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Navigation course

Nav. course Home Nav. course Sailing Greece Turkish Coasts Yacht charter Gulets

This is an advanced online course on marine navigation, providing you with the conditio sine qua non of offshore sailing. Nowadays most sailors tend to rely on modern equipment like differential GPS or Radar to

navigate them through hazardous waters. Not only is such reliance unwanted and possibly dangerous, also the act of navigating by yourself is actually a lot of fun, especially when sailing in Greece or Turkey, which are the perfect cruising areas to learn how to sail.

Acesta este un avansat curs online privind navigaia marin, Oferindu-v cu "condiie sine qua non", de a naviga n larg. In prezent cele mai multe marinari tind s se bazeze pe echipamente moderne, precum GPS diferential sau radar-le pentru a naviga prin apele periculoase. Nu numai ca este de ncredere, cum ar nedorite i, eventual, periculoase, de asemenea, actul de navigaie de ctre dumneavoastr este de fapt o gramada de distractie, mai ales atunci cnd care navigheaz n Grecia sau Turcia, Care sunt zonele de croazier perfect pentru a nva cum s navigheze.

What is navigation?
Navigare necesse est, vivere non est necesse is latin for: to sail is vital, to live is not. This phrase tells us that both sailing and the conditio of positioning are highly intertwined. Indeed, the art of navigation enables you to set a course and sail to your destination by using only nautical charts, a compass and your common sense.
Navigare est necessary, non Vivere est necessary"Este latin pentru: s navigheze este vital, de a tri nu este. Aceast fraz ne spune c att de navigaie, precum i condiie "" de poziionare sunt extrem de interconectate. ntradevr, arta de a de navigare v permite s setai un curs i navigheaz la destinaie folosind doar hri nautice, o busol i bunul sim.

The aim of this course is to teach you how to navigate safely while using the minimum of resources: methods that have been in use since the Middle Ages, and are still applied by the professionals . This course greatly extends on - for instance - the ASA and RYA courses and gives you the insight and feel of a seasoned navigator.
Scopul acestui curs este de a nva cum s navigai n condiii de siguran n timp ce utilizai minim de resurse: metode care au fost folosite nc din Evul Mediu, i sunt nc aplicate de ctre profesioniti . Acest curs se extinde pe foarte mult - de exemplu - AAS i cursuri de RYA i v ofer intuiia i simt dintr-un navigator experimentai.

Enjoy! This is chapter 0: Use the moving anchor logo on the right of this page to navigate through the course. Alternatively, click on the links below to study the chapters.
Acesta este capitolul 0: utiliza logo-ul se deplaseaz ancora pe dreapta a paginii pentru a naviga prin curs. Alternativ, facei clic pe link-urile de mai jos pentru a studia capitole.

Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Positions = Poziii - Nautical chart = Hri nautice - Compass = Compasul - Plotting = Lucrri plotter - Piloting = Pilotajul - Tides = Maree - Tide prediction = Calculul mareei - Currents = Curenii - Navigation aids = Mijloace de navigaie

Math - Running fixes = Math - Distance of horizon = Math - Vertical sextant angles = Compass deviation table = Tabelul de deviaii al compasului Lunation: phases of the moon = Fazele Lunii Anchors, anchoring and = Ancore, ancorarea i Mediterranean mooring techniques = Tehnici de acostare n Mediteran Flags and etiquette = Pavilioane i etichete Style guide: notation of distances = Stiluri de ghidri: notaii i distane and coordinates used on this website =i coordonate folosite pe acest sit.

Meteorology=Meteorologie

Clouds: fair weather cumulus versus cumulonimbus - how to =


Nori: cumulus vreme frumoas fa de cumulonimbus - cum s

forecast showers. = prognoza dusuri Raindrops aren't spherical. =Raindrops nu sunt sferice. The wind chill forecast. =Previziunile Wind Chill. How to forecast the Meltemi wind. =Cum de a prognoza vntului Meltemi. Beaufort wind scale. =Scara Beaufort wind.

Citat
Sailingissues.com Acest curs se ocup cu problemele cheie cognitive asociate cu arta i tiina de navigaie i le comunic cu proza bine artizanale i excepionale grafice clare. Am gasit acest material online, destul de valabile pentru marinari noastre locale US & instructori i eu recomand o ca pe un instrument de predare splendid. Ralph Naranjo Sigurana pe mare preedinte al Comitetului SUA Sailing 103357.137 @ compuserve.com "Wonderful" material, I a alerga o coal din Canada i nu L-au peste materiale de pe net de genul asta. Ai o carte sau putem achiziiona un disc n scopuri de formare? Cu respect, Glenn Lethbridge Cya Instructor Evaluator glethbridge@hamiltonport.ca Salut. Un site mare, desigur dvs. NAV este foarte bine dezvoltat. Eu sunt un instructor de australian Voluntari Coast Guard. Ceea ce ai fcut este foarte bun i atept cu sufletul la baited pentru a vedea ct de departe putei lua asta. Chris Salmon Australian Voluntari Coast Guard csalmon@austarnet.com.au ntr-adevr site-ul fantastic. Acest lucru a fost de navigare tutorial de stimulare. Vreau s arunce GPS-mi peste bord.

Biserica Bob bobc2@gate.net Curs Excelent. V pot spune c ai luat o mulime de timp pentru a dezvolta acest lucru. tiu - Eu sunt responsabil de cursul de navigaie care este utilizat de auxiliare USCG. Derrick Young US Coast Guard auxiliare youngd@hqlee.deca.mil

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Chapter 3:Compass navigation= Compas navigaie


Marine compass= Prognoza Compass
In China compasses have been in use since the Han dynasty (2nd century BCE to 2nd century CE) when they were referred to as south-pointers. However at first these magnets were only used for geomancy much like in the art of Feng Shui.= n China compas au fost n uz din dinastia Han (secolul al 2lea BCE pentru a 2a secolul al CE), atunci cnd acestea au fost menionate n continuare "sudindicatori". Cu toate acestea, la prima aceti magnei au fost folosite doar pentru geomancy la fel ca n arta Feng Shui.

Eventually, during the Sung dynasty (1000 CE) many trading ships were then able to sail as far as Saudi Arabia using compasses for marine navigation. Between 1405 and 1433, Emperor Chu Ti's Treasure Fleet of the Dragon Throne ruled the entire South Pacific and the Indian Ocean, a territory that ranges from Korea and Japan to the Eastern coast of Africa. = n cele din urm, n timpul dinastiei Sung (1000 CE) nave de tranzacionare de multe au fost apoi n msur s navigheze n msura n care Arabia Saudit folosind compasul pentru navigare marine. ntre 1405 i 1433, Comoara mpratului Chu Ti's flot de pe tron Dragon condus ntreaga Pacificului de Sud i Oceanul Indian, un teritoriu care se ntinde de la Coreea i Japonia, pn la coasta de est a Africii. At this time Western mariners were still rather ignorant of the navigational use of the magnet. Petrus Perigrinus van Maricourt wrote a first treatise on the magnet itself: De Magnete (1269). And though its nautical use was already mentioned in 1187 by the English monk Alexander Neckham, the use onboard only came about around the 13th and 14th century in the Mediterranean Sea. =n acest moment marinari de Vest au fost nc destul de ignorani cu privire la utilizarea de navigaie al unui magnet. Petrus Perigrinus van Maricourt a scris un tratat n primul rnd pe magnetul n sine: "De Magnete" (1269). i dei utilizarea sa marine a fost deja menionat n 1187 de catre calugarul englez Alexandru Neckham, de bord folosi doar despre a venit n jurul secolului al 14-lea i al 13-lea n Marea Mediteran.

Much later, in 1545, Pedro de Medina (Sevilla 1493-1567) wrote the Spanish standard work Arte de Navegar on marine compass navigation. This masterpiece was first translated in Dutch (1580) and was -O Irony- used by Jacob van Heemskerk when the Dutch destroyed the Spanish fleet near Gibraltar in 1607. The drawback was of course Van Heemskerk's own death during this victory. = Mult mai trziu, n 1545, Pedro de Medina (Sevilla 1493-1567) a scris lucrarea spaniol standard "Arte de Navegar" de la marin busola de navigare. Aceast capodoper a fost tradus n limba olandez (1580) i a fost Ironia-O-utilizate de Jacob van Heemskerk n cazul n care olandez a distrus flota spaniol n apropierea din Gibraltar n 1607. Neajuns a fost, desigur, moartea Van Heemskerk proprii n aceast victorie.

Magnetic Variation= Variant magnetic


In the fin-de-sicle of the sixteenth century mariners believed that the magnetic north pole coincided with the geographic north pole. Any suggestion otherwise had been denied by Pedro de Medina. = n fin-de-sicle al marinarilor secolului XVI crede c polul magnetic de nord a coincis cu Polul Nord geografic.

4 15' W 2009 (8' E) on the Magnetic North arrow means Magnetic Variation 4 15' W in 2009 annual change 8' E (i.e. Magnetic Variation decreasing 8' annually to become 4 07' in 2010).

Orice sugestie altfel ar

fi fost refuzat de ctre Pedro de Medina.

Magnetic variation
4 15' W 2009 (8' Magnetic

E) on the Magnetic North arrow means Variation 4 15' W in 2009 annual change 8' E (i.e. Magnetic Variation decreasing 8' annually to become 4 07' in 2010).

Magnetic observations made by explorers in subsequent decades showed however that these suggestions were true. But it took until the early nineteenth century, to pinpoint the magnetic north pole somewhere in Arctic Canada (78 N , 104 W). From then on the angle between the true North and the Magnetic North could be precisely corrected for. This correction angle is called magnetic variation

or declination. = Magnetice observaiile fcute de exploratori din ultimele decenii ulterioare au artat, totui, c aceste sugestii au fost adevrate. Dar a avut, pn la nceputul secolului al XIX-lea, pentru a indica polul nord magnetic undeva n zona arctic Canada (78 N, 104 W). De atunci unghiul dintre Nord adevrat i De Nord magnetic ar putea fi corectat pentru precizie. Acest unghi de corecie se numete magnetic variaia sau de refuz. It is believed that the Earth's magnetic field is produced by electrical currents that originate in the hot, liquid, outer core of the rotating Earth. The flow of electric currents in this core is continually changing, so the magnetic field produced by those currents also changes. This means that at the surface of the Earth, both the strength and direction of the magnetic field will vary over the years. This gradual change is called the secular variation of the magnetic field. Therefore, variation changes not only with the location of a vessel on the earth but also varies in time. =Se crede c cmpul magnetic al Pamantului este produs de cureni electrici care provin din cele fierbinte, lichid, Core exterioar a Pmntului prin rotaie. Fluxul de cureni electrici n aceast baz se schimb continuu, astfel nct cmpul magnetic produs de cureni, de asemenea, aceste schimbri. Acest lucru nseamn c, la suprafata Pamantului, att puterea i direcia cmpului magnetic va varia-a lungul anilor. Aceast schimbare treptat este numit Variaia secular a cmpului magnetic. Prin urmare, modificrile variaie nu numai cu amplasarea unei nave de pe pmnt, dar, de asemenea, variaz n timp. The correction for magnetic variation for your location is shown on the nearest! nautical chart's compass rose. In this example we find a variation of 4 15' W in 2009, with an indicated annual correction of 0 08' E. Hence, in 2011 this variation is estimated to be 3 59', almost 4 West. This means that if we sail 90 on the chart (the true course), the compass would read 94. =De corecie pentru variaie magnetice pentru locaia dvs. este afiat pe cel mai apropiat! busol diagram nautice au crescut. n acest exemplu, vom gsi o variaie de W 4 15 'n 2009, cu o corecie a indicat anuale de 0 08' E. Prin urmare, n 2011, aceast variant este estimat a fi de 3 59 ', aproape 4 Vest. Acest lucru nseamn c, dac vom naviga 90 pe diagram (curs adevrat), busola-ar citi 94 .

Another example: let's say the compass rose gives a variation of 2 50' E in 2007, with a correction of 0 04' E per year. In 2009 this variation is estimated to be 2 58', almost 3 East. Now, if we sail 90 on the chart, the compass would read 87.= Un alt exemplu: sa spunem Compass Rose ofer o variaie de 2 50 'E n 2007, cu o corecie de 0 04' E pe an. n 2009, aceast variant este estimat la 2 58 ', aproape 3 Est. Acum, dac vom interveni 90 pe diagram, busola-ar citi 87 .

Correcting for variation= Corectarea de variaie

These overlayed compass roses show the difference between true north and magnetic north when the magnetic variation is 10 West. = Aceste trandafiri Innobilate busola arat diferena dintre nordul geografic i nord magnetic cazul n care modificarea magnetic este de 10 Vest. From the image we find: tc = cc + var in which cc and tc stand for compass course and true course, respectively. = De la imaginea gsim: TC = cc + var , n care "Cc"i"tc"Stand pentru" busola curs "i" desigur adevrat ", respectiv. To convert a true course into a compass course we need first assign a - to a Western and a + to a Eastern variation. Note that this makes sense! because of the clockwise direction of the compass rose. Here, the inner circle is turned 10 anticlockwise, hence -10 . = Pentru a converti o Desigur adevrat ntr-un compas curs avem nevoie de atribui n prima, o "-" la o Vest i un "+" la o variaie de Est. Reinei c acest lucru are sens! , din cauza sensul acelor de ceasornic a Compass Rose. Aici, cercul interior este pornit 10 anticlockwise, prin urmare,

--10

Now, use the same but re-written equation: cc = tc - var 235 = 225 - (-10) So, to sail a true course of 225, the helmsman has to steer a compass course of 235. = Acum, utilizai la fel, dar re-ecuaia scris: CC = TC - var 235 = 225 - (-10 )

Deci, pentru a naviga un curs adevrat de 225 , crmaci trebuie s orienteze un compas curs de 235 .

To convert a compass course into a true course we can use the original equation. If we have steered a compass course of 200, we have to plot a true course of 203 in the chart if the variation is 3 East or a true course of 190 if the variation is 10 West . = Pentru a converti o compas desigur ntr-un curs de adevrat putem folosi ecuaia iniial. n cazul n care ne-am orientat un compas curs de 200 , avem de a parcelei adevrat un curs de 203 n graficul de variaie n cazul n care este de 3 Est sau un curs adevrat de 190 n cazul n care variaia este de 10 Vest .

Magnetic deviation= Deviere magnetic


Magnetic deviation is the second correctable error. The deviation error is caused by magnetic forces within your particular boat. Pieces of metal, such as an engine or an anchor, can cause magnetic forces. And also stereo and other electric equipment or wiring, if too close to the compass, introduce errors in compass heading. = Abaterea magnetic este eroarea dou correctable. Abaterea de eroare este cauzat de forele magnetice n termen de barca ta special. Piese de metal, cum ar fi un motor sau o ancor, pot cauza forelor magnetice. i, de asemenea, stereo i a altor echipamente electrice sau cablajul, dac sunt prea aproape de compas, s introduc erori n busola poziie. Furthermore, the deviation changes with the ship's heading, resulting in a deviation table as shown below. The vertical axis states the correction in degrees West or East, where East is again positive. =Mai mult, modificrile deviere cu nava lui poziie, rezultnd ntr-un tabel deviaie dup cum se arat mai jos. Axa vertical, statele de corecie n grade Vest sau de Est, n cazul n care de Est este din nou pozitiv.

The horizontal axis states the ship's heading in degrees divided by ten. Thus, when you sail a compass course of 220, the deviation is 4 W. (Note, that on most

modern sailing yachts the deviation is usually not larger than 3). = Axa orizontal Statele navei la poziia n grade mprit la zece. Astfel, atunci cnd navigheaz un compas curs de 220 , abaterea este de 4 W. (Reinei, c, la cele mai multe iahturi care navigheaz moderne abaterea este de obicei, nu mai mari de 3 ). When a compass is newly installed it often shows larger deviations than this and needs compensation by carefully placing small magnets around the compass. It is the remaining error that is shown in your deviation table. = Atunci cnd o busol este nou instalat-o de multe ori arat abaterile mai mare dect aceasta i are nevoie de compensare prin plasarea cu atenie i magneii de dimensiuni mici n jurul busola. Este eroarea rmase, care este prezentat n tabelul de deviere dumneavoastr. You can check your table every now and then by placing your boat in the line of a pair of leading lights and turning her 360 degrees. = Putei verifica masa ta fiecare acum i apoi prin plasarea barca dumneavoastr n linia de o pereche de lumini de conducere si transformarea ei 360 de grade.

Correcting for both deviation and variation=Corectarea att pentru devierea i de variaie
Converting a compass course into a true course, we can still use our equation but we need to add the correction for deviation: cc + var + dev = tc =Convertirea unei compas desigur ntr-un curs de adevrat, Putem folosi n continuare ecuaia noastre, dar avem nevoie pentru a aduga corectare pentru devierea: CC + var + dev = TC

Example 1: The compass course is 330, the deviation is +3 (table) and the variation is +3 (chart); 330 cc + 3 var + 3 dev = ? tc giving a true course of 336 which we can plot in our chart

=Exemplul 1: Compass curs este de 330 , abaterea este de 3 (tabelul), precum i variaia este de 3 (grafic); 330 cc + 3 var + 3 dev =? TC oferind un curs adevrat de 336 pe care le putem complot n diagram noastre

Example 2: The compass course is 220, the deviation is -4 (table) and the variation is still +3 (chart).

220 cc + 3 var + -4 dev = ? tc giving a true course of 219. =Exemplul 2: Compass curs este de 220 , abaterea este de -4 (tabelul), precum i variaia este nc 3 (graficul). 220 cc + 3 var + -4 dev =? TC

Example 3: The compass course is still 220, therefore the deviation is still -4 (table) but let's use a variation of -10 this time. 220 cc + -10 var + -4 dev = ? tc giving a true course of 206.

=Exemplul 3: Cursul Compass este nc 220 , prin urmare, abaterea este nc -4 (tabelul), dar hai sa utilizeze o variaie de la -10 acest timp. 220 cc -10 + var + -4 dev =? TC oferind un curs adevrat de 206 .

Converting a true course into a compass course is a little less straight forward, but it is still done with the same equation. = Convertirea unei Desigur adevrat ntr-un compas curs este un pic mai puin drept nainte, dar este nc fcut cu aceeai ecuaie.

Example 4: The true course from the chart is 305 and the variation is +3 (chart), yet we don't know the deviation; ? cc + 3 var + ? dev = 305 tc Luckily, we can rewrite this so this reads: cc + dev = 305 tc - + 3 var = 302

=Exemplul 4: Cursul adevrat din diagram este de 305 i variaia este de 3 (graficul), dar nu tim abaterea; ? CC + 3 var +? dev = 305 TC Din fericire, putem rescrie acest lucru pentru acest prevede: CC + dev = 305 TC - + 3 var = 302 In plain English: the difference between the true course and the variation (305 - + 3) = 302 should also be the summation of the compass course and the deviation. So, we can tell our helms person to steer 300, since with a cc of 300 we have a deviation of +2 (As can be deduced from the deviation table above). = n limba englez simplu: diferena dintre cursul adevrat i variaia (305 - + 3) = 302 ar trebui s fie, de asemenea, nsumarea busol cursului i abaterea. Deci, putem spune persoana noastr Helms pentru a pilota 300 , deoarece cu un cc de 300 avem o deviere de 2 (Dup cum se poate deduce din tabelul de abaterea de mai sus).

Example 5: The true course from the chart is 150 and we have a Western variation of 7 degrees (-7). We will use the rewritten equation to get: 150 tc - - 7 var = cc + dev = 157 From the deviation table we find a compass course of 160 with a deviation of -3.

=Exemplul 5: Cursul adevrat din diagram este de 150 i avem o variaie de Vest din data de 7 grade (-7 ). Vom folosi ecuaia rescrise pentru a obine: TC 150 - - 7 var = CC + dev = 157 Din tabelul de devierea vom gsi o busol curs de 160 , cu o deviere de -3 . Voil!

Magnetic course=Curs magnetic


sailingissues.com The magnetic course (mc) is the heading after magnetic variation has been considered, but without compensation for magnetic deviation. This means that we are dealing with the rewritten equation from above: tc - var = cc + dev = mc. =The magnetic cursul (MC) este poziia dup ce variaia magnetic a fost luat n considerare, dar fr compensaie pentru devierea magnetice. Acest lucru nseamn c avem de-a face cu ecuaia rescris de mai sus: TC - var = CC + dev = mc. Magnetic courses are used for three reasons: =Cursuri de magnetice sunt utilizate

pentru trei motive: 1. To convert a true course into a compass course like we saw in the last paragraph. = Pentru a transforma un curs adevrat ntr-un compas curs ca si cum am vzut n ultimul paragraf. 2. On vessels with more than one steering compass, also more deviation tables are in use; hence only a magnetic or true course is plotted in the chart. = Pe navele cu mai mult de o busola de direcie, de asemenea, mai multe tabele abaterea sunt n uz, prin urmare, doar un curs de magnetice sau adevrat este n grafic n diagram.

3. Bearings taken with a handheld compass often don't require a correction for deviation, and are therefore useful to plot in the chart as magnetic courses. = Palier luate cu un handheld compas de multe ori nu necesit o corecie pentru devierea i, prin urmare, sunt utile pentru complot n diagram i cursuri de magnetice.

Note, that the actual course lines the navigator draws in the chart are always true courses! These can subsequently be labeled with the true course or the corresponding magnetic or compass course if appropriate. In the next chapter we will be plotting courses in the chart. = Reinei, c liniile de real cursul Navigator atrage n diagram sunt ntotdeauna cursuri de adevrat! Acestea pot fi, ulterior, etichetate cu cursul adevrat sau magnetice corespunztoare sau busol Desigur, dac este cazul. In capitolul urmtor vom fi trasarea cursuri n diagram. To summarise, we have three types of north (true, magnetic and compass north) like we have three types of courses: tc, mc and cc. All these are related by deviation and variation. = Pentru a rezuma, avem trei tipuri de "Nord" (adevrat, magnetic i busola nord) ca avem trei tipuri de cursuri: TC, MC i cc. Toate acestea sunt legate de deviere i de variaie.

Glossary

Maps with isogonic lines World World World World -

: =Harti cu linii isogonic

overview 2000 =World - privire de ansamblu 2000 detailed 2000 = World - detaliate 2000 detailed 2005 =World - detaliate 2005 animated in time =World - animat n timp

Variation: The angle between the magnetic north pole and the geographic north pole. Also called the magnetic declination . = Variant: Unghiul dintre polul nord magnetic si Polul Nord geografic. De asemenea, numit Declinaie magnetic . Secular variation: The change of magnetic declination in time with respect to both strength and direction of its magnetic field. = Variaie Secular: Schimbare de Declinaie magnetic n timp, att n ceea ce privete puterea i direcia de domeniul su magnetic. West (-) , East (+): Western variations or deviations are designated with a negative sign by convention due to the compass card's clockwise direction. = Occidentul (-) , East (+): Variaii de Vest sau abateri sunt desemnate cu un

semn negativ, prin convenie, datorit compas direcia cardului sensul acelor de ceasornic.

Deviation: The error in compass heading caused by electric magnetic currents and or metal objects. = Deviaia: Eroare n Compass poziia cauzate de curenii magnetice i electrice sau obiecte de metal.

Deviation table: A table containing deviations in degrees versus the ship's heading (compass course) in degrees. Usually plotted in a graph. =Tabelul Deviaia: Un tabel care conine abateri n grade fa de poziia navei (compas desigur), n grade. De obicei, reprezentate grafic ntr-un grafic. True course: Course plotted in the chart i.e. course over the ground or course made good. The course corrected for compass errors. = Bineneles Adevarat: Curs grafic, n cursul adic graficul pe sol sau "curs fcut bine". Cursul corectat pentru busola erori.

Compass course: The course (ship's heading) without the correction for compass errors. = Desigur Compas: Curs (navei rubrica), fr de corecie pentru busola erori.

cc + var + dev = tc: This equation shows the connection between the compass course, its errors and the true course. It can also be read as: tc var = cc + dev. = CC + var + dev = TC: Aceast ecuaie arat legtura dintre cursul busola, erorile sale i cursul de adevrat. Acesta poate fi citit, de asemenea, ca: TC - var = CC + dev.

http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/geomag/field/magdec_e.php

Geomagnetism
Magnetic declination Geomagnetism Declinaie magnetic
Over much of the Earth's surface, compass needles point roughly north. However, because of the complex shape of the Earth's magnetic field there are few places where a compass needle will point exactly north. A compass lines up with the horizontal component (http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/geomag/field/comp_e.php)of the magnetic field in a direction called

magnetic north. True north, on the other hand is the direction from a given location to the north geographic pole. The angle between magnetic north and true north is called magnetic declination. Many people believe that a compass needle points at the North Magnetic Pole. (http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/geomag/field/arctics_e.php) This is not true; if you follow your compass needle you will eventually arrive at the North Magnetic Pole, but not by the most direct route. Peste o mare parte din suprafaa Pmntului, busola ace punct de aproximativ nord. Cu toate acestea, din cauza formei complexe ale cmpului magnetic al Pamantului, exist cteva locuri n cazul n care un ac de busola va indica exact spre nord. O busol linii de sus cu component orizontal a cmpului magnetic ntr-o direcie numit nord magnetic. Spre nord-adevr, pe de alt parte este direcia de la o locaie dat la Polul Nord geografic. Unghiul dintre nordul magnetic i nordul adevrat se numete Declinaie magnetic. Multi oameni cred ca un compas puncte de ac, la Polul Nord magnetic. Acest lucru nu este adevrat, i dac vei urma dvs. de busol acul va ajunge n cele din urm la Polul Nord magnetic, dar nu i pe calea cea mai direct.

Terminology Both declination and variation are used to describe the angle between magnetic north and true north. The term deviation is also used from time to time. Here is an explanation of the differences between the three terms. Ambele refuzate i variaie sunt folosite pentru a descrie unghiul dintre nordul magnetic i nord adevrat. Abaterea Termenul este folosit, de asemenea, din timp n timp. Aici este o explicaie a diferenelor ntre cele trei termeni.

Declination: This is the term preferred by those who study the magnetic field; it is also the term most commonly used by land navigators. Sometimes the term "magnetic declination" is used. Acesta este termenul preferat de cei care studiu cmpul magnetic, este, de asemenea, termenul cel mai frecvent utilizate de ctre navigatori teren. Uneori, termenul de "Declinaie magnetic" este folosit. Variation: This term is preferred by mariners and pilots because the word "declination" also has an astronomical usage - the angle of a star or planet above the celestial equator. However, the word "variation" is used by geomagneticians to refer to time changes in the magnetic field. Acest termen este preferat de marinari i piloi, deoarece cuvntul "refuz", de asemenea, are o utilizare astronomic - unghiul de o stea sau planet de mai sus ecuatorul ceresc. Cu toate acestea, cuvntul "variaia" este folosit de geomagneticians pentru a se referi la schimbrile de timp n cmpul magnetic. Deviation: In a vehicle such as a ship or aircraft, a compass is influenced by the magnetism of the iron used in the construction of the vehicle as well as the Earth's magnetic field. This causes the compass needle to point in the wrong direction. This directional error is called "deviation". Many people incorrectly use deviation when they mean declination. ntr-un vehicul, cum ar fi o nav sau aeronav, un compas este influenat de magnetismul de fier utilizate n construcia vehiculului, precum i cmpul magnetic al Pamantului. Acest lucru face ca acul busolei la punctul n direcia greit. Aceasta eroare de direcie se numeste "deviaie". Multe persoane utilizeaz n mod incorect, atunci cnd abaterea medie de refuz. The first known determination of magnetic declination was made by the Chinese in about 720 AD. In Europe, the concept of declination was known in the early 1400s, but the first precise measurement of declination was not made until 1510, when Georg Hartman determined the declination in Rome. The importance of declination for navigation was obvious. Mariners quickly devised methods for determining it and began compiling declination values from locations around

the world. In 1700 Edmund Halley came up with the idea of showing declination as contour lines on a map ; he used this novel concept to produced the first declination chart of the Atlantic Ocean. Declination charts have been produced on a regular basis ever since. Determinarea primul cunoscut de Declinaie magnetic a fost fcut de chinezi n aproximativ 720 AD. n Europa, conceptul de refuz a fost cunoscut n anii 1400 la nceput, dar prima msurare precis a Declinaie nu a fost fcut pn n 1510, cnd Georg Hartman determinat refuz de la Roma. Importana Declinaie pentru navigare a fost evident. Marinari rapid conceput metode de stabilire a acestuia i a nceput compilarea valorile Declinaie din locaii din ntreaga lume. n 1700 Edmund Halley a venit cu ideea de a arta Declinaie ca linii de contur pe o hart, el a folosit acest concept nou pentru a produs primul grafic Declinaie din Oceanul Atlantic. Diagramele Declinaie au fost produse n mod regulat de atunci.

Figure 16: Halley map Harta Halley The secular variation(http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/geomag/field/sec_e.php) of the magnetic field causes declination to change with time. Changes in declination can be quite large. At Yellowknife, NWT, for example, the declination is changing by more than one degree every three years. On the other hand, at Ottawa, the yearly change in declination is almost zero. The diagram shows the change in declination at several locations in Canada. The Variaia secular a cmpului magnetic cauzele Declinaie pentru a schimba cu timpul. Modificri n declin pot fi destul de mari. La Yellowknife, NWT, de exemplu, Declinaie este n continu schimbare de mai mult de un grad la fiecare trei ani. Pe de alt parte, la Ottawa, se schimba anual n Declinaie este aproape de zero. Diagrama arat schimbare n declin n mai multe localiti n Canada.

Figure 17: Secular variation Variaia Secular Magnetic declination also undergoes changes that are much more rapid than secular variation and are a result of magnetic activity(http://www.spaceweather.gc.ca/svr-eng.php). These variations can be smooth and cyclic, with amplitudes of several minutes of arc in southern Canada, or, during magnetic storms, large and erratic. Declinaie magnetic, de asemenea, sufer schimbri, care sunt mult mai rapid dect variaie secular i sunt un rezultat al magnetice de activitate. Aceste variaii pot fi netede i ciclice, cu amplitudinile de mai multe minute de arc n Canada de sud, sau, n timpul furtunilor magnetice, mari i neregulat. Changes in declination become increasingly as one approaches the North Magnetic Pole, (http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/geomag/field/compass_e.php) a result of the weak horizontal component of the magnetic field. The number of times per year that a compass user will be affected by changes in declination caused by magnetic storms will depend both on the user's application and location. The diagram shows the percentage of days in a typical year during which magnetic declination will fluctuate by more than a given amount from its normal value. Modificri n declin deveni din ce n ce ca fiind unul se apropie de Polul Nord magnetic, Un rezultat al slab component orizontal a cmpului magnetic. Numrul de ori pe an, pe care un utilizator busol vor fi afectate de schimbrile n Declinaie cauzate de furtunile magnetice va depinde att cu privire la cererea utilizatorului i de locaie. Diagrama arat procentajul de zile ntr-un an tipic n care Declinaie magnetic va fluctua cu mai mult de o anumit sum de la valoarea sa normal.

Figure 18: Probability of deviations Probabilitatea de abateri larger image


[GIF, 199.8 kb, 2177 X 1970, notice]

Most standard orienteering compasses have a precision of about 2 degrees. It can be seen that in Southern Canada users of such compasses will seldom experience fluctuations larger than 2 degrees. However, someone on a canoe trip in the NWT would find his or her compass in error by more than 2 degrees on more than 1 day in 4. Cele mai multe orientare standard busole au o precizie de aproximativ 2 grade. Se poate observa c, n sudul utilizatorii Canada a busole astfel de experienta rareori fluctuaii mai mari de 2 grade. Cu toate acestea, cineva intr-o excursie n canoe NWT s-ar gsi busola lui sau ei n eroare de ctre mai mult de 2 grade pe mai mult de 1 zi, n 4.

How to determine declination There are several ways for compass users to determine declination: Exist mai multe moduri pentru a busola pentru a determina utilizatorii Declinaie: From a map: ... Dintr-o hart: Canadian topographic charts contain a diagram in the margin which gives the declination for the year in which the chart was published. Beneath the diagram is a statement informing the user about the annual change of declination. By multiplying the annual change by the number of years that have elapsed since the chart was published and adding the total change to the published declination value, the user obtains the present day declination. Canadian diagramele topografice conin o diagram n marja de care d Declinaie pentru anul n care a fost publicata diagrama. Sub diagrama este o declaraie a informa utilizatorul despre schimbarea anual de refuz. Prin nmulirea modificare anual cu numrul de ani care au trecut de la graficul a fost publicat i adugarea de schimbarea total la valoarea publicat Declinaie, utilizatorul obine refuz de azi.

Figure 19: Topo declination diagramTopo diagrama Declinaie Statement of magnetic declaration taken from Canadian topographic map: Declaraia de declaraie magnetice luate de la harta canadieni topografice:

"Magnetic declination 1992 varies from 1605 easterly at centre of west edge to 1403 easterly at centre of east edge. Mean annual change decreasing 11.5.""Declinaie Magnetic 1992 variaz de la 16 05 'est, de la centrul de margine de la vest la 14 03' est, de la centrul de margine de est. Modificarea medie anual n scdere 11.5". " Here is an example: Aici este un exemplu: Declination in 1998: 13 15 W Declinaie n 1998: W 13 15 ' Annual change: decreasing 5 Schimba anual: descresctoare a 5 ' Since the annual change is decreasing, treat it as negative. Therefore Declination in 2003 is: Avnd n vedere c modificare anual este n scdere, trata-o ca negativ. Prin urmare, Declinaie n 2003 este: = 13 15 W - 5 x 5 = 13 15 W - 25 = 12 50 W It is important to remember that the annual change does not remain constant with time. Therefore, using the annual change to update the declination on an old map is likely to result in an error in the updated declination. Este important s ne amintim c schimbarea anual nu rmn constante n timp. Prin urmare, folosind modificare anual de actualizare a Declinaie pe o hart veche este de natur s conduc la o eroare n refuz actualizat. It is also important to know that the declination shown in the diagram on the topographic map is not the true declination. Declination is defined as the angle between magnetic north and the true north. However, the diagram on the topographic map sheet gives the value of the angle between magnetic north and grid north, which is referenced to the grid lines shown on the map. This angle is properly called grid declination. The angle between grid north and true north is called the convergence angle. To obtain the true declination it is necessary to add or subtract the convergence angle to the Grid Declination. The diagram illustrates four possible combinations. De asemenea, este important de tiut c Declinaie prezentat n diagrama de pe hart topografic refuz nu este adevrat. Declinaie este definit ca fiind unghiul dintre nordul magnetic i nord adevrat. Cu toate acestea, diagrama pe foaia de hart topografic d valoarea de unghiul dintre nordul magnetic i nordul reelei, care se face referire la liniile grila afiat pe hart. Acest unghi este numit n mod corespunztor refuz gril. Unghiul dintre nordul reea i nord adevrat se numete unghiul de convergen. Pentru a obine Declinaie adevrat, este necesar s se adauge sau scade unghiul de convergen pentru a Declinaie Grid. Diagrama ilustreaz patru combinaii posibile.

Figure 20: grid (square), true (star) and magnetic north (arrow) gril (ptrat), adevrate (stele) i polul nord magnetic (sgeata) In the diagram, n diagrama, -the star indicates true north; the stea indica adevrat latitudine nordic; -the square indicates grid north; the ptrat indica grila latitudine nordic; -the arrow indicates magnetic north; the sgeata indica magnetic latitudine nordic; -G refers to grid declination; G se refer la refuz reea; -C is the convergence angle; C este unghiul de convergen; -D refers to the declination. D. se refer la refuz. All quantities are considered positive. Four cases are illustrated: Toate cantitile sunt considerate pozitive. Patru cazuri sunt ilustrate: 1.Magnetic north west of true north; grid north west of true north; Magnetice la vest la nord de nord adevrat; gril nord-vest de nord adevrat;

2.Magnetic north west of true north; grid north east of true north; Magnetice la vest la nord de nord adevrat; gril nord-est de nord adevrat; 3.Magnetic north east of true north; grid north west of true north; Magnetice de nord-est de nord adevrat; gril de nord vest de nord adevrat; 4.Magnetic north east of true north; grid north east of true north. Magnetic nord-est de nord adevrat; gril nord-est de nord adevrat. Declination is also shown on aeronautical charts as contour lines and on hydrographic (marine) charts either as contour lines or in the form of a compass rose, depending on the scale of the chart. In all cases, true declination is given. Declinaie este, de asemenea, indicate pe hri aeronautice ca linii de contur i pe hidrografice (marin) diagrame fie ca linii de contur sau n form de compas a crescut, n funcie de scara a diagramei. n toate cazurile, Declinaie adevrat este dat. From a magnetic declination chart: ... Dintr-o diagram Declinaie magnetic: Natural Resources Canada produces a 1:10000000 scale chart showing lines of equal magnetic declination and annual change over Canada. The charts are based on the Canadian Geomagnetic Reference Field, a mathematical model of the magnetic field produced every five years. The latest charts are for 2000. A simplified version of the chart is shown here. Natural Resources Canada produce o scar de 1:10000000 grafic care indic liniile de Declinaie egale magnetice i a schimbrilor anuale de peste Canada. Diagrame se bazeaz pe Canadian Geomagnetic Reference Field, Un model matematic al cmp magnetic produs la fiecare cinci ani. Cele mai recente diagrame sunt pentru anul 2000. O versiune simplificat a diagram este prezentat aici.

Figure 21: simple D chart diagram simpl D The complete chart, at a slightly reduced scale, may be downloaded in pdf format. Diagram complet, la o scar redus uor, pot fi descrcate n format pdf. Charts of magnetic declination for the world are also available from the UK Hydrographic Office. Grafice de Declinaie magnetic pentru nimic n lume sunt de asemenea disponibile de la Marea Britanie hidrografic Office. From the declination calculator: ... De la calculator Declinaie: The declination calculator is a simple an easy way to calculate up-to-date declination for any location on Earth. Simply enter the Year, Latitude and Longitude of your location and the declination calculator will give you the declination based on the latest magnetic reference field models. The Calculatorul declin este un simplu o modalitate simpl de a calcula up-toDeclinaie data pentru orice locaie de pe Pamant. Pur i simplu introducei An, longitudinea i latitudinea locaia dumneavoastr i calculatorul Declinaie v va da refuz bazat pe cele mai recente modele de referin cmp magnetic.

Lights and buoysLumini i geamanduri


Aids to navigation Ajutoare pentru navigare
Aids to navigation are special structures like lighthouses, lightships, beacons, buoys, etc that are used to enhance safety by providing more opportunities to obtain LOPs. Ajutoare pentru navigare sunt structuri speciale, cum ar fi faruri, lightships, balize, geamanduri, etc care sunt folosite pentru a spori sigurana, oferind mai multe posibiliti de a obine LOPs. These lights and marks are prescribed across the world by the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA). In 1977 this IALA endorsed two maritime buoyage systems putting an end to the 30 odd systems existing at that time. Region A - IALA A covers all of Europe and most of the rest of the world, whereas region B - IALA B covers only the Americas, Japan, the Philippines and Korea. Fortunately, the differences between these two systems are few. The most striking difference is the direction of buoyage. Aceste lumini i mrci sunt prescrise n ntreaga lume, de ctre Asociaia Internaional de Semnalizare Maritim (IALA). n 1977, acest IALA a aprobat dou sisteme de balizaj maritim a pune capt celor 30 de sisteme de ciudat existente la momentul respectiv. Regiunea A -- IALA A acoper toate din Europa i cele mai multe din restul lumii,

n timp ce regiunea B -- IALA B acoper numai cele doua Americi, Japonia, Filipine i Coreea. Din fericire, diferenele dintre aceste dou sisteme sunt puini. Diferena cea mai surprinztoare este direcie de balizaj. All marks within the IALA system are distinguished by: Toate marcajele n cadrul sistemului de IALA se disting prin:

Shape Form

Colour Colour Topmark Light Lumin

Light identification Lumini de identificare


During daytime, the identification of aids to navigation is accomplished by observing: location, shape, colour scheme, auxiliary features (sound signals, RACON , RC , etc) or markings (name, number, etc). n timpul zilei, identificarea de ajutoare pentru navigaie este realizat cu respectarea: locaie, form, schema de culori, funcii auxiliare (semnale sonore, RACON (transponder radar Beacon-rspunde la semnale speciale), RC (non far direcional; radio beacon circular), Etc) sau Marcajele (nume, numr, etc).

During the night, we use the features of the aid to navigation's light to both identify it and ascertain its purpose. There are three features to describe the light: n timpul nopii, vom utiliza caracteristicile de ajutor pentru navigare lumin att pentru a identifica i a stabili scopul su. Exist trei caracteristici pentru a descrie lumina:

Colour: Either white, red, green or yellow. If no colour is stated in the chart, default is white. Colour: Fie alb, rosu, verde sau galben. Dac nu culoare este menionat n diagram, implicit este de culoare alb. Period: The time in seconds needed for one complete cycle of changes. The arrow indicates the 10 second period of this flashing light Fl(3) 10s. Perioad: Timpul n secunde, necesar pentru un ciclu complet de modificri. Sgeat indic perioada de 10 secunde a acestui clipeste lumina "fl (3) 10s". Phase characteristic: The particular pattern of changes within one complete cycle (hence, within one period). Below are the most common types: Caracteristica de faz: Model special, de modificrile n termen de un ciclu complet (de unde, n termen de o perioad). Mai jos sunt cele mai frecvente tipuri:

Fixed

This light shines with an unblinking and steady intensity and is always on. In this example a yellow fixed light is shown. Fix F Aceasta lumina straluceste cu o intensitate unblinking i de echilibru i este ntotdeauna mai departe. n acest exemplu, un galben fix este afiat. Flashing Fl: The duration of the light is always less than the duration of the darkness. The frequency does not exceed 30 times per minute. Durata de lumina este ntotdeauna mai mic dect durata de ntuneric. Frecvena s nu depeasc 30 de ori pe minut. Quick Flashing Q: Again, the duration of quick flash is less than the darkness. The frequency is at least 60 times per minute. Din nou, durata de fulger rapid este mai mic dect ntuneric. Frecvena este de cel puin 60 de ori pe minut. Very Quick Flashing VQ: Also here, the duration of very quick flash is less than the darkness. The frequency is at least 100 times per minute. De asemenea, aici, durata de aprindere foarte rapid este mai mic dect ntuneric. Frecvena este de cel puin 100 de ori pe minut. Interrupted Quick Flashing IQ: Like Quick Flashing with one moment of darkness in one period. Ca rapid intermitent, cu un moment de ntuneric ntr-o perioad. Isophase Iso: This Light has equal duration between light and darkness. A period consists of both a light and a dark interval. Also called Equal Interval (E Int). Aceast lumin are o durat egal, ntre lumin i ntuneric. O perioad const att o lumin i un interval de ntuneric. De asemenea, numit de anse Interval (E Int). Group Flashing Gp Fl(x+x): This is actually a combination of two patterns in one period. In this example the first 2 flashes followed by the pattern of 3 flashes result in: Gp Fl(2+3). Aceasta este de fapt o combinaie de dou modele ntr-o perioad. n acest exemplu, primele 2 flash-uri, urmat de modelul de 3 flash-uri duce la: GP FL (2 +3). Occulting Occ: Occulting is the opposite of flashing, the light is more on then off. Occulting este opusul intermitent, lumina este mai mult pe Then off. Alternating AL: An alternating light changes colour. This special purpose light is typically used for special applications requiring the exercise of great caution. In this example ALT.WG is shown, alternating between green and white. O alternativ modificri de lumin de culoare. Aceast lumin cu destinaie special este utilizat de obicei pentru aplicaii speciale

care necesit exercitarea mare pruden. n acest exemplu ALT.WG este afiat, alternnd ntre verde i alb. Morse U Mo (U): This light shows two flashes and a longflash, which is equivalent to the letter U in Morse code. Aceast lumin arat dou flashuri i un longflash, care este echivalent cu litera "U" n cod Morse. Long-Flashing LFl: This light has one long flash in a period. A long flash is at least 2 seconds long. Acest lucru are un fulger de lumin mult timp ntr-o perioad. Un fulger lung este de cel puin 2 secunde lung.

Let's look at some examples using colour, period and phase characteristics. The arrows mark the periods: S ne uitm la cteva exemple cu ajutorul culorilor, perioada i caracteristicile faz. Sgeile marca perioade:

Fl (4) 8s Oc (2+3) 10s Iso G 4s

All lighted aids to navigation are either major or minor lights, where major lights are used for key navigational points along sea-coasts, channels and harbour and river entrances. These lights are normally placed in lightships, lighthouses and other permanently installed structures, providing both high intensity and high reliability of the lights. Major lights are then subdivided in primary lights (very strong, long range lights used for the purpose of making landfalls or coastal passages) and secondary lights (shorter range lights found for example at harbour and river entrances). Important details of (especially) primary lights can be found in a reference called the Light List where information (about pedestals etc.) can be found which is not included in the chart. Toate SIDA luminate pentru navigaie sunt fie major sau luminile de minor, n cazul n care luminile majore sunt utilizate pentru puncte cheie de navigaie de mare-de-a lungul coastelor, canale si portuare i de intrrile ru. Aceste lumini sunt n mod normal plasate n lightships, farurile instalate permanent i alte structuri, oferind att de intensitate mare i fiabilitate ridicat de lumini. Luminile majore sunt apoi subdivizate n luminile de primar (foarte puternic, lumini cu raz lung de folosit n scopul de a face landfalls sau pasaje de coast) i Lumini secundara (lumini mai scurt interval gsit, de exemplu, de la port i intrrile ru). Detalii importante ale (n special), lumini primare pot fi gsite ntr-o referin denumit Lista de lumin n cazul n care informaii (despre socluri, etc) pot fi gsite, care nu este inclus n diagram. Minor lights on the other hand are likely to be found within harbours, along channels and rivers. These have a low to moderate intensity and sometimes mark isolated dangers. Lumini minore pe de alt parte, sunt susceptibile de a fi gsite n termen de porturi, de-a lungul canale i ruri. Acestea au o mic pentru a intensitate moderat i, uneori, marca de pericole izolate.

Six types of navigation buoys: ase tipuri de balize de navigare:


Lateral Lateral Cardinal Cardinalul Isolated danger Pericolul izolat Safe water Surse sigure de ap New wreck Ruin nou Special Speciale

Lateral buoys and marks Lateral balize i mrci de


The location of lateral buoys defines the borders of channels and indicates the direction. Under IALA A red buoys mark the port side of the channel when returning from sea, whereas under IALA B green buoys mark the port side of the channel when sailing towards land. Red buoys have even numbers and red lights; green buoys have odd numbers and green lights. Lateral lights can have any calm phase characteristic except FL (2+1). Localizarea laterale balize definete frontierele de canale i indic direcia. Sub IALA O roie balize marca babordul canal la ntoarcerea din mare, ntruct, n temeiul verde IALA B balize marca babord a canalului atunci cnd navigheaz spre teren. Red balize au chiar numere i lumini de culoare roie, verde geamanduri au numere impare si lumini verzi. Luminile lateral poate avea orice alt caracteristic calma faz, cu excepia FL (2 +1).

Generally, when two channels meet, one will be designated the preferred channel (i.e. most important channel). The buoy depicted on the right indicates the preferred channel to starboard under IALA A. The light phase characteristic is R FL (2+1): n general, atunci cnd ndeplinesc dou canale, unul

va fi desemnat canalul preferat (de exemplu, cel mai important canal). Geamandur reprezentate pe dreapta indic canalul preferat s tribord conformitate cu IALA A. caracteristic lumina faz este R FL (2 +1):

The buoy depicted on the left indicates the preferred channel to port under IALA A. These buoys are marked with the names and numbers of both channels. The light phase characteristic is G FL (2+1): Geamandur reprezentate pe stnga indic canalul preferat s port (aceast poziie necesit o geamandur verde pentru canalul preferat. Alt canal are nevoie de un rou geamandur acolo) n conformitate cu IALA A. Aceti geamanduri sunt marcate cu numele i numerele de ambele canale. Caracteristica de lumin faze este G FL (2 +1): For an example of lateral buoys used to mark a (preferred) channel, see direction of buoyage below. Pentru un exemplu de laterale balize utilizate pentru a marca o (de preferat) canal, a se vedea direcie de balizaj dedesubt.

Cardinal buoys= Cardinalul balize


The four cardinal buoys indicate the safe side of a danger with an approximate bearing. For example, the West cardinal buoy has safe water on its West and the danger on its East side. Notice the clockwise resemblance of the light phase characteristics. The top marks consist of two black triangles placed in accordance with the black/yellow scheme of the buoy. When a new obstacle (not yet shown on charts) needs to be marked, two cardinal buoys - for instance a South buoy and an East buoy - will be used to indicate this uncharted danger. The cardinal system is identical in both the IALA A and IALA B buoyage systems. Cardinalul patru balize indica partea n siguran a unui pericol cu un rulment aproximative. De exemplu, Occidentul Cardinalul geamandura a apei n condiii de siguran pe West sale i pericolul pe partea sa de est. Comunicarea sensul acelor de ceasornic "" asemnare dintre caracteristicile fazei de lumin. Mrcile de top format din dou triunghiuri negre plasate, n conformitate cu negru / galben schema de geamandura. Atunci cnd un obstacol nou (nc indicate pe hri) trebuie s fie marcate, doi Cardinalul balize - de exemplu, o geamandura de Sud i de Est o geamandura - va fi folosit pentru a indica aceast "necunoscut" pericol. Sistemul de Cardinalul este identic n ambele Un IALA i B IALA sisteme de balizaj.

Marks indicating isolated dangers indicnd pericolele izolate

Desene

This type of buoy indicates the position of an isolated danger, contrary to cardinal buoys which indicate a direction away from the danger. Body: black with red horizontal band(s); Topmark: 2 black spheres. The light (when present) consists of a white flash: Fl(2). Acest tip de geamandura indic poziia

unui pericol izolat, spre deosebire de Cardinalul geamanduri, care indic o direcie departe de pericol. Body: negru cu banda rosie orizontale (s); Topmark: 2 sfere / bile negre. De lumina (cnd sunt prezente) const ntr-un fulger de culoare alb: FL (2).

Marks indicating safe water Desene indicnd de ap n condiii de siguran

Notice that whereas most horizontal striping spells danger, this safe water buoy is vertically striped. These marks are for example seaward of all other buoys (lateral and cardinal) and can be used to make landfall. Body: red and white vertical stripes; Topmark (if any): single red sphere. Lights are typically calm and white: Morse A, Iso, Occ or LFl 10s.

Observai c n timp ce cele mai multe orizontal vrji micioare, "pericol",


aceast ap n condiii de siguran geamandura este pe vertical cu dungi. Aceste mrci sunt de exemplu maritime ale tuturor celorlalte balize (laterale i cardinal) i poate fi utilizat pentru a face apropiere de coast. Body: rou i alb dungi verticale; Topmark (dac exist sfer): unic rosu. Luminile sunt de obicei calm i alb: Un Morse, ISO, Occ sau LFL 10s.

Marks for new wrecks Desene pentru epave nou


After the sinking of the Tricolor in the Pas de Calais (Dover Straits) in 2002, several other vessels hit the wreck despite standard radio warnings, three guard ships and a lighted buoy. This incident spawned a new type of buoy, the emergency wreck marking buoy, which is placed as close as possible to a new dangerous wreck. Dup scufundarea "Tricolor", n Pas de Calais (Dover Strmtoarea) n 2002, n mai multe alte nave lovit naufragiu, n ciuda avertismentelor de radio standard, trei nave de paz i un iluminat geamandura. Acest incident a dat nastere unui nou tip de geamandura, epav de urgen geamandur de marcare, Care este plasat ct mai aproape de o epav nou

periculos.

The emergency wreck marking buoy will remain in position until: a) the wreck is well known and has been promulgated in nautical publications; b) the wreck has been fully surveyed and exact details such as position and least depth above the wreck are known; and c) a permanent form of marking of the wreck has been carried out. Naufragiu geamandur de marcare de urgen va rmne n poziie pn cnd: a) naufragiu este bine cunoscut i a fost promulgat n publicaii marine; b) epav a fost pe deplin n anchet i detalii exacte cum ar fi poziia i cel adncimea de mai sus naufragiu sunt cunoscute; i c) o form permanent de marcare a epavei a fost efectuat. The buoy has the following characteristics: Geamandur are urmtoarele caracteristici: -A pillar or spar buoy, with size dependant on location. Un pilon sau Spar geamandura, cu o dimensiune depinde de locaie. -Coloured in equal number and dimensions of blue and yellow vertical stripes (minimum of 4 stripes and maximum of 8 stripes). Colorat n numr egal i dimensiunile albastru i galben dungi verticale (minim de 4 dungi i maxim 8 dungi). -Fitted with an alternating blue and yellow flashing light with a nominal range of 4 nautical miles where the blue and yellow 1 second flashes are alternated with an interval of 0.5 seconds. Prevzut cu un lumina alternativ, albastru i galben clipeste cu o gama nominal de 4 mile marine n cazul n albastru i galben intermitent 1 al doilea paragraf se alternat cu un interval de 0,5 secunde.

B1.0s + 0.5s + Y1.0s + 0.5s = 3.0s -If multiple buoys are deployed then the lights will be synchronized. n cazul n care mai multe balize sunt dislocate apoi luminile vor fi sincronizate. -A racon Morse Code D and/or AIS transponder can be used. Un racon alfabetul Morse "D" i / sau SIA transponder pot fi utilizate.

-The top mark, if fitted, is a standing/upright yellow cross . Marca de top, dac exist, este un picioare / cruce n picioare galben (aceasta este o topmark unic i nou). It is important to realize - especially for the colour-blind - that this new buoy breaches the useful and crucial convention: vertical stripes equal safety, horizontal stripes equal danger. Este important s se realizeze - n special pentru culoareaorb - c acest nou geamandura nclcrile Conveniei de util i crucial: dungi verticale de siguran egal, dungi orizontale pericol egale.

Special buoys and marks Speciale de balize i mrci

I have saved these buoys for last since they lack an actual navigational goal. Most of the time these yellow buoys indicate pipelines or areas used for special purposes.

Eu am salvat aceste geamanduri pentru ultima, deoarece le lipsete un obiectiv


real de navigaie. Most de la timp aceste galben geamanduri indica conducte sau zonele folosite pentru scopuri speciale. I have drawn the five official IALA shapes, from left to right: conical, spar, cylindrical, pillar and spherical. Eu am tras cinci oficial IALA forme, de la stnga la dreapta: conice, verg, cilindric, pilonul i sferic.

Chart symbols Simboluri Chart


The seafaring nations of the world - members of the International Hydrographic Organization - agreed in 1982 on an universal set of chart symbols, abbreviations, colours, etc to be used in the nautical chart, in order to obtain uniformity. Naiuni sectorul maritim din lume - membri ai Organizaia Internaional hidrografic n 1982, au convenit asupra unui set universal de simboluri diagram, abrevieri, culori, etc pentru a fi utilizate n diagram nautice, n scopul de a obine uniformitate. On regular charts a white, red, yellow or green lights will be indicated by GPS displays and modern multi-coloured charts in specific colours: , and on , with

the yellow coloured lobe indicating a white light. Pe diagramele regulate de culoare alb, lumini de rosu, galben sau verde vor fi indicate de ctre , Precum i pe afieaz GPS i multi-moderne de culoare diagrame n culori specifice: , Cu lobul galben care indic o lumin alb. The precise position of a chart symbol is its center, or is indicated with a line and circle , the position circle. Poziia exact a unui simbol grafic este centrul ei, sau este indicat cu o linie i cerc , Cercul "poziie". Two distinct types of sea mark are drawn differently in the chart: Dou tipuri distincte de marca de mare sunt redactate n mod diferit n diagram:

beacons - fixed to the seabed; drawn upright; beacons - Fixate pe fundul mrii; poziie vertical trase; buoys - consisting of a floating object that is usually anchored to a specific location on the sea floor; drawn at an oblique angle and with oblique numbering, descriptions of colours and light characteristics. geamanduri Constnd dintr-un obiect plutitor, care este de obicei, ancorat ntr-o locaie specific pe fundul mrii; trase la un unghi oblic i cu oblice de numerotare, descrieri de culori i caracteristicile lumin.

Major floating light (light-vessel, major lightfloat, LANBY) Major lumina plutitoare (luminanav, lumina majore-float, LANBY) Light-vesselLight-nav Major light; minor lightLumina majore; lumina minore Green or black buoys (symbols filled black): G = Green ; B = Black Verde sau negru geamanduri (simboluri umplut negru): G = Verde; B. = Negru Green or black beacon (symbol filled black). Note the upright G, instead of an oblique G Beacon verde sau negru (simbol umplut negru). Not G n poziie vertical, n loc de un oblice G Single coloured buoys other than green and black: Y = Yellow ; R = RedUnic de culoare balize, altele dect verde i negru: D = Galben; C = Red

Coloured beacon other than green and black, the symbol is again filled black so only the shape of the topmark is of navigational significance. Beacon colorate, altele dect verde i negru, simbolul este din nou plin negru, astfel numai forma de topmark este de o importan de navigaie. Multiple colours in horizontal bands, the colour sequence is from top to bottom Culori multiple n benzi orizontale, secvena culorilor este de sus n jos Multiple colours in vertical or diagonal stripes, the darker colour is given first. W = White Culori multiple n dungi verticale sau diagonal, de culoare mai nchis este dat primul. V = Alb Spar buoy (here a safe water mark) Spat geamandur (aici o marc de ap potabil) Lighted marks on multi-coloured charts, GPS displays and chart plotters. Semne luminoase pe multi-colorat diagrame, display-uri GPS i plottere diagram. Lighted red beacon on standard charts. Beacon luminoase de culoare roie pe grafice standard. Red beacon and green buoy with topmark, colour, radar reflector and designation. Red buoys and marks are given even numbers, green buoys and marks are given odd numbers. Far rou i verde, geamandura cu topmark, culoare, reflector radar i de desemnare. Red balize i mrci sunt date chiar i numere, verde geamanduri i mrci sunt date numere impare Wave-actuated bell buoy to the left, and to the right a Light buoy, with a horn giving a single

blast every 15 seconds, in conjunction with a wave-actuated whistle. Other sounds include Gong, Siren, Diaphone (Dia). Waveacionat clopot geamandura la stnga i la dreapta o lumin geamandura, cu un corn oferind un suflu unic la fiecare 15 secunde, n combinaie cu un val-acionat fluier. Alte sunete includ "Gong", "Siren", "Diaphone" (Dia). The fog signal symbol may be omitted when a description of the signal is given. Simbolul semnal de cea pot fi omise n cazul n care o descriere a semnalului este dat. Leading beacons - Leading line (firm line is the track to be followed) Leading balize Incipit (linie de ntreprindere este cale de a fi urmate) Leading lights ( : any two objects in line under each other). Bearing given in degrees and minutes. The lights are synchronized. The red light has a shorter nominal range (the distance from which the light can be seen): 10 nautical miles. Leading lumini (: oricare dou obiecte n linie n cadrul fiecrui altele). Avnd dat n grade i minute. Luminile sunt sincronizate. Lumin roie are o gam mai scurt nominal (distana de la care lumina poate fi vzut): 10 mile marine. All-round light with obscured sector Toatelumina rotund, cu ascunse sectorul de

Sector light on multi-coloured charts. The elevation is 21 metres (height of the light structure above chart datum). The nominal range of the white light is 18 nautical miles. The range of the green and red light is 12 nautical miles. Sector lumin asupra multicolore diagrame. Altitudine este de 21 de metri (nlimea a structurii de lumina Datum graficul de mai sus). Gama nominal a lumin alb este de 18 mile marine. Gama de lumina verde i rou este de 12 mile marine. Main light visible all-round with red subsidiary light seen over danger. The fixed red light has an elevation of 55 metres and a nominal range of 12 nautical miles. The flashing light is white, with three flashes in a period of 10 seconds. The elevation is higher than the red light: 62 metres and the range of the white light is 25 nautical miles. Principale a luminii vizibile totrotund cu lumina de filial rosu vazut de peste pericol. Lumin roie fix are o altitudine de 55 de metri i o gam nominal de 12 mile marine. Semnal luminos intermitent este de culoare alb, cu trei flash-uri ntr-o perioad de 10 secunde. Altitudine este mai mare dect lumina roie: 62 metri i gama de lumin alb este de 25 mile marine. Symbol showing direction of buoyage (where not obvious) Direcie simbol care s arate de balizaj (n cazul n care nu sunt evidente) Symbol showing direction of buoyage (where not obvious), on multi-coloured charts (red and green circles coloured as appropriate), here IALA A Direcie simbol care s arate de

balizaj (n cazul n care nu sunt evidente), pe multi-colorat diagrame (rou i verde cercuri colorate, dup caz), aici IALA A
Full example of a light description in the chart: Completa exemplu de o descriere lumin n diagram:
Fl(3)WRG.15s21m15-11M

Class of light: group flashing repeating a group of three flashes; Clasa de lumin: Grup clipeste repetarea un grup de trei flash-uri; Colours: white, red, green, exhibiting the different colours in defined sectors;

Colours: Alb, rosu, verde, expoziional de culori diferite, n sectoare definite;


Period: the time taken to exhibit one full sequence of 3 flashes and eclipses: 15 seconds; Perioad: Timpul necesar pentru a expune o secven plin de 3 flashuri i eclipsele: 15 de secunde; Elevation of light : 21 metres; Altitudine de lumin : 21 metri; Nominal range(s): white 15 M, green 11 M, red between 15 and 11 M, where M stands for nautical miles. Gama nominal (s): Alb 15 m, verde, 11 M, rou ntre 15 i 11 M, n cazul n care "M" vine de la mile marine.

Lateral Marks - direction of buoyage Lateral, desene - direcia de balizaj


Lateral marks are generally for well-defined channels and there are two international Buoyage Regions - A and B - where these Lateral marks differ. Where in force, the IALA System applies to all fixed and floating marks except landfall lights, leading lights and marks, sectored lights and major floating lights. Mrcile laterale sunt, n general, de bine definite canale i exist dou regiuni internaionale de balizaj - A i B - n cazul n care aceste mrci Lateral difer. n cazul n care n vigoare, sistemul IALA se aplic tuturor mrcilor fixe i plutitoare, cu excepia lumini de apropiere de coast, lumini de conducere i mrci, lumini sectored i majore lumini plutitoare. The standard buoy shapes are cylindrical (can) , conical , spherical , pillar

and spar , but variations may occur, for example: minor light-floats . In the illustrations below, only the standard buoy shapes are used. Standard de geamandur forme sunt cilindrice (CAN) , Conic , Sferic , Pilon i Spar , Dar variaii pot aprea, de exemplu: lumina minore-flotoare . n ilustraiile de mai jos, numai standard de geamandura forme sunt utilizate. In the case of fixed beacons - lit or unlit - only the shape of the topmark is of

navigational significance. n caz de balize fix topmark este de o importan de navigaie.

- Aprins sau stins - numai forma

IALA Region A Europe Africa New Zealand Australia China India Russia Indonesi a Turkey Middle East (Orientul Mijlociu) Etc.

IALA Region B Americas Philippine s Japan Korea

Visibility of lights
sailingissues.com

Vizibilitatea

luminilor

It is important to know at what distance we may (begin to) see a certain light, and when we can expect to lose sight of it, especially when making landfall. Several practical ranges are used to the describe the visibility of lights in navigation: Este important s se tie la ce distanta am putea (ncepe s) a vedea o anumit lumin, i atunci cnd ne putem atepta s piard din vedere, mai ales atunci cnd se face apropiere de coast. Mai multe intervale practice sunt folosite pentru a descrie vizibilitatea n lumini de navigare:

The meteorological range is based on the current atmospheric conditions. The table below shows that the atmosphere immensely influences the visibility of light travelling through it. The intervalul meteorologica se bazeaz pe condiiile actuale atmosferice. Tabelul de mai jos arat c atmosfera imens influeneaz vizibilitatea de a cltori lumina prin ea.

Meteorological Optical Range Table Meteorologic optice Gama de mas

Code Weather No. 0 Dense fogCea deas Thick fogCea groas

Distance (m) Less than (Mai puin) 50 50 - 200

Code Weather No. 5 HazeNegur Light hazeCeata Lumina ClearLimpede

Distance (nm) 1.0 - 2.0

1 2 3 4

6 7 8 9

2.0 - 5.5 5.5 - 11.0

ModerateModerate 200 - 500 Light fogCeata Light Thin fogDe cea Thin 500 1000 1000 2000

Very clearFoarte clar 11.0 - 27.0 Exceptionally clearn Over (Peste) 27.0 mod excepional clar

The geographic range is based on the elevation of the light. A higher light means that its horizon is farther away, see distance of horizon. The intervalul geografic se bazeaz pe altitudinea de lumina. O lumin mai mare nseamn c orizontul su este mai departe, a se vedea distan de orizont. Moreover, if the observer's height of eye is higher than sea level the light can been seen beyond its geographic range, the dipping range. However, on sailing yachts this potential is limited. Mai mult dect att, n cazul n care nlimea observatorului de ochi este mai mare dect nivelul marii luminii poate fost vzut dincolo de gama sa geografic, cufundare gam. Cu toate acestea, pe iahturi de navigatie acest potenial este limitat. The nominal range of a light is based on its candlepower, and is typically the range mentioned in the chart. The nominal range is the maximum distance at which a light can be seen in weather conditions where visibility is 10 nm. The gama nominal de o lumin se bazeaz pe candlepower sale, i este de obicei n intervalul menionat n diagram. Gama nominal este distana maxim la care o lumin poate fi vzut n condiii meteorologice n cazul n care vizibilitatea este de 10 nm.

So, a minor light - perched on a 70m high cliff - with a geographic range of 20 nm will not be detectable by the human eye at a distance of 6 nm Deci, o lumin minore - cocoat pe o stnc 70m de mare - cu o gam geografice de 20 nm nu va fi detectabile de ochiul uman, la o distan de 6 nm 1. if the nominal range is just 5 nm. n cazul n gama nominal este de doar 5 nm.

2. if the meteorological range is just 5 nm due to a light haze. n cazul n care gama meteorologie este de doar 5 nm, din cauza unei Haze lumin. Because of the limiting factor of the geographic range, most major lights will never be seen from a sailing yacht 20 nm away. Yet, it is sometimes possible to take a bearing on the loom of the light: its reflection against the clouds. Din cauza factorului de limitare a gamei geografice, lumini de cele mai importante nu va fi niciodat privit dintr-un iaht cu pnze 20 nm departe. Cu toate acestea, uneori este posibil s se ia o influen asupra rzboi de esut de lumina: sale de reflecie mpotriva nori. Different coloured lights with equal candlepower have different ranges. White light is the most visible followed by yellow, green and then red. Therefore, at extreme ranges an AL WG can resemble a Fl W. Diferite lumini colorate, cu candlepower egale au intervale diferite. Lumina alba este cea mai vizibil, urmat de galben, verde si apoi rosu. Prin urmare, variaz de la o extrem "AL Grupul de lucru" poate semene cu un "fl W". The range of a lit buoy is never indicated - with the exception of a LANBY - but on a clear night the maximum range is 3 nm, yet often considerably less. Gama de o geamandura aprins niciodat nu este indicat, - cu excepia unei LANBY - dar ntr-o noapte clar distana maxim este de 3 nm, dar de multe ori considerabil mai puin. There are 2 visual clues to determine your distance from a buoy: at about 0.5 nm, the light will rise up from the horizon, and at about 200m, the light will reflect in the surface. Exist 2 indicii vizuale pentru a determina distana de la o geamandura: la aproximativ 0,5 nm, lumina se va ridica de la orizont, i la aproximativ 200m, lumina va reflecta n suprafa.

Buoy at less Buoy at less Buoy at less than 3 nm than 0.5 than 200m Geamandur nm Geamandur la mai puin Geamandur la mai puin de 3 nm la mai puin

de 0,5 Nm

de 200m

Glossary

Navigation aid: An onboard instrument, device, chart, method, etc., intended to assist in the navigation. Ajutor de navigare: Un instrument de bord, dispozitiv, diagram, metod, etc, destinate pentru a ajuta la navigare. Aid to navigation: A device or structure external to the ship, designed to assist in determination of position, to define a safe course, or to warn of dangers or obstructions. Ajutor pentru navigare: Un dispozitiv sau structura extern a navei, concepute pentru a ajuta la determinarea poziiei, pentru a defini un curs n condiii de siguran, sau pentru a avertiza cu privire la pericole sau obstacole. Mark, seamark, navigation mark: An artificial or natural object of easily recognizable shape or colour, or both, situated in such a position that it may be identified on a chart. A fixed artificial navigation mark is often called a Beacon. Marcare, seamark, marca de navigare: Un obiect artificial sau natural, de form uor de recunoscut sau de culoare, sau ambele, situat ntr-o astfel de poziie pe care acesta poate fi identificat pe un grafic. O marc fix artificiale de navigare este adesea numit un far. Light characteristics: The sequence and length of light and dark periods and the colour or colours by which a navigational light is identified. Caracteristici de lumin: Secventa i durata perioadelor de lumin i ntuneric i culoarea sau culorile prin care o lumin de navigaie este identificat. Topmark: One of more objects of characteristic shape placed on top of a buoy or beacon to aid in its identification. Topmark: Unul din mai multe obiecte de form caracteristic plasat pe partea de sus a o geamandura sau far pentru a ajuta la identificarea acestuia. Lateral Mark: An aid to navigation intended to mark the sides of a channel or waterway. Lateral Mark: Un ajutor pentru navigare destinate pentru a marca laturi ale unui canal sau fluvial. Cardinal Marks: An IALA aid to navigation intended to show the location of a danger to navigation based on its position relative to the danger using the

cardinal point: north, east, south, west. Cardinal, desene: O IALA ajutor pentru navigaie destinate s arate locaia un pericol pentru navigaie pe baza poziiei sale n raport cu pericolul folosind punctul "Cardinal": nord, est, sud, vest.

Isolated danger Marks: An IALA aid to navigation marking a danger with clear water all around it; it has a double ball topmark and is black with at least one red band. If lighted its characteristic is Fl(2). Marks pericol izolate: Un ajutor IALA la navigare marcarea un pericol cu ap limpede tot n jurul acestuia, ea are un dublu topmark minge i este negru cu cel puin o band roie. n cazul n care luminat caracteristic su este FL (2). Sector light: A light having sectors of different colours or the same colour in specific sectors separated by dark sectors. Sectorul de lumin: O lumin sectoare care au de culori diferite sau de aceeai culoare, n sectoare specifice, separate pe sectoare de ntuneric. Light sector: As defined by bearings from seaward, the sector in which a navigational light is visible or in which it has a distinctive colour difference from that of adjoining sectors, or in which it is obscured. Sectorul de lumin: Aa cum sunt definite de rulmeni dinspre mare, sectorul n care-o lumin de navigaie este vizibil sau n care acesta are o diferen de culoare distinctiv de cea a sectoarelor nvecinate, sau n care aceasta este ascuns. Lighthouse: A distinctive structure exhibiting a major navigation light. Farul: O structura distinctiv, care prezint o lumin majore de navigare. Light List: A publication giving detailed information regarding lighted navigational aids and fog signals. Lista de lumin: O publicaie care ofer informaii detaliate cu privire la ajutoare de navigare luminat i semnale de cea. Landfall: The first sighting (even by radar) of land when approached from seaward. Apropiere de coast: Reperare prima (chiar i de ctre radar) de teren atunci cnd se apropia dinspre mare. Range: Two or more objects in line. Such objects are said to be in range. An observer having them in range is said to be on the range. Two beacons are frequently located for the specific purpose of forming a range to indicate a safe route or the centerline of a channel. Categorie: Dou sau mai multe obiecte n linie. Astfel de obiecte se spune c sunt n gam. Un observator a le avea n gama este declarat a fi pe raza de aciune. Dou balize sunt adesea situate n scopul specific de a forma o gam pentru a indica o cale sigur sau central a unui canal.

Leading line: On a nautical chart, a straight line, drawn through leading marks. A ship moving along such line will clear certain dangers or remain in the best channel. Leading linie de: Pe o diagram nautice, o linie dreapt, trasat prin semne de conducere. O nav care se deplaseaz de-a lungul liniei de acest fel vor clare anumite pericole sau s rmn n cel mai bun canal. Range lights, leading lights: Two or more lights at different elevations so situated to form a range (leading line) when brought into transit. The one nearest to the observer is the from light and the one farthest from the observer is the rear light. The front light is at a lower elevation than the rear light. Lumini Range, lumini de conducere: Dou sau mai multe lumini i la altitudini diferite, astfel nct situat pentru a forma un interval (linie de conducere), atunci cnd a adus n tranzit. Cel mai apropiat la un observator este de lumin i cel mai ndeprtat de la un observator este lumina din spate. Lumina din fa se afl la o altitudine mai mic dect lumina din spate. Lights in line: Two or more lights so situated that when observed in transit they define a position: the limit of an area, an alignment used for anchoring, etc. Not to be confused with range lights, which mark a direction to be followed. Lumini, n conformitate: Dou sau mai multe lumini situat astfel c, atunci cnd au observat n tranzit a defini o poziie: limita unei suprafee, o aliniere utilizate pentru ancorarea, etc nu trebuie confundat cu lumini de gama, care marca o direcie de urmat. Light-float : A buoy having a boat-shaped body. Light-floats are nearly always unmanned and are used instead of smaller lighted buoys in waters where strong currents are experienced. Light-float : O geamandur cu o barca-n form de corp. Light-flotoare sunt aproape ntotdeauna fr pilot i sunt folosite n loc de mai mici luminat balize n apele n care cureni puternici sunt cu experien. Primary (sea-coast) light: A light established for purpose of making landfall or coastwise past from headland to headland. Primar (de marecoasta) lumina: O lumin stabilite n scopul de a face apropiere de coast sau de trecut a lungul coastei de la promontoriu la promontoriu. Secondary light: A major light, other than a primary (sea-coast) light, established at harbour entrances and other locations where high intensity and reliability are required. Uoare secundar: O lumin major, alta dect un primar (Mare-coasta) uoare, cu sediul la intrri port i n alte locaii unde de intensitate mare i fiabilitatea sunt necesare. Major light: A light of high intensity and reliability exhibited from a fixed structure (lighthouse) or on marine site (except range lights). Major lights include primary sea-coast and secondary lights. Lumina Major: O lumin de intensitate mare i fiabilitate expuse de la o structur fix (far) sau pe

site-ul marine (cu excepia lumini interval). Lumini majore includ mare primar-coasta si lumini secundare.

Minor light: An automatic unmanned light on a fixed structure usually showing low to moderate intensity. Minor lights are established in harbours, along channels, along rivers, and in isolated dangers. Uoare minore:-O lumin fr pilot automat pe o structur fix de obicei, care arat sczute pentru a intensitate moderat. Lumini minore sunt stabilite n porturi, de-a lungul canalelor, de-a lungul rurilor, precum i n pericolelor izolate. Visual range: The extreme distance at which an object of light can be seen. Gama Visual: Distana de extrem la care un obiect de lumina poate fi vzut. Geographic range: The extreme distance limited by the curvature of the earth and both the heights of the object and the observer. Intervalul geografic: Distanta de extrem limitat de curbur a pmntului i ambele nlimi de obiect i de observator. Bobbing a light: Quickly lowering the height of eye and raising it again when a navigational light is first sighted to determine if the observer is at the geographic range of the light. Bobbing o lumin: Rapid coborrea la nlimea ochilor i ridicnd-o din nou atunci cnd o lumin de navigaie este primul cu probleme de vedere pentru a determina dac este observator la gama geografic a luminii. Luminous range: The extreme distance limited only by the intensity of the light, clearness of the atmosphere and the sensitiveness of the observer's eye. Intervalul luminoasa: Distana de extrem limitat doar de intensitatea luminii, claritate a atmosferei i sensibilitatea ochiului observatorului. Luminous range diagram: A diagram used to convert the nominal range of a light to its luminous range under existing conditions. Diagrama Luminous gam: O diagram utilizat pentru a converti gama nominal de o lumin pentru a gamei sale luminoase, n condiii existente. Charted or Nominal Range: The nominal range is indicated in the chart next to the light or can be found in the Light List. This is the maximum distance at which a light may be seen at night based upon intensity and 10 nautical miles of visibility. Clasat sau a domeniului nominal: Gama nominal este indicat n graficul de lng lumina sau pot fi gsite n Lista de lumin. Aceasta este distana maxim la care o lumin poate fi vzut pe timp de noapte pe baza de intensitate i de 10 mile marine de vizibilitate. Meteorological Range: The nominal range is indicated in the chart next to the light or can be found in the Light List. This is the maximum distance at

which a light may be seen at night based upon intensity and 10 nautical miles of visibility. Meteorologice Range: Gama nominal este indicat n graficul de lng lumina sau pot fi gsite n Lista de lumin. Aceasta este distana maxim la care o lumin poate fi vzut pe timp de noapte pe baza de intensitate i de 10 mile marine de vizibilitate. Use the logo to navigate through this course. Utiliza logo-ul pentru a naviga prin acest curs.