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Chapter 12: Joining & Fastening Processes

12.1 Introduction

Classification of joining methods

Fusion welding (융접)

Solid-state welding (고상용접)

Brazing/Soldering (납접)

Adhesive Bonding (접착제 접합)

Mechanical Fastening (기계적 결합)

Joint (이음형식)

Fastening ( 기계적 결합 ) □ Joint ( 이음형식 ) FIGURE 12.1 Examples of welded joints.

FIGURE 12.1 Examples of welded joints. (note) butt (맞대기), corner (모서리), lap (겹치기), edge (끝단)

12.2 Oxyfuel Gas Welding

Oxyfuel gas welding (OFW)

12.2 Oxyfuel Gas Welding □ Oxyfuel gas welding (OFW) FIGURE 12.2 (d)
12.2 Oxyfuel Gas Welding □ Oxyfuel gas welding (OFW) FIGURE 12.2 (d)
12.2 Oxyfuel Gas Welding □ Oxyfuel gas welding (OFW) FIGURE 12.2 (d)

FIGURE 12.2 (d)

Oxyacetylene gas welding (OAW) (산소 아세틸렌 용접)

gas welding (OAW) ( 산소 아세틸렌 용접 ) FIGURE 12.2 Three basic types of oxyacetylene flames

FIGURE 12.2 Three basic types of oxyacetylene flames used in oxyfuel gas welding and cutting operations:

(a) neutral flame; (b) oxidizing flame; (c) carburizing, or reducing, flame. (d) The principle of the oxyfuel gas welding operation.

Flame types

Neutral flame (중성염, 표준염)

Primary reaction:

C 2 H 2

+

O 2

2CO + H 2 +

Heat

 

Secondary reaction:

2CO +

H 2

+ 1.5O 2

2CO 2

+

H 2 O

+

Heat

Oxidizing flame (산화염)

Reducing flame (환원염), Carburizing flame (탄화염)

Filler metal (용가재)

Flux: Roles

Pressure gas welding (가스 압접)

□ Pressure gas welding ( 가스 압접 ) FIGURE 12.3 (b) after. Note the formation of

FIGURE 12.3

(b) after. Note the formation of a flash at the joint, which can later be trimmed off.

Schematic illustration of the pressure gas welding process; (a) before, and

12.3 Arc Welding Processes: Consumable Electrode (아크용접: 소모성 전극)

12.3.1 Heat transfer in arc welding

Heat input, H:

H

l

= e VI

v

H= uAl

where

where

l =weld length

e =process efficiency

V=applied voltage

I =current v=welding speed

u =specific energy for melting A =cross section of weld

Welding speed:

v= e VI

H/l = e VI

uA

v electrode arc I l A
v
electrode
arc
I
l
A

V

TABLE 12.3 Approximate specific energy required to melt a unit volume of commonly welded materials

arc I l A V TABLE 12.3 Approximate specific energy required to melt a unit volume

12.3.2 Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)

12.3.2 Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) all large-scale industrial welding operations use this process . (b)

all

large-scale industrial welding operations use this process. (b) Schematic illustration of the shielded metal arc welding operation.

FIGURE

12.4

(a)

Schematic

illustration

of

the

shielded

metal

arc

welding

process.

About

one-half

of

Electrode: Filler & coating

Power source:

AC

DC: - Straight polarity (정극법): shallow penetration - Reverse polarity (역극법): deep penetration

Features: Penetration depth = 3~19mm

penetration □ Features: • Penetration depth = 3~19mm z o n e showing the build-up sequence

zone

showing the build-up sequence of

FIGURE 12.5

A

weld

individual

weld

beads

in

deep

welds

12.3.3 Submerged arc welding (SAW)

Penetration depth: less than 60mm

arc welding (SAW) □ Penetration depth: less than 60mm FIGURE 12.6 Unfused flux is recovered and

FIGURE 12.6

Unfused flux is recovered and reused.

Schematic illustration of the submerged arc welding process and equipment.

12.3.4 Gas metal arc welding [GMAW] = MIG [metal inert gas] welding

Gas metal arc welding [GMAW] = MIG [metal inert gas] welding FIGURE 12.7 (a) Gas metal
Gas metal arc welding [GMAW] = MIG [metal inert gas] welding FIGURE 12.7 (a) Gas metal

FIGURE 12.7

(a) Gas metal arc welding process, (b) Basic equipment used in gas metal arc welding operations.

Basic equipment used in gas metal arc welding operations. <Metal transfer mode> • Gobular: Deep penetration

<Metal transfer mode>

Gobular: Deep penetration

Spray: Spatter-free

Short-circuit: Low temperature

12.3.5 Flux-cored arc welding [FCAW]

12.3.5 Flux-cored arc welding [FCAW] FIGURE 12.8 Schematic illustration of the flux-cored arc welding process. This

FIGURE 12.8 Schematic illustration of the flux-cored arc welding process. This operation is similar to gas metal arc welding.

12.3.6

Electrogas welding [EGW]

12.3.7 Electroslag welding [ESW]

Electrogas welding [EGW] 12.3.7 Electroslag welding [ESW] FIGURE 12.9 Schematic illustration of the electrogas welding

FIGURE 12.9 Schematic illustration of the electrogas welding process. Weld thickness = 12~75mm

of the electrogas welding process. Weld thickness = 12~75mm FIGURE 12.10 Equipment used for electroslag welding

FIGURE 12.10 Equipment used for electroslag welding operations. Weld thickness = 50~900mm

12.4 Arc Welding Processes: Nonconsumable Electrode (아크용접: 비소모성 전극)

12.4.1 Gas tungsten arc welding [GTAW] = TIG [Tungsten inert gas) welding

arc welding [GTAW] = TIG [Tungsten inert gas) welding FIGURE 12.11 (a) Gas tungsten arc welding
arc welding [GTAW] = TIG [Tungsten inert gas) welding FIGURE 12.11 (a) Gas tungsten arc welding

FIGURE 12.11 (a) Gas tungsten arc welding process, (b) Equipment for gas tungsten arc welding operations.

12.4.3 Plasma arc welding [PHA]

12.4.3 Plasma arc welding [PHA] FIGURE 12.12 Two types of plasma arc welding processes: (a) transferred

FIGURE 12.12 Two types of plasma arc welding processes:

(a) transferred (이행성) and (b) nontransferred (비이행성). Deep and narrow welds are made by this process at high welding speeds.

12.5 High-Energy-Beam Welding

12.5.1 Electron-beam welding [EBW] 전자빔용접

Depth-to-width ratio = 10~30

Penetration depth : up to 150mm

ratio = 10~30 • Penetration depth : up to 150mm FIGURE 12.13 Comparison of the size
ratio = 10~30 • Penetration depth : up to 150mm FIGURE 12.13 Comparison of the size

FIGURE 12.13 Comparison of the size of weld beads in (a) electron-beam or laser-beam welding with that in (b) conventional (tungsten arc) welding.

12.5.2 Laser-beam welding [LBW]

Depth-to-width ratio = 4~10

Penetration depth : up to 25mm

ratio = 4~10 • Penetration depth : up to 25mm FIGURE 12.14 Gillette Sensor razor cartridge,
ratio = 4~10 • Penetration depth : up to 25mm FIGURE 12.14 Gillette Sensor razor cartridge,

FIGURE 12.14 Gillette Sensor razor cartridge, with laser-beam welds.

12.6 The Fusion Welded Joint

Typical fusion welded joint

Fusion zone (융합부)

Heat-affected zone (열영향부)

Base metal (모재)

zone ( 열영향부 ) • Base metal ( 모재 ) FIGURE 12.15 Characteristics of a typical

FIGURE 12.15 Characteristics of a typical fusion weld zone in oxyfuel gas welding and arc welding processes.

weld zone in oxyfuel gas welding and arc welding processes. FIGURE 12.16 Grain structure in (a)

FIGURE 12.16 Grain structure in (a)

weld. Note that the grains in the solidified weld metal

a shallow

a

deep weld and (b)

(용착금속) are perpendicular to their interface with the base metal.

12.6.1 Weld quality

Porosity (기공/기포)

12.6.1 Weld quality □ Porosity ( 기공 / 기포 ) □ Slag inclusion □ Incomplete fusion

Slag inclusion

Incomplete fusion

FIGURE 12.20 (b)

) □ Slag inclusion □ Incomplete fusion FIGURE 12.20 (b) FIGURE 12.19 Examples of various incomplete

FIGURE 12.19 Examples of various incomplete fusion in welds

Incomplete penetration (용입부족)

Weld Profile (용착부 형상)

Underfill (충전부족)

Undercut

Overlap

) • Underfill ( 충전부족 ) • Undercut • Overlap FIGURE 12.20 Examples of various incomplete

FIGURE 12.20

Examples of various incomplete fusion in welds.

Crack (균열)

□ Crack ( 균열 ) FIGURE 12.20 Examples of various defects in fusion welds. FIGURE 12.22

FIGURE 12.20

Examples of various defects in fusion welds.

) FIGURE 12.20 Examples of various defects in fusion welds. FIGURE 12.22 Crack in a weld

FIGURE 12.22 Crack in a weld bead,

due

to

the

fact

that

the

two

components

were

not

allowed

to

contract

after

the weld was completed.

Lamellar tear Lamellar tear

Remedies

□ Lamellar tear Lamellar tear Remedies □ Surface damage: • Metal spatter • Arc strike <spatter>

Surface damage:

Metal spatter Arc strike

□ Lamellar tear Lamellar tear Remedies □ Surface damage: • Metal spatter • Arc strike <spatter>

<spatter>

Residual stress (잔류응력)

□ Residual stress ( 잔류응력 ) FIGURE 12.23 contraction of different regions of the welded assembly.

FIGURE 12.23

contraction of different regions of the welded assembly. Warping can be reduced or eliminated by proper

weld design and fixturing prior to welding.

Distortion and warping of parts after welding, caused by differential thermal expansion and

after welding, caused by differential thermal expansion and FIGURE 12.24 Residual stresses developed in a straight

FIGURE 12.24

Residual stresses developed in a straight butt joint.

FIGURE 12.25 Distortion of a welded structure. (a) Before welding; (b) during welding, with weld

FIGURE 12.25 Distortion of a welded structure. (a) Before welding; (b) during welding, with weld bead placed in joint; (c) after welding, showing distortion in the structure.

◊ 대책: Preheating (예열)

Stress-relief annealing

Peening, Hammering, Surface rolling

Proof stressing

12.6.2 Weldability

12.6.3 Testing welded joints

Destructive testing (파괴검사):

Tension test: longitudinal, transverse

Tension-shear test

Bend test

transverse • Tension-shear test • Bend test FIGURE 12.26 method. (c) Three-point bending of welded

FIGURE 12.26

method. (c) Three-point bending of welded specimens. (See also Fig. 2.21.)

(a) Types of specimens for tension-shear testing of welds. (b) Wrap-around bend test

Fracture toughness test: Impact testing

• Fracture toughness test: Impact testing FIGURE 2.29 Impact test specimens: (a) Charpy (b) lzod. •

FIGURE 2.29

Impact test specimens: (a) Charpy (b) lzod.

Corrosion & Creep test

FIGURE 2.28 Schematic illustration of a typical creep curve. The linear segment of the curve (constant slope) is useful in designing components for a specific creep life.

creep curve. The linear segment of the curve (constant slope) is useful in designing components for

Testing of spot weld:

- tension-shear

- cross-tension

- twist

- peel

Nondestructive testing

(비파괴검사)

12.6.4 Welding process selection

testing ( 비파괴검사 ) 12.6.4 Welding process selection FIGURE 12.27 (a) Tension-shear test for spot welds

FIGURE 12.27

(a) Tension-shear test for spot welds;

(b)

cross-tension test;

(c)

twist test;

(d)

peel test.

12.7 Cold Welding

12.7 Cold Welding □ Roll bonding / Roll welding / Cladding FIGURE 12.28 Schematic illustration of
12.7 Cold Welding □ Roll bonding / Roll welding / Cladding FIGURE 12.28 Schematic illustration of

Roll bonding / Roll welding / Cladding

12.7 Cold Welding □ Roll bonding / Roll welding / Cladding FIGURE 12.28 Schematic illustration of

FIGURE 12.28 Schematic illustration of the roll-bonding, or cladding, process.

12.8 Ultrasonic Welding (초음파용접)

12.8 Ultrasonic Welding (초음파용접) FIGURE 12.29 (a) Components of an ultrasonic welding machine for lap welds.

FIGURE 12.29 (a) Components of an ultrasonic welding machine for lap welds. (b) Ultrasonic seam welding using a roller

FIGURE 12.29 (a) Components of an ultrasonic welding machine for lap welds. (b) Ultrasonic seam welding
FIGURE 12.29 (a) Components of an ultrasonic welding machine for lap welds. (b) Ultrasonic seam welding

12.9 Friction Welding (마찰용접)

12.9 Friction Welding (마찰용접) FIGURE 12.30 Sequence of operations in the friction welding process. (1) The

FIGURE 12.30 Sequence of operations in the friction welding process. (1) The part on the left is rotated at high speed. (2) The part on the right is brought into contact under an axial force. (3) The axial force is increased, and the part on the left stops rotating; flash begins to form. (4) After a specified upset length or distance is achieved, the weld is completed. The upset length is the distance the two pieces move inward during welding after their initial contact; thus, the total length after welding is less than the sum of the lengths of the two pieces. If necessary, the flash can be removed by secondary operations, such as machining or grinding.

a c h i n i n g o r g r i n d i
a c h i n i n g o r g r i n d i

piston. (a) Cutaway

view of the piston, showing the oil gallery and friction welded sections; (b) detail of the friction welds before the external flash is removed by machining; note that

this photo is a reverse

FIGURE 12.62

The Monosteel ®

of the

one on

the left.

FIGURE 12.62 The Monosteel ® of the one on the left. FIGURE 12.31 Shapes of the

FIGURE

12.31

Shapes

of

the

fusion

zone

in

friction

welding

as

a

function

of

the

force

applied

and

the

rotational speed.

□ 변형: Inertia friction welding

Linear friction welding

Friction stir welding

• Linear friction welding • Friction stir welding <linear friction welding> <Inertia friction

<linear friction welding>

• Friction stir welding <linear friction welding> <Inertia friction welding> FIGURE 12.32 The

<Inertia friction welding>

friction welding> <Inertia friction welding> FIGURE 12.32 The principle of the friction stir welding

FIGURE 12.32 The principle of the friction stir welding process. Aluminum-alloy plates up to 75 mm thick have been welded by this process.

12.10 Resistance Welding [전기저항용접]

Heat generated in resistance welding:

H = KI 2 Rt

• Heat generated in resistance welding: H = KI 2 Rt • Requirements for electrode materials

Requirements for electrode materials

• Heat generated in resistance welding: H = KI 2 Rt • Requirements for electrode materials

12.10.1 Resistance spot welding (점용접]

12.10.1 Resistance spot welding (점용접] FIGURE 12.33 (a) Sequence in the resistance spot welding operation. (b)
12.10.1 Resistance spot welding (점용접] FIGURE 12.33 (a) Sequence in the resistance spot welding operation. (b)

FIGURE 12.33 (a) Sequence in the resistance spot welding operation. (b) Cross-section of a spot weld, showing weld nugget and light indentation by the electrode on sheet surfaces.

and light indentation by the electrode on sheet surfaces. FIGURE 12.34 Two types of electrode designs

FIGURE 12.34 Two types of electrode designs for easy access in spot welding operations for complex shapes.

sheet surfaces. FIGURE 12.34 Two types of electrode designs for easy access in spot welding operations
sheet surfaces. FIGURE 12.34 Two types of electrode designs for easy access in spot welding operations
sheet surfaces. FIGURE 12.34 Two types of electrode designs for easy access in spot welding operations

12.10.2 Resistance seam welding

12.10.2 Resistance seam welding FIGURE 12.35 in a seam weld. (c) Cross-section of a roll spot
12.10.2 Resistance seam welding FIGURE 12.35 in a seam weld. (c) Cross-section of a roll spot

FIGURE 12.35

in a seam weld. (c) Cross-section of a roll spot weld. (d) Mash seam welding.

(a) Illustration of the seam welding process, with rolls acting as electrodes. (b) Overlapping spots

High-frequency resistance welding (고주파 저항용접)

High-frequency resistance welding ( 고주파 저항용접 ) □ High-frequency induction welding ( 고주파

High-frequency induction welding (고주파 유도용접)

resistance welding ( 고주파 저항용접 ) □ High-frequency induction welding ( 고주파 유도용접 )

12.10.3 Resistance projection welding

12.10.3 Resistance projection welding FIGURE 12.36 Schematic illustration of resistance projection welding: (a) before and

FIGURE 12.36 Schematic illustration of resistance projection welding: (a) before and (b) after. The

projections on sheet metal are produced by embossing operations, as described in Section

7.5.2.

before and (b) after. The projections on sheet metal are produced by embossing operations, as described
before and (b) after. The projections on sheet metal are produced by embossing operations, as described

12.10.4

Flash welding = Flash butt welding = Upset welding

12.10.4 Flash welding = Flash butt welding = Upset welding FIGURE 12.37 Flash welding process for

FIGURE 12.37 Flash welding process for end-to-end welding of solid rods or tubular parts. (a) Before and (b) after.

12.10.5 Stud arc welding

parts. (a) Before and (b) after. 12.10.5 Stud arc welding FIGURE 12.38 various fasteners on metal
parts. (a) Before and (b) after. 12.10.5 Stud arc welding FIGURE 12.38 various fasteners on metal

FIGURE 12.38

various fasteners on metal plates.

Sequence of operations in stud arc welding, used for welding bars, threaded rods, and

12.11 Explosion Welding [폭압용접]

12.11 Explosion Welding [폭압용접] FIGURE 12.39 Schematic illustration of the explosion welding process: (a) constant

FIGURE 12.39 Schematic illustration of the explosion welding process: (a) constant interface clearance gap and (b) angular interface clearance gap.

clearance gap and (b) angular interface clearance gap. FIGURE 12.40 Cross-sections of explosion welded joints: (a)

FIGURE 12.40 Cross-sections of explosion welded joints: (a) titanium (top) on low-carbon steel (bottom) and (b) Incoloy 800 (iron-nickel-base alloy) on low-carbon steel. The wavy interfaces shown improve the shear strength of the joint. Some combinations of metals, such as tantalum and vanadium, produce a much less wavy interface. If the two metals have little metallurgical compatibility, an interlayer may be added that has compatibility with both metals

12.12 Diffusion Bonding [확산접합]

Diffusion bonding

Diffusion bonding / superplastic forming

bonding □ Diffusion bonding / superplastic forming FIGURE 12.41 a structure with three flat sheets. See

FIGURE 12.41

a structure with three flat sheets. See also Fig. 7.46.

Sequence of operations in diffusion bonding and superplastic forming of

12.13 Brazing & Soldering

12.13.1 Brazing (경납접)

12.13 Brazing & Soldering 12.13.1 Brazing (경납접) FIGURE 12.42 (a) Brazing FIGURE 12.43 The effect of

FIGURE 12.42 (a) Brazing

12.13.1 Brazing (경납접) FIGURE 12.42 (a) Brazing FIGURE 12.43 The effect of joint clearance on tensile

FIGURE 12.43 The effect of joint clearance on tensile and shear strength of brazed joints. Note that unlike tensile strength, shear strength continually decreases as clearance increases.

TABLE 12.4

Typical filler metals for brazing various metals and alloys.

continually decreases as clearance increases. TABLE 12.4 Typical filler metals for brazing various metals and alloys.

Brazing methods: Torch, Furnace, Induction(유도전류), Resistance(전기저항), Dipping(침지), Infrared(적외선),

Diffution, High energy beam

침지 ), Infrared( 적외선 ), Diffution, High energy beam FIGURE 12.44 An application of furnace brazing:

FIGURE 12.44 An application of furnace brazing: (a) before and (b) after. Note that the filler metal is a shaped wire.

Brazed joint

that the filler metal is a shaped wire . □ Brazed joint FIGURE 12.45 Joint designs

FIGURE 12.45

Joint designs commonly used in brazing operations.

Braze welding

□ Braze welding FIGURE 12.42 (b) braze welding operations

FIGURE 12.42 (b) braze welding operations

12.13.3 Soldering (연납접)

Solder joint

12.13.3 Soldering (연납접) □ Solder joint FIGURE 12.46 Joint designs commonly used for soldering. □ Flux

FIGURE 12.46 Joint designs commonly used for soldering.

Flux

TABLE 12.5 Types of solders and their applications

FIGURE 12.46 Joint designs commonly used for soldering. □ Flux TABLE 12.5 Types of solders and

□ 방법:

Torch soldering

Furnace soldering

Induction soldering

Resistance soldering

Dip soldering

Infrared soldering

Iron (인두) soldering

Ultrasonic soldering

• Iron ( 인두 ) soldering • Ultrasonic soldering (a) Soldering Iron, (b) Soldering kit, (c)
• Iron ( 인두 ) soldering • Ultrasonic soldering (a) Soldering Iron, (b) Soldering kit, (c)
• Iron ( 인두 ) soldering • Ultrasonic soldering (a) Soldering Iron, (b) Soldering kit, (c)

(a) Soldering Iron, (b) Soldering kit, (c) Soldering robot

• Iron ( 인두 ) soldering • Ultrasonic soldering (a) Soldering Iron, (b) Soldering kit, (c)

Reflow soldering

• Reflow soldering FIGURE 12.47 printed circuit board in reflow soldering Screening solder paste onto a

FIGURE 12.47

printed circuit board in reflow soldering

Screening solder paste onto a

board in reflow soldering Screening solder paste onto a (Left) chip capacitor component prior to reflow
board in reflow soldering Screening solder paste onto a (Left) chip capacitor component prior to reflow
board in reflow soldering Screening solder paste onto a (Left) chip capacitor component prior to reflow

(Left) chip capacitor component prior to reflow soldering (left) and after successful reflow (right)

Wave soldering

• Wave soldering FIGURE 12.48 (a) Schematic illustration of the wave soldering process. (b) SEM image
• Wave soldering FIGURE 12.48 (a) Schematic illustration of the wave soldering process. (b) SEM image

FIGURE 12.48

(a) Schematic illustration of

the wave soldering process.

(b) SEM image of a wave

soldered joint on a surface- mount device.

12.14 Adhesive Bonding (접착제 접합]

Applications: Bookbinding, Plywood, Aircraft

Joint type

Applications: Bookbinding, Plywood, Aircraft □ Joint type FIGURE 12.49 Various configurations for adhesively bonded

FIGURE 12.49 Various configurations for adhesively bonded joints: (a) single lap, (b) double lap, (c) scarf, and (d) strap.

12.14.1 Types of adhesives

Characteristics

Temperature

External force

□ Characteristics • Temperature • External force F I G U R E 1 2 .

FIGURE 12.50 Characteristic behavior of (a) brittle and (b) tough and ductile adhesives in a peeling test. This test is similar to peeling adhesive tape from a solid surface.

Properties

TABLE 12.6 Typical properties and characteristics of chemically reactive structural adhesives.

□ Properties TABLE 12.6 Typical properties and characteristics of chemically reactive structural adhesives.

12.14.2

Surface preparation and application

Contaminants

Oxide film

Surface roughness

12.14.3 Process capabilities

12.14.4 Electrically conducting adhesives

12.15 Mechanical Fastening

12.15 Mechanical Fastening FIGURE 12.51 Examples of rivets : (a) solid, (b) tubular, (c) split, or

FIGURE 12.51 Examples of rivets: (a) solid, (b) tubular, (c) split, or bifurcated, and (d) compression.

(b) tubular, (c) split, or bifurcated, and (d) compression. FIGURE 12.52 Examples of various fastening methods.

FIGURE 12.52 Examples of various fastening methods. (a) Standard loop staple; (b) flat clinch staple; (c) channel strap; (d) pin strap.

flat clinch staple ; (c) channel strap ; (d) pin strap . FIGURE 12.53 Stages in

FIGURE 12.53 Stages in forming a double-lock seam. See also Fig. 7.23.

Stages in forming a double-lock seam . See also Fig. 7.23. FIGURE 12.54 Two crimping .

FIGURE 12.54

Two

crimping.

examples

of

mechanical

joining

by

FIGURE 12.55 Examples of spring and snap-in fasteners to facilitate assembly.

FIGURE 12.55

Examples of spring and snap-in fasteners to facilitate assembly.

12.17 Design Considerations in Joining

12.17.1 Design for welding

Design Considerations in Joining 12.17.1 Design for welding FIGURE 12.56 Design guidelines for welding. FIGURE 12.57

FIGURE 12.56

Design guidelines for welding.

for welding FIGURE 12.56 Design guidelines for welding. FIGURE 12.57 Design guidelines for flash welding. FIGURE

FIGURE 12.57 Design guidelines for flash welding.

guidelines for welding. FIGURE 12.57 Design guidelines for flash welding. FIGURE 12.58 Weld designs for Example

FIGURE 12.58

Weld designs for Example 12.7.

12.17.2 Design for brazing & joining

12.17.2 Design for brazing & joining FIGURE 12.59 Examples of good and poor designs for brazing.

FIGURE 12.59

Examples of good and poor designs for brazing.

12.17.3 Design for adhesive bonding

12.17.3 Design for adhesive bonding FIGURE 12.60 Note that good designs require large contact areas for

FIGURE 12.60

Note that good designs require large contact areas for better joint strength.

Various joint designs in adhesive bonding.

12.17.4 Design for mechanical fastening

12.17.4 Design for mechanical fastening FIGURE 12.61 Design guidelines for riveting.

FIGURE 12.61

Design guidelines for riveting.

12.18 Economics Considerations

Table 12.1 (p.733): Cost of process

12.18 Economics Considerations Table 12.1 (p.733): Cost of process

Table 12.2 (p.734): Cost of equipment

Table 12.2 (p.734): Cost of equipment