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final exam questions chapters 1-5 and 8

1. describe the two main dynamic processes of an ecosystem.

2. describe the two observations that led darwin to his inescapable conclusion. state

this conclusion.

3. describe the two key features that distinguish science from other styles of inquiry.

4. distinguish between a hypothesis and a theory.

5. list the 12 levels of biological organization from general to specific

6. what is the lowest level of biological organization that can be considered “alive”.

7. what does a population consist of?

8. what species of bird did darwin collect to study natural selection?

9. what is the major difference between an ecosystem and a community?

10. if an element has a mass number of 26 and an atomic number of 12, how many

neutrons does that atom have?

11. if an element has a mass number of 26 and an atomic number of 12, how many

neutrons does that atom have?

12. the weight of an atom is composed primarily of what two subatomic particles?

13. what is an isotope?

14. draw a bohr model for oxygen which has an atomic number of 8 and a mass

number of 16.

15. the following is a bohr model for which element:


final exam questions chapters 1-5 and 8

16. what four elements make up 96% of the body weight?

17. the weight of _____ are negligible when computing the mass of an atom?

18. name the four macromolecules.

19. what is an isomer?

20. describe the special bonding properties of carbon that allow it to form an endless

variety of organic molecules

21. compare the structure and properties of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

22. name the four functional groups and draw them.

23. destruction of a proteins shape is called __________.

24. glucose + glucose = ???????

25. what name is given to bonds that involve the sharing of electrons?

26. describe the structure of the plasma membrane and other membranes of the cell.

explain why this structure is called a fluid mosaic. explain how the structure of

the plasma membrane makes it semipermeable.

27. explain how the genetic information in the nucleus is used to direct the production

of proteins in the cytoplasm.

28. compare the structures and functions of the following components of the

endomembrane system: rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic

reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacuoles.

29. compare the structure and function of chloroplasts and mitochondria. explain

why the grana in chloroplasts and the inner mitochondrial membrane are each

highly folded.

30. describe the functions of the cytoskeleton. compare the structures and functions
final exam questions chapters 1-5 and 8

of cilia and flagella.

31. compare the structure and function of a plant cell wall and the extracellular matrix

of an animal cell.

32. explain how enzymes can be used to produce “stonewashed” jeans.

33. define the terms energy, kinetic energy, the principle of conservation of energy,

and potential energy.

34. compare the processes by which a car and human use “fuel” to perform work.

explain why the human process is more efficient.

35. compare the amount of energy in a calorie to that found in a kilocalorie. which is

most commonly used on food labels?

36. explain how atp drives work in chemical reactions in cells.

37. explain how enzymes are able to speed up chemical reactions.

38. define the terms metabolism, enzyme, activation energy, substrate, active site,

induced fit, and feedback regulation.

39. distinguish between the following pairs of terms: diffusion versus osmosis,

passive transport versus active transport, hypertonic versus hypotonic,

endocytosis versus exocytosis, and phagocytosis versus pinocytosis.

40. describe the roles of cell division in living organisms.

41. compare the genetic information in the chromosomes of typical daughter cells.

42. compare the cellular processes and cellular products of asexual and sexual

reproductions.

43. describe the basic structure of a chromosome, and explain how chromosomes are

duplicated.
final exam questions chapters 1-5 and 8

44. describe the key events of each phase of the cell cycle.

45. describe the key events of each phase of mitosis.

46. describe how the cell cycle control system normally functions and explain the

consequences of errors in this system.

47. explain how cancer cells are different from normal cells of the body.

48. distinguish between the following pairs of terms: sex chromosomes versus

autosomes, somatic cells versus gametes, and diploid versus haploid cells.

49. compare the processes and products of meiosis i and meiosis ii.

50. explain how independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis, random

fertilization, and crossing over contribute to genetic diversity in offspring.