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Transferring massage from one person to another person is called

communication .and communication divided in two parts.
1. Verbal communication
2. Non Verbal communication
Writing of report is verbal communication but non verbal in not in this
chapter later we will study

Reprting management information

Deciding who needs what.

1. Avoiding an explained terms: it means that when ever we write a

report it should be base on level of each person.
EX: If top manager want the report it should be on his level not less and
also if junior manager wants the report it should be on his level.
2. Cutting out unnecessary detail: If we give report for any one we
should give the report base on his understanding.
EX: If a junior manager wants report we should give with a little detail for
him because he knows a little
3. Using chat diagram table and goods report layouts.
It means that the information that we present that should be in chart diagram
or table.
Of course the information is about profit.

4. Asking users views if requires on presentation or information:

It means that when we present information we should ask from top manager
before information present that shall I write the report in chat on in diagram
it means base on his choice.
5. Report should differential between controllable and Non
controllable factors:
 Controllable factor: are those factors which are control

 Non controllable factors: are those factors which are control
externally. I mean it is control from out side government.
When ever we write a report we must be care about controllable and non
controllable factors
6. AD hoc reports: it means unplanned report base on their
requirements we should write Ad Hoc reports.
7. House style: when ever we write an reports correctly so at end it
should be house style like good computerize in good file and very
clean thin it will be very nice.
Types and method of communication
First the follow factors must be obey which are belongs to method of
1. Time: when we present communication we should be care about time
that by what it should be present very soon by phone email and letter.
2. Complexity: when ever our information is complicate we should
thing about it that we present it by email letter by phone in order to
make easy the report.
3. Distance: If receiver or information is for from us so which method is
good to arrive very fast and easy email phone letter.
4. Written Record: when we sent the information we must have a copy
or record of that information as a proof
5. Feed back/ interaction: it is replay from the person who received the
information that I received it.
6. Confidentiality: it means that how to present some confident or
secret information
7. Recipient: who is receiving the letter if it’s for our father so it should
be written (Dear my father). It means we should be care about writing
paper and envelops.
8. Cost: the information should be according to our budget not more
then our budget.

Is used externally. And the main factor of letter is as follow
1. Polite: the letter should polite using of good words
2. Accurate: the letter must be correct (Accurate).
3. Clear: the letter must be base on their knowledge levels.
4. Logical: the letter should be writer according to tittles of the issue.
And must be logically.
5. Concise: it should be not shorter and less.

6. Reference: is a kind of number which is given to letter as a code
7. Spelling: we should be more care on spelling or words
8. Punctuation: in our letter we must be care on punctuation that in
where we use it (. ? ! , )
Dear Mr. Khalid so at end sincerely.
Dear sir/medium so at end faithfully.

Memo (memorandum)
Is used internally in organization it means when we invite our staffs for
some ceremony so we use from memorandum
Email: the easy way of communication is called email. And email is without
Report is divided in two parts.
Short report large report
In writing of report these things are must be obey.

1. introduction
2. body
3. conclusion

The Elements of report

1. Total: Is the subject of report or simply we can ten that
total is the main idea of report.
2. Term of reference: is the introduction. Or simply what is
requested who request it .
EX: base on request of manager this is the report.
3. Introduction: back ground of something main idea of something is
written in introduction.
4. Main Body: deductive all the things are written more
In deductive detail then introduction.
To support the introduction.

5. Conclusion: in conclusion we write as fallow that this is the
report about evaluation of staff.
(Summery of introduction and main body is the conclusion)
6. Recommendation: if we have any request or some suggestion or
some idea we write it in recommendation
7. Signature: after the writing we should do the signature.
8. Executive summery: the summery of report is especially for top
manager if it 10 pages make it in 2 pages.

1. Legal requirement: it means that manager can not disclosed or
show the policy of organization.

Data protection act of 1998

1. Storage: it means that how to store or keep the information up to
which date we keep it. We should save important file not simple
2. purpose uses:
3. Accuracy: the information that we save that should be accurate.
4. Processing and transfer: it means that first we process some
checks and than we transfer it to others.
5. Sensitive data: this one is the very important that in our office we
should not talk about some political matters. That’s your pashton or
Uzbak. The atmosphere should be friendly.

Internal requirement
1. it means that internally what is the policy procedure before finalizing
all the products we should keep them confident
2. Paper files with restricted access should be it means all the
information that we share it should be paper files.
1. Listed: it means all the information regarding the issue should be
2. Stored securely: the information that we are using that it should be
keep securely.
3. Only accessible by specific people: it means that only specific person
like top manager can take this information.

4. Password: when ever our information is confident so we can give
password for that information in computer.
5. Internet: using of internet for confidential information is optionally.
6. Lock: at end when we leave the office so we put all the documents in
cupboard and lock it.

Charts, Graphs and tables

Charts which make clear the report.
1. Bar chart: we use bar chart to compare the number or amount.


1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

2. Line graph: it shows fluctuation of price.

3. Tables: we use the table for numerical information and it has raw and