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Technological Institute of the Philippines Arlegui St.

, Quiapo, Manila Electronics and Communication Engineering Department Electronics Circuit Theory and Devices

Unregulated Power Supply with 3V, 6V, 9V and 12V Output

Submitted by: Siscar, Nick Edison D.

Submitted to: Ms. Marjorie Villanueva

October 7, 2011

Unregulated Power Supply


INTRODUCTION It introduces the operation of the power supply circuit using bridge rectifier and capacitor filter. Starting with an AC voltage, a DC voltage is obtained by rectifying the AC voltage then filtering to the DC level. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION The 220V-AC coming from a power cord is fed to the step down transformer TR1 via the on-off switch (toggle switch) and the 500mA fuse. The 12VAC output (approximately) from the transformer is presented to the bridge rectifier (BR1), and here rectified from alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). A rectifier circuit is necessary to convert a signal having zero average value into one that has a nonzero average. The output resulting from a rectifier is a pulsating DC voltage and not yet suitable as a battery replacement. Such a voltage could be used in, say, a battery charger, where the average is large enough to provide a charging current for the battery. For DC supply voltages, as those used in a radio, stereo system, computer, and so on, the pulsating DC voltage from a rectifier is not good enough. A filter circuit is necessary to provide a steadier DC voltage. The pulsating DC output is filtered via the 1000uF, 16V capacitor (C1). The resulting DC voltage usually has

some ripple or AC voltage variation. The filter circuit is the capacitor-filter circuit. A capacitor is connected at the rectifier output, and a DC voltage is obtained across the capacitor. A motor M1 (12V, 0.14A) used as fan is connected to rectifier output. It lessens the temperature caused by a transformer and other devices by exhausting the air inside the prototype. Also, an ON LED via the 980 resistor R1 is connected to the rectifier output. It will light only when the main switch SW1 is turned on. The output voltage across the rectifier output is approximately 15V when the capacitor C1, motor M1 and an ON LED via 980 resistor is connected (parallel connection) to the rectifier output. This 15V output voltage is fed to different resistors R2, R3, R4 and R5 with 125, 333, 750 and 2000 respectively. Each resistor is connected to first four terminal of the rotary switch (6 state) SW2 that selects the different valued resistors to get the desired output (3v, 6V, 9V, 12V) of the unregulated power supply. The common terminal of the rotary switch must be connected to the positive output voltage alone and to the ground via 500 resistor R6 (see schematic diagram). TESTING Use bread board to test the circuit diagram. Mount then connect each element on the bread board according

to the circuit diagram. Make sure that all connections are properly connected. Use the secondary voltage output of the transformer to supply voltage to the mounted devices on the bread board. Then connect the transformer to the outlet (220V AC) to run the circuit. Measure the output using multi meter then record each output. If all is well you can now construct it with the case or prototype. CONSTRUCTION I used a computer power supply case as a prototype and its cord. I use Vero board as a circuit board. This stuff is widely available and comes relatively cheap. It is either made of some sort of fiber material of Phenolic or Bakelite PCB. They all work great. Some phenolic board come with copper tracks already on them which will make soldering the project together easier. Drill the holes for banana jacks, toggle switch, rotary switch, fuse holder, LED, 2 holes for mounting the transformer and 4 holes for mounting the Vero board to the case. It is best to mount everything in such way that you are able to trouble-shoot your circuit board with ease if needed. One more note about the toggle switch SW1, this switch has 220V AC power to it. After soldering, insulate the bare spots with a bit of silicon gel. Works great and prevents electrical shock through accidental touching. Mount the all necessary devices (diodes, resistors, wire connections) to the Vero board by soldering it. Make sure that all connections are properly connected to avoid malfunction or destruction of any of the devices. Observe the proper polarity of the devices especially for the capacitor

because polarity reversal may cause explosion. Use bolt and nut to fix the transformer and Vero board to the case according to its position. Connect the switches (SW1, SW2), fuse, banana jacks and LED base from the circuit diagram. Check all connection if properly connected. Test it again. If all is well, and you are finished assembling and soldering everything, you are done!

MATERIALS RESISTORS - R1(980), R2(125), R3(333), R4(750), R5(2K), R6(500) DIODES - 4 1N4001 for bridge rectifier, LED (RED, 3mm, 1.5V) CAPACITOR - C1 (1000F, 16v) MOTOR - M1 (12v, 0.14A) fan TRANSFORMER - TR1(1A) FUSE - FUSE(0.5A), WITH FUSE HOLDER SWITCH - SW1(TOGGLE SWITCH,250VAC), SW2(ROTARY SWITCH, 6 STATE) BOLT AND NUT (5/32) WIRES CORD COMPUTER POWER SUPPLY CASE

VERO BOARD