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2004 IEEE International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DWT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

FACTS Devices in Deregulated Electric Power Systems:

A Review

A. Kazemi

H. Andami

Iran Universityof Science and Technology

Tehran , Iran

Keywords: Deregulation, Electric network Restructuring, FACTS, Optimal powerflow(OPF), Placement

Abstract

The changing nature of the electricity supply industry is introducing many new subjects into power system operation related to trading in a deregulated, competitive market. Commercial pressures on obtaining greater returns from existing assets suggests an increasingly important role for dynamic network management using FACTS devices and energy storage as an important resource in generation, transmission, distribution and customer service. This paper presents the influences of FACTS devices on deregulated electric power systems and their technical and economical benefits.

1-Introduction

The deregulation process has tumed the electric utility world inside out. At the heart of restructuring is the need for competition in the trading of electric energy as a commodity, it is also necessary to maintain balance between ever-changing load and generation, stability, voltage and frequency within the defined bounds and cope with various outages [l]. Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) is a technology based solution to help the utility industry deal with changes in the power delivery business. A major thrust of FACTS technology is the development of power electric based systems that provide dynamic control of the power transfer parameters transmission voltage, line impedance and phase angle [2]. With the deregulation of the power industry, FACTS controller will be required by power systems to manage power flow to utilize transmission lines nearer to their thermal limits.

The ability to transmit at higher transfer limits will necessitate greater coordination to balance reliability and economy of operation of the power system [3]. In this paper the role of FACTS in deregulated system has been considered in some dominate aspects such as optimal power flow (OPF), optimal power

control, FACTS

controller and optimal placement of

this devices.

2- Deregulated System and FACTS role

Before discussing about the role of FACTS we have to study some realities of any deregulated power system.

Some realities of electric system

The underlying realities of deregulated electric power system are [l]:

0 Lack

of large electrical energy storage means

that generation and load must balance at all times.

Electric energymeans that generation and load must balance at all times. transmission grid. Competition in loses its

transmission grid.

Competition inbalance at all times. Electric energy transmission grid. loses its ownership identity in a electric energy

loses its ownership identity in a

electric energy is not sustainable

without adequate and stable power system that can ride through major disturbances.

0 Reliability of supply and available transmission

capacity

enhanced with additional investment.

are

interchangeable

and

both

can

be

0 Reliability and quality of electric power delivery in the time frame of seconds and now even cycles, is increasingly important to the customers. In addition to the transmission faults< low frequency power system swing (typically 0.2 to 7 Hz) result in low voltage of long enough duration to bother many customers.

0-7803-8237-4/04/$17.0002004IEEE

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2004 IEEE International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

Table 1 : FACTS Devices and their Controller

FACTS CONTOLLER

11Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM without storage) Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM I with storage)

Thyristor Controoled Braking Resistor (TCBR)

without storage

Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC

Thyristor Controlled Series Reactor (TCSR)

Thyristor Controlled Voltage Regulator (TCVR)

Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifting

CONTROL ATTRIBUTES

Voltage control, VAR compensation, damping

oscillation,

voltage stability. Voltage control, VAR compensation, damping oscillation, voltage stability. Voltage control, VAR compensation, damping oscillation, transient and dynamic stability, voltage stability, AGC. damping oscillation, transient and dynamic stability. Current control, damping oscillation, transient and dynamic stability, voltage stability, fault current limiting. Current control, damping oscillation, transient and dynamic stability, voltage stability. Current control, damping oscillation, transient and dynamic stability, voltage stability, fault current limiting. Current control, damping oscillation, transient and dynamic stability, voltage stability, fault current limiting. Reactive power control, Voltage Control, damping oscillation, transient and dynamic stability, voltage stability. Active power control, damping oscillation, transient and dynamic stability, voltage stability. Active and reactive power control, voltage control, VAR compensation, damping oscillation, transient and dynamic stability, voltage stability, fault current limiting.

transient

and

dynamic

stability,

Need for Ancillary services

Competitive transmission wheeling of that commodity could also be identified in terms of functional needs with competitive investment to meet these needs, or return on the required level of investments plus operation and maintains costs. Having accounted for steady state transmission services , the power supply would

still be unreliable without investment in a set of provisions, witch require commitment of high power assets for real time actions and on as needed basis and is not definable in terms of measured energy to and from such assets. These are the so called ancillary services, which could be defined in terms of functional needs, return on the required level of investment plus operation and maintains costs, that partition as:

The automatic generation control and governorplus operation and maintains costs, that partition as: controls need to be sufficient to keep up

controls need to be sufficient to keep up with the changing loads.

need to be sufficient to keep up with the changing loads. Dynamic and transient instability represents

Dynamic

and

transient

instability

represents

another part

slow generation response, dependence on generation

of the ancillary services. Because of the

to provide such stability related services falls short of the need, and we resort to means including increased transmission margins to begin with and then generation dropping, load shedding and islanding to save what can be saved.

FACTS Technology and Their Potential

Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) is defined by EEE as: “alternating current transmission systems incorporating power electronic based and other static controller to enhance controllability and increase power transfer capability”.

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2004 IEEE Intemational Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004)April 2004 Hong Kong

These devices can dynamically control line impedance, line voltage, active power flow and reactive power and when storage becomes economically viable storage they can supply and absorb active power as well. All this can be done in high speed. There are also several controllers for FACTS [4] and table 1 show a list of these controller with their respective control attributes. Their primary control functions are at the front followed by other functions. Frequently these functions can be derived simultaneously with appropriate design specifications. Thus potentially, there can be more than one ancillary service from a FACTS controller.

3-

Optimal

Power

Flow Using FACTS

Devices

Optimal power flow is one of the most important operational functions of the modem day energy management system. The purpose of the optimal

power flow is to find the optimum generation among the existing units, such that the total generation cost is minimized while simultaneously satisfying the power balance equations and various other constraints in the

most common constraints in the

operation of a power transmission system are constraints on the voltage magnitudes of the buses and constraints on the reactive power generated by the generators. For reliable operation of a power system, the voltage magnitudes of the buses and the reactive power generated by the generators are

constrained to stay within specified limits. However,

demand, more and more

system. The

due to the increasing load power is

required to be pushed over the existing transmission

lines but

increase in the power flow above a certain

operating

level decreases the overall stability of the

system. In a regulated power market, the scheduling of generation is done following a centralized unit commitment and economic dispatch algorithm, which also ensures that all transmission flow limits are satisfied. Under a competitive environment, generation is not centrally dispatched but, rather it is based primarily on the transaction agreed to in the open market. Let not forget that under deregulation environment, power system has changed from the cost based operation to bid based operations [5]. To achieve better power flow control over the transmission lines without violating the stability margin of the system, application of flexible ac transmission system (FACTS) technology is currently being pursued very intensively. FACTS technology is essentially the art and science of achieving better controllability over various electrical quantities in a power transmission system [6, 7,8].

In [9] OPF has been solved by dynamic

programming, considering the uncertainty in the loads demand and generation using fuzzy logic and possibility of using TCSCs to satisfy the transmission capacity constraint in the OPF has been explored. We can see at [9] that whit use of TCSC, the total generating cost comes out to be less than that obtained without TCSC. Hence the saving obtained

because of the difference in generation

offset the cost of TCSC implementation. An optimal power dispatch model for congestion management and minimization of the load curtailment has been presented by [ 101and impact of two types of FACTS devices (SVC andTCSC)on congestion management has also been studied. In [11, 121an optimal active power delivery problem has been formulated for the future open access environment and this formulation includes phase shifters and series compensators. These paper show that proper FACTS settings can reduce or even eliminate unwanted loop flows, and increase system security margin. This tends to be achieved by minimizing the total transmission loss or by redistributing the flows across higher resistance lines to lower resistance lines. In [13] an optimization method basing on sequential quadratic programming (SQP) implimented to solve optimal power flow problem subject to security constraint.

[141 has proposed a two stage heuristic approach to nonlinear optimization of OPF and [5]implemented an efficient nonlinear OPF algorithm include FACTS

to relief the congestion under deregulation and shows

UPFC can best utilize the existing transmission

that

lines for supplying the load growth. Meanwhile, FACTS have opened up new system planning scenarios and they are capable of providing an economically and technically attractive solution to the congestion relief and OPF problems, but unfortunately there was not a comprehensive study on OPF problem considering many FACTS devices.

cost would

4- Power System Stability increase

As before mentioned under deregulated environment

any

power system controls such as frequency control

and

voltage control will be served as ancillary

services. Especially in the case that Independent Power Producers (IPPs) which have insufficient abilities of the frequency control, increase rapidly, it is very much important to consider how the system frequency should be controlled [15]. In [16] a robust load frequency control (LFC) strategy by solid state phase shifter is proposed. The control design based on concept of enhancing the damping of inter-area oscillation mode by robust control of a FACT device. This paper shows that phase shifter can

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2004 IEEE International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuringand Power Technologies (DRF’T2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

be expected to utilize as a facility to provide a new ancillary service in the deregulated power system. [17] explains that the application of FACTS controller to deregulated network is an affective way of improving transmission system adequacy while reliving congested circuits in the process.

In [ 181 shows that a feasible solution to emergency

reactive power exchange capability between neighboring areas is to utilize FACTS devices to change reactive transfer characteristics of the system.

According to FACTS potential in transient and steady state stability increasing, there are so much works that was remained and must to do in this field.

5-

FACTS

Controller

power system

in

deregulated

Force-commutated static power converters used in

FACTS devices and based on GTOs and on IGBTs, offer a flexible alternative to conventional shunt or series, fixed or variable, reactance compensation. They are capable of producing the required amount of reactive power independently of the line voltage or

They have almost instantaneous response to

current.

control variable changes [19, 201. [21] discussed different SVC damping loop design

technique (non-linear techniques).

A

new UPFC model and control has been developed

in

[22 ,231.

6-

Impact of FACTS on Pricing

The rapidly increasing cost of electricity in resent years has brought about awareness to the importance

of pricing policies in maximizing the social welfare.

Electric energy must be treated commodity witch can

be bought, sold and transmitted taking into account

its time varying values and costs, known as “spot

pricing”. In the energy marketplace, all utility- customer transaction are based on a single quantity, the hourly spot price. The hourly spot price is defined in terms of marginal cost subject to a number of constraints. Some efforts have been made to study the impact of these devices on transmission charges. Oliveira et a1 have shown the ability of FACTS devices to change

the production

clear in [25] that effect of

FACTS devices on transmission charge varies according to the pricing methodology adopted. They considered production cost minimization as the objective function. [26] was provided the index which reflects the FACTS device operation, wheeling transactions and network congestion. [27] has described a new approach of transmission pricing calculation taking social welfare maximization as the objective and has studied the

charges [24]. They made

cost and their impact on transmission

340

impact of FACTS devices on it. This paper shows that :

By340 impact of FACTS devices on it. This paper shows that : significant reduction in both

significant reduction in both total real power loss and total reactive power loss is obtained. The reduction in reactive power losses is found to be more than 5% in all the cases. The FACTS devices also help in reducing the generation cost in the deregulated energy market.

0 Implementation of FACTS devices into the optimal power flow is an effective way to simulate real and reactive power spot market.

Inclusion of FACTS devices in the system reduces the spot prices. Cost of the FACTS devices can also be allocated according to the reactive power loading condition in the system.way to simulate real and reactive power spot market. 0 The marginal cost of reactive power

0 The marginal cost of reactive power is negligible compared to that of real power. However, wheeling rate of reactive power can not be neglected.

including FACTS devices in OPF problem,

7- Optimal Placement of FACTS

As a consequence of the ongoing power system restructuring, increased wheeling transactions are common which requires an opening of unused potentials of transmission system due to environmental, right of way an cost problems that are major hurdles for power transmission network expansion. Pattern of generation that results in heavy flows tend to insure greater losses and to threaten stability and security ultimately make certain generation patterns economically undesirable. Hence there is an interest in better utilization of available power system capacities by installing FACTS. So optimal FACTS devices locating provide new control facilities, both in steady state power flow control and dynamic stability control. There are some papers in finding location of FACTS devices in deregulated power systems to maximize total transfer capacity of system and congestion management and loss minimization. [28, 291 imply a comprehensive study on transmission planning and optimization of system operation using FACTS devices. A sensitivity based approach has been developed in some researches [30-341for determining the optimal placement of FACTS devices in electricity market having pool and contractual dispatches. [30] shows that the few location of FACTS devices can be decided based on sensitivity factors and then optimal dispatch problem must solved for finding suitable placement of UPFC in a congested system. [3 13 used sensitivity factors based on total real power loss. This problem has been solved for TCSC in [32-341. [35] implements Genetic Algorithm to finding the best location for TCSC to maximizing total transfer capacity.

2004 IEEE Intemational Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

Tabue search is another effective method that has used by [36] to finding optimal location of UPFC in contrast Genetic Algorithm and some other methods.

2- Conclusion

This paper survey the FACTS devices role in deregulated electric power systems and their benefits and technical problems. Power system restructuring is a good opportunity to examine the FACTS devices capability and useof them. This is evident that FACTS devices due to their special characteristics play an essential role in design and operation of future deregulated electric power systems.

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