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Lecture 5 Assignment-Chapter 17 (Digestive System)

17.1 Introduction 1. Functions of the digestive system include: (p. 652) a. ingestion b. propulsion c. mechanical and chemical digestion d. absorption e. all of the above 5. Define peristalsis. (p. 654) Its responsible for propelling foods. 9. Distinguish among the lingual, palatine, and pharyngeal tonsils. (p. 657) Palatine tonsils: in the back of the mouth, on either side of the tongue or closely associated with the palate. Masses of lymphatic tissue; lie beneath the epithelial lining of the mouth and, like other lymphatic tissues; help protect the body against infections. Pharyngeal tonsils: aka adenoids; are on the posterior wall of the pharynx, above the border of the soft palate. Lingual tonsils are found on the root of the tongue and are rounded masses of lymphatic tissues 11. The teeth that are best adapted for grasping and tearing food are the: (p. 659) b. canines. 17.4 17.10 Salivary Glands Large Intestine 14. Discuss the digestive functions of saliva. (p. 660) Salivary glands secrete saliva, which moistens food, helps bind food particles, begins chemical digestion of carbohydrates, makes taste possible, helps cleanse mouth, and regulates pH in mouth. 18. Discuss the mechanism of swallowing. (p. 664)

The tongue forces food into the pharynx The soft palate, hyoid bone, and larynx are raised, the tongue is pressed against the palate, the epiglottis closes, and the inferior constrictor muscle relax so that the esophagus opens. Superior constrictor muscles contract and force food into the esophagus. Peistaltic waves move food through the esophagus to the stomach
24. Explain the mechanism of vomiting. (p. 670) Sensory impulses travel from the site of stimulation to the vomiting center in the medulla oblongata, and a number of motor responses follow. These include taking a deep breath, raising the soft palate and thus closing the nasal cavity, closing the opening to the trachea (glottis), relaxing the circular muscle fibers at the base of the esophagus, contracting the diaphragm so that it moves downward over the stomach, and contracting the abdominal wall muscles so that pressure inside the abdominal cavity increases. As a result, the stomach is squeezed from all sides, forcing its contents upward and out through the esophagus, pharynx, and mouth. 28. Trace the path of bile from a bile canaliculus to the small intestine by filling in the blanks: bile canaliculi carry secretions from liver cells to bile ductules which unite to form large bile ducts, which converge to form hepatic

Lecture 5 Assignment-Chapter 17 (Digestive System)

ducts that merge to form the hepatic ducts, which joints the cystic duct to form the common bile duct which empties into the small intestine (duodenum). (p. 673) 30. Describe the composition of bile. (p. 675) Bile contains bile salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, and electrolytes. Only the bile salts have digestive functions Bile pigments are products of RBC breakdown 31. Explain how gallstones form. (p. 677) Gallstones form as a result of cholesterol precipitating out of solution and crystallizing. This can result if the bile becomes too concentrated, the hepatic cells secrete too much cholesterol, or the gallbladder is inflamed.

34. Describe the locations of the parts of the small intestine. (p. 680)

Duodenum the first twenty-five centimeters of the small intestine it lies behind the parietal peritoneum. It is the most fixed portion of the small intestine.

Jejunum the proximal two-fifths of the remainder of the small intestine

Ileum the remainder of the small intestine

35. Match the organ or gland with the enzyme(s) it secretes. Enzymes may be used more than once. Organ or gland may secrete more than one enzyme. (pp. 661-683) 1. Salivary glands (serous cells)B. amylase 2. Stomach (chief cells)E. pepsin, D. lipase 3. Pancreas (acinar cells)B. amylase, D. lipase, F. trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, C. nuclease 4. Small intestine (mucosal cells)A. peptidase, G. sucrose, maltase, lactase, D. lipase 36. Match the enzyme(s) with its (their) function(s). (pp. 661-683) 1. PeptidaseE. breaks down peptides into amino acids 2. AmylaseD. breaks down starch and glycogen into disaccharides 3. NucleaseF. breaks down nucleic acids into nucleotides 4. LipaseB. breaks fats into fatty acids and glycerol 5. PepsinA. begins protein digestion 6. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidaseC. breaks down proteins into peptides, E. breaks down peptides into amino acids. 7. Sucrase, maltase, lactaseG. breaks down disaccharides into monosaccharides.

Lecture 5 Assignment-Chapter 17 (Digestive System)

38. Describe the functions of the intestinal villi. (p. 684)

Villi serve to increase the surface area of the intestinal wall Monosaccharides, amino acids, fatty acids, and glycerol are absorbed by the villi. Fat molecules with longer chains of carbon atoms enter the lacteals of the villi Other digestive products enter the villi and are carried away by the blood
43. Explain the defecation reflex. (p. 690) A person holds a deep breath and contracts the abdominal wall muscles. This increases the internal abdominal pressure and forces the feces into the rectum. As the rectal wall distends, this triggers the defecation reflex. Peristaltic waves in the descending colon are stimulated, and the internal anal sphincter relaxes. The external sphincter relaxes and the feces are forced to the outside. 17.11 Life-Span Changes 45. What are the effects of altered rates of absorption, due to aging, in the small intestine? (p. 690) Because the small intestine is the site of absorption of nutrients, it is here that noticeable signs of aging on digestion arise. Subtle shifts in the microbial species that inhabit the small intestine alter the rates of absorption of particular nutrients. With age, the small intestine becomes less efficient at absorbing vitamins A, D, and K and the mineral zinc. This raises the risk of deficiency symptomseffects on skin and vision due to a lack of vitamin A; weakened bones from inadequate vitamin D; impaired blood clotting seen in vitamin K deficiency; and slowed healing, decreased immunity, and altered taste evidenced in zinc deficiency. Critical Thinking (p.697) 2. How would removal of 95% of the stomach (subtotal gastrectomy) to treat severe ulcers or cancer affect digestion and absorption? Gastric secretions would be greatly reduced. Gastrin, which normally is the stimulus to secretory activity in the stomach, would be decreased; protein digestion, which normally begins in the stomach, would be decreased or absent due to the lack of pepsin and HCl; gastric lipase, which primarily digests butterfat, would be greatly decreased or not secreted at all. How would the patients have to alter eating habits? Why? Do you think that people should have this type of surgery to treat life-threatening obesity? The patient would also be prone to pernicious anemia as a result of the removal of parietal cells of the stomach. Removal of 95% of the stomach would also reduce its storage capacity. The patient would need to eat several small meals per day and drink fluids between, rather than with, meals to avoid hypoglycemia and fluid loss through diarrhea.