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Chapter 1 Introduction Introduction of the Organization Islamic Finance Co is a financing company, established in 2006,IFC was established in 2006 and

is based in Dubai.The Chairman of Founders' Committee Abdullah Saied Al Qubessi stated 'With the establishment of this company, we are aiming to penetrate the UAE's economical sector with the full gamut of corporate and retail Islamic finance products. We assure to be one of the major players in the development of the economy through our competent workforce and international standards that we will follow. With our Shari'a finance experts we are aiming to spread across the region with state of the art facilities and diverse finance solutions to meet every individual's need.' 'The Middle East is highly developed in terms of Islamic Bank and Finance industry. The principles of Islamic finance have proved to be so favorable that it has gained its popularity across the globe. A key to survive this competitive market is by mastering the art of good customer service and we want to focus on it by establishing retail outlets throughout the region with Shari'a trained staff. We will also be developing easy finance solutions such as mortgages that will meet the requirements of everyone.' The IFC is a financing company as well as a Holding with a number of companies under its supervision. IFC has paired with a number of big Islamic banks to offer trade facility for IFC clients.

Yousaf 2 The company has well diversified investment portfolio in real estate, healthcare, education and oil sectors through its subsidiaries in the UAE and The GCC. Islamic Finance Co recently went through a full scale administrative and logistical re-engineering of its processes and alignment of its overall long term strategy. This was developed by the new executive team and the existinBoard. The new management has succeeded in achieving remarkable financial results in a short period of time; half year net profit exceeded Dhs400m, or 40% of paid up capital. The operational profit from financing exceeded 25% of gross profit or Dhs100m. In May 2008 IFC and Bait Al Batterjee Holding announced that the construction of their joint project - Saudi German Hospital in Dubai - has been completed. The project built on a 90,000 square meters of land and estimated at a cost of $200m, will include in the first phase the construction of the general hospital and in the second phase the building of six specialized sub-specialty departments. Additionally IFC has 50% equity share in Batterjee Medical College, the largest private medical college in the Middle East. IFC has qualified resources and technical capabilities to offer fully shariah compliant financing solutions to SME's in order to meet all their working capital, trade and Capex needs. IFC is targeting a range of clients from retail shops to trading companies and small manufacturers. Islamic Finance Company strategic objective is to

Yousaf 3 develop and distribute a full range of shariah compliant product in the UAE to Coporate entities.IFC is also offering Auto Finance which is known as Murabaha Finance. IFC also offers E-guarantees to facilitate labour process.The E-Dirham is prepaid smart card devised by ministry of Finance in order to facilitate Collective revenues, providing the Government with a secure payment method, and providing a conveinent payment tool for business customers.

CORPORATE VISION MISSION, CORE VALUES Vision To be the best in Islamic Finance and Banking Mission Innovate and build Shariah driven, value added products and services in line with customer needs. To recruit, develop and retain motivated UAE nationals in order to achieve a strong and effective national workforce. Provide equitable profit sharing solutions to depositors and investors, financing solution to improve business, individual financing to add value. Deliver superior service preposition through structure sales management process. Build professional expertise and develop our human resource Increase bottom line profitability and enhance share-holder value Emerge as a major market player in 3 to 4 years time period. Core Value Fairness Teamwork

Yousaf 4 Initiative Diversity Ethical

Introduction to study Performance Evaluation Performance evaluation is a necessary and beneficial process, which provides annual feedback to staff members about job effectiveness and career guidance. The performance review is intended to be a fair and balanced assessment of an employee's performance. The evaluation of ability, performance and potential provides critical Management information to reward employees for their contribution and to support resourcing, training and development plans. It is the Companys objective to create an environment where progression and remuneration are based on an on-going cycle of setting, implementing, evaluating and rewarding performance, all with continuing feedback and coaching. Performance evaluation system includes a standard evaluation form, standard performance measures, guidelines for delivering feedback, and disciplinary procedures, performance evaluations can enforce the acceptable boundaries of performance, promote staff recognition and effective communication and motivate individuals to do their best for themselves and the practice. Enrich the employees work experience and sustain performance in current job. Performance evaluation process provides a reliable vehicle for employees and supervisors to communicate consistently about goals, work performance,

Yousaf 5 and outcomes. This system helps supervisors make sound and equitable decisions regarding performance improvement, job and career development, recognition, compensation and corrective action. Feedback is what performance evaluations are all about." Development Development is to help people become more productive and to improve the quality of life. Development is a complex process, though. There are two key stakeholders in this developmental process (1) the employees of the organization who are improving their own performance, and (2) the managers who help guide the process of employee development for their staff, and support it so that it can successfully occur. Development planning is a joint activity bereted into by both employee and the manager. Development plans can be created for every job, from entry level to the executive suite. No matter how high the position within the organization and how simple or complex the nature of the job is, there is always room for improvement. An additional important feature of the development plans is they should keep the need of both the employee and the organization in mind. The choice for what specific skills areas will be improved is dictated by the needs of the organization, especially when the organization is investing in the plan.The plan objective should include not only the end product ,but also the completion date and how the supervisor will know whether the new skill has indeed been acquired. Development Activities includes many things such as

Yousaf 6 On the job training Courses Self guided reading Mentoring Attending a conference Job rotation Getting a degree Temporary assignment

Development Plans prepare employees for advancement. The overall objective of a Development plan is to encourage continous learning, performance improvement and personal growth

Statement Of The Problem This study aims to answer the employees perfromance evalutation and development procedure in Islaim Finance Company in Dubai. Specifically this study answer the following questions. 1. What is the performance evalutation procedure conducted by the company ? 2. What is the current development procedure acticed by the company ?

Scope and Limitations Of The Study

Yousaf 7 The scope of this study covers the employees of Islamic Finance Company in Dubai. The limitation of this study was that there were not much employees in the department to collect the information because of recession going on in the company. Significance of the study This study levels its significance to the following: The Company : This study will be helpful for the company.The company will develop new ways to evaluate employees performance and how they can improve and develop employees performance which will benifit the company. The Employees : The study will help the employees who are working in the company. Performance Evaluation makes job satisfaction to the employees, and develops morale among the employees. Development procedures will help employees in learning and improving their skills. Other Researcher: This study may help or encourage other researcher in future to conduct study of similar nature considering the variables which are not being discussed or considered in this study. Definition of Terms To understand more of this study, the following terms are defined as operationally: Company :

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Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature

Performance Evaluation Performance evaluation is a systematic process of observing, assessing, and interpreting ones actual performance Firstly we must distinguish between performance management and performance appraisal or evaluation. A system that involves employee evaluations once a year without an ongoing effort to provide feedback and coaching so that performance can be improved is not a true performance management system. Instead, this is only a performance evaluation system. Performance evaluation is the systematic description of an employees strengths and weaknesses. Thus performance evaluation is an important component of performance management. Performance evaluation is among the most important of all organizational human resource activities

Performance evaluations "represent critical decisions that are key influences on a variety of subsequent human resources actions and outcomes." Objectives The evaluation of ability, performance and potential provides critical Management information to reward employees for their contribution and to support resourcing, training and development plan. Its the Company objective to create an environment where progression and remuneration are based on an on-going cycle of setting, implementing,

Yousaf 10 evaluating and rewarding performance, all with continuing feedback and coaching. Performance evaluation help build confidence as the employee has an opportunity to voice his opinions to his supervisor. To establish a Performance Evaluation for employees that will serve as a formal communication tool between employees and their supervisors concerning job standards and employee performance standards. Performance Evaluation is a systematic process of observing, assessing, and interpreting ones actual performance. Performance evaluation provides annual feedback to staff members about job effectiveness and career

guidance.Performance Evaluation is very important in an organization, it is designed to monitor employee performance carefully through out the year. Describe the specific action or behaviour-focus on the performance, not on the performer. At the end of the year employee and the manager jointly set objectives for the next appraisal period. All objective should be set using the SMART format: S= specific i.e. it is clearly understood what needs to be achieved M= measurable i.e. there is a mechanism for assessing whether the goal has been achieved or not. A= Achievable i.e. it is some thing within the employees capability and responsibility R= Relevance i.e. is it important is in relation to the job or the employees development T= Time bound i.e. there is date by which it should be completed Performance Evaluation helps identify strengths and areas for development.

Yousaf 11 The Performance Evaluation Process There are a number of methods of performance evaluation. No single methods can be considered ideal in all circumstances. Supervisor is the primery sourse for the performance information.This is the case in most organization because the supervisor observes employees directly and has good knowledge about performance standereds. There are also alternative sources of performance information. Supervisor are usually in the best position too evaluate performanc. Supervisors are responsible to provide employees with an overview of the performance evaluation process. Supervisors should do Performance Evaluation in such a way that there should be no discrimination on the base of age, race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, disability, national origin, or status. A positive attempt must be made to be as fair as possible to the employee. Job description should be reviewed, so that manager or supervisor can have a better picture of an employees duties and they can evaluate fairly. Information should also be taken form the alternative sources such as peers, customers and subordinates, because for some jobs like sales teaching etc supervisor may not observe his or her subordinates performance on regular bases. Appraise Performance Appraise the employees performance in each area of responsibility (refer to job description). Achievement Not Progress

Yousaf 12 Success should be measured against previously agreed upon objectives. Performance should be rated on the result that is achieved in a fixed time period. Performance Not Potential Manager or Supervisor should rate or evaluate only employees performance and not his or her potential. Self Assessment Employees undergo a self-assessment process and evaluate his or her performance. Self-assessment process consists of the employee, using a copy of the appraisal form, rating his / her achievement. The performance evaluation meeting is a good time to talk about setting or redefining developmental goals. The employee then has the option of completing a self-evaluation and returning it to the supervisor. The supervisor must give the employee an opportunity to complete the evaluation. Cross Rating Usually, evaluations are completed by one evaluator. In some cases, another supervisor or manager within the organization may have important insights regarding the employees performance. For example, if the employee worked for another manager for a good part of the year, it would be necessary to seek the views of the previous manager as well. Keep in mind that the goal is to have a complete, objective, and fair appraisal of performance. More Frequent Evaluations If an employees performance needs improvement, set a timeframe for corrective action and re-evaluation. Discuss performance expectations, actions etc employee should meet those expectations and in a specific time

Yousaf 13 manager should re-evaluates employees performance. Annual evaluation must be reviewed at mid-year, If improvement has occurred, this is noted. If improvement has not occurred, the plan is reviewed and appropriate steps taken. The employees mid-year review is documented and placed in his or her departmental file. For all employees, a mid-year review can be an important component of the evaluation process. It helps supervisor to take time in evaluating his/her work and performance which should look at progress on goals, other

accomplishments, as well as areas of concern. Many organizations use performance evaluations provided by the peers. Employees work in teams supervisors can take information from them ask them too evaluate there team member. Customers can also provide performance information. Collecting information from customers can be costly and time consuming process. However, performance information provided by customers is particularly useful for jobs that require high degree of interaction with the public e.g. suppliers, sales representatives. The Performance Evaluation Meeting The interview with the employee is the most important part of the appraisal process. Supervisor should maintain employees self-esteem at all times during the session. Build rapport project the rite attitude, establish the purpose of the meeting. An outline of the discussion will help both supervisor and the employee keep to the subject. Supervisor should tell the employee the order in which he will proceed. For example, tell the employee that he will explain the process and what constitutes the different levels of performance,

Yousaf 14 discuss each category, discuss the rating, discuss future goals, and address any concerns. The annual performance evaluation meeting allows the supervisor and employee to reflect and review the employees

accomplishments, achievement of goals, and areas of needed development. Focus on improvement, give only necessary information. It is a time to share each persons perception of the employees work over the past year and to discuss differences. It is also time to set goals for the next evaluation year or period. One purpose of discussing performance with an employee is to provide the employee with an objective evaluation of his/her performance as compared to previous established goals and standards. In those situations where the goals and standards have been met or exceeded, superior should praise the employee for the good performance, and if the established goals and standards have not been met, then the supervisor should enter into a future oriented problem solving discussion with the employee. Individuals should be evaluated only for job responsibilities discussed in advance and mutually understood by both supervisor and employee. Each evaluation should include at a minimum a review of the employees job description and assigned responsibilities, and an assessment of the employees performance in the job, including strengths and areas in which improvement is

needed. The supervisor should review the results of all evaluations in detail with his/her immediate supervisor. Such review should include a summary of planned development efforts.

Yousaf 15 Supervisor should give a favorable rating only when the individual has merited it. Forget about giving people a break. Sometimes this is difficult to accomplish. Supervisors have to be fair and, often, this means giving the benefit of the doubt. However, if supervisor continue to do this over a period of time, then the organization will find out that the standards set by the organization have been lowered. By lowering standards, employees produce less to attain the same level of performance after the meeting; the supervisor is to write the final evaluation document incorporating useful information from the employees self-evaluation. Both the supervisor and employee must sign the final document. A copy of the final document is given to the employee and the original copy goes in the personnel file. If an employee disagrees with the final document of the evaluation, he or she may indicate so by attaching an explanation of differing opinion and any documents supporting that opinion. 360 Performance Evaluation The 360-degree performance evaluation is a common tool in human recourse management. It is a mechanism for evaluating someones performance based on feedback from every one with whom the individual comes in contacts supervisor, coworker, subordinates, the general public. It is a method of collecting input from many sources in an employees environment. This method of collecting evaluative input is an excellent source of motivation for employees because it provides a truly honest assessment of how the employee and his/her performance are viewed by a verity of constituents.

Yousaf 16 The most challenging aspect of the 360-degree evaluation is the evaluators' concern about confidentiality. When implementing this type of evaluation, it's best to assure other employees that what they share will remain strictly confidential. Likewise, explain to each employee that he will be evaluated by many people, including those who know his work best. This type of feedback helps employees see themselves as others see them and allows them to seriously examine their behavior. It can reveal areas in which employees are performing particularly well and those areas in which there is room for improvement. 360-degree Performance Evaluation

Yousaf 17 This review process is also helpful for the supervisor. It can provide a more accurate assessment of an employees performance and help eliminate accusations of favoritism. The 360-degree process provides greater objectivity. And because the feedback is submitted anonymously, it provides a supervisor with the most unbiased and accurate information from which to draw performance conclusions. 360-degree evaluation and feedback system are tools that help employees building new skills and improve their performance in generally by gathering information and analyzing performance from several sources.

Development Procedure Human Resource Development is the framework for helping employees develops their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. Human Resource Development includes such opportunities as employee training, employee career development, performance management and development, coaching, succession planning, key employee identification, tuition assistance, and organization development. The focus of all aspects of Human Resource Development is on developing the most superior workforce so that the organization and individual employees can accomplish their work goals in service to customers. Human Resource Development can be formal such as in classroom training, a college course, or an organizational planned change effort. Or, Human Resource Development can be informal as in employee coaching by a manager. Healthy organizations believe in Human Resource Development and cover all of these bases.

Yousaf 18 Employee development consists of experiences and training opportunities designed to enhance current employees knowledge and skills. There is a difference between Development and Training before we go in details firstly we should know the difference between training and development. Difference between Training and Development Training Training usually refers to some kind of organized (and finite it time) event -- a seminar, workshop that has a specific beginning data and end date. It's often a group activity, but the word training is also used to refer to specific instruction done one on one. Development Employee development, however, is a much bigger, inclusive "thing". For example, if a manager pairs up a relatively new employee with a more experienced employee to help the new employee learns about the job, that's really employee development. If a manager coaches and employee in an ongoing way, that's employee development. Or, employees may rotate job responsibilities to learn about the jobs of their colleagues and gain experience so they might eventually have more promotion opportunities. That's employee development. In other words employee development is a broader term that includes training as one, and only one of its methods for encouraging employee learning Training impart skills, attitude and knowledge for direct application to a task or job.

Yousaf 19 Development - adopt skills, attitude and knowledge for application to a future role. The key difference between training and development is that training is designed to address current performance problems, whereas development focuses on preparing employees for future assignments. Development is a broad, ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (training activities among them) to bring someone or an organization up to another threshold of performance, often to perform some job or new role in the future. Organization intentions should be that they retain and motivate the very best people in there workforce. This can be done via a combination of relevant learning programs, on the job development. All learning programs should be part of an organization strategic operating plan with the specific objective of correcting performance gaps both an individual and organizational level so as to add value to performance improvement, productivity and service. Annual Learning Needs Analysis What the business intends to achieve What knowledge, skills or attitude gaps exist that inhibit employee achievement? Identification of Learning Needs All learning programs should be part of the Companys strategic operating plan with the specific objective of correcting performance gaps both at an individual and organizational level so as to add value to performance improvement, productivity and service.

Yousaf 20 Line Managements Responsibility for Training Line Management should understand their responsibilities to identify and satisfy their employees learning needs and recognize that the majority of learning takes place on the job. His / her responsibility shall be a key result area for them. Where the learning take place away from the workplace, Line Managers should be fully committed to, and practice, effective pre- and portcourse / event briefings with employees. Employees should be made to understand the need for and the benefits of effective learning and development and take ultimate responsibility for their own development. Training should be a key result area for all Managers and Officers, within the Performance Management Scheme. Companies can establish itself as a Learning Organization through continuous coaching and self- development (through internal and external means) at all levels. Each Manager and Line Manager should have learning and development as an essential part of their job description. Personal Development Plans Personal development plans (PDPs) provide a powerful, flexible way to link employees' professional and personal development with the development of the business. Personal development plan allow employees to answer the following questions: How can I continually learn and grow in the next year? How can I do better in the future? How can I avoid performance problems faced in the past?

Personal Development Plan is more then training it is not the same as simply putting groups of employees through traditional training programmes. It

Yousaf 21 focuses on the development of the individual employee. Every employee should have a PDP. Junior employees benefit from PDPs that help them to develop their roles within the business. Typically, each employee's line manager should be responsible for the employee's PDP. Personal Development Plan objectives can be achieved through learning in the workplace. Assign a suitably skilled manager or colleague to provide guidance to the employee, as requested. More formal training can help to develop specific knowledge and skills. Objectives that are common to many employees, or that demand special expertise, are often suited to formal training. More senior or expert employees may be highly motivated by achieving development objectives independently.

Employee Development Employee development tends to focus on managers, but can be used for other employees as well. It is important for companies because it helps retain employees and ensures that the organization has capable employees for filling positions throughout the company. Employee development is crucial for the growth and prosperity of any business as employees are one of the determining factors for the success of the company. The more capable and qualified the employees the better the performance of the company. When they are well trained, they can easily handle situations and please customers ensuring customer retention. Employee development program make positive contribution to organization performance. A more highly-skilled workforce can accomplish more and a supervisors group can accomplish more as employees gain in experience

Yousaf 22 and knowledge. Retaining an employee saves the organization a great deal of money. One method of retention is to provide opportunities to develop new skills. The right employee training, development and education, at the right time, provides big payoffs for the employer in increased productivity, knowledge, loyalty, and contribution. Employee development initiatives are of benefit both to the individuals concerned and to the organizations that they serve. Well developed employees can help to facilitate growth through being better informed and by jointly sharing the organizations vision; they are also better equipped to bring improvements to their work environment and processes. Such employees are described as being "engaged" or better connected with the organization and its leadership. These employees tend to have confidence in the organizations future direction and thereby put their energies towards producing better results. Development is to help the employee identify realistic growth and improvement goals while working with their leader to develop and execute some positive actions to reach those goals. Development occurs in an infinite number of ways. Actions can be formal or informal, traditional or highly

creative. The important thing is that positive action occurs through a planned process that both the employee and the leader agree is in the best interest of the individual and the company. Employee development programs are essential to improve morale and to motivate the employees to perform well. Employees like to learn new skills and meet challenges and they are more motivated when they feel there is great potential for personal growth. When the company shows interest in

Yousaf 23 employee development, the employee naturally has a greater interest in the company's development too. Employee Development is the pursuit of any activity that leads to continuous learning, personal growth, and which contributes to the achievement of both an individuals and their employers or organizations objective(s) on the longer term. It is difficult to discuss employee development as a formal human resources initiative. Since the history of HR application that have been labeled as employee development are so diverse. As an HR function, employee development has been somewhat of a catch all basket for a basket for a variety of initiatives intended to improve employee and organization performance. Accordingly, there is little or no agreement among HR professionals or organization leaders on just what does or does not constitute employee development. Development includes the formal or informal acquisition of competencies, if only at an awareness level. Employment includes an individuals participation in self-employment, working for an organization, volunteering, or similar activities such as home-making or relationship building. Employee development, regardless of the form it takes, is essential to the long-term success of organizations today. Employee development, career development, career management, career planning, career guidance, career coaching, career counseling, mentoring, and initiatives with similar names and labels have been used by organizations.

Yousaf 24 Employee development is a continuous process that continues throughout the life span, regardless of how many employers or what type of employment or other types of settings the individual experiences. When an employer supports the spirit of employee development as a business investment, great benefits to the organization can be realized. A major difficulty supervisors and employees encounter in matching needs with activities is that of selecting the optimum developmental activity that is the activity that provides maximum learning within the boundaries of the organizations:

Mission, Budget, Workload, Travel, Staffing and Time constraints.

To minimize this problem, a variety of developmental approaches and strategies should be considered. We often think of training only in terms of formal training courses. There are several ways through which employees can reach the objectives stated in their development plans. These include the following: On-the-job-training On the job training (OJT) is job training that occurs in the work place. On-thejob training (OJT) is one of the best training methods because it is planned, organized, and conducted at the employee's worksite. New and old employees learns the job while doing the job and while earning his or her pay

Yousaf 25 check. This approach is used to teach employees new procedures, tasks and technology. On the job training is also called hands on training. On the job training is beneficial for both the company and the new employee. On-thejob-training is the most frequently used method in the organizations. On-thejob-training can be cost-effective for the business since a separate training program isn't required and the training is part of the actual work shifts. No extra equipment is needed as the new worker learns on the equipment needed for the job anyway. On the job training often works out really well for the new employee. In the 5th-century BC, the philosopher Lao-Tse (also Lao-tzu) wrote "If you tell me, I will listen. If you show me, I will see. But if you let me experience, I will learn." And so began one of the first active learning philosophies. Advantages of on the job training The most common methods of on the job training are Demonstration / instruction showing the employees how to do the job. Then there is Coaching, more intensive method of training because it involves a very close relationship between an experienced employee and the trainee. Projects give employees a different project which allows the employees to take part in different activates and give them exposure. Employees may find that they have more confidence if they are supervised and guided as they feel they are doing the job right. Employees may feel more at ease being taught or supervised by people they know rather than complete strangers at an external training course.

Yousaf 26 Managers or supervisors can assess improvement and progress over a period of time and this makes it easier to identify a problem intervene and resolve problems quickly. On the job training is also productive, as the employee is still working as they are learning. As training progresses and the employee begins to feel more confident, this confidence would allow them to work at a higher standard and ultimately be more productive Training "on-the-job" provides an opportunity to get to know staff they might not normally talk to. Disadvantages of on the job training One major drawback of on the job training can be finding the right time for it. The person responsible for giving and evaluating the training has to be sure that his or her other job responsibilities are being met. It can be difficult to find the right person to conduct it. The person doing the training must have the knowledge and skills with the same equipment that the learner will be working with. The trainers may possess many bad habits and pass these on to the employee being trained If the trainer has been given limited time to train the employee, This would mean that the skill or knowledge has not been fully understood If a trainer has been brought into the company externally they might not be familiar with the equipment fully or layout and this would waste time. Formal Education Mentoring The story of Mentor comes from Homer's Odyssey. When Odysseus, King of Ithaca went to fight in the Trojan War, he entrusted the care of his kingdom to Mentor. Mentor served as the teacher and overseer of Odysseuss son,

Yousaf 27 Telemachus. Mentor is an individual, usually older, always more experienced, who helps and guides another individuals development. This guidance is not done for personal gain. The first recorded modern usage of the term can be traced to a book entitled "Les Aventures de Telemaque", by the French writer Franois Fnelon In the book the lead character is that of Mentor. This book was published in 1699 and was very popular during the 18th century and the modern application of the term can be traced to this publication. This is the source of the modern use of the word mentor: a trusted friend, counselor or teacher, usually a more experienced person. Some professions have "mentoring programs" in which newcomers are paired with more experienced people in order to obtain good examples and advice as they advance, and schools sometimes have mentoring programs for new students or students who are having difficulties. Today mentors provide their expertise to less experienced individuals in order to help them advance their careers, enhance their education, and build their networks. In many different arenas people have benefited from being part of a mentoring relationship, including:

Business people - Freddie Laker mentored Richard Branson Politicians - Aristotle mentored Alexander the Great Directors - Martin Scorsese mentored Oliver Stone at New York University

Actors - Mel Gibson mentored Heath Ledger Musicians - Johann Christian Bach mentored Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Jos Antonio Abreu mentored Gustavo Dudamel.

Yousaf 28 Athletes - Eddy Merckx (five-time Tour de France winner) mentored Lance Armstrong (seven-time Tour de France winner). Bobby Charlton mentored David Beckham Mentorship refers to a developmental relationship between a more experienced person to help a less experienced person. Many organizations have mentoring programs, mentoring is a development process that consist of a one-on-one relationship between a senior (mentor) and junior employee. The best mentoring relationships are based on mutual trust, respect and openness. Therefore it is important that a mentor be ready to share their experience and expertise whilst at the same time encouraging the development of their mentoree. The focus of the relationship is the professional development of the mentoree it is not an opportunity for the mentor to be in the spotlight, but more an opportunity for them to share their significant achievements and experience through providing guidance and support.

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Mentors need to be facilitators and coaches, not tutors or trainers. Mentorees need simply to open their minds to the guidance and facilitative methods of the mentor. The mentor should not normally provide the answers for the mentoree; instead a mentor should ask the right questions (facilitative, guiding, interpretive, and non-judgmental) that guide the mentoree towards finding the answers. Mentors teach through Sharing Modeling Guiding Advising Supporting Networking Mentors share their own experiencesboth successes and failures. They teach through stories and anecdotes, and offer insights that can only come with experience. Courses Organizations may provide tuitions reimbursement. Some organizations provide there employees with variety of online courses and verity of options from which to choose. Some large organizations, such as McDonalds Motorola, Capgeminin, Ernst & Young, and others, offer in- houses courses given at their own corporate universities. McDonalds Employee Development

Yousaf 30 The McDonald's National Employee Scholarship Program is one of many examples of McDonald's commitment to employee development and recognition The program recognizes and rewards the accomplishments of McDonald's student-employees who excel in their studies, serve their communities, and work hard to deliver an outstanding experience for our customers. Motorola Employee Development Motorola had started training its employees' way back in the 1920s, and the importance of training continued to grow. Till the early 1980s, Motorola had its own standard employee development activities in which training was the key element. During those days, when people were recruited for manufacturing, the company looked for three essential qualities in the employees - the communication and computational skills of a seventh grader; basic problem solving abilities both in an individual capacity and as a team player; and willingness to accept work hours as the time it took to achieve quality output rather than regular clock hours. The quality of the output was the primary consideration for Motorola, and employees were expected to make full efforts to achieve quality. Most of the employees learned their job through observing the seniors at work and learning through the trial and error method. The training lessons imparted to them involved techniques to improve their communication skills and sharpen their calculation skills. The Motorola University After conducting various training experiments that spanned a few decades, Motorola came to understand that training involved more than designing and implementing one particular program for a set of

Yousaf 31 employees. To keep improving performance, training should be a continuous learning process involving each and every person in the organization. Normally, training was an ad hoc measure, whereas education gave the recipient a vision. Education was viewed as an investment rather than a cost. Therefore, Motorola decide to elevate MTEC to the status of a university in 1989... Focus on e-Learning Motorola University created a new internal institute named College of Learning Technologies (CLT) to develop educational delivery systems through satellite, Internet and virtual classrooms. This department was responsible for providing innovative learning via virtual classrooms, online experiences, and use of CD-ROMS and through multimedia such as video and satellite conferences. The university placed a large selection of courses and training materials on its intranet, available around the world at any time to its employees.

Conferences Another way to develop employees knowledge is to sponsor him/her at a conference or trade show. It is useful to require that the employee provide a written report, or even deliver a presentation, upon returning from the conference. In this way it is easier to assess what has been learned by the employee and the knowledge gained by the employee can be shared with other organizational members. Tuition Programs/College/University Courses Many organizations provide tuition reimbursements benefits so their employees can obtain additional degrees or certifications.

Yousaf 32 Companies should encourage its employees to acquire professional qualifications and certifications e.g. MBA, CPA, CFM, CPM etc to enhance & develop their skills. Organizations should provide training and professional development for all the staff at local or international educational and training institutions to improve their performance standards in their present jobs, and to prepare them for future promotion to vacant positions, or to train them for other positions. Job Rotation Job rotation involves the movement of employees through a range of jobs in order to increase interest and motivation. Job rotation can improve multiskilling but also involves the need for greater training. Job Rotation Programs (JRP) can not only reduce turnover but they also increase learning, and provide added bench strength. Rotation programs are more common in the development of top executives but there are also many reasons to use them for technical and new hire positions. A Job rotation is the systematic movement of employees from job to job or project to project within an organization, as a way to achieve many different human resources objectives such as:

simply staffing jobs an attraction or retention tool orienting new employees preventing job boredom or burnout training employees involving managers in the training process rewarding employees

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enhancing career development exposing employees to diverse/ international environments

Why is Job Rotation Important? Job rotation is seen as a possible solution to two significant challenges faced by business: (1) Skills shortages and skills gaps, and (2) Employee motivation Skills shortages occur when there is a lack of skilled individuals in the workforce. Skills gaps occur when there is a lack of skills in a companys existing workforce which may still be found in the labor force as a whole. Job rotation is often used by employers who place employees on a certain career path or track, usually for a management position, where they are expected to perform a variety of duties, and have a variety of skills and competencies. Job rotation is often confused with cross training. While both interventions perform essentially the same service of providing employees with a varied set of skills, job rotation goes beyond this. Besides being used as a means of management training, job rotation can also be used as a form of job enrichment, by adding increased responsibilities, increasing challenge, and reducing boredom or burnout. Benefits of Job Rotation Some of the major benefits of job rotation are: It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments, business units, functions, and countries. Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes required.

Yousaf 34 It determines the areas where improvement is required. Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the position Temporary Assignments Mangers should give employees some challenging assignments; this allows employees to gain specific skills within a limited time frame. Training Program Abroad Companies should send their employees abroad for training as well. Many Organizations now days send their employees abroad for training. Companies Should sponsor employees on full time overseas training programs to develop staff to fulfill specific company needs. Such programs should include professional development program and specialized training at recognized institutions or organizations.

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