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# POGIL: Work and Power To explain why systems lose or gain energy, we will need a quantity called work.

Once we have this quantity, we will be able to completely answer the question Why do things move the way they do? using an energy model. Work In the example below, suppose three forces act on the 10 kg box as shown. During the action of these forces, the box undergoes a displacement to the right of 5 m, indicated by the vector d. F1 = 20 N F2 = 8 N 10 kg 30 d=5m

## F3 = 10 N The work W done by a constant force F is given by the equation

W =Fd cos ,
where F is the magnitude of the force, d is the magnitude of the displacement, and is the angle between the force and displacement vectors when their tails are placed together. In the example above, the work done by each force is: work done by F1: W1 = (20 N)(5 m)cos 30 = 86.6 N-m work done by F2: W2 = (8 N)(5 m)cos 180 = 40 N-m work done by F3: W3 = (10 N)(5 m)cos 90 = 0 N-m.

If the force is in Newtons and the displacement is in meters, then the unit of work is the Newton-meter (N-m). Notice that this is the same thing as a Joule. 1. In the diagram below, four forces are acting on a box as it moves 20 m upward in 10 s. d = 20 m F2 = 12 N F1 = 10 N F3 = 5 N 10 kg 60

F4 = 6 N

Calculate the amount of work done by each of the forces shown in the diagram. Include the correct units. (a) W1 = work done by force F1 = (b) W2 = work done by force F2 = (c) W3 = work done by force F3 = (d) W4 = work done by force F4 = 2. Now imagine a person dragging a 50 kg box along the ground with a rope, as shown in the drawing below. The person exerts 50 N of force at an angle of 40 above the horizontal while moving the box 20 m in 10 s. Suppose also that friction is acting with 30 N of force between the box and the ground.

(a) Draw a free-body diagram of the box below. Dont forget to label the forces appropriately.

(b) Determine the amount of work done by each of the forces you labeled in the free-body diagram in part (a).

3. For a force in the same direction as an object's motion: (a) does the force tend to increase or decrease the object's speed? (b) does the force do a positive, negative, or zero amount of work? 4. For a force in the opposite direction as an object's motion: (a) does the force tend to increase or decrease the object's speed?

(b) does the force do a positive, negative, or zero amount of work? 5. If a force is perpendicular to an object's motion (as it is for an object moving in uniform circular motion): (a) does the force tend to increase or decrease the object's speed? (b) does the force do a positive, negative, or zero amount of work?

Power Power is the rate at which work is done. We can define the average power P as: P= W , t

where t is the time to do work W. If work is measured in Joules and the time is measured in seconds, then the unit of power is Joules per second (J/s). We call this unit a Watt (abbreviated W). 6. Calculate the average power of each force in question #1. Include the correct units. (a) P1 = power of force F1 = (b) P2 = power of force F2 = (c) P3 = power of force F3 = (d) P4 = power of force F4 = 7. Calculate the average power of each force in question #2.

8. The power of the engine in a compact car is approximately 100 kW. How much work does the engine do during an hour of driving?