67 ex/100 m2 (Bsca Mic, site Znoaga) and 138.07 ex/100 m2 in sampling site downstream of Lake Siriu (Table 2). Gravimetric stock recorded the lowest value on main course of River Buzu, site Buzu (8.7 g/100 m2) while highest value on main course of River Buzu, downstream of Lake Siriu (552.7g/100 m2) (Table 3, Fig. 2). Table 1. Fish species found in Buzu Rivers basin
Bnrescu,

Ecological status 2003 1964 (river) Native species * * * * * * * * * * Acclimatized species Lake

No

Species

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Salmo trutta fario L., 1758 Thymallus thymallus L., 1758 Esox lucius L., 1758 Rutilus rutilus carpathorossicus Vladykov, 1930 Leuciscus cephalus cephalus L., 1758 Leuciscus idus idus L., 1758 Phoxinus phoxinus phoxinus L., 1758 Leucaspius delineatus delineatus Heckel, 1843 Alburnus alburnus alburnus L., 1758 Alburnoides bipunctatus bipunctatus Bloch, 1782 Vimba vimba carinata Pallas, 1811 Chondrostoma nasus nasus L., 1758 Gobio gobio obtusirostris Valenciennes, 1844

brown trout grayling northern pike roach european chub ide eurasian minnow belica bleak chub baltic vimba sneep gudgeon

* * * * * * * * * * * *

231

River

Common name

Dorel Ureche and all.

Bnrescu,

Ecological status 2003 1964 (river) Native species * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Acclimatized species Lake

No

Species

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

Gobio kessleri kessleri Dybowski, 1862 Pseudorasbora parva Schlegel, 1842 Barbus barbus barbus L., 1758 Barbus petenyi Heckel, 1847 Cyprinus carpio carpio L., 1758 Carassius carassius L., 1758 Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch, 1782 Orthrias barbatulus L., 1758 Misgurnus fossilis L., 1758 Cobitis taenia taenia L., 1758 Sabanejewia aurata vallachica Nalbant, 1957 Silurus glanis L., 1758 Pungitis platygaster platygaster Kessler, 1859 Perca fluviatilis fluviatilis L., 1758 Stizostedion lucioperca L. 1758 Cottus gobio gobio L., 1758

kessler gudgeon stone moroko barbel mediterranean barbel common carp crucian carp prussian carp stone loach weatherfish spined loach golden spined loach wels catfish southern ninespine stickleback european perch zander bullhead

* * * * * * * * *

* * *

232

River

Common name

Table 2. Fish population numerical stock (ind./100 m2) at sampling sites on the Buzu River
Buzu - Vipereti Buzu Gvneti Bsca downstream Nemertea bridge Buzu downstream Valea Lupului Bsca Chiojdului upstream Gura Bscei Slnic upstream Spoca Buzu upstream Zbrtu Bsca Mic upstream V. Oii Buzu Vama Buzului Buzu - Viani 0.33 0.04 1.13 1.16 0.86 1.67 0.33 0.83 3.4 0.3 1.3 0.2 10.7 4 27.9 6.5 1.6 0.93 10.27 5.56 3.06 6.39 1.8 0.1 3.1 1.9 1 0.14 1.57 1.86 0.3 0.6 17.8 0.6 0.2 74.7 4.67 4.57 0.5 0.17 0.13 1.33 5.56 48.61 0.4 2.86 0.35 0.15 0.04 0.07 0.75 0.25 0.5 0.04 0.12 10.34 0.75 2.04 Buzu - Buzu Bsca Mic Nua Bsca Mic Znoaga Bsca Mic Varlam Buzu downstream Siriu lake

Sampling sites Fish species (common names)


brown trout grayling european chub ide eurasian minnow belica bleak chub sneep gudgeon kessler gudgeon stone moroko barbel mediterranean barbel crucian carp stone loach golden spined loach

0.4 3.14 14 1 1.83 1.4 38 0.2 4.6 0.17 0.13 11.39 1.7 3 0.77

2.3

3.33

0.6

10

5.1

3.33

1.73

23.89

Buzu upstream Latinu bridge 2.75

Buzu upstream Siriu lake

TOTALS Fish species (common names) Sampling sites

wels catfish european perch zander bullhead

brown trout grayling european chub ide eurasian minnow

Fish species (common names) Sampling sites


0.6 34.1

Buzu Vama Buzului Buzu upstream Zbrtu

54.3 15.7 27.46 41.3 21.1 80 12.07 1.33 32 3.7 2.1 156.4 11.9 2.3 0.92 4.29 0.07 Buzu downstream Siriu lake Bsca Mic Nua Bsca Mic Znoaga Bsca Mic upstream V. Oii Bsca Mic Varlam Buzu upstream Siriu lake Buzu upstream Zbrtu 138.07 5.5

Buzu Vama Buzului 2.1 10.1 0.87 2.4 1.67 1.67 2.86 22.27

Buzu upstream Siriu lake Buzu downstream Siriu lake Bsca Mic Nua Bsca Mic Znoaga Bsca Mic upstream V. Oii 0.42 31.65 Bsca Mic Varlam 1.33 10.67

Table 3. Fish population weight stock (g/100 m2) at sampling sites on the Buzu River

234

16.12 104.46

Bsca downstream Nemertea bridge Buzu downstream Valea Lupului Bsca Chiojdului upstream Gura Bscei Buzu - Vipereti Slnic upstream Sapoca Buzu - Buzu Buzu Gvneti Buzu - Viani Buzu upstream Latinu bridge

Bsca downstream Nemertea bridge Buzu downstream Valea Lupului Bsca Chiojdului upstream Gura Bscei 10 0 10.59 11.92 3.98 6.5 0.18 1 0.25 0.25 Buzu - Vipereti Slnic upstream Spoca Buzu - Buzu Buzu Gvneti Buzu - Viani Buzu upstream Latinu bridge

Buzu Gvneti

Buzu - Vipereti

Bsca downstream Nemertea bridge Buzu downstream Valea Lupului Bsca Chiojdului upstream Gura Bscei

Slnic upstream Sapoca

Buzu upstream Zbrtu

Bsca Mic upstream V. Oii

Buzu Vama Buzului

Fish species (common names)


belica bleak chub sneep gudgeon kessler gudgeon stone moroko barbel mediterranean barbel crucian carp stone loach golden spined loach wels catfish european perch zander bullhead

1.09 0.29 7.1 23.3 97.3 13.2 18.4 27.6 6.9 1.2 37 36.02 124.2 28.2 7.1 246.7 39.3 11.1 16.4 18.06 34.9 0.7 7.9 46.4 13.6 0.6 0.28 3.86 0.42 6.3 64 15.9 0.9 164 22.7 61 3.3 1.2 0.5 4.7 18.3 100.56 1.1 1.4 0.31 5.02 0.14 0.4 0.18 0.81 0.54 19.4

Buzu - Viani 3.05

Buzu - Buzu

Bsca Mic Nua

Bsca Mic Znoaga

Bsca Mic Varlam

Buzu downstream Siriu lake

Sampling sites

74.8

73.3

24.7

249

161.7

160.8

97.3

32.5

125.8

TOTALS

6.3 9.5 478.8 346.9 125.7

552.7

9.9 38.8

16.67 22.8 16.67 333.5

4.2 289.2

15.8 108

332.9 446.62 116.5

8.7

22.4 14.24

235

Buzu upstream Latinu bridge 0.25 2.75 2.5 27.5 7 173 1 75 289

Buzu upstream Siriu lake

Prospective monitoring of fish communities from Buzu Rivers basin

By calculation of ecological indices and especially of ecological significance index (W) values, fish communities living in hydrographic basin of River Buzu were identified. Number of species in fish communities surveyed decreased from 7-9 in mountain area to 5-6 in the hilly zone and plain, and returned to 8 at river mouth due to ichthyocoenoses influence from River Siret. Formation of Lake Siriu led to a decrease of species number (downstream) to 5. Fish communities, characteristic for classical zoning, maintained more than in other rivers comparable in size, because anthropogenic influence is much reduced (low pollution and hydrotechnical fitting out only at Lake Siriu). Thus, mountain zone of River Buzu and main tributaries is brown trout zone. Remarkable is grayling presence in Bsca Mic. Mediterranean barbel zone is present on the lower course of main tributaries (Bsca, Bsca Chiojdului), favoured by Lake Siriu formation (downstream on River Buzu till the confluence with Bsca). Sneep zone extended on River Buzu (upstream of Lake Siriu) till ntorsura Buzului, consequent to Lake Siriu formation; downstream, zone is interrupted by the lake and reappears downstream of Nehoiu till upstream of Vipereti, with a gravimetric dominance. Barbel zone is characteristic for hilly zone and stretches downstream of Vipereti till downstream of locality Buzu having a gravimetric dominance. Gudgeon zone, upstream of locality Sgeata till the river mouth, covers the plain area. Leading species is gudgeon. Remarkable is the relative weak development of european chub which, different to other rivers comparable to Buzu, did not succeed in impose itself as leading species though frequently appears in sneep and barbel zone (Fig. 3). Index of biodiversity and index of biological integrity (IBI) showed the presence of certain relatively stable ichthyocoenoses with numerous native species. Affectation degree did not exceed class IV in zones affected by hydrotechnical fitting out or with increased impact of pollution, excepting sampling site 4 (downstream of Lake Siriu) where integrity class was V (Fig. 4). Conclusions Our research identified 21 species (1929 specimens), collected by electric fishing from 17 sites located on the main course of River Buzu and its main tributaries. Species distribution was characteristic for existent habitats, species number being according to habitat size and anthropogenic impact recorded. It gradually increased with distance from spring and as habitats became more spacious. Numerical stock varied from 1.67 ind./100 m2 to 138.07 ind./100 m2 while the gravimetric one from 8.7 g/100 m2 to 552.7g/100 m2. Species number in fish communities decreased from 7-9 in the mountain area to 5-6 in the hilly and plain areas and returned to 8 at river mouth due to influence of Siret 236

Dorel Ureche and all.

River ichthyocoenoses. Species number decreased to 5 downstream of Lake Siriu due to lake existence. Commmunities were characteristic for classic fish zoning. Thus, 5 zones occurred: brown trout zone, Mediterranean barbel zone, sneep zone, barbel zone and gudgeon zone. Biodiversity and biological integrity indices (IBI) showed the presence of certain relatively stable ichthyocoenoses with numerous native species, affectation degree being according to class IV. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Bnrescu P., 1964 Fauna R.P.R., Pisces-Osteichthyes, XIII, Ed. Acad., Bucureti, 959 p Botnariuc N., Vdineanu A., 1982 Ecologie, Ed. Did. i Ped., Bucureti, 438 p Froese R., Pauly D. (Eds.), 2003 FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org, version 11/2002 Karr J.R., 1981 Fisheries, 6 (6): 21-27 Karr J.R., Dudley D.R., 1981 Environ. Managem., 5: 55-68 Miller A., 1985 Environmental Management, 9: 179-190 Simionescu V., 1984 Lucrri practice de ecologie, Litogr. Univ. Al. I. Cuza, Iai, 193 p Ureche D., Pricope F., Battes K., 2002 Prospective monitoring of the Putna basin ichthyofauna, An. t. INCD Delta Dunrii, Tulcea 2002, 205223 Varvara M., Zamfirescu t., Neacu P., 2001 Lucrri practice de ecologie. Manual, Ed. Univ. Al. I. Cuza Iai, 152 p

237

Prospective monitoring of fish communities from Buzu Rivers basin

238

Dorel Ureche and all.

239

Prospective monitoring of fish communities from Buzu Rivers basin

240

Dorel Ureche and all.

241

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 ________________________________________________________________________________________

DIVERSITY OF FISH FAUNA IN THE CATCHMENT AREA OF THE PRUT RIVER IN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
BY

MARIN USATI1

Key words: fish fauna; Prut River; fish ecology; Shannons index; fish diversity. The paper presents the current state of the fish fauna diversity in the catchment area of the Prut River. Researches are focused on the lower Prut and the areas of confluence of small rivers with it demonstrated the occurrence of 37 fish species and subspecies. Three fish species (orfe, chop, little chop) are protected by the law and are listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Moldova. Comparative analysis of fish species diversity in the water bodies using Shannons index demonstrated a large diversity in the middle and lower Prut. The ichthyologic studies conducted in the Prut River catchment area resulted in the identification of 44 fish species and subspecies belonging to 10 families.

Introduction Currently the Republic of Moldova seeks integration in different European structures in the context of some conventions and agreements on aquatic resources, including with Romania, in relation to the border stretches along the rivers of Prut and Danube, at the level of intergovernmental agreements. An agreement between the governments of the former USSR and the Socialist Republic of Romania (Bucharest, 16 December 1971) resulted in building the Costeti-Stnca water management scheme. At present, this structure secures water supply of the local business actors, safeguards around 100,000 ha of agricultural areas and many built-up areas on both banks of the Prut against floods. However, the operation of the aforementioned scheme and other water management constructions on the river tributaries, water uptake for irrigation and urban needs, pollution with wastewaters, alteration of hydrological regime as a result of power station activity, as well as other human activities brought about negative changes in the fish fauna composition, ongoing replacement of valuable species with the species of slow growth rate and those of low economic value, modification of the reproduction conditions for the indigenous fish species. The ichthyologic research being carried out up to present was quite irregular due to the restrictions related to the transboundary status of the Prut River (, 1962, 1976; Bnrescu, 1964; , , , 1985). This created a compelling need
_______________________________________ 1 Institute of Zoology, Moldovan Academy of Sciences

Marin Usati _________________________________________________________________________________________

for the intensification of monitoring activities in relation to the fish fauna of the Prut River, including the Costeti-Stnca Reservoir, the floodplain lakes of Manta and Beleu; the survey of the taxonomic structure of their fish fauna in the changed ecological conditions. Material and methods The ichthyologic research was conducted during the period of 1996-2002. The ichthyologic materials were collected and processed using conventional standard methods (, 1966). Species diversity of the fish fauna of the Prut, its tributaries, the Costeti-Stnca Reservoir was calculated for 23 ecosystems. Species determination of the fish individuals caught was performed according to (1948-1949), Bnrescu (1964), (1976). Results and discussions The research performed on the middle Prut (the Criva-Corpaci stretch) resulted in finding 24 fish species and subspecies falling into 6 families, of which the most diverse were Cyprinidae 15 species, followed by Percidae 4 species, Cobitidae 2 species, Esocidae, Siluridae and Gobiidae each being represented by a species. In terms of species ecology, the fish fauna of the stretch is attributed to the potamophilouslimnophilous assemblage. Economic interest present nine species (northern pike, carp, asp, bream, zander, European catfish, silver carp, spotted silver carp, zanthe), or 37.5% of the species richness, but their relative amount is below 12.5%. Low economic value have 7 species (roach, golden carp, chub, undermouth, white-eye, white bream, perch), or 29.2%. A species (chop) 4.2% belongs to rare species, is protected by the law and listed in the Red Book of the R. of Moldova. The rest of species 29.1% are of no economic value. Such species as burbot and Danube salmon were not identified at the stretch being studied, though, according to the literature on the topic, their occurrence is possible here (, 1976). The survey on the Costeti-Stnca Reservoir demonstrated that it is populated by 26 fish species and subspecies belonging to 6 families, of which the Cyprinidae family is the most diverse (17 species and subspecies). Three species represent Percidae, 1 species Cobitidae, 3 species Gobiidae, 1 species Esocidae and 1 sp. Siluridae.

206

Diversity of fish fauna in the catchment area ()

29,1%

4,2%

29,2% 37,5%

valuable no economic value

low economic value listed in Red Book

Fig. 1. Group distribution of fish species in the middle Prut. Ten (38.8%) fish species and subspecies are of economic interest (northern pike, asp, Danube bream, zanthe, carp, silver carp, spotted silver carp, European catfish, grass carp, zander), 8 (30.8%) species are of low economic value (roach, rudd, chub, undermouth, white-eye, white bream, golden carp, perch), and 8 (30.8%) species are of no economic value (gudgeon, bleak, Amur bitterling, ruff, tube-nosed goby, monkey goby, big-headed goby and spiny loach). The most frequent species are bream, golden carp, and white-eye. Asp, zander, carp, zanthe and European catfish have lower occurrence. Silver carp and spotted silver carp are found in catches quite sporadically. The species predominant among the fish of low economic value are roach, perch, whiteeye, and among the fish of no economic interest - bleak, gudgeon, Amur bitterling, ruff and tube-nosed goby. The scientific research conducted in the main stream of the middle Prut (the Costeti-Leueni stretch) and its major tributaries (the rivers of Camenca, Glodeanca, ov, Delia, Varava, Obrej, Clmui) unaffected by water management schemes demonstrated the occurrence of 30 fish species and subspecies which, systematically, fall into 6 families: Cyprinidae (20 species), Percidae (5 species), Gobiidae (2 species) and Esocidae, Cobitidae and Siluridae each represented by 1 species. Among the fish individuals caught in the aforementioned stretch, 9, or 30% are of economic interest (asp, zanthe, carp, silver carp, catfish, bream, northern pike, zander, barbel), but their relative amount is rarely in excess of 19.1%. Also 9 species, or 30.0% are of low economic value (rudd, chub, saberfish, undermouth, white-eye, white bream, golden carp, perch, roach), with a higher proportion 28.8%. Two species (chop and little chop), or 6.7% are protected by the law and are listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Moldova. Of no economic value are10 species, or 33.3% of the total number of fish species found at this stretch (bleak, Amur bitterling, ruff, spiny loach, whitefinned gudgeon, Dnestr long-whiskered gudgeon, tube-nosed goby, verkhovka, stone moroko, monkey goby), and their relative amount is 50.9%. 207

Marin Usati _________________________________________________________________________________________

33,3%

6,7%

30,0% 30,0%

valuable no economic value

low economic value listed in Red Book

Fig. 2. Group distribution of fish species in the middle Prut (the Costeti-Leueni stretch). The results of the research being mainly focused on the areas of confluence of small rivers with the lower Prut demonstrated the occurrence of 37 fish species and subspecies which belong to 10 families: Acipenseridae (1), Clupeidae (1), Esocidae (1), Cyprinidae (22), Siluridae (1),, Percidae (5), Gobiidae (2), Gasterosteidae (1),, Cobitidae (2), and Centrarchidae (1). Out of the fish species found in the lower Prut, 10, or 27.0% are of economic interest (sterlet, pike, asp, bream, zanthe, silver carp, carp, European catfish, zander, barbel), but their relative amount is normally below 21.6%. Nine species, or 24.3% are of low economic value (roach, chub, undermouth, white-eye, golden carp, saberfish, rudd, perch, Caspian shad) with a quantitative proportion of 34.2%. Three species (orfe, chop, little chop), or 8.1% are protected by the law and are listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Moldova. Of no economic value are 15 species found at this stretch (verkhovka, white bream, bleak, Amur bitterling, Dnestr long-whiskered gudgeon, white-finned gudgeon, dace, stone moroko, ruff, nine-spined sticleback, tube-nosed goby, spiny loach, monkey goby, loach, common sunfish), and their relative amount comprises 43.1%. Fish survey on the lakes of Beleu and Manta demonstrated the occurrence of respectively, 27 and 23 fish species and subspecies. The fish fauna of lake Beleu is dominated by golden carp (23.5%) and bleak (17.6%), followed by perch (10.7%) and Amur bitterling (5.2%). Among the species of economic value the most frequent are zander (4.2%) and carp (3.8%). In lakes Manta the dominants are the populations of golden carp (28.6%) and perch (21.5%) followed by bleak (12.2%) and roach (7.4%). Among the species of economic value, only zander (3.6%), carp (2.3%) and asp (1.6%) were found. In the springtime, during the reproduction period, the species composition and the frequencies of occurrence of some fish species changes. 208

Diversity of fish fauna in the catchment area ()

8,1% 40,6%

27,0% 24,3%

valuable no economic value

low economic value listed in Red Book

Fig. 3. Group distribution of fish species in the lower Prut, according to their economic value. The taxonomic composition of fish fauna in small rivers is determined by the type of studied ecosystem. These rivers have highly variable water discharge and therefore are very vulnerable to the natural and human-induced factors, which influence them. In these conditions, the most of fish species do not resist the pressure of the mentioned factors. As a result, they occur in an ecosystem for a short term, when conditions are favorable to them. Such a taxonomic structure is characterized by high flexibility of species occurrence can be considered a feature of small rivers in the southern Moldova. Comparative analysis of species diversity in the water bodies using Shannons index demonstrated the following: the largest diversity was found in the middle and lower Prut (Ish=1,33..1,34), and the lowest in the Obrej, a tributary of the Prut (Ish=0,61). This implies that the ecological conditions are most balanced in the main stream of the Prut River, which allows a bigger number of fish species to coexist and to develop normally as compared to the tributaries studied. Thus, the ichthyologic research in the Prut catchment area uncovered the current state of its fish fauna which comprises 44 fish species and subspecies attributed to 10 families (tab. 1).

209

Marin Usati _________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 1. The list of fish species of the Prut catchment area Nr 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Fish species I. fam. Acipenseridae Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus (L) II. fam. Clupeidae Caspian shad Alosa caspia nordmanni (Ant.) III. fam. Esocidae Northern pike - Esox lucius (L) IV. fam. Cyprinidae Roach Rutilus rutilus (L) Heckels roach Rutilus rutilus heckeli (Nord) Dace Leuciscus leuciscus (L) Chub Leuciscus cephalus (L) Orfe Leuciscus idus (L) Rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus (L) Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Vall.) Asp - Aspius aspius (L) Verkhovka Leucaspius delineatus (Heck) Undermouth Chondrostoma nasus (L) Gudgeon Gobio gobio (L) Dnestr long-whiskered gudgeon Gobio kessleri (Dybow) White-finned gudgeon Gobio albipinatus belingi (Fang) Brabel Barbus barbus (L.) Bleak Alburnus alburnus (L) White bream - Blicca bjoerkna (L) Bream Abramis brama danubii (L) White-eye Abramis sapa (Pallas) Zanthe Vimba vimba vimba (Lin) Stone moroko Pseudorasbora parva Amur bitterling Rhodeus sericeus amarus (Bloch) Saberfish Pelecus culturatus (L) Crucian carp Carassius carassius (L) Golden carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch) Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Vall.) Spotted silver carp Aristichthys nobilis (Rich.) Carp Cyprinus carpio (L) 210 Species diversity R F F N N F F R N R F N F F F F F N N F F R N N F R F R R R

Diversity of fish fauna in the catchment area ()

Nr 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.

Fish species V. fam. Cobitididae Spiny loach - Cobitis taenia (L) Loach - Misgurnus fossilis (L) Groundling - Noemachilus barbatulus (L) VI. fam. Siluridae European catfish - Silurus glanis (L) VII. fam. Gasterosteidae nine-spined stickleback Pungitius platigaster (L) VIII. fam. Percidae Zander Stizostedion lucioperca (L.) Perch Perca fluviatilis (L) Chop - Zingel zingel (L) Little chop - Zingel streberl (Sieb) Ruff Gymnocephalus cernuus (L) IX. fam. Centrarchidae Common sunfish Lepomis gibbosus (L) X. fam. Gobiidae Tube-nosed goby Proterorhinus marmoratus (Pall) Big-headed goby Neogobius kessleri (Guen) Monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis (Pall)

Species diversity N F R R N F M R U N F N F F

Abbreviations: F a species frequently occurring in catches; M a species commonly occurring in catches; N species numerous in catches; R species rarely occurring in catches Conclusions 1. The total number of 24 fish species and subspecies was found in the fauna of the middle Prut (the Criva-Corpaci stretch) and its tributaries. In terms of ecology, the fish fauna of the aforementioned stretch is attributed to the potamophilous-limnophilous assemblage. 2. The occurrence of 26 fish species and subspecies falling into 6 families was uncovered in the Costeti-Stnca Reservoir. In terms of their ecology, the fish fauna of the reservoir has limnophilous-potamophilous features. Ten fish species and subspecies are of high economic value. 3. In the main stream of the Prut River downstream the Costeti-Stnca Reservoir and its main tributaries, 30 fish species and subspecies belonging to 6 families were found. In terms of their ecology, the fish fauna of the aforementioned stretch is attributed to the potamophilous-limnophilous assemblage. Of economic interest 9, or 211

Marin Usati _________________________________________________________________________________________

30% of fish species and subspecies. In the aforementioned stretch the highest frequency have the fish species of no economic value, such as bleak (13.6%), gudgeons (11.7%), and gobies (15.8%). 4. The results of the research focused on the lower Prut and the areas of confluence of small rivers with it demonstrated the occurrence of 37 fish species and subspecies (27%), and their relative amount is rarely in excess of 21.6%. Three fish species (orfe, chop, little chop), or 8.1% are protected by the law and are listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Moldova. 5. Fish survey on the lakes of Beleu and Manta demonstrated the occurrence of respectively, 27 and 23 fish species and subspecies. The fish fauna of lake Beleu is dominated by golden carp (23.5%) and bleak (17.6%), followed by perch (10.7%) and Amur bitterling (5.2%). Among the species of economic value, zander (3.6%), carp (2.3%) and asp (1.6%) were found to dominate. 6. Comparative analysis of fish species diversity in the water bodies using Shannons index demonstrated the following: the largest diversity was found in the middle and lower Prut, and the lowest in the Obrej, a tributary of the Prut. This implies that the ecological conditions are most balanced in the main stream thus allowing a bigger number of fish species to coexist and to develop normally as compared to the tributaries studied. 7. The ichthyologic studies conducted in the Prut River catchment area resulted in the identification of 44 fish species and subspecies belonging to 10 families. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Antipa, Gr., 1909 - Fauna ihtiologic a Romniei. Bucureti, 289 p. Antonescu, C.S., 1957 - Petii din apele R.P.Romne, Buc., Edit. Agro-Silv. de Stat. Bacalbaa-Dobrovici, Nicolae, 1999 - Valorificarea piscicol a lacurilor de baraj semicurgtoare de pe Dunre. Lacurile de acumulare din Romnia, vol. II. Ediia Univesit. A.I.Cuza Iai, p. 97-102. Bnrescu, P.M.,1964 - Fauna R.P.Romne: Pisces Osteichthyes. Ed.Acad. R.P.R. , ., 2002 - , . .,167 . , .., 1948, 1949 - . 1-3. . 4. .- . .-.,1381 , .., 1993 - . :., 322 . , ., 1997 - 94 . .., 1965 - . .: , 382 . 212

Diversity of fish fauna in the catchment area ()

10. 11. 12.

13. 14.

, ..., 1962 - . . // . : ., . 2, . 1. ..., 1976 - . . : , 85 . , ..., , .., , ..., 1985 - - . . // . , . 101-110. , .., 1966 - . ., 376 . , ., 1989 - . . .: , 224 .

213

Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al.I.Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal, Tom L, 2004 _______________________________________________________________________________________

THE KNOWLEDGE OF CARABIDS (COLEOPTERA, CARABIDAE) FROM THREE SITES OF THE FUNDTURA FOREST, RCHITOASA, BACU COUNTY
BY

MIRCEA VARVARA1 AND ALICE PILAT2

Key words: Ecosystem, vegetal associations, epigeic invertebrates, carabids, taxonomic structure, ecological parametres, Shannon index , Sorrenson coefficient , ecological preferencese The paper presents data on taxonomic structure of epigeic arthropods and especially carabids, from the Fundtura forest, Rchitoasa. The material was collected from three vegetal associations, Carpino-Fgetum, Querco - petreae-Carpinetum and a clearing inside the Carpino-Fgetum vegetal association, using 12 pitfalls in each site. There were found 15 families of Coleoptera, 14 subfamilies of Carabidae , 48 species of Carabidae. There are dominant the subfamilies Carabinae and Pterostichinae, 15 species of Carabidae are dominant and eudominant, their number is variable depending on ecological conditions of sites.The Shannon index ranged from 3.50 to 4.23, and echitability from 75 to 83 %.The paper also contains tables referring to the main ecological requirements of carabids.

Introduction The Fundtura Forest belongs to Rchitoasa Comune, Bacu County. This forest is a continuation from south to north of the Sohodol forest.The area of the Bacu County is 6603 square kilometres (2.8 % of Romania,s area). The Bacu County is located in the Eastern of Romania. The eastern region of the county belongs to the Moldavian Plateau, a plateau that represents 11 % of the county area.The Tutova Hills are a sub-unit of the Moldavian Plateau. The altitude of the Tutova hills decreases from north towards south, from 550 m to 259 m. The climate in the eastern part of the county is temperate continental, a climate of plateau and hills.The annual average temperature is 9.0 Celsius degrees.Annual precipitations 550.0 litres per square metre. Because of the altitude and climate, the wooden vegetation belongs to mixed forests. Depending on the altitude and exposure associations are formed such as Carpino-Fagetae, Querco- petreae- Carpinetae etc. In general, in the Fundtura forest, the participation percentages of trees are: Fagus silvatica ( 32 %), Quercus petraea (26 %), Quercus robur ( 24 %), Carpenus betulus ( 24 %), Acer platanoides (10 %), Tilia sp. ( 8 %).
_______________________________ 1 Al.I. Cuza University of Iai 2 Bacu

Mircea Varvara and Alice Pilat _________________________________________________________________________________________

From the Querco-petreae-Carpinetum association (Sohodol and Putredeni forests) a paper was published (Varvara, Raianu, 1997) in which the authors mention the relative abundance of 15 families of Coleoptera among which particularly abundant were Carabidae (78.1 %), Staphylinidae (10.2 %), Scarabaeidae (5.3 % ). Also they presented data on 11 species of stafilinids, the most abundant and frequent species being Ocypus tenebricosus. The purpose of this paper is to bring a contribution to the knowledge of the epigeic fauna of invertebrates from three habitats and to what extent the scientific data found in this forest are similar to other data from Moldova. Material and methods To show the influence of the local conditions on the specific composition of the epigeic fauna of invertebrates, the dominance structure of the material, the similarity among sites, three sites were chosen thus characterized: First site was chosen in the Carpino - Fgetum association.Altitude 320 m, western exposure, 70-90 % soil covering , podzolitous, forest brown soil. Second site was chosen in the Querco petreae - Carpinetum association. Altitude 250 m, western exposure, 75 90 %, soil covering , forest brown soil. Third site was chosen in a clearing in the interior of the Carpino-Fgetum association. Altitude 350 m, soil covering with herbaceous plants 100 % , forest brown soil. In each site 12 pitfalls functioned. The setting of the pitfalls in habitats was made on April 29th, 1982. The pitfalls functioned till September, 30th, 1982.Each pitfall had a height of 11 centimetres and the opening of 10 centimetres. The pitfalls were set in acircle, 12 centimetres in diameter.. The distance between pitfalls was 6 metres.The pitfalls contained 3 % formol solution and were protected from precipitations by special lids at a height of 5 centimetres from the opening of the pitfall. The collecting of the material was made three times per month.From each site 15 collectings were taken. In analysing and interpretation of data , the following statistical parametres were used: relative abundance, dominance, Shannon diversity index, evenness , similitude index ( Srensen). Results and discussions Diversity of the Coleoptera in the Fundatura forest During the year 1982, in the 10 May and 30 September period, in total, 3287 individuals of Coleoptera were collected, belonging to 16 families ( Table no 1 )

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Table no 1. The families of the order Coleoptera and their relative abundance in three sites of the Fundtura forest, Rachitoasa Site I Site II Site III Total Families Ind. % Ind. % Ind. % Ind. % 1 Carabidae 1021 82.81 847 76.10 776 83.62 2644 80.76 2 Scarabaeidae 164 13.30 170 15.27 41 4.41 375 11.45 3 Staphylinidae 39 3.16 84 7.55 28 3.02 151 4.61 4 Curculionidae 1 0.08 4 0.36 16 1.72 21 0.64 5 Elateridae 20 2.16 20 0.61 6 Silphidae 3 0.24 3 0.27 12 1.29 18 0.55 7 Lampyridae 4 0.32 3 0.27 6 0.64 13 0.40 8 Coccinellidae 10 1.08 10 0.31 9 Tenebrionidae 6 0.65 6 0.18 10 Lucanidae 1 0.08 2 0.18 2 0.22 5 0.15 11 Dermestidae 4 0.43 4 0.12 12 Alleculidae 3 0.32 3 009 13 Buprestidae 2 0.22 2 0.06 14 Cantharidae 1 0.11 1 0.03 15 Byrridae 1 0.11 1 0.03 Total families 7 7 15 Total 1233 99.99 1113 100 928 100 3274 99.99 specimens % of general 37.66 34.0 28.34 total Site I = Carpino- Fgetum association; Site II = Querco-petraee- Carpinetum association; Site III = clearing inside the Carpino - Fgetum association In the Carpino-Fgetum and Querco - petraee- Carpinetum vegetal associations, seven families of Coleoptera were found in each association.Their total number of individuals represented between 34 - 37 % of the whole material collected. In the clearing site, 15 families were collected, but their total number of individuals collected was lower , 28.57 %. The well represented families in the investigated sites were: Carabidae ( 49.8 83 %), Scarabaeidae ( 4 15 %), Staphylinidae ( 3 7.5 %).The other families ( four in the Carpino-Fagetum and Querco-petreae Carpinetum associations) and thirtheen in the clearing site were represented by very few individuals. Total number percentages of individuals of the coleoptera families present local variations in the Carpino-Fgetum ( I ) and Querco petreae - Carpinetum ( II) associations. In this respect, we have compared the results obtained in two forests : Rchitoasa and Brnova ( Table no 2). 143

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Table no 2. Comparative situations of the families of Coleoptera in two vegetal associations from two deciduous forests
Rchitoasa I Brnova I Rchitoasa II Brnova II Total Ind. % Ind. % Ind. % Ind. % Ind. % 1 Carabidae 1017 82.75 800 54.50 853 76.23 571 68.14 3241 69.64 2 Histeridae 1 0.07 1 0.02 3 Silphidae 3 0.24 134 9.13 3 0.27 9 1.07 149 3.20 4 Catopidae 2 0.14 33 3.94 35 0.75 5 Staphylinidae 39 3.17 352 23.98 84 7.51 158 18.85 633 13.60 6 Lampyridae 4 0.33 3 0.27 7 0.15 7 Cantharidae 4 0.27 3 0.36 7 0.,15 8 Elateridae 9 0.61 2 0.24 11 0.24 9 Coccinellidae 4 0.27 4 0.09 10 Pyrochroidae 1 007 1 0.02 11 Lagriidae 12 143 12 026 12 Scarabaeidae 164 13.34 127 8.65 170 15.19 12 1.43 473 10.16 13 Lucanidae 1 0.08 1 0.07 2 0.18 3 0.36 7 0.15 14 Cerambycidae 2 0.14 2 0.24 4 0.09 15 Chrysomelidae 9 0.61 23 2.74 32 0.69 16 Curculionidae 1 0.08 22 1.50 4 0.36 10 1.19 37 0.80 Total families 7 14 7 12 17 Total ind. 1229 99.99 1468 100 11.19 838 4654 100 % of total 26.41 31.54 24.04 18.01

The material from the Rchitoasa forest was collected in 1982, and the material from the Brnova forest was collected in 1983, with 12 pitfalls in each forest functioning from May to September inclusive. In the Carpino-Fagetum association (Rchitoasa, 1982, Brnova , 1983) a material of epigeic coleoptera was collected with 15 % in comparison with the Querco - Carpinetum association.Taking into account that the humidity is an important and limiting abiotic factor in the ecology of epigeic coleoptera, we deduced that the favourable factor was a higher humidity in the soil of the Carpino-Fagetum association. The Coleoptera families in common in both associations and forests are: Carabidae, Silphidae, Staphylinidae, Scarabaeidae, Lucanidae, Curculionidae. Total number of individuals of these families was : 4540 ( 97.55 %). On the whole, only three families are eudominant: Carabidae, Staphylinidae and Scarabaeidae. Their total number is 4347 individuals and represents 95.75 % of the total individuals of the common families. In concordance with the ensemble of local conditions, in the same association, but in different localities, the total number of specimens belonging to a family of Coleoptera is different. For example, in the Carpino-Fgetum association (Rchitoasa, 1982) there was collected 82.75 % individuals of Carabidae and in Brnova (l983) 144

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54.50 %; In the Querco - petreae - Carpinetum association, Rchitoasa: 76.23 %; Brnova : 68.14 %. Taxonomic diversity of the Carabidae family The taxonomic diversity, the Shannon diversity index and evenness of the family of Carabidae in the Rchitoasa forest, 1982, are shown in table no 3. Table no 3. Diversity of the Carabidae family in the Fundtura forest, Rchitoasa Site I Site II Site III Total 1 Subfamilies 7 9 14 16 2 Genera 11 15 24 26 3 Species 22 27 48 53 4 Individuals 1021 847 776 2644 5 % 38.62 32.03 29.35 100 6 H 3.57 3.96 4.23 7 H.max 4.45 4.75 4.80 8 E 80 % 83 % 75 % Site I = Carpino-Fgetum vegetal association; II = Querco-petreae Carpinetum vegetal association ; III = Clearing inside the Carpino-Fgetum association. In total, of those three sites, there were collected 16 subfamilies , 26 genera and 53 species of Carabidae. In unity with the ensemble of the abiotic conditions and ecological valences of the taxa, in each site, the number of subfamilies, genera and species of Carabidae ,the values of the Shannon index increase from the Carpino-Fagetum association to the clearing site, while the number of individuals decreases . Thus, the number of subfamilies varied from 7 to 14, the number of genera between 11 and 24, the number of species between 22 and 48. the Shannon index from 3.57 to 4.23 .The total number percentage of individuals collected on sites varied between 29.35 % ( clearing site) and 38.62 % (Carpino - Fagetum association). The highest diversity (H) 4.23 was found in the clearing site, where 48 species of Carabidae were identified, but in this site only 29.35 % of the general number of individuals was collected in comparison with the Carpino - Fagetum ( 38.62 % ), and Querco - Carpinetum (32.03 %).The percentage difference between the CarpinoFgetum association and the total number of individuals collected was 9.27 %. The number distribution of species and individuals and their percentages on subfamilies of Carabidae is given in table no 4.

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Table no 4. Distribution of subfamilies of Carabidae and the number of species in those three sites from the Fundtura forest No Subfamilies Site I Site II Site III Species % Species % Species % 1 Cicindelinae 1 2.08 2 Carabinae 8 36.36 9 33.33 7 14.58 3 Cychrinae 1 4.55 1 3.70 1 2.08 4 Nebriinae 1 4.55 1 3.70 5 Notiophilinae 1 2.08 6 Clivinae 1 2.08 7 Broscinae 1 2.08 8 Bembidiinae 1 3.70 1 2.08 9 Anisodactylinae 1 2.08 10 Harpalinae 3 11.11 7 14.58 11 Pterostichinae 8 36.36 8 29.63 14 29.17 12 Zabrinae 1 4.55 2 7.41 7 14.58 13 Panageinae 1 2.08 14 Cymindinae 1 4.55 1 3.70 15 Dromiinae 2 4.17 16 Brachininae 2 9.09 1 3.70 3 6.25 Total subfamilies 7 9 14 Total species 22 27 48 I = Carpino-Fgetum; II = Querco-petreae-Carpinetum; III = Clearing inside the Carpino-Fagetum association Table no 5. Distribution of the subfamilies of Carabidae and the number of individuals in those three sites of the Fundtura forest Site I Site II Site III No Subfamilies Ind. % No.ind. % No.ind. % 1 Cicindelinae 7 0,90 2 Carabinae 304 29.77 419 49.47 204 26.29 3 Cychrinae 155 15.18 50 5.90 7 0.90 4 Nebriinae 4 0.39 1 0.12 5 Notiophilinae 1 0.13 6 Clivinae 4 0.52 7 Broscinae 1 0.13 8 Bembidiinae 3 0.35 9 1.16 9 Anisodactylinae 28 3.61 10 Harpalinae 6 0.71 47 6.06 11 Pterostichinae 410 40.16 259 30.58 391 50.39 146

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Site I Site II Site III Ind. % No.ind. % No.ind. % 12 Zabrinae 1 0.10 78 9.21 48 6.19 13 Panageinae 1 0.13 14 Cymindinae 1 0.10 2 0.24 15 Dromiinae 2 0.26 16 Brachininae 146 14.30 29 3.42 26 3.35 Total 1021 100.00 847 100.00 776 100 % of total 38.6 32.1 29.3 I = Carpino-Fgetum ; II = Querco-petreae-Carpinetum; III = Clearing inside the Carpino-Fgetum association. The occurence of those 16 subfamilies of Carabidae on the soil surface of those three sites in the Fundatura forests reflects the diversity of microbiotopes and microclimates favourable for the development of carabids. As it is known there is a link between ecological diversity and zoological diversity. The well represented and adaptated subfamilies to the forest conditions are the Carabinae and Pterostichinae subfamilies , a fact also found in the other deciduous forests of Moldavia. 24 species (45. 3 %) of those 53 species , in total, belong to these subfamilies .1987 individuals ( 75.23 % ) of those 2644 collected also belong to these subfamilies. Distribution of the species on sites and their relative abundannce are shown in table no 6. Table no 6. Distribution of the species of Carabidae and their relative abundance on sites Site I Site II Site III No Species Ind. % Ind. % Ind. % 1 Cicindela germanica L. 7 0.90 2 Calosoma inquisitor L. 6 0.70 3 Carabus coriaceus L. 107 10.48 107 12.63 37 4.77 4 C.glabratus Payk. 15 1.47 52 6.13 2 0.26 5 C.violaceus L. 1 0.09 52 6.13 75 9.66 6 C.cancellatus Ill. 25 2.45 90 10.62 18 2.32 7 C.ullrichi Germ. 15 1.47 31 3.65 8 C.intricatus L. 18 176 2 0.23 2 0.26 9 C.arvensis Hbst. 35 3.43 31 3.65 6 0.77 10 C.excellens F. 88 8.13 48 5.66 64 8.25 11 Cychrus semigranosus Pllrd. 155 15.18 50 5.90 7 0.90 12 Leistus rufomarginatus Duft. 4 0.39 1 0.11 13 Notiophilus palustris Duft. 1 0.13 147

No

Subfamilies

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No Species 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Clivina fossor L. Broscus cephalotes L. Bembidion lampros Hbst. Anisodactylus binotatus F. Metophonus punctatulus Duft. Metophonus azureus F. Pseudophonus rufipes Geer Harpalus dimidiatus Rossi H.atratus Latr. H.rubripes Duft. H.latus L. H.tardus Pz. Poecilus cupreus L. P.coerulescens Pterostichus vernalis Pz. Pt. melas ( Creutz) Pt.ovoideus Sturm. Pt.niger Schall. Pt.oblongopunctatus F. Molops piceus Pz. Abax carinatus Duft. A.parallelepipedus A.parallelus Duft. Calathus fuscipes Gz. C.melanocephalus L. Idiochroma dorsalis Zabrus tenebrioides Gz. Amara equestris Duft. A.ovata F. A.similata Gyll. A.familiaris Duft. A.aenea Geer A.convexior Steph. Panagaeus bipustulatus F. Cymindis humeralis Fourcr. Microlestes minutulus Gz. M.maurus Sturm. Brachinus explodens Duft.

Site I Ind. % 1 0.09 9 0.88 8 0.78 162 15.86 .61 5.97 28 2.74 69 6.75 72 7.05 1 0.09 1 0.09 148

Site Ind. 3 2 1 3 3 11 9 40 29 14 98 55 7 71 2 -

II % 0.35 0.23 0.11 0.35 0.35 0.11 1.06 4.72 3.42 1.65 11.57 6.49 0.82 8.38 0.23 -

Site Ind. 4 1 9 28 3 11 9 2 12 4 6 3 115 1 28 7 135 1 9 2 2 12 0 2 4 8 3 1 2 6 3 25 1 1 1 12

III % 0.51 0.13 1.16 3.61 0.38 1.42 1.16 0.26 1.55 0.51 0.77 0.38 14.82 0.13 3.61 0.90 17.40 0.13 1.16 0.26 0.26 1.55 0.02 0.26 .51 1.03 0.38 0.13 0.26 0.77 038 3.22 0.13 0.13 013 1.55

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Site I Site II Site III Ind. % Ind. % Ind. % 52 B.crepitans L. 1 0.09 1 0.13 53 Aptinus bombarda Ill. 145 14.20 29 3.42 13 1.67 Total species 22 27 48 Total individuals 1021 847 776 % of total 38.62 32.03 29.35 I = Carpino-Fgetum ; II = Querco-petreae-Carpinetum ; III = Clearing inside the Carpino-Fagetum 22 species (41.5 %) of those 53 species belong to the following genera: Carabus ( 8 species), Harpalus ( 6 species), Amara ( 6 species), Pterostichus ( 5 species), Abax (3 species). From our collectings in the Fundtura forest result that the populations of the mesohygrophilous species have more individuals in the CarpinoFgetum association: These species are: Carabus intricatus, Cychrus sermigranosus, Leistus rufomarginatus, Pterostichus oblongopunctatus, Abax carinatus. Some comments on the following species: Carabus intricatus, Cychrus semigranosus, Pterostichus oblongopunctatus and Pterostichus niger. Carabus intricatus is a spring, mesohygrophilous, forest , zoophagous and European species. It is known the decrease in number of this species. At present, in the Republic of Moldova , this species is on the way to be extinct ( Neculiseanu, 2003). In the Fundtura forest, 22 specimens were captured, of which 18 in the Carpino-Fgetum association.It seems that in this vegetal association, the population of this species is higher in number. In the Brnova forest, during three years of collecting from Quercopetreae-Tilio-Carpinetum and Carpino-Tilio-Fagetum (1983, 1992, 2000), 18 individuals were collected in total. ( Varvara , 2004, in press Analele St. Univ. Iai). In the Gdini forest, after three years of collecting the material ( 1991, 2000 and 2001),only one individual was captured ( Varvara and Zugravu, in press, Analele St. Univ. Iai). Cychrus semigranosus is an autumnal, mesohygrophilous, forest, zoophagous and south-east-European species. This species prefers soil habitats with higher humidity. The species was eudominant in Carpino-Fagetum ( 15. 2 % ) and dominant n Querco-petreae-Carpinetum ( 5.9 %) . In the Brnova forest ( 1983,1992, 2000) from eight sites, 196 specimens were collected, ranging between 0-12 individuals ( five sites, Querco-petreae-Tilio-Carpinetum) and between 28-92 individuals ( Carpino-TilioFgetum).In the Gdini forest (Querco-petreae-Carpinetum ( 1991,2000, 2001) from one site,17 specimens were captured in total. Pterostichus oblongopunctatus is a spring, mesohygrophilous, forest, zoophagous, Transpalearctic species.This species is eudominant (15.9 %, CarpinoFgetum) and subdominant (4.7 %, Querco-petreae-Carpinetum).Pterostichus oblongopunctatus has a lower population in the Brnova forest. There were collected 188 specimens (318 specimens, five sites, Querco-petreae-Tilio149

No Species

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Carpinetum,(1983,1992, 2000), 11 78 specimens, three sites, Carpino-Fagetum (1983,1992, 2000 ). Pterostichus niger is a plastic, mesohygrophilous, euritopic, zoophagous, Transpalearctic species. This species was subrecedent ( 0.8 %, Carpino - Fgetum), recedent ( 1.1 %, Querco-petreae Carpinetum) , and eudominant (17.4 % in the clearing in the inside of the Carpino-Fgetum). There was a water source near by. In the Brnova forest this species is subrecedent in all sites within Querco-petreae-Tilio-Carpinetum and CarpinoFgetum. It results from our observation that the species prefers humid , open landscapes. Dominant and eudominant species in the Fundtura forest Dominant and eudominant species are shown in table no 7. Table no 7. Dominant and eudominant species in the Fundtura forest, Rachitoasa Species I II III 1 Carabus coriaceus ED ED 2 C.glabratus D 3 C. cancellatus ED 4 C.violaceus D D 5 C. excellens D D D 6 Cychrus semigranosus ED D 7 Poecilus coerulescens ED 8 Pterostichus niger ED 9 Pt.oblongopunctatus ED 10 Molops piceus D 11 Abax parallelepipedus D ED 12 Abax parallelus D D 13 Amara convexior D 14 Aptinus bombarda ED Total 8 9 4 % individuals of general 84.13 73.55 50.12 total I = Carpino- Fgetum ; II = Querco-petreae-Carpinetum ; III =Clearing inside the Carpino-Fgetum association As it results from table there is a close relationship between the valence of the species and the ecological conditions of the habitat. For example, Cychrus semigranosus is a mesohygrophilous species . It is eudominant in the first site ( CarpinoFgetum) and dominant in the second site (Querco - petreae - Carpinetum). 150

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Pterostichus oblongopunctatus is also a mesohygrophilous species . This species is eudominant only in the first site. Ecological characteristics of the species The ecological characteristics of the species found in the Fundatura forest as to the reproduction type, the hygric preference, the preference for biotope, the food regime and the geographical distribution are shown in table no 8. This table is made on the basis of literature cited in Varvara, 2004 ( in press, Analele St. Univ. Iasi) and personal observations and verifications made during the years. A synthesis of the general features of the coenosis referring to these ecological characteristics is given in tables 9 13. Table no 8. Ecological characteristics of the species of Carabidae in the Fundtura forest, Rchitoasa No. Species I II III IV V 1 Cicindela germanica L. Sp M St Z Wp 2 Calosoma inquisitor L. Sp M F Z CE 3 Carabus coriaceus L. A M F Z E 4 C.glabratus Payk. A Mh F Z Es 5 C.violaceus L. A Mx F+St Z Wp 6 C.cancellatus Ill. Sp M F Z T 7 C.ullrichi Germ. Sp M F Z CE 8 C.intricatus L. Sp M.h F Z E 9 C.arvensis Hbst. Sp M.h F Z T 10 C.excellens F. Sp Mx F Z EstE 11 Cychrus semigranosus Pllrd. A Mh F Z SestE 12 Leistus rufomarginatus Duft. A Mh F Z Es 13 Notiophilus palustris Duft. Sp M F Z Wp 14 Clivina fossor L. Sp X ols Z T 15 Broscus cephalotes L. Sp Xr S Z E 16 Bembidion lampros Hbst. Sp M F+St Z T 17 Anisodactylus binotatus F. Sp X St P Wp 18 Ophonus nitidulus Sp M F P Wp 19 Metophonus azureus F. A X S P Wp 20 Harpalus rufipes Geer A Mx Ols P Wp 21 Harpalus dimidiatus Rossi A M St P Em 22 H.atratus Latr. Sp Mx F P Ec 23 H.rubripes Duft. A Xr F P Wp 24 H.latus L. A M F+st P T 25 H.tardus Pz. Sp M St P Es 26 Poecilus cupreus L. Sp M Ols Z Wp 151

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No. 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

Species P. versicolor Pterostichus vernalis Pz. Pt. melas ( Creutz) Pt.ovoideus Sturm. Pt.niger Schall. Pt.oblongopunctatus F. Molops piceus Pz. Abax carinatus Duft. A.parallelepipedus A.parallelus Calathus fuscipes Gz. C.melanocephalus L. Anchomenus dorsalis Zabrus tenebrioides Gz. Amara equestris Duft. A.ovata F. A.similata Gyll. A.familiaris Duft. A.aenea Geer A.convexior Steph. Panagaeus bipustulatus F. Cymindis humeralis Fourcr. Microlestes minutulus Gz. M.maurus Sturm. Brachinus explodens Duft. B.crepitans L. Aptinus bombarda Ill.

I Sp Sp Sp Sp Plastic Sp Sp Sp Sp A A A+Sp Sp A Sp Sp Sp Sp Sp Sp Sp A Plastic Plastic Sp Sp Sp

II Mez M Mx M Mh Mh M Mh M M M M M M M M M M M M Mh M X X Mx Mx Mx

III Ols F F F Eurit F F F F F Eurit Eurit Olst Ols Ols F+Ols St+F Ols Ols Ols Ols F Ols Ols F+St F+St F

IV Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Ft P P P P P P Z Z Z Z Z Z Z

V Es Es Ec Ec T T E E E E Wp T Wp Ec Wp T T Wp T Es Wp E T Wp Em Wp CE

I = Reproduction ; II = Humidity; III = Habitat; IV = Food ; V = Geogr.Distribution Sp = Spring ; A = Autumn ; Plastic = Plastic ; M = Mesophyllous ; Mh = Mesohygropillous ; Mx = Meso-xerophillous ; X = Xerophillous; F = Forest ; St = Steppe ; Eurit = Euritopic ; Ols = Open landscape ; Z = Zoophag; P = Pantophag ; Ft = Phytophag; T = Transpalearctic ; Wp = West - Palearctic ; E = European ; Em = EuroMediterranean ; Ec = Euro- Cauccasian ; Es = Euro-Siberian

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Table no 9. Types of reproduction of carabids in three vegetal association, the Fundtura forest, Rchitoasa Reproduction I II III type No % No % No % 1 Spring 14 63.6 18 66.7 32 66.7 2 Autumnal 7 31.8 8 29.6 12 25.0 3 Summer 1 2.1 4 Plastic 1 4.6 1 3.7 3 6.2 Total 22 100.0 27 100.0 48 100.0 I = Carpino-Fagetum; II = Querco-petreae-Carpinetum : III = Clearing inside the Carpino-Fagetum Table no 10. Hygric preferences of carabids in three vegetal associations from the Fundtura forest, Rchitoasa I II III Hygric preferences No % No % No % 1 Mesophilous 9 40.9 13 48.2 26 54.1 2 Mesohygrophilous 8 36.4 8 29.6 8 16.7 3 Mesoxerophilous 5 22.7 6 22.2 7 14.6 Xerophilous 7 14.6 Total 22 100.0 27 100.0 48 100.0 I = Carpino-Fgetum ; II = Querco petreae - Carpinetum; III = Clearing inside the Carpino - Fgetum Table no 11. Habitat preferences of the carabids in three vegetal associations from the Fundtura forest, Rchitoasa I II III Habitat preference No % No % No % 1 Forest 18 81.9 21 77.8 20 41.7 2 Forest+Steppe 1 4.5 2 7.4 5 10.5 Steppe 4 8.3 3 Open 2 9.1 3 11.1 16 33.3 landscape 4 Euritopic 1 4.5 1 3.7 3 6.2 Total 22 100.0 27 100.0 48 100.0 I = Carpino-Fagetum ; II = Querco-petreae-Carpinetum; III = Clearing inside the Carpino-Fagetum

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Table no 12. Trophic regime of the carabids in three vegetal associations from the Fundtura forest, Rchitoasa Food regime I II III No % No % No % 1 Zoophags 21 95.5 22 81.5 33 68.7 2 Pantophags 1 4.5 5 18.5 14 29.2 Phytophags 1 2.1 Total 22 100.0 27 100.0 48 100.0 I = Carpino-Fagetum ; II = Querco-petreae-Carpinetum; III = Clearing inside the Carpino-Fagetum Table no 13. Geographical distribution of the carabids in three vegetal associations from the Fundtura forest, Rchitoasa I II III Zoogeogr.Regions No % No % No % 1 Transpalearctic 3 13.6 6 22.2 12 25.0 2 Westpalearctic 3 13.6 4 14.8 16 33.3 3 European 9 41.0 7 26.0 7 14.6 4 Central European 1 4.5 3 11.1 1 2.1 Euro-Mediterranean 2 4.2. 5 East-European 1 4.5 1 3.7 1 2.1 6 South-East-European 1 4.5 1 3.7 1 2.1 7 Euro-Siberian 3 13.6 3 11.1 4 8.3 8 Euro-Caucasian 1 4.5 2 7.4 4 8.3 Total 22 99.8 27 100.0 48 100.0 I = Carpino-Fagetum ; II = Querco-petreae-Carpinetum; III = Clearing inside the Carpino-Fagetum Conclusions The ensemble of ecological factors that marks the vegetal associations influences the diversity of the arthropods and their numerical distribution. The specific diversity of carabids in the Fundtura forest increases from the Carpino-Fagetum association (22 species) to the clearing (48 species),but the number of individuals decreases from 1021 specimens (first site) to 776 (third site) in conformity with the first biocoenotic rule of Thienemann. The relative abundance of taxa reflects the preferences or the limits for the respective habitat. In the conditions of the Fundtura forest, the following taxa are dominant. Carabidae, Scarabaeidae,Carabinae, Pterostichinae. In the Carpino-Fgetum vegetal association , seven species are dominant among which : Carabus coriaceus, Cychrus semigranosus, Pterostichus oblongopunctatus, Aptinus bombarda ; in the Querco-petreae Carpinetum vegetal association six species are dominant among which 154

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: Carabus cancellatus, Abax parallelelpipedus . In the clearing inside the CarpinoFagetum association, four specie are dominant among which : Pterostichus niger and Poecilus coerulescens. The coenoses of Carabidae have a normal state, reflected by the Shannon index with a variation between 3.57 and 4.23 and equitability between 75 and 83 %, values superior to the normal limits of variation of the index between 1.50 and 3.50 In the coenoses of Carabidae of those three vegetal associations it predominates the deciduous forest species with reproduction in Spring, meso and mesohygrofilous, zoophagous ,European, Transpalearctic and west- Palearctic, the same as in the deciduous forests from other localities of Moldova. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Neculiseanu, Z., 2003 - Carabidele (Coleoptera, Carabidae) din zona de interferen biogeografic (Taxonomie, diversitate, zoogeografie, biologie i importan practic), Chiinu, manuscris Varvara Mircea, Siepe Armin, Scarlat Aurel, 1993 - Bulletin of the Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, p. 91- 96. Varvara Mircea, Raianu Lidia, 1997 - Univ.Bacu, Studii i Cercet.St.Biologie, 2, p.153-161. Varvara Mircea, 2004 - In press, Analele St. Univ. Iasi Varvara, M., Zugravu, Fulga, 2004 - In press, Analele St. Univ. Iasi.

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CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF CARABIDS (CLEOPTERA, CARABIDAE) FROM THE GDINI FOREST, NEAM COUNTY
BY

MIRCEA VARVARA1 AND FULGA ZUGRAVU2

Key words: Querco-petreae-Carpinetum, epigeic arthropods, structure, carabids, relative abundance, dominance, Shannon index, ecological preferences of carabids The Gdini forest is located at 10 km away from the town of Roman. The material was collected from the Querco-petreae - Carpinetum vegetal association. To collect the epigeic invertebrates, 12 pitfalls were used in each of those three years 1991, 2000, 2001, from April to September . There were found five classes of invertebrates, eight orders of insects, 13 families of Coleoptera, 30 species of Carabidae. Particularly abundant are : Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae. Nine species of Carabidae are eud