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Th Pr.Domsti Hors ANToNY DNT Domstition and th arly Hors Popls ANT6NYDNT Th Growth of Classial quitation Jt.tFRBAKR Th Growth of !strn Riding IIARLS HN\T1RNH


20 26


Th Influn of th Arabian ARGART GRLY Prinipal Hors Brds IUDIT DRAPR l,rinipal Pony Brds JBNNIFR BAKR


6 42


Drssag in th 20th Cntury A.P.. RosSLY Th Hunting Hors ICHAL lYToN Show Jumping AI.\N SITrI Th Thr-Day vnt JAN PONTIF Raing and Rahorss }IUGII oNDRY Long Distan and nduran Riding ANNrIYLAND Polo PAl AGR,GOR-ORRIS ountd Gams JAN FULLR

88 90 98 103




Skill-at.Ams ..N{. KLLo K \\stm Spos ST\IND. PRICB ^\ustralian Riding SUSAN D'ARDS
Lr Show

PAI ^AGRGoR-^,1oRRIs Flolidas with Horss JOI{NRULR


r42 r45 r49






16 168

h Body of th Hors PTRD. RoSSDAL t }lind of th Hors L\X/YNFIARTLYDWARDS


h Halth of th Hors PT,RD. tsding JAYSwALLow






221 225 228 26

otopus Books Lirnitd ihlin Hous 81 Fulham Rod Londo S!3 6RB

Fist publishd in 1977 by



This dition publishd by Csnt Boks,

h. Basis of Buying GORGI'NS}IL ikog s siv Tiaining GOFFRY ATTAN rrs with Horss GORGI NstIL


Distributd b outlet Book Company, In., A Random Hous Company 225 Park Avnu South, Nw Yor Nw Yok 10003

ISN 0 5|,7 22403

8'7 65

GJissary of qustrianTrms HARLS STRATTON


nlopdias, inluding hors nylopedias, take two forms: fust is an xpandd ditionary_ a sris of short artils on a host of topis arrangd alphabetially' usefulto the xprind t.orsman who knows just whih hadings to look for; th sond is th form adoptd y th ditor of this book _ a omhnsiv sris of artils by lading authoritis, ovring th ntir ralm of the riddn horse. Th rsult is a most radabl ok whih is not only highly informativ to th gnralrader nd an admirabl introdution for beginner ridrs and ownrs, t is also so omplt as to dd evn to th knowldg of tim horsmn and horsWomn. h gnraloverag is intrnationalin viwpoint and applition and in addition thre ar spial artils about riding and horsmanship in Amria and Australia. The brds of the -old, snsibly inluding harnss and havy draught horss, ar



h ditor has bn minently sussfulin ahieving his aim; nlisting the ontributions of a notable group of authors h has produed th outstanding illustrtd hors enlopdia in th nglish language.

Intrnational ditor The Chronicle of th Hors









In this

aptg authorjtis,;ubl

ndh g

It is amusing to refle

usd, misusd





:s""t. i- *





gtter of domesti hotss, thus support-

known bout th origin ofth hors, so far s the avIag horsman was onrnd, ws ontaind in th story of Noah and th Ark. Fromthis, ablif th|Equus bllus was of on singl origin was a logial onlusion. Darwin, himself, was, threfore' no innovator in this rspt. I dmonsatd his tnets of volution and th origin of spis b natural sltion, largl by rfrn to sussiv quin
anestors in on lin, Th only pr-Drwinin thory that an still ommnd rspet is that of Hamilton

f! o Dwin prftd his .l-l thorv of volution ll tht ws

ing, again, th thory of singl origin. It was not until about the turn of th nintnttr/twntith ntuies that th singl origin thor, so widl hld, suffrd a rvrs' though th disovris mad by J. Cossar wart of dinburgh. H mad sis of hybridization primnts with quidae at Pnniuik not fI from that it, th rsults of whih, and of his stud of .primitiv' horses and ponis in Britin nd ovrsas, h bst summarizd in an rtil lnNtur (21 April 1904)' H it ws who oind th phras .Clti pony' Anothr havir, Northrn sub-spis h

to indiat on of th wild quine subspeis anstral to the domsti hors.

Smith who had postulatd svrl wild spis of horss ontributing to th mk-up of Equus cbllus. H thought thy wr prinipall diffrentiatd by
oat-olour' whih xplind th wide
of his theory' howvl, annot be uphld

sptm of xtnt oat olours. That part

th light of ou prsnt knowledg.


hors of ongolia, quus przwlskii a,d two mor-than-pon-sizd ras, on with a ram hd nd on with a saight profil, whih h did not ndow with nms. lI did not assign the Arb or rlatd rds to a spalt ra, deming thm merely th most astrly rpsntativs of th .lin' (as it is now alld) of whih th xmoor and the Welsh pon wr the wsternmost. From this it will be sen' that h rgrdd th gographil distribution of 1l thes Ias as vr wide, and that h nvisagd two oI th- or more of thm o-xisting in the sam distrit . . . .as Afria now ontains svral spis of zbras, urop at

alld the Nors hors. othr spIat anstors h ognizd wre the wild

th bginning of th Pliston priod

was inhabitd b sveral spis ofhorss'. onophylists or patisans of th singlanstol shool still flourish, nota1y

in 1881' sd it to

Th disovry of th Przwalski hors

be haild as th only

Left rhe

on _ a breed whih ose from the rossing of two of the anestraI types after the last |e Age. Now extint in its original

or amaturJ who sk to xplain bhaviour

among equin pshologists, profssional

in terms of situations to whih th wild

anstor was posd: nd it is alwas on

form, it hs been ,reonstrutd, by se|etive breeding in Poland. Below he |e|andi pony is modern breed whih |ose| rsemb|es an anestraI tpe.

kind of wild anstor' lusivly grassatig, dwelling on a oundlss praii

with neither mountain nor forst in sight.

In my viw' th most artiult, th most




\ tti,

H PRE D0Msl H0Rs

logial, and th bst-equipped with evidene among prhistorians of th hors ar th lattr-day followrs of wart, Spd

hav ben made sine his day.

Pazyrik hors urials of th Altai whih Thir lassifiations of post-glaial Old

Polnd, and bhardt in Grmany. Th hv th advantag of bing equipped with

logy and th thnique of ron-14 dating, and the rsults of some arhaeologial finds of th first importn, suh as th
aids not vilbl to wart' suh as radio-

(also of dinburgh)' Skorkowski in

!old horss availbl to th fust domst-


once onsidered to be an anestor of the moden horse, the Przewa|ski, or Mongo|in wi|d horse, is now known to b distint speies Bottom |eft he xmoor is a pony of great antiquity and is probabIy a desendant of the Ce|ti pony of pe 1 in the |ssifition. Bottom right The Fjord pony originted in Norw |t is a primitive breed, resembIing the nothern ursian rpe 2'

iators are not dignified by th name of spis but as .Types', as undr: 1) sustantilly, wart's Celti pony, btter alled th Atlanti pon. The modrn brds most resembling it are th xmoor and a ertain strin of Ilandi. 2) substantially, wards Nors horse nd inhabiting northrn urasi. odrn rds mosdy resemling it ar the Norwgian Fjord pony, a ertain type of Highland pon, and th Norikr ha'"ry hors of th sub-Alpin region. 3) a horse, not pony' with Cntral Asin habitat. odrn brds most resemling it r the lay-olourd Sorraia hors of the Spnish-Portugus borde, and, in a mor elegant form, th Akhal-k of Cntral

th nxt setion) and, to th tnt of bout

golden-dun. This was th nestor of the Nisaean and Batrian brds (disussd in

Asi and th I(rbakh, both of whih ar

ian and th Andaluian, of


50 per nt through th .Turks', the Bath

xludd is Przwalskis hors, ause of a ftor not known in wart's day. This is that a spis is hartrizd b n mbryoni 11 struture peuliar to it, th 11 nuli ontaining a givn numbr of hromosoms _.rod-lik strutures.

handful of llid brds found hifly in Prsia. But in part this type is brd into a multitud of domesti raes, endowing them with mn of its qualitis, not th last of whih is auty.

4) a pony-sizd horse f \0estrn Asia. Th modrn brd most resmbling it is th Caspian pony. This lttr is ttrought to b th anestor of th Araian and small

hromosom ount of Przwalskis horse diffrs from that of all domsti horss. Inluded is th Tarpan, the wild hors of eastern urop nd wstrn Rssia. xtint in its pu form sin the last entury but now .r-onstituted in th Polish Tpan hrds' it is rgarded as hybrid ourring in th wild at the point where th haitats of Tps 1 nd 4 on joind. Th Tarpan Was th basis of stok used by ll th hariot-diving nations of th strn

.. rgarded hrditary ftors'

as th barrs of (R. Geurts). Th

diterrnean from th Hittites to the Grks, and originally of the Clti ibs. It is th prinipal anstor of the smll .pasants' horses' in ast Cntral urop
and th Blkans. n individuals of thse brds rsmbl it losely; suh as th Hungarian Goral, th Romanian Iuul'

th Polish Konik and the Bosniak of

Yugoslavi, t.' but vn losr fasimils

Bavaria, for sintifi purposs. If w had no evidne from fossil ons nd teth at all, it would still b appalent to anyone with an ee fo a hors, from th vidn of uropan v pintings alone, tht in the Old Ston Ag a great varity of wild hors typs roamd urope. In th Dordogn, thr is tlre ave of Roufflgn, th roof of whih is ovred with drawings that dpit idntiall th prsnt day xmoor ponies. Not fa awy, t Ls Combarlls, ther is a drawing of an obes, ram-hadd, Cldsdale-looking spimn. At Niaux in th Prns' Jrr is a quit rdile Fell pony. At Font d Gaum, nr Ls yzis, there is a New Forst pon in the at of leaping. Go ovr the mountins into Cantabrian Spin and yt further reognizable typs n sn in thse prhistori gllries, iluding
hoses of grat quality_viually.orientl'. In speking of domsti horss the ovr-worked pfuas .pure-brd' is a rlativ trm. At th had of ever pedigre stands

hv n .ak-red,

in Poland


an imported stallion of whos histor and nestry in his .old ountr, nothing of onsqun is known, nd a ountry-rd mar ofunrordd anestry. .Pur breding, ourred onl in th wild anstos: and then, it seems' not absolutly.

turlist. H ould b ithr a biologist or zologist, ut would b austomd to wking in th past not th plsnt. I ould b wll-goundd in ology, and :hus ble to onsidr the horse against th kgound of its nvironmnt; th ffet -a it of limat and vgtation: its own
ffet on th vgtation; nd its rlations to u.rhr living eaturs' e th vegtarians wh onstituted omptition for grazing,

prding stion' onrning p-domsti hors. might b :hought to be within th provin of the

must also be known bout soldiring nd agriultur, as wll as wainwightship, enough at last to raliz what is pratiabl and what is not pratial in th way of vhil design. Likwis som historial grsp of th thnial aspts of ship-

pr-historian' som aquaintan with prtial horsmanship and horsemstrship' th formr to inlud driving as well as riding, is an ssential. Thn somthing

altogthr, and thy would b outside th xprine of the pur naturalist. Idll, in addition to th knowldg of th quin

hse ar its .nturl nmis', hif ition, is an. of qulifid xpIts in this field thr is

prdators whih onolled its numrs.

opn sa. In rlir days it 1l smd so simpl, at least up to th tim whn Drwin wrot his Origin of Speis' A1l litrate persons thn wr quaintd with Holy Writ, at lest in Protstant ountris. Th dutd lass in urope and North Amria, oth Catholi and Protstant' wr well read in Grk and Latin uthors. All tht hd to don was to ssmbl th rquisit quota-

plaes, nough to detrmine whether it was viable in, say, 200 , to transport horses ross, sa, 200km (125mils) of
This 9th entury Assyrin re|ief from Nimrud shows the grooming and feeding of

building at rtain ruial tims nd

chariot teams of arpan-type horses in the stabIes 8t the amp of AshurnsirpaI tt. Horses were muh despised by the Hebrews ad figue Iitt|e in the oId Testament.

,-ong whom'

up to the moment of doms-

o lak; th admi stffs of vtrinry -hools bound in thm. But to mk any ogress in this relativly nw disiplin,

hors-eding and hors.born peoples, :quires diffrnt st of qualifiations

=or enturies the horse has p|aed

1' nd by impliation th history of

history of th hors as a domsti ani-

wa, and to a tain extnt fom thn until

pratial impliations of what th litrry soures said, they wr asil, and mostl orltly' intrprt baus up to the invntion of th passngr-arrying ail-

tions from th Bible and the Clssis, alrang thm in th right ordr, and th ak of th work was brokn. As for th

.ole in the everyday Iife of many nomadi


a primary

engin, lmost all omptent middl-lass mals knw how to psuad a hors to onvy thm from point A to point B by on mans or anothr. Not to be bl to do this was not simply th equivalent of not eing

th irth of th intrnal ombustion

being abl to ride a iyl' To this extnt Dr Syntax nd his lik ould op mor dequtely with this involvd subjt thn their modrn ountrparts' It might appar simple but in ft it was not so. No on took aount of the fat that th old Tstament ws wittn by nd fo a peopl who had a taboo against horses. IJp to th tim of I(ing Solomon, this ws about as virulent as th one thy hd

rod mels and asses, but horses nvr. To him th horse was insparaly

aginst dogs or pigs. Th pious Herw lookd bak to rsptd paiarhs who

l to driv a ar: it ws more lik not

assoiated with foreign imprialists

Assyrians or gyptians or Psians. Iene

D0Ms|A|0N & ARLY H0Rs P0PLs

ouId this 7th entury reIief from Nineveh depit the soure of Assyrian remounts? Shown here is a tarpnoid yer|ing being ptured for breking or breeding. he southern Iimit of the rpn,s habitt ws somewhere aIong, or just beond, the nothern frontier of Assvri.

formd admirably, although in fat suih a tm would in anint times have onsisted of stallions, who ould have done muh

of n anint British hariot, disovred at Llyn Crig Bah in !als. The mars per-

various regions of th Old !7or1d, mor thn sixten ntries arlier than that. This is th tstimony of pitoril rt and the remains of rtifats elonging to illitrat popls, on of whor, _ but whih? first domstiatd the horse. The intrpre-

iVlditerrnean region.

vitually nothing bout it bfor aout 900 , by whih tim we have plenty of ltrnative vidne anywa. Th sam objtions pply, though to a lesser degr, to lassial authors' whos voies spak to us from about 800 onwrds of the grat ivilizations of th editerranean. But thn th hors ws not fust domstited out 800 , nor in th
Iihn ws th horse domestiatd and

il sour for this subit, nd an tll us


old Testamnt is

an indiffrent histor-

suprior rd of horse' wre

mundn terms that horss, or mor likely

arhaeology. It an supplmntd y the oral taditions of th peopls dwlling along that diagonal lin btwen th Oxus basi and th Paifi oast of Siberia, a srudy of whih, in th original, dmnds familiarity with sveral lnguages, some of thm Indo-uropean but mostly blonging to th Turki' Ural-Altai and &Iongolian groups. Oral tradition is valuable beaus legnds ontain a ore of wht on in th remote past was historial fat. But thy nd intrpreting: to tak Western eample, th legnd of horss bing stowd on som hro by God of th Sa, suh as the Grek Posidon, or th Irish N{nnan a Lir, may signify in first

tation of this vidn


rnh of

tion was not th work of th aboriginal Lapps, who stuk to th reindr, but of Indo-uropen invadrs _ anestors of Nos _ who brought shp, goats, attl and rop-farming to th Noth. Th Celts themslves originally livd, not on th Atlanti oast' t in th lowr Dnub vally, whr th prevalnt wild hors was not this typ, but th Tarpan. In th early stgs of thir qustrian history, threfor, the hariots would hve bn horsd with Trpns, whih as w hav
4. But th get Celti migration whih
sn wre a ross twn type 1 and ryp

whih date from th Bonz Age inlud man piturs of pairs of ponis hmssd to hriots, and these r likl to have ben of the sam typ 1. Ir domsti-

betr. Th rok drawings of Sndinavia

intrpret the xat pratil impliations of ttre Hebrw text of th Book of Job is not enough. A knowldge of anient gyptian and Baylonian txts would be a help nd mstry of the languges urrnt in th Hittit mpir out 1400 mor usful
written txt ofany signifine onrning horss, Th Chriot Trining Mnal of IGkkulis th ittnit. And yet we hv irrefutable eviden of the use of horss in

tion thr ar thos who mintin that horses ould be, nd in fat wre, domstiatd, not nessrily in imitation of oth ibs but y several popls not in ontat with ah other eh living in spart rgions whre wild horss we found. So thn, to be abl to read noohon in originl is not nough. To b l to

ar losly rlted qustions. Just as ther are monophylists who liev in a singl wild nestor of tlr hors, nd polyphylists who postulte sveral of thm, so there ar diffusionists who beliv that the horseman was born in one entre and on only, from whih th hos ultur sprad ovr all th world. In addi-

or anwhr long that diagonal lin. But .when?' .whr?'

th shors of th Bering Strait. nd

of that millennium. As to whe' the rtinty is tht it was in a region north ast of th editeranean, t last as far distant s th Oxus (Amu Darya) basin, and phaps s distant s th far nd of Sibia' along

wher? To th first thr is no quik or rtain answer. Only that it ws rtinly as rly s th third millnnium and tht as vidn from arhaeology slowly aumults' the fvoured date eds evr furthr towards th opning nturies

ariv t the right interprtation of suh legnds demands, in th first instne, n anthropologist or a folklorist. And whre will w find the histoin possessd of all thes skills? Nowher, for thr is no suh prson. So th task must fall inevitably to thos who hav muh knowldg in som ares, and lss in otJrrs, or who have som knowldg in most areas. Thy must take otr mrt's trnsltions and intepretations at thir fa value, and ely on someon els's surmary and xposition for th laymn of hig tehnial ports of reserh in vr-

brought to Hlls or to ir by s. And to

lenium B, ld up tht vally and along the xis Swabia-Burgundy-Brittny. Conquring as they wnt, thy invitably aquird geat numers of horss along the route, importnt lmnt, ttr mor substantil

am aout the middl of th fust mil-

nd thes would inlude, s the most

tory, and an rly history, of th hos

gentis. f we ar to onst.rt prhis-

ious natrl sines, from gology


still. . . That will ring us bak to th arliest


morta mad by yet othrs. Thee is no othr way. This is the extnt of the prolm and it must, threfor, prelude any single definitiv explanation. Lt us now onsidr the fortunes of th domesti horse ovr th first 30 ntuies o so' still onsidering them, in the min, under th hadings of the four loal raes whih were dfined nd disussd in th prding setion. Typ 1: whih wart alld th Clti Pony, was proably not first domstiated by the Clti popls, but y the poples who preeded them in Northwst urop; in Sotland, for xampl, by the Pits. Bing apal of a vry fst trot with swping ation it ws dmiraly adaptd for hariot work in pairs, and some years ago a pratial dmonstration was given by two xmoor mres harnessd to rpli

with othr men's fuel, and bound with

before and aftr domstiation, it must b uilt of briks mde of othr mn's straw and oth mn's la, aked in a kiln fird

massif. Thus when they stood poisd on Channl shor for th invasion of Britin, it would hav alrad ben inurt

horss of the Alpi foothills as thy skid aound th northen dg of the

hbitat ovrlapped that of th rindr nd (whr it livd) it was fust domestiatd as substitute for th rind. At last on

th first to hav been domestiatd. Its

to Przevlski, s horse may b, is most

have ontaind lmnts of thre out of four typs of th primvl wild stok. Tpe 2: whatever its exat rlationship

Chnnel was a more unifom stok, onsisting only of type I with a small admixtur of tpe 2.On thy had estalishd thmslvs and begun putting thi own stllions to th boriginal mars, therfor' th .nint British hors, would alrad

to dsri their horss as .pur-rd. awaited them on this sid of th



may well that


Northeast Asi

trib in that rgion, th Ykuts, seem to hve rmaind in a ansitionl stg to this day, riding horss and rindr like. At a primitiv lvl of ulture, it is proaly

taming horses from srth than it would for anyone ls' For instan' in ertain

asir for reindr-kping pople to start

tl0MEsTlAT|0N & EARLY 0RsE P0PLs

watlrr onditions it might b feasibl for

pulkka to ovrtak, o gt within lasso-

rinde-drawn sledgs

mn mountd on rindee o

lik the Lapps'



in th invasions of

wstward under pressur from the ongol

Indo-uropan (.Aryan') and Turki hariotrs, moving

ng of, horss hamped y snow (this might also done on ski, o on snowshos, but hadly an otlrr means). Agi, rind-kepers ar he pople most likly to e fmiiir with the us of

he lsso.

surnmr-tirne, l1, o the majoriry

.\si long aft its invention in Southwest .\sia' nd ttr nwly-domestiatd horss

digsted a foal (o/s milk nnot). Th whel was unknown in Northast

dquat suppl

uwaned foals. Nxt to amel-kps, ide hds would hv th radist

ot th animls apturd intt would b

If th hunt took pla in

famous of ths people ae the Sythians, and proal it was they who drov the Celts out of th Danue vally and set in tin th Celti pilgrimag to th Atlanti shor. The partiular wave thratening to ngulf urop at the dawn of th Christian

uropeans, riding and rmd with th Tartar-type omposit bow. Th most

Thn am othr Indo-

era onsistd of Prthins. Thy

of milk that an

whom St John had in mind whn h wrote: .And I lookd, and behold a pale hors, and



MongoI ahievements against the sett|ed empirs of the East nd the West Wee Iimited unti| the Mongo|s hd aquired the means of rossing water obsta|es too formidbIe fo horses to swim, nd of besieging ad storming wa|Ied towns. one they had obtained siege engines and pontoon bidges, and the servies as engineers of Persian o Chinese deserters, there was really nothing butthe sea to stop the horse-rhers. his 16th etury MoguI miniature shows the rossing of the river Yng-tse-King nd the storming of the Chinese fortress of o-Chou bv Kub|i Khn,s

dawn y either horss o rindeer (it as oiginally drwn by dogs).

ould onl have en put to work under th pk or th iding saddl or in front ofth sligh. Thi pformane in th first two oles would hv bn inferior to that of ider in the wint monhs. In th sulmer th sleigh ould not b usd, ut rh slid<ar, whllss onvyan "lld .tavois' in North Amria, ould

wo rok dawings of the er|y domestition cenod' I eft .. Reindeer-mounted arher unting, from epsei in the Upper Yenise \rIley, Siberia (,lst miIIennium cl,' below.' l-bseborne he, fom Ldkh, noth India out.l200 ). Both animals, in the wiId, hd fol.estab|e migrtion outs and ouId :hefore be trapped and then domestiated.


hors bstowed the geatst moility on hrdsmn of ongolia, anhuria, d eastrn Sibi. Its adoption gan tht long sris of hors-born invsions b hes rmed with the doul-uvd lamintd ow' whih ulmintd in tlr invsion of urope y the Turks _ a tide th svnteenth ntury of ou r. Again, this yle began with th taming' lmost xlusivly, of typ 2, but as th flood of onquring horse-arhrs rolld stadily west and south othr varitis w added to th rmount hrds, just s they were to b later with th Celts. The

Iowevr it was und th saddl that th


that did not egin to rd until th nd of

disturbns sprad outwrds ftom th vortx of ongolia lik rippls in a pond, nd

th fust impat on urop was hifly flt

D0Ms|A|0N & ARLY H0Rs P0PLs

Typ 3: Bginning with th Persian invsions whih wr hked t

rthon and Salamis' ths horss now began to appal in urope in onsidrbl

his nme that sat on him ws Dth.' Th word rndd as .pl' in th Authorizd vrsion ould also rendred .light dun', th harateristi olour of types 2 and3'

numbrs. Thy inludd th famous

similar us of mounted arches that they aptured an entire Romn arm. This 3rd entur AD sassanian re|ief from Nh-e-Rostm near PersepoIis, Pesia, shows the surrender of the Roman mperor VaIerian to the Shahinshah' Shour t.

he Pafthians were sueeded in 226 by The Sassnians, who were so suessfu| in their

kingdom of Batria (northrn Afghanistn). AftI th tk-over of th Prsian mpire it bame possibl to bring ak

the redoubtaI adonian infntry but lso by auxiliary horsmen from the onqurd

Nisaan brd tht was so muh tallr than any mount availabl to th Greeks of nophon's time. That thy wer all in nemy hands was a position only rversd by Alandr th Grac s onqust of Pr-

sia, omplishd not alon by

th Proto-Arb' or that th ltter nvr istd in th wild, then w shall hv to look for anothr possible anstor for th Arab and its los relations among rly

onsidrable numbrs in ditrranean urop. It was to b man entries bfor th wr to b alld Arabin. If we onlud that th Cspin Pony is not t}re unmodifid dsndnt of typ 4'

upgrd th Trpan-typ loal stok. Tpe 4: Th same applies to spimns of this typ, although from a militay point of viw this Proto-Arab, as it thn ws' hd th grav disadvantag of bing too smll for a hargr. But rtainly it was in th Hllenisti priod when Alxand1s sssors w ruling his fragmntd empir in urop and Asi _ and not, s is ornmonly supposd, in Roman tims _ that ths horses wr first available in any

ths Batrian horses to

-N4.don to

rather its domsti dsndants. with som

modrn iologists. W already know that doubt hs n ast on the laim ofPrzvalskf s hors to th sol anestor of all domsti horses, by th fat tht its hromosom ount is not idntil with that of th domsti hors. Ridgway's inruitiv guess was that th Proto-Ara was a hbrid, arising from th union of th Asiati t0ild Iors, or

genetis was lss advand than it is today, and th trump ard whih nithr he nor his antagonist had up thi resptiv slvs hs now droppd out ofth uffof

Lt us suppose that som spis of zra towrds th northrn limit of its geographial rng _ sy thiopia or th Sudan _ zu,s ore domstiated. \7 tend
domstiatd', ut w are wrong. Thr ar prednts for the taming of animls for just this us, namly riding and driving, and the aandonment of th pratie whn a mor aptabi substitut has en

pftly fasible. lI refuss to speulate on how suh a ross ould hav arisn, but noody supposs it ould hav ourrd in th wild, in viw of what is known out the distribution of th Asiati Wild Hors and th various spies ofzb. Ridgway lost the trik by ssuming that th hors am to the zbra and not vi vrsa.

hors. Jnkovih threfor hs dmonstratd, without onsiously wishing to reinfor Ridgway' that in trms of th mehanis _ tht is th rithmeti - of gentis' his thory of quin origins is

ing, not all quidae hve had their hromosom ount stlished. Of those whos ount is known, ther is a speis of zebra whose hromosom ount addd to that of Przvalski's hors and divided by two is idential with that of th domsti

spis of zera that was formrly, but is not now' domestiatd, and that this ross ould only hv om about in North Afri. Th hromosom ount of a hybrid is th sum of th ount of both parnts dividd y two. If this.averg' omes to an odd numbr (as most of th fasile ons do) thn th hybrid is strile (e.g. the mul). But in th few ass whr it oms to an evn numr, hybrid an mte fruitfull with hbrid and a nw spis _ o t lst su-spis _ n b born. Th Hungarin author, Miklos Jankovih, has pointd out in a work not yet pulishd in nglish that' in trms of spis now liv-

to think .on

domstiated, always

found. Suh are fo instan th lk (moose) in the sub-arti rgions of

invitabl to Profssor Ridgwa nd his Multiple Origins of th Thoroughbrd, ,s w have sn in th last stion' Ldy Wntworth triumphed ovr him, and h lost fa, largly bause h was not a zoologist nor an arhaeologist and l1 th .hrd' vidne h ws bl to produe about Arabian origins was an impressiv array of quottions from lassil authors. But h wrot at tim whn the sien of

domesti stok.

This brings us



|uA | |UN &

tAtlLY Hutlst PtUPLs

si hv

rd b th reindr nd th othr by th ts' whrupon t}rey were simply turned k on th tuna o th dsrt. !F kow from many modern instns .* zas az b tmd to rid and drive, fur ir hs evr een laimd that thy are es god to drive as horse, and thre is 'rl tstimon that they ar a wors rid,
no withrs. Suppose that

mn on sk, dawing slighs and harmssd to h urious Sumrian attlears. l . . dw of history, the on ws dis-

s tlts of Iraq show thm towing

usi nd h ongr in .lvtsopotami. Th onl suviving lks and onagrs now nig r.ild o tiving in zoos, but th * dwigs of th !7hit Sa Coast nd

the bons an tell th true story. Nith the striped hid, nor th hug trumpt-like as of th zera nor yt its homosoms

ov svral thousnd yars, along a migation out that is mostly through dset ounty' is too muh to be hopd, yt onl

For this muh to rmain of on sklton

vr, in the Aaian peninsula, by th sam mans as had bn pratised irr pre-Islami tims. And so thse limits rmaind fairly

1rhisti times men am down th Nil \rlly lding pak-ladn zras, to s h Isthmus of Suez and journey fur Sii nd Plstine. Somwher li ltitud of th Caspian Sa we might tt hm to mt mn riding or driving ldig th domstiated vrsion of on th rhaologial rok; no .|mifil emains of horss of th $rild ntiquity ould b found in Noth Afri to pov his point. Likways no


annon bones that distinguish th orintal horss skltally from otlrer varities, and in this spt they mor rsmbl asss, onagrs, or zras thn Nortlrern horss. Th fat that vry oasionally zbralike makings ae found on the lgs and mor rarly still on othr prts of th body' of nw-born Arbian foals is neithr here
ds, nd thy re mrly an atavisti rminder of th stripes that ar blivd to hav ourrd in most quidae for the I Ag. Vhtvr th origin of th horss now lld Arbian, thy only just fail to be onsiderd in this setion, whih dos not tend byond th bginning of th Christian r. Classial Grek uthos do not

ould possibly b prsrved. In passing it is wortlr.mentioning tht it is the slendr

nor ther. So they ar in horses of all

thon; th numbr tht ould b reaed was in dirt proportion to th mount of barle ttrat ould b aquied from the Fertil Cresent ordring t}r dsrt zon, and th mount of dates that th oses ould produ, suplus to human onsumption. Th only rquisit tht ws avilabl mo or lss d lib was th amel]s milk - ssntial fo waning foals under onditions in whih th mar only latatd for a oupl of months at st. Hors-breding and hose-kping began, in Araia itself, as prstig symbol, assoiatd only with th rih and powrful. \ilhen it beam a rligious dut inumbnt lso on th lss rih and lss

nrrow. Iorss nnot liv on aml-

powrful this must hav mnt

things. Bdouin


hkf s hose. Ridgway's



mntion Aabin hoss' nd no Latin

h rmins of zers hav ben found i Tn .\sia. But thn, for rtin idenqrirrd fo autopsy, th minimum bing a

..-tin of quid a dal of matrial is


and one fore *l on hind limb elow th kne, or hok.

sith oth jaws intat'

one of the W*;s of Asiti wild ass, Was one drrrstited in Mesopotami but ws |ater disrded when the more adaotabIe horse ws tiogilIt in from the Noth. Ww Przevt|ski,s horse was origina||y the '.ii|ld horse of MongoIia. |t seems un|ike|y that, ifir s domestiated animI or in the wiId, llt r mted with the Zebra to become an llstor of the Poto-Arab.

osite bbw rhe onager,

rding mong the dsert tribes to its widst fasibl limits. Although th Korn might xhort th fithful to podu as many foals as possibl for srvi gainst th infidl, this ould only b don, how-

rathr that the A.rab peoples used donks almost xlusively in pa-tim nd amels in war. Iorss in Aabi t the begjnning of th Cfuistian ra wr vry sare and this ws still th as in th liftime of ahomet, who in his hol wars demonstratd thir superiority ovr amels for military purposs. It was th ompulsion to sprad th faith of Islam by for of rms tht led to th xpansion of hors-

writing in antiquity giv th impression

author up to th tim of Augustus does so, in the sse that there ws thn a reog. nized Araian eed. uropan authors

his shep, goats, amls _ would have to ontnt thmslvs with smller shar of vailbl drinking watr and vn gittir graziog thn before. Seond, that brdrs thmselvs would hv to make do with lss dats, lss arley, lss amel's milk nd vn less fish' sin in rtain parts of Arai nar th ost, potein in th diet of hoses is supplid by xtratd.

First, that othr livstok kept by


dried sprats from whih th oil is fust

Thfud, tht the slogn .quality efore

quantiqy' would b hammrd hom in no unrtain fashion. If pity ompels a man to bankrupt himslf nd starv his fmily and floks in orde to rd horses, he might as wll brd good ons. on annot ut rflt, ontemplating th normously inflatd numbrs of Arabs bred outside Araia today, that som suh onomi stringn and onsqunt pruning of numbrs would of th gleatst bnfit to




old rae his k whn losing with bodis of infantry. $ith th invntion of

In battle' howver, th adhesion was not suffrint to withstand th nemy's harge and it ws not until the invntion of th sddle, uilt high t both pommel and antl, nd used initially by group of Nuian merenaris from the Nil vally, that the ours of mounted warfar was hangd. This was baus th high antle provided a bas aginst whih th mountd soldie

and r dfritd on th tom of Hornha of gypt. From long efor this, howevr, thre are plaques still in existn that show man sitting on th quartrs of an onagr. This hors-like animl is now rar ut ws, in fat, domstiatd long bfor th hors. Th nxt rordd horsmn of
ny not wr th Assyians' gat huntrs of th 800s . They sat in th ntr of h hors's bak as opposed to perhing on his quarters' and wre, in turn, followd by th Prsians. But it ws a Grk valry offir,

f .l.

first dfinitiv rords of man idins a hos dt bak to 1600

th stirrup, fist used b th uns of ongolia in the fourth entury AD' the us of th Iors advaned rapidly, although w know litd of th us to whih th were put in the Dark Ages whih followd. Th &tiddl Ags, howver, saw th

bginning of Charlmgne's Age of Chivalry, wittr jousts and torneys btwn teams of knights who, initially at

enophon, who provided th first lndmrk in lassial quitation. Born in Athens in 430 , enophon's two ooks, Hippik and Hipparchikos' provide a wealth of information on a sys-

tem of riding that is just as applial today as it ws whn it was writtn, and whih formd tlre as of th lassial qustrian art. They ove braking, buying and

shooling young hoses nd nophon trind his horss in most of the movments that we know today. As well s balaning nd suppling xriss involving hanges of pae and dirtion, turns and irles' he also tught his hoses to

least, rod light Arab or Br-type horses and wor light hin mail. Th tournys wr also th bginning of an arly fom of musil ride or arousl whih ws to sen muh latr. Although they now usd stirrups' th knights sti1l rode with a long lg and with their fet pushed forward. Thy hld th ins high in their left hand togethr with th shild, lving their ight hand fre to handle th sword. Curb bits were muh in eviden but th pinipal mans of ontrol ws y th us of th 1g. Th influene of the mounted knight, evr skilful in dfn ut not so good in ttak, prsisted until 1346 whn th disiplind use of t}re ow and arrow deimted th

Xenophon, the Grek valry offier who Iaid the foundations of lassi| equitation and whose teahings are ,iust as app|iab|e tody.

mhanial mans. Long ur bits wr

ing in the hors, alit imposd

employd and so wr long, sharp spurs in

jump olletedly off their hoks nd njoyd hunting and oss-ouny iding when h was abl to put his mng work rnto prau. nophon also studid the hors's mind and blivd in a systm of rwrd and

Frnh troops t ry' foring th knights to tak masures to protet both themslvs nd thei horses. Th solution was to nas themselvs nd their mounts in umersom armou' whih mant in turn that the horss had to be largr and heavir nd in onsqIl they eam slowr and less mobil. Inasingl, thy beam virtul sitting trgts, until their nd ame in 1525 with th Battl of Pavia.

ordr to ontrol th quartrs without nssitating th 1g bing movd too muh. The attls and jousts ontinued _

knights being mountd on healry, lumbering horses _ long after thir influn in battl ws finishd. But whil this form of
the riding was operting in th val of th st was in fat fast and

mobil. The favourd a forward seat and rod witlr a loos rin on Arab-tp horses.

oretion, fo .if you wad him with kindness when h has done what you wish and admonish him when h disobeys, h will b most likly to do what you want. This holds good in every brnh of horsmnship'. He insistd on the patient hndling ofhorses, disapproving songly ofny form of for to gt th requird rsults,

The ag of th mountd knights did howvr produe a high degr of shool-

Riding ws fust reognizd as an art form in its own right, on an equal footing wi th lssial rts of musi, painting, litertur and so on. in th Renissan

sying .idrs who for thir horses b th us of the whip only inras tlrir far, for thy then assoit the pain with the thing that ftightns them'. But howver advand nophon's thinking, his grat disadvantag, s a avalry offir, was his lk of a saddle. As bfitted a Spartan offir, h rod bareb without ven a ov on th hors's bak, a fat that no

doubt nouraged his liking of a wllmusld bk. I rod with long lg nd turned down toe, mintaining that man's nkd 1g gv greatr dgre ofadhsion

in dirt ontat.

to ttr horse's swating oat if the two wr

Jousts and tournes hd their heda in the Middle Ages and were the early forms of
rouseIs whih were to ome into their own during the Renaissane'



iroutt, piff and passag forming the rs of the work on th ground, while th i*ad, ourbette and th apriole formd sis of the airs aov th ground. lrt Baoque riding halls _ of whih -i lst rmaining on is th Spanish Ridg Shool i Vinn uilt in 1735 Fishr von rlah (although first uilt of 'd in L572' prior to that th ara it ..d was laid out as a training ground l 1565) _ sprng up all ovr urop to ilus th sttly arousls prformd by :ms of th aristoay. enophon nd is works were redisovrd and High Shool iding had gun, lthough the
'oss w,

siod of 1500_1600. Thn no noblman's aiution was onsidred omplt rrntil r hd quird an appriation of th art quitrion and ould rid wll. ovnts] in imitation of those that it was -iut we pratisd in ttl y th roud knights wer performed, the

.llthough Count Cesr Fiashis ook -in in 1559 advoats' like enophon, fr se of patine whn dealing with
aoss nd rommnds th use if hands,

initially' ather heavy.

and voi usd in ombination, in ;i it would apper that th rquired


*n.l g on-ly rward would appa to hv s elaxation of th punishmnt ur:tl being inflitd. The nturl ids r dfind, an addition to th more usul .rs bing a liking of th tongu, ut ..sideale emphasis was givn to th .tifiil ids or .hlps', of th bridle, th siup - made frequently with a shrp ;lnr dg _ th spur and th lod. strss s lid on not harming th mout}r, howr. ltlrough long sever urb bits wr frquendyusd, s were spit<d nosbands.

:s'rlt rvas ahivd by raking th horse's :ste y any brbari method tht psrd itself. Hedghogs or ats tid to th j:s's til, a hot iron applid in th sm Pi", o n iron br with sharp hooks on -.h d to dug into th quarters, wr all .:sd to nourage hoss to go forward'

Fiashi rommendd th us of a mild lLipizzaner sta||ions in the mgnifient ha|| jointd bit with no urb hain, whih atd t the spanish Riding Schoo| of Vienna during one of their pefformanes in the on th bars of th mouth and had no port. He taught in Napls, his most sussful |assiaI art of eouitation. Gison to whom dit is usually given for being th First astr. His book, Gli Ordini de ulcre, published in 1550 shotly btbr tht of his tutor, and his own populaity, m wll be eason fo this
l0htvr th aus' Grison's pupils wre invitd to other parts of urop whre his systm of taining and riding ws propoundd and his word

nd best-known pupil eing Fderio

laim to fm.

Grison's susso nd th most famous of his pupils ws Giovanni Baptist Pigntlli who also tught at the Aademy
som irus training nd movmnts into his work. H observed in th methods of the ius performrs that lthough a high dg of obdine nd balan was nssry from thei horses, physil for ahievd by mhanial mans and sev its was not mploed to gt the dsird rsult. Ie was not slow to se the dvntags in this form of riding and training mthods, th whole piru of lssil riding took on a lightr appearan, and many of e mor sevr .aids' wre aandond. llorss of a lighter Spnish build bam popula nd to op with th dmand for this typ of hors studs were st up' th bst known being th stud at Lipizza. It was foundd wi nin stallions nd 24 mars

lizabth I.

nglish on the instrutions of Queen


His ook was

tanslated into

th ids so as to mk them lmost unnotiabl. Ie ws a muh mor smpathti teahr both with his horses and his pupils, not believing in th use of a long urb or u hain and nver introduing a
suffliently shoold to aept it readily. His shooling mthods too' wer more

Louis III. His ookl,1strution du Ro was published In L623. D Pluvinl rid on the teahings of his aster, 11 th tim trying to fin down

famous PuPil, Antoin de Pluvinl, (1555_1602) wnt to Frne to teh King

Antoine eam th fust ast of th Iors to Jams I, while Pignatllis most

bit into a hors's mouth until it


of Napls. H dvlopd Grison's mthods still futhe ad inopoted

and gradually, using som of the irus


1580 by th emissary of Ahduk Charls, th Frihrr von I(hevnhille,

know as ttr Lipzanr.

and it stablishd th bd whih w now

sminat th tahings of thir mast throughout top in the early svn-

Pignatllis pupils ontinud to dis-

teenth entry.

The Chvalir d


ous figur iding on larg irles and at various gaits nd tempos was introdued,

in ppration for th more dvand movements suh s pssag and hanges of lg at vry two or thr strids. Vry arly did h rsort to the pesuasions of th whip and spur, th laer being an id h onsidrd .a onfssion of filur'. D Pluvinl ws th fist of the astrs to mak use of th pillars in the mng, teahing his pupils to sit thir horss without ins whil the prfomd th High Shool airs. He ws also a vry patial hosman, alizing th importan of gtting the horse fit bfo attmpting to work him hard and h ws onstantly onend that all itms of saddlery relly fitted properly. I startd shooling his young horss y lunging thm from th avsson. Not until they wre pforming almln ws a bridl and saddle introdud and finally lightweight ridr put on top. I used dutd and xperiened horsemn to tah the horss their elementry shooling nd laid great strss on ptint handling and .Work gndeness. on two traks nd variexiss

refind and he usd a numbr of suppling


bove An

engrving showing the pi||ars bing used. De PluvineI Ws the fist of th Masters to make use of the piIlrs in the
WiIIiam Cavendish, Duke of Newast|e. oI es a nd ws the


He tr i ned at the Shoo| of Na

on|y ngIish Master'

Fran, !illiam Cavndist Duk of Nwastl (1592-7676)' who had ben ring it to Bolsover Castl in ngland. Although h was a lassilly duatd
traind in the Shool of Napls, had strtd a riding shool in Blgium, latr transfr-

While de Pluvinl was pratising this nw approh to riding and shooling in


ringing with it nw and nlightnd approah to th shooling of horse and

man, rding easily in Itlian, Frnh and Ladn, he ws a hard taskmastr and blived tht horss obyed thir ridrs' wishs out of fer rather thn rspt. Flowver h did noi oftn rsort to sevr punishmnt, and, lik de Pluvinl, mad rein. Unlik d Pluvinel though' h did not pl muh fith in th pillars as a mans of tehing th hors, beliving that their us stoppd fr forward movment. Iis

own forte was mIng work but h exptd his horss, s well as his pupils, to b mastrs of ll trads, and inded two of his most famous pupils, Charls II and Prin Rupert, wr prinipll onernd with raing and avalry rsptivly. Nwastle was one of the fust horsmn to raliz tht horss had mmoris and to s that this fat ould turned to advange. H wrot in his book' Neu Mthod to Drss Horses d Etrordinary Inntion nd'|Vork thm cording to Ntur published in 1658, tht .oftn petilion fortifis th mmort'. H rlizd qully
tht this mmor ould also disadvan-

xtnsive us of th avesson and lung

taught wrongl. He lik to us long spurs so that the ridr had to move very little in th saddl and h arrid two swiths, one in ah hand (as is still don in th Spanish Riding Shool tody), in order to tll his hors on whih lg to strike off, nd h also


if th horse ws initially

of modrn quitation. It was largly as a rsult of his work that two grat strms of
|||Ustations from ole de Cava|erie, written byde IaGu6rinire and publishd in.l73 he teahings of de Ia Guiniere remain as the bsis of modern eouitatio.

quitation and his tahings ar t the as

raing and hunting - a fat that th British s a whol hav still to apprit. As th new enlightned approah to horsmanship spread aross uop, th wa beam pavd for th Frnhman who was to eom known s th .Fathr of Classial quitation', Fanois Roihon d la Grinir (1688-1751). This man s influn hanged tlr ourse of lssial

popl tht lassil quittion was an art form and that thr was mor to iding thn

only nglish astr, Nwastl found great diffiult in prsuading the Bitish

usd th voie extnsivly as n aid. Th

I ?s


were movd to Vesaills, was tuded y Louis IV nd was mnagd d l Gu6rinir fom 1730 onwards. It s soon to eom famous all over uop, mainly through th rfinmnts in his shooling methods nd th bttr smp of horss (mostly nglish
horoughbrds), that were usd there. D plig and gymnasti xrises designed to ultivat and extend th hors's natural movmnts and pas, and to mak it rspond willingly to its ride1s wishs relty eing inflited. His book Ecol d t,. l r i, pllblished in 1 7 3 3, dsris his thods and these suppling xrises in dtii. He invntd th shoulder-in and trsd it xtnsively as a suppling exris' itrl movmnts. During d Pluvinel's "i-e th aids hd grdully bom mor fined nd d 1 Gurini furthred se finmnts in th way th st and lgs were usd in ombination and in his dfinition and xtensiv us of the rin aids. He dsigned a modrn form of saddle -hih th high pomml nd antl tht
lso futher dvloping two- and four-k wok s wllas making extensiv us of th

sills nd Sumur, and th othr on the Spnish Riding Shool of Vienna. His riding shool t th Tuileries, whih had priously housed th Royal Stables bfore

lssial quitation sprang up in urope' e sd on th Frnh Shools of Vr-

l Gu6rinir perfetd a systm of sup-

-iout ny form of physial fore or

Luersa, at its had. Sevn yrs latr a

Riding Shool

hd hitho ben usd wr rdud and nd thigh rolls wre inorporatd. It was similar to that still usd in th Spanish

its influene on Frnh equitation. Th

whih, although it lastd only 37 yas, lft

.ilitary Shool' was ratd in Paris

wo engravings Depiting haute ole as it ws at the time of de Ia Guriire. left.' The

shouIder in _ one of de Ia Gu6rinire,s impotant innovations and a spIendid exerise for stightening the horse. right: The courbette _ one of the high shoo| irs perfeted by the Duke of Newst|e.

horsk th bll ssiett of the time, had om riding mastr to Louis V ut at h outk of the Revolution h, togethr .ith th Dirto of th Grat Stabls' de Salv, and th rest of he uers, was Jiv into xi1. As military suprmay
r-ky shool was st up in Saumur by th

sho is





first Dirtor ws dAuvrgne who was to hange th idis position, mking it lss forml and stiff, and in ft making milit-

to have xhibited on

Vsaills, de Nsti

me inreasingly importnt the first

-ith one of Fanois de Salvrt's pupils,

Du d Choisul, nd although it was losd down through lak of funds, nothr was set up in L744 at Versaills,

fame, his own talnts apart' was his trining of Count dAur. The National Shool of quitation Ieated in 1793 t Versaills hangd its nam thre ars latr to The Shool for Mountd TrooD Instrution. its

the diretion of Visount Pirr .Nlri dAbza. This mart's prinipal laim to

indd and yt no less rilliantl taught and pratisd. Th war yrs did little to further equitation in Fran but with th rturn of Louis xvIII, th Shool of Vrsailles ws rstablished for aadmi quittion undr

mor nanrral nd boldr' more militar

ary quitation .lss aademi, simplr,

funtion bing to train men to e offrrs in ttr shotest possile time. It did, howevr,

whih the Shool of Saumur is famous ws presentd undr Cordi in 1828. This ws
just two yars before the Shool of Vsil-

aadmi equitation again took over t Vrsaills. The fust of th Carousls for

train Cordir who was later to om the first ecur n hf of th Shool of Saumur, whn The Shool for ountd Troop Instrution ws moved thr and

ls losed its doos for vr'

Saumur to tk ovr nd perptut the traditions of the Fenh Shool.




dy'suu. du

dt ) &"oit

GIop ln,n|

lu drir i





0t CLAss|AL 0U|A|0N

ment of Cord buth1s son


on whose ambition was to bom cur en hf at Saumur after th rtirea

leaving him almost ippld nd without

foundd a shool in L llvr and lat anothr in Rouen, running th two onurrntly. At th sam time, h wrote his book Ditionnire Risonn dEquittion whih was publishd in 1 833. Bauhr was Buh1s ontemporry, who did in fat

nevr to fulfil this amition, Bauhr


yar h ws warned that h would not b pomoted unlss h disvowed Bauher and his things' h rfused to do so. Nevrthlss, he was promotd and h

lrus rlng

ould omplet this task dorlans was killd in arriag aidnt, and Buh1 s
produing evr more thn, fortuitouslv.

rathr than as srious thr nd trainr. h prsudd th Du d'orlans to lt him traln a oupl of giments using his own mthods. Th Duk agrd, butfor h

his img, dpiting

fiowevr, that the

ben inodud by

hoseman nd an effiint offir, his ook .Qustions qustrs' was gatherd from nots made ftr h lsson and onvrs-

horss aording to Bauher.

D'Aur's mthods, whil thing his own


his men and thir horss in

A 'illi"nt

gs of th horss. an individul and lft his pupils to find out whih partiular aids ahievd the best rsults on eah partiular hors. r lso inodued


was stopped.

epoundd his pur lssial thinss. It ws during rharsal for on of his irus ts that a hndlir rashed down on him

Lyon to whom

founded in 1850 b the emissary of Arhduke Chr|es With nine stllions and 24 mares.

A herd of Lipizzaners running free The best known Lipizzaner stud is atLipizza, and was

The man who rought both th things of Bauher and D'Are togthr was Alxis Franois L'Flott, the .i tin soldit' who ws an admirr nd pupil of

nd rider.

ring and ross-ountry riding into Saumur nd pld grtr emphasis on th all-round prformn of th hors

horsmn wr invitd to spetat. Another vrsatile, if somewht unorthodox, horsman who prformed in th irus, was Jams Fillis, an nglishman who livd most of his tim in Frn and who later eam cler n chJ at tin Cavalry Shool in Lningd. H was an

own shool at Lunvill, to'rvhih Sltd

opposd to grip, a point he maks lar in



0t LAss|AL EoU|A|0N

kwrds on thre lgs' h also intodud jumping into his performns fo h, unlik his othr movmnts when usd a doul ridle, h usd a snaffl. h position he adoptd ws to len bak on the desent from th jump, slip th reins to allow th hos free movmnt of his hd, whil keping his lgs in ontat -ith th hors thoughout th jump in orde to obtain bscul. Fillis ws probl th lst of th great horsmen to use his position ovr fens, for Fdrio Capii (1868_1908), a ptain at th Itln Cv Shool at Tor di Quinto, evolvd
h avalry shool at just aout th same m as Fillis did in 1900. Th reason fo h nssity of th forward seat s Cprilli srv it' was in aodane with th lassial piniple of keeping e ridr ov th hors' s ntr of gravity whn going aross ountry at spd, and to do this, his wight
h forward seat and stablishd its us

movements for th irus ring, suh as the rversd piroutt with th fet rosse e pssage to th rar, and th nte

his ook Brking nd Riding. Although Fillis pratisd a numbr of unorthodox


must b movd forward. The system of oss-ountry riding usd tody is ombintion of Caprilli's systm nd the purel
lssial method. wre frqunt intrhangs btwen th trro Grat Shools of uop; th Comt d ontigny for instan ommanded the

Duing the nintenth ntury, thre

but tlr Impial Court in Vienna, through its assoitions with th Hapsburg fmily

doumnts xist onerning the rly bginnings of the Spnish Riding Shool,

(on memr ruling ovr Austria and th

Spanish Riding Shool ftom 1842_1845 fore oming ur at Sumur. Fw

wr introducd

th two sids of th family. Spanish horss

hoss frquntly hangd hands btween

n onerned with quitation' and

othr ov Spain and Npls), had long

he sp|endid|y e|egnt Baroque riding h|| of the Spanish Riding Shoo|. The pesent ShooI, situated on the orner ofJosephsp|tz, was officiI|y opened by the mpeo Char|es in September 1735 a nd is th e last home of the |assi| art of eouittion

bug. This ws ltr pld ovrd shool, whih kept out th worst of th wather. \0ork was not atually startd on

Court Str-rd at I(ldru and tfuee yars latr an xris ara was uilt nr th Hof-

in |562 to found


lows th pattern laid down by d la Gurinir' with n ovrlay of Fildnd Chief Ridr Johann ixmeds .Dirtives for the Implmntation of a thodi-

Th aining of hors and ridr at th Spanish Riding Shool, then s now, fol-

Marshal Frnz Holein vo Holeinsbrg

being that held in Novembr 1814 to whih all th I(ings of uope wer
invitd. A brohure, pulished in 1833, sttd tht.Th Imperial Royal Court Riding Shool aPts trines only by spial prmission of th Offi of the Chif as-

number of fstivals, alls and exhibitions wre held thre in ddition to th daily routin of training th horss. Carousels, too, wr popular, th most sptular

offiially opnd by th mperor Charles VI in Sptme 1735 nd susquntl a

Adam von

Josphspla, lrfiu77726 nd the fust Chief Instrutor aftr the Shoots mov was

the presnt Shool on th orn of Th Shool


al Produr in th Training of Ridrs nd Iorss at th Impril Spanish Riding

Ridingi ompriss thr distint parts. Thse ar the first stag, in whih th
possible with fr forward movemnt long straight lines,; .mpaign riding,

Shool', whih was drawn up in 1898. In this, it is mad lar tht th .High Art of
horse is riddn in .as natural a position as

aristoray' and fs wr high. Th Frnh Rvolution and th Napoleoni I0ars, whilst putting an end to the lassil art in most uropan ountris did not Shool ontinued to dhere stitly to its
hav a similar ffet on Vinna. Indd ttre

tr of th Hoss, and vryday you nrid your own hors th btwn the hours of L2 and 3 in the aftrnoon'. Aftr 1894, th Shool was devqtd solely to the ining of horse nd ridr in Iute o1 but entrane to the Shool was xlusiv bing rstfited to offiers and mmbers of th

prinipls and sudd in dvloping th art furthr duing the nintnth entury undr the dirtion of M Rittr von \Dyother and his subsqunt instrutors.

With th ollaps of the AustroHungarian onarhy in 1918 th Spnish Riding Shool was takn into Stat possession nd th future of th Shool smed in dout. Du lagly to th fforts of th Chif Rider, ori Ierold' who gave ltus to visiting eduation soitis nd had postrds printd of th Shool's High Shool airs, whih h sold to rais funds for the ailing shool, it was saved. In July 1920 th fust publi prforman of th Spanish Riding Shool ws given. Sine then th Shool has givn rgular publi prformanes thoughout th summer, autumn and winter months'
forming the lassial art of quittion in what is its lst hom in th world.

whih involves riding th olltd horse at all gaits inluding turns and irles in perft balane; and iding the hors in a mor olltd position with th haunhes dply nt nd prforming all th gaits nd jumps whih mak up th .Airs'.

attrating visitors from all ovr th world to s th higy-shoo|ed Lipizzaners pr-

th nortJr, as in \ilstern urope, men od a /a brid, staight-lgge ft ather forward, in th saddle with a high pommel and antl. The bit was a very sevr u, with a

distint styls of horsemnship. In

.l' lt flftnth enrury.

f th

Ibrin pninsul, during th

thr wr two


Ameria is styl of horsemanship prvailed for ntuies aftr its original purpose had disappard, a sad rfletion on the intelligen and originality of horsy

slf btwen stirrups and ntle to tak th shok of impat; h nedd a svr it to ontrol his havywight hors with his lft hand (impded by a shild), whil his right hand was usy with a wapon. Throughout $strn urop and muh of North

long. he whol was the produt of bttl-tatis whih had long ben osolte _ th lan-harg of th hvily armoured knight. In this, he brad him(15 in)

high pot nd arms as muh as 37m

author s .riding short in the Tuk fshion. They did so ause thir pinipal wapons wer th bow and th urvd si. mitar, both usd to est efft if th ridr stands up in the stirups. Young horss wer initially trained by Aras and oors nd only whn thy answred to this wr thy fittd with a ring-bit. Th itlss bi-


the styl of th stpps and dsert, by ontmpoary nglish

oorish influn was stong, mn rod in

In the south of th pninsula'


ridrs wr trining young horses on th hkmore bfore fitting thm ithr with a ring-bit or a very sver urb with a high port and long arms known as spd-bit. From th horss of the onquistdors, dsendd th mustangs, through nimals abandond by erly explorers or through those tht straed from ranhes nd misroaming in hrds ovr th grt plins wst of th &lississippi. Thy provd a good foundation.stok; for Spanish horss, with
sions. By h nintenth ntury thy wr

howvr, us 200 yars ltr, xian

tlers in North Amri' but som of thos who sttld in Brazil and th Arsentine rode l gint, as som of thi i.,...,dants still do today. Th must hv en som synthesis betwen th two shools,

that the first horss tken to th mainland_ xio in 1509 _ wre of fr bett oulitv. For som rason unknown to us' 4 t rli quitation prvailed among the nw st-

ths, against Amrindians who had nvr sn horsmn, provd as formidal as tanks wold b to n army of th ightIrth ntury. It is reasonal to suppose

whih wr mor xpendable, but evn

on advantageous trms for

Spniards wer turning thir yes towards th Nw lUorld, it sms tht most of thm rode l brid. 107hen Columus first rossd th Atlntic in 1492, h took numer of gntlmen adventurers s his mountd esort. Bfor embrking on sh a doutful nterprise, these mn xhangd their ostly hargrs quadupds

aomplishd Iberian horsmen ould id wll .in both saddles', t,e. l brid and d I ginet., but at a time whn

light avalry, was l gint. The mor

with a bitlss dvi ating on the nos'

gint after th name of a oorish ib, and th oorish shool of horsemanship, to som tnt daptd y Spaniards for

dle was known to them as a hkm, to Spaniards as a jquim, and to us as a hakamor. Th ring-bit ws alll /a

no seletiv beding, impaird them in

hammer-headd, ew-nkd, mutton-

prizd y th Crusadrs and th knights of mdiaval uope. ustangs had hd fet, sound legs, nd w extrmel tough and slf-relint. On t}re dry, url ufflogass of th piries th inrasd and multiplied, but two or tre entuies of sprs gazing and had onditions, with

Arb and Barb lood, had ben highl

the typial mustang tended to

s and baury. By th nintenth entury

hoseb\ nd when

gols and Huns. Thy virtully livd on


speilly th Comanhs, beam horsmn as omplte as Sythians, .Nlonwar-ladr died, his

y' status-symbol and bride-prie. In a oupl of gnerations th plains tribes,

walth and noility in war; h ws uffen-

ountd, ttry ould kill buffalo by the thousand. In addition the horse ment


gnrlly ignord by rtists, ut rully displayed in arly photographs. The hors transformd the life-styl of th plains Indians. Prviously thir efforts t ltivation had been dsultory nd in their fforts as huntrs thy had always bn at a disdvntage in pursuing th

withred, roah-bakd, ow-hoked and tid-in blow th kn. Thes dfets wer

of th open prairi on


fvourit horss wre sarifid in th blief tht thy would aompany him to the Happy Hunting Gronds. Some Indins rod horses stolen, or

and thong soon brought it under ontrol. As the animal quitned down, the Indian advand, hnd ovr hand along th rope'

giving th mustang a hane to ise to its ft, buk, rar and plunge; but th hobbl

tfuold, to h ground. Thn the forlegs ould be hobld and thong tid round th lower jaw. The lariat was loosnd,

morion and uirss. Thy would pay up to $300 dollars for a good md pony. ost, howevr, aught and trained wild mustangs. The mt}rod was to gallop into a herd, lriat oiled ovr th am, and ast it ovr a likly animal's nk. Th ridr then vlted off his own pony and ran after th aptive' ltting out rope as slowly as possil until th mustang droppd, half-

evn bought, from Mxins, using th Mexian saddle and an armour of tough ul]]s hide in imittion of th Spaniards

It-tt tiHUW rH ut-

wts |lN HtutNti

..,]o rses we re introdued to the Amerias bv the .l6th onquistadores who, under Cortes in the took Spanish dominion to the NeW -ntury, .lo|d. From the few horses they took with re m g rew the enormous bands of mUstngs d tansformation in the Iife of the Indians. ft: conquistador, b Fredei Remington. :cp:A buffa|o hunt he native Indin tibes soon Ierned that they ouId hunt more :ffetiveIy with the new mobiIity their horses 3ve them, and evo|ved their own methods of :.aining and riding th mUstangs they aught ,.lost of the tribes did not exeI in rosemastership - it was easie to ath and .rai a new horse than to are for a |ame or s k anima|. rlglht: he fomaI styIe of riding of :n Spaniards Was soon superseded by the ndians, arobati performanes, as this emington engrving of a raiding party ttking a Wagon trin shows.


Not muh has hnged in the way the wi|d horses are aptured. his one ouId have been ught hund red yea rs ago by an ndin using |ariat rthertha by this modern owboy at a round-up in oregon. one muh in demand, for they made the best owponies, the mustngs bred in the wiId untiI their numbes Were so gretthatthe became a nuisane and now their numbs hve to be ontroI|ed.

and the Indians from the Spaniards, th hait of mounting thi horss from th

anima s tnuzz|e and yes. Soon th aptiv lost its far' or rlized th hoplessness of furthr resistni and in two or three hours aftr aptur _ aording to Gorg Cadin, n eye-witness - ould b led or riddn ak to mp. Anothr method was to ontrol th nwly-ught mustang with a thin thong around its muzzle whih, whn jerkd,

until he ould flrst touh' then sok


bridd to th man' whil he shot arrows over th ak or undr th nek. It sounds more sptaular tlran lethal, for the shooting ould hardl hav bn urat xept at point-blank ange. The rider howver was potted b th pont's arl, and riding paty might be takn fo wild hd until it got los enough to attak. In gneral, Indians were good iders ut bad horsemastes, ping not th last attention to lamnss or galls so long as an foundrd, it ws andond or killed and atn; mustngs wr plntiful _ another ould sily e aught. But of the Indians, mobility thre is no dout. It was basd on t}:e rernad' ah rve on a raid having a numr of spar ponis hrded y oys, so

A trik whit aoding to Cadin, most young ravs ould do, was to drop down on the off-side of his mount, at full gallop, his left leg rookd ovr th hors's bak and his right arm tfuough a lather loop

to th

Springfild down to Boston for shipment .Wst Indis. .\round Springfild, ranhing thniqus developd on a small sale, and spred to th .owpens, in svr1 southern stats. Th owboy's fvouit tool, or wapon' was the 4.5m (15ft) long stok-whip withwhih h ould kill a mn, throw a steer o snap the had off a rattlesnak. Ine th xprssion .Gorgia rak1. .Whn thir mnifst dstiny brought Ameins to Texas, thy found thre differnt dition of rnhing, dvloped y e wealthy Chros nd thi exin vquros. Ths people wer riding the

his owboys (as thy wr lrady alld) drov a hrd of fat atd fom his fam at

progny of Cots's horss, on saddls

xertd rul prssur on the nos. Th Indin fust talkd to th pon, his grunts, dp in th hst, apparently intriguing and soothing th trrified nimal. Thn h passed his hands and a blankt all over the pont's ody, punishing an protest by a jerk of the thong. He rstd his wight on
was mountd in an instant.
th pony's bak, thn swung a lg ovr nd

animl ould still b riddn. Whn


rmember tht it would usully b th laggad of th hrd, not th best animal, whih was aught, and that th mustang was only

In admiring ths fats, it is wll

that as soon as one was tird h ould hange to anothr. Th disadvntagd pursuing trooprs had only on hors



Usually they rod with an almost sight 1g, but in ras th boys rod short, rouhd ovr the pony's nk lik a modern joky. Control was y a rawhid

on home-mde imitations of it, on pads fittd with stirruP-leaths or are ak.

sapping young warrior. Indians rod on th whit man's saddle,


h.h., while the Indian ws

Th only trib notd for good horsmastership was th Nz Pes. In on of th ltr Indian wars this ib, led b its famous Chif Joseph, rode 2'575 km (1,600 mils) to vad onvrging fors nd esape into Canada. Th women, hildren and bggag averaged 34km (21 mils) a da, th mn muh more, sids fighting

As immigrants floodd into the wst t the los of th Civil War, it bm apParent that th toughst ef would find a buyr if only it ould be rought to markt. It was disovrd, too' that the Longhorn ould surviv a winter on the prairi nd would Put on weight as it ws moved ovr ttr plains in spring and sullner. Io 1867' bold ntrprnur built a omplx of stokyards on th rilway at Ailne to whih attl ould be drivn in grat hIds from Texas and then railed east
or west to th onsumer. So began th

mdiaeval knight with th pommel lengthnd into horn for roping. The atd wr lean, wil lggy Longhorns.

whih wr basilly thos of



tle kingdom'. It was ended in the 1880s y sheep-frming' th farmers themselvs and a sssion ofvry hard wintrs. But on t}re srn and in fition it has nver nded. Th owoys of th 1860s' apart from ian vaquros' wr narly l1 Tsynonymous. Th ranhrs, big and smll,

ovr-podution, slump in pris, wir,

13 bttls nd skirmishs. Th wre finally rought to ay and surrendrd

thon5 half-hithd round the low jaw.

Th Spaniards adoptd fom the


almost within sight of th ordr. The first Amrian rnhr was Puritan gntlemn named John Pynhon who' when Cromwll was Lord Protetor. with

ns: indd th two trms wr lmost



grzd thir atd on ttr opn range; the

owoys hrdd them, roundd them up, andd thm and dov them up the Chisholm and othr tils to the railhad. Although some of th owboys must hav had exprien of strn owpens' thy opied th methods of th Mxians and

fuhrmore th adopted the A{xian saddl, bridl, bit, larit, riding gear and voabulary of horsmanship. Sin they wr sometims dridd for putting a $40 sddle on a $10 hors, it is wll to hv a los look t oth. To begin with, most of their ponis wr mustangs,
pturd wild or ed from pturd stok. Despit its small siz nd ommon apparan' th mustang was a vry good ow-

horss r good-tmprd, ompltly free from vi and muh mor asil managed than our own.' No doubt thre wre bukjumpers and otlrr hot ids mong th mustang stok, kpt by owboys who rode wll and likd to show off, but ths would b viewd with disfavour y trail-boss who had no wish to se atd.spookd and starnpdd b a .Wht fiery sted. was wanted for the long ail to Ailene was a Pony whih walkd or lopd slowly alongsid th herd, hd

nothing but mustangs. He said of thm: .Though sarly at all brokn in, thes

hit on th nos witlr a quirt

buking, and very time h bukd h was

(a shot, stout

stik with a braided lthr lash). Soon h would stop uking, at whih point h was deemd okn; and so h ws, in evry sns of th wod, unless the bon-ustr was brokn fust. If a pony did not rspond

to thes mthods, he ws turned loos as an outlaw, or kept on the anh to tak h

.miky' out of th fust strng who laimd h ould rid. No further trining
in th modern snse was onsidered nssary' apart from bing tught th spialist

low, semingl bord and boring, but

ig just on gass and a handful of ots: it smed to b rsistant to hat, old, hungr nd thist, and though it was slow and gIossl ovrloaded for its size, it ould nevrthlss ov amazing distnes in a short time. As an example of its ability, on pubrd mustng tlrat raed against larger and fast horses from Glvsto Tas, to Rutland, Vrmont _ distan of 2,880km (1,800 miles) _ am in two rks befor its narst rival.
dvelop vry quikl, th essntial quality

pony. It had exaordinary ndurane,liv-

what was requird, th owboy songs, soothing to th attl' wr timd to a

in time with a gallop or evn a tot. On the trail h owoy had svn suh ponies _ two for th mornings, two for the aftrnoons, his bst two for night-work, nd on to arry him to and from hapel or th saloon on Sundays. Lik th Indin's, his mobility Was basd o,t}re rmud systm)

essntially undramti. As n indition of

pont's slow walk; they ould not b sung

bother? Brons wer heap and xpendbl, nd so wer bron-busts. Th wr mor sophistiated mthods ofbraking pratisd y profssional, itin-

triks of the stokhors's ad.


pinlssly that resistane was futile. But hos-tamrs wre expnsive, and often resntd by owboys who took pride in

rant .hors-tames'. In gnerl ths wer bsd on th tadul appliation of ovwhelming for, so tlrt th hors lrned

spar horss ing herdd long y th

outfid s horse-wrangler.

Th mustng semd to inhit,

mtlrods. A

Ponis w brokn by rude and rul

knw what a ow would do nxt' so that a pony with a rider on its bak old establish an xtrordinry moal asndany ove the savage Longhorns, whih would kill a man on foot. Finally the mustang,

of .ow-snse'; lik a shpdog, it just

.forefooted (opd round both foreft) as h ran round th orr1, so ttrat h ws brought down wittr suh violn that th stuffing, and somtimes th front tth, were knokd out of him. Vhil on th

youngstr would

thir toughnss and prfrred to do things th .hrd waf . on Txanranhr dvisd a highly ffiient mthod of teahing unbaked ponis to walk and trot quitly by tying them to the slowly revolving arms of a thrshing-mhine, th gentl for of whih was quit iesistil. This systm

workd, and produd bttr hoses,

o brokn, was narl alws a quit id. For an objtiv witness to this, take my anstor, J. . Lfroy who, whil survying.Westn Canada in th 1840s, ode

gound he was saddld (rolled from sid to sid to tightn th inh) nd thn h was mounted. or h might b saddled and mountd when tied to a post or hld b a strong mn with a op round th lower

quikr than an orthodox on-uster, but all th anhe1s owboys, jealous of thi imag, walked out on him, hving

jaw. One mountd. h poably strtd

Anothe sene with a timeless quaIity about it. In muh the sme Way as sheepdogs an antiipate the ations of the f|ok, a good owpony wi|| be a rea| patner to his rider in heding the tt|e.




bn ridiuld by other outfits for riding .mahine-roken' horss. Th early .Nlxian nd Txan stoksaddls hd a flt seat. So did the &1L1land whih was si:nplifid adaptation of th stok-sddl without the roping-horn, used y th U.S. avalry. But gradually th stok-saddle aquird a sharp slop from front to rear whih pushd the ride1s seat bak against th antle. Th stirrups wer slung rathr fr forward, so that the stokman, lik th knight in rmour' was brad

.swlls' to hold th thighs in pla, it is lmost impossible to fll, providing th hors is rasonabl wll ehaved. Th insure ridr liks to hv somthing to grab in a risis, nd even th st modrn prformrs will not hsitt to grb th
horn if, for instan'

owboys probly beam good ridrs _ or y bam farmhands or br-tndrs _ but it would hav takn tim. An indiffrnt ridr, ftr fw hours in th saddl, liks to rst his hing bk against th antle and push his ft forward. feels sfr in a dp sat, and from the dp-seatd stok-saddle' with

him, for it is doubtful if anon on ranh had muh tim to th a new hnd to rid. xpriene for th most part' meant riding slowly hind herd, 16km (10 mils) a day, .ting dust' while bttr horsemen led the way oI rode longside th hrd to prvnt nimals straing. In time most

avrag avlry trooper who had si months' riding shool trining ehind

en eys' e owoy sat too far bak with his ft too far forward, but tht as it may, th arly stok-saddle had undniabl advantags for indiffrent riders. .Th owbo n indiffrnt rider!} lDell, the avrag owboy must have ben' for no-one is a orn horsman, ny mor thn born eltriin, although som hv th physial and mntal attributs to pofit mor from thing and xprien than others. I must hv en worse than th

horsemn dprat this, but no-on thn ralizd tht for the hors's omfot nd bst performan' the rid/s wight must be dirdy bov th horse's ntr of gravity: othrwise h is .unbaland'. To mod-

betwen stfurups and antl. odrn

utting-hors mks

Our $31.85


a shrp rurn. (It is rtainly far ttr than jrking th rins.) On a long ride in a flat saddl th bginnr slids aut, giving his hors sor bk] he ould not slid about in stok-saddle. Th stok-saddl is ritiizd. for standing too far off the hors,s bak, modern equstrins liking to sit as lose to th horse s possil, but it was he owboy,s sdd|e was designed to be omfortab| on a Iong dy,s ride, to prevent inexperiened rides from ausing g|Is nd to make it easierto sita diffiu|t hose suh asthe buking bono (top). His sadd|e Was the owboy,s trademk, and he took partiU|ar pride in having the best and most e|boate that he ouId afford (/eff)

mad tht way so it would fit (ovr folded lnkt), horses of almost any siz or onformation without galling thi ak or withers. stok-sddle had two inhs, fore and aft, whih hld it firmly in pla. Ths wer


of its siz and wight,


md of horshair or lamp-wik, whih would not g11 th lly. To tak th terriffl strain of roping, Amerins improvd th .N{xian sddl a fork and horn of tmpered steel. But th great and outstanding virtu of the stok-saddl ws that it and its rid1s weight' wer distributd y the skirts ovr two or three tims th ribr overd y th eastrn huntingsaddl. Thus, dspite its wight, it ws vry



Wts tEftN |DINLi

of th exian gentlmen rod from Los .\ngls to San Frniso, 960km (600

-N4.ountd Poli, on a 19kg ls) stok-saddl rod ftom Rgina to wood,lvtountin Post, 209 km (132 miles) i daylight wittrout hanging horses. ost of th owoys nd Mountd Poli onstles moving btwn Fort .Nlalod and Clgary overed this distan' 173 km (108 mits) in a da. Kit Crson and a party


empls out of hundrds my b quotd to mphsiz this. A onstable of th

sy on th hos for long ides. Thr


es lso lnd bak' and not forwad, for a iump, under the imprssion that thy wre hlping by lightning the hors's forhnd. Gnrally using a svr urb or spadit, th owboy rod with a loos rin nd

longer distanes, although the had spar hoses stationed along their esape-route. Th owboy sldom gallopd, xpt for fu, o to hd bak onar sters o get round a stmpding hrd. On long distns h walkd, trottd nd ntred in tun. His sat at th antr, fet slightly foward, leaning slightl bak, was omforbl and rlaxd for him, if not ntirl so fo his hors. Sin his stirrups Wer' to modrn ys, slung too far forward, in ordI to ris at th trot' he had to balan himslf by tfuusting his uttoks ak gainst th antle and raking his body wll foward _ n ugly sat. Som horss were tught to ambl, whih was a vry omfortbl gait for the ider nd populr among ttros ofriper years, ut a tiring one for the hose. on th rr oasions on whih h was ompelled to jump _ prhaps ovr dadfall tp, or up a bank _ th ropinghon prevntd him leaning forward, sin any attmpt to do so would driv it into his midliff, or worse! At tht tim eastern rid-

Roost hought nothing of ovring ven

hoss. Outlw gangs suh as th Robrs'

in six days without


loos rin sh hs ridden aross ground rawling with rattlsnaks and her hors, lft to himslf, kept out of oubl. A1l westm horss wr taught to nk-rein. Although no attmpt ws mad to suppl and shool a hors in th modrn sense, h had of ours to b tught his ad _ tht of maining alm and stady undr a whirling lariat, and braing himself bk against th pull of ropd str. Th star turn of any ranh was the good utting-horse. As we hav sn mustngs we partiulrly good baus of thei .ow-sns', and som wre xtraordinrily xprt. A quote

he went. Within a fw weeks the asd to stuml, nd h sold thm for a good pri - profit nd pity ombind. An old-tim westn horsewoman told m that with

hos raring out of shr pain or giving th ridr a bloody nos. Besids, a hose iddn on loos rin ovr rough ground, lft to pik his own way, is less likly to stml than one on a tight rin. The vngelist, John Wesley, who rod vry long distans' always ought stumblrs ause he ould get them hap; thn he od with a loos rin, rding th Bil as

mad no attmpt at olletion. Any pull on th in would probly b rwardd by th

fom a vteran ranhr bars witness to this: .If w wer utting yarlings out of a mixed hr all I had to do was to show old Harvy th fust on. Aftr we hd brought it out, Old Harvey would go bk and bring out all th othrs, one by one'. Down on rord is notlrr utting-horse alld Red Bird, who, on his rid1s ordrs, workd a jk-abit out of a hrd of atde. A good utting-hors had only to b shown th wanted animal, and would then do th job himslf, vn without bridl. I nnot disovr if the stok-horss of e old west we usually shod. Cvalry horss, bing largr, rtainly wr; Indian ponies, mustangs with iron-hard hoovs' wr not. I hav found osional rferns to forges on ranhes, but non to mobil forgs or anvils vlling with th huk-wagon. I am inlined to think that th boss's bttr horss might have en shod to work at hom, but on th tri.l th owboys rod unshod horss. A list of all th rtils a well-quippd ridr should rry on long journy at the nd ofth lst entury did not inlude spar shos, nails or tools for old-shoeing. Of ours thr wr plnty of $strn ridrs who nvr worked with attl'

among them th avalry troopes, Texs Rngrs and oer law enforemnt offirs, huntrs, trappes' minrs, prosptos, homstdrs and livry stabl keeprs. But all od, and all in Wstern styl, with \Ustrn tk, and wr part of th listern adition. ost famous were the Pony xpress ridrs ofth arl 1860s. The ridrs wre .young, skinny, wiry fl-

lows, not ovr 18, willing to risk death dily'. And on joining thy hd to swar not to gt drunk, us profan languag'
ill-trat animals or do anything inompatibl with bing a gntlman. Th horss

wr slted for spd and enduran, and

bought at high pries. Although stoksaddls sem to hav ben usd (th lightr &ILellnd might hv bn better) evrything lse was don to ut down wight. The xprss avragd t 15 km (9 mils)


The famous Pony xpress rides had to brave human predators as well as animals nd the eIements, poviding a rmakb|e postaI sevice before the advent of rai|was. Below meria,s rodeo sports originted in Ioa| ompetitions he|d to amuse owbos and prove their prowess when the da,s work was done: steer wrest|ing is alwys popu|ar.


entirl n innovation. Texans taking at.!Dst d to th Coast a ntry ago w astonished at what ould e ahived with time by the Californian hkmore xprts. It is laimd that their mthods wre usd by the onquistadores, who lerned them from th oors, nd prfetd y hrros who had een liquidatd

rspond favourably to th rugged mthods of the old-time bron-bustr. Bsids, thy ould no longer e ought for $l0 nor b hired fo $5 a hors. So moe time, patin nd skill gan to b dvotd to training th stok-hors. Iowver, this was not

in xian revolutions but survivd in

Californi. Patin and gentleness wr
th kynots of hakamo training. Th hakamoe is a itless ridle whih

fshiond tennis rakt; wid and roundd at the end whih nirls the hors's nose, and pointd at th end whih lis bhind th hin-groov. The rear-end is weightd y a healry rawhide knot whih ats as a ountrwight to hold the noseband lear of th nos whn th ins ar loose: as th reins ar tightned, pssur is applid to rins ar atthd' togthr' just in front of ,What pprs in pitures to b a th knot. thid rin is atually a ti-rop, oild on the saddle. The horse is stopped by pres-

ats on the nose, not th moutlr. It is shapd rthr lik th fam of an old-

th tendr skin bov the nosils. The

Aftr out ten months, th braking hkamor is rplad by a muh lightr modl known as a osal and a bit. Th rider holds all four ins in one hand.
The hkamore is a bitless bridleWhih ats by putting pressure on the horse's nose. lt has |wys been a populr bit fo Western riding;

eining, with no help fom th ridet's lgs.

sur on the nos and strd y nk-

this one is of different design to tht desribed above but ats in the sme W.

an hour ov 40km (25 mil) stgs, with two minuts for hanging horss. A id1s round-ip of 11G-l60km (70_100 mils) was overd twi a wk. At every sging-post we the best of oats, stabls, dding nd ostlrs. It ws all vry pnsiv, and evntually it bame prid out of businss. lD7ith the dlin of th ttle kigdom alted. The long trail was thing of th past; muh of a owboy's work onsistd of hoss wr needd, and it beame mor onvnint to have sometlring fstr than a 13.2 h.h. pony. &Ioe emphasis began to e plad on plasur-riding, and sul ontests betwen owboys for fun and few

A moden Western sddle. The seat is a little |ess deep, and the rider an now sit more
near|y ove the horse,s entre of grvity.

spd nd ppaan' though some would

still lim that no .improved stok-hors

and fre rang' ranhing


n touh th mustang for .ow-sns' nd nduran. Th old stok-saddl was altrd by sloping th horn forward, (making it less of ahazard to ttre ridis masulinity), levlthe horsds ntre of gravity. (Not all modrn saddls have ben so improvd.) &1i1dr bits thn the spad-bit or rig-bit we .lDtrstrn found to be perftly suitabl fo horss. Snaffles, Plhams, th hlf-brd whih is a modified spade, the ufting-it whih is mild urb with swpt-bk his, vn th !ymouth double.

looking for, and rpairing, bks. Fewer

riding along grat lngs of fn-lin

ling the seat and bringing ak h stirrups so s to mak possibl baland seat over

organized rodeo industry, with full-tim profssionals ompting for ig mon

dollars, dvelopd into th highl

pizes. Lter still, tlre intrnal ombustion ngine put many ranh-horss out ofbusiness. A1l this rsulted in th gradual phasing-out, o brding-up, of th mus-

tang by imported Arabs, orgns, Qurtr-horss and Thoroughbreds. Th stok-hos improved normously in size,

now rarly sn north of th &Iexin ord, but some spade-bit enusiasts still maintain that wht ould e an instrumnt of totue with rough hnds, is a prft insrument for th painlss nd snsitive ontrol of hors when used y an xprt. Lager, hot-bloodd horss would not

ridl all ame into use. The ring-bit is


rt bit-rirrs very loos, so that th is still riddn b nos-pssur,

rithout nos-prssu rins, and =.,l1. --: horse is now idden on the bit. .oughout th hors's arr howver,

it was dvloped for prtial reasons. The

1 th bosl is rpld b an vn

":pd nor th osal. After anothr


Clifornian ings th hanges twen -l.lsl nd it, for if kpt too long on ithr, hr- oms havy on th hand o :-l-mouthd. Traditionall the Califor:n uss spad-bit. Th harros, -.mslvs on with silvr spoons in thir :luths, blievd that their horses too pr:rd silv and gold to stel, and used its

down _ though thon-sru, and srved as

nintenth-nrury owbo wor widbimmed hat with a muh flatt rown than th modrn Sttson. This shltrd him from sun and rain, proteted his had and fa whn h ford his way _ head a pillow t night. A larg silk or otton squar' knttd l,oosely round th nk, dust-mask and mosquito-nt. A flannel shirt, with los-fitting uffs' ws as warm' yt less swaty and onstritive than a jakt. In wintr a shpskin oat might be nssay. Th owboy' s tlousrs wr not

night, and prottd th lgs against th ftition of long distan riding, as wll as tttorns' kiks, snak-bits and rain. Th
spurs had huge rowls, more human thn

prik-spurs, making
a hos

ws sweat-rag' bndage,

*..r n th oof as wll as on th ars of th alauth. so with a rlly good ridr th hors

mtls. Now sd-its wi a opper inly are usd to -:- sam purpos. Lr spad-it, with its vry high port,

-"de of ths prious

skin-tight s seen on .Glorious Thnioloi, ut loos, tuked into boots with high hls, whih ould b dug into th ground to help hold a roped str and would not slip though th wid woodn

:g. u vry light, Plessurs. Th port is n fitd with opper rollrs or.rikets, ..luir' to hors's ontntmnt sin ; n ply with thm s he gos along, .d is nouragd to hold the bit, without ;at. in ttr orrt position. Th nois of .-: iket is familiar fatur of spd-bit :"l.ntlJ-. h horse is riddn on th vry -:rst eins, of ontrolled not so muh by ::. ironmongery in his mouth, as y :spt fo ttre rins impartd y his early on th hakamor. This is provd =:]ng .Western riding-hos om--1 th an, in ;ridons, of any form of noseand, vn .ulgh no rins e attahed to it. .\tnv Vesterners eliv tht the hak.-o is a Californian afftation, nd that :. sad's a spad, an instrumnt of tortur -- l hands. Iakamor spad-it riding :airl mains a spializd form of

ipt ortl bnt y thse two oppos-

stirrup. Leather haps gave a good gip on th saddl, wre usd as a groundshet at

would rogniz as his mastr ame to ath him at night' Th lariat was used for roping attl' for tying btwn trees to mk a tmporary orral, for singing up hos-tlrivs and ny number of oth purposes. It was usually md of rawhide or otton or, somtims, plaitd horshir. Th last wr vr xpnsiv, but did not kink and wre blivd y exian vaquros to hav the invalul proprty, whn laid round th bed ro11, of kping off rattlsnks. ost owboys wor a gun s a bdg of thir profssion nd to despath a horse or a ow with a brokn lg. Conary to nothr great dition _ most were vry ad shots; pratl aInmunrtlon was expenslve.

a distintiv link

;r Clifonia. ost .Wstrn horss now ir prliminary training - although

. :j

stn hosmanship' pratised hiefl t to ttr idiosnraies of individul _ vry muh lik that of huntrs,


1ong-reined' bakd, ridden first in snffl and shoold for months to render tm obdient, suppl and baland at all 3s' Only then are th onsidrd fit for


-;ks. show-jumprs, polo-ponis and That is to say' thy r

:g oken b a ron-bustr in half an :ou.r. But it is not nessarily more

;n.rry ago' and it is rtainly a lot moe sI]nslve. .\ dsiption of Wstrn horsmnship

=h or at e rodeo. Th end-podut is a : br horse for modrn puposs, and ..l t is plsantr to ride, than th musfr'int for the purposes of owboy

s3iled aining in roping, utting, -.,rl-airg or any or work on the

"luld inomplt without mntion of = distintiv iding loths of the wst, r so diffnt from th brhs and ],:ow boots of flat-saddl idrs. ID(/'hat its psent pupose (and thre may b n lemnt offan-drss involvd)



owboy,s dess and equipmetevoIved as most oratial and omfotab|e for the r'* he had to do, fom protetive |eg hps to - s ekerhief and wide-brimmed ht.


in rding nd unrivalld powe of impressing its own haratr on an othe bred witlr
th bstbreeds of NorthAfria, and of light

oldst blood stok of l1. It is not drivation from anttring hs the gift, possssd alon stok, of asolut dominane

a Tap Root, lse at all. It

by tru root

Bhuti pony, the Spiti and th I(abuli - all hill-ponis of obvious Mongolin origin. In th r0fstern Provins more refind typs xistd _ th nipuri, I(athiawari, dsendd from a shipload of Arabians wrked on th wst oast. Th earlist reordd dat of th oming of th Arabian into Indi is about 1290. ro Polo writing of his trvls ss: .It is from this Port of Adn that the mrhants obtin pur Araian desirs of whih thy mak suh grat profit in India, for yo mrrst know that thy sll in India

and arwari

traditionall said to b

irrsistil for. Th Ara is the hif and noblest origin of our national raehors, of
brds all over th world.' more bn

In this stion number of th important breds that have

assoition with the people of lands whr it was found, it shard and hlpd to shap thir history, as wll as th mannr of their

'iH Aabian hors is th oldst l pur brd in th world. In its los

influned signifiandy by th Arab, or

whih ar drived from Arabian blood, are
eamind. In India, for enturies past, th horse has srvd as a east of burden; sharing this task with the bullok nd the ufflo. Th only transport for peasants in th oun. ysid was wheld vehil. Ivy arts wer drawn y ulloks, and somtims
.a ekk (tneanjng litrall vehil for on',

good man horss for 100 maks of silvr or


l; his hivmnts in war, nd his endur-

Th bauty of th Araian has een th inspiration of artists from tim immmorian

in th srvie of his masters



Th smll two-wheld

from Adn and

Anothr quot from this travell, writin 1292 of his visit to a port in the southrn Provine of dras, states, .It is said at this ity th ships touh that om from th ]0rst as from Hormuz and from I{is [an island in th Persian Gulf] and


all Arabia ldn


bome lgends handed down from gnr.

ation to gnration; warriors and hiefs hav bn rmmrd bause of th

although usually pakd with three or four passngrs) was th only othr mns of transport. Ltr am t}j.e bund-ghri, a four-seatd ovrd box drawn two
of mixed anstry. In appearan they wre

fme of thir horss. Yet perhaps it is unfortunate that it is legndary beauty nd speed that hve so long ben assoitd with the Ara, rathr thn th qualitis whih h hs nsmittd and whih prov his u valu as a horse _ stamin, hrditary soundnss, intellign and prft tmpramnt based on his uniqu lov of human om-

horses nd with othr things for sale'. In 1350 Indian history reords that th Rajput, Sultan Allah-ud-Din, distributed 500 Arab horses as gifts on his son's marrig.

The ponis used in ths vhils wr

The oghul rulrs who brought with thm tlr Persian tradition of owning improving the Indian brds. Th
mperor Akhbr did so and his sussors


Fin s these haratristis r, thre is, fom th bredr's point of viw' a still grater valu in th Ara. Lad !ntworth sums it up in thse words .Th Arab is th

smll, from 12 to 14h.h.' thin and wedy, with ll the atibutes of poor fding and overwork _ yt their grtst attribute was thir aility to eist and work undr onditions whih no oher rd of hors ould hv survivd. Their generi name was explanation.

hoss of buty as wll s siz wr the first to import Arabian sires with th aim of

.Counry-bred', a trm whih neds som

Th only indignous brds found in th Nothrn Povins of India are the

arl rniniaturs and paintings, lik that of th mperor Shh Jhan (1628) riding an Arbian ofprftion, portray th typ thy brought to India. Arabians of varying quality nd origin ontinud to be impoted rgularly from

ontind his poliy for two enturis.


C^.unry-bd ws volvd and is now th :d most ommon in India. ^\11 qvps show Arab harateristis in :fimnt of hd nd silky manes and ;.rs. Thy r notd for their nduran, s;-footednss on rough going' and abil:3 to exist on a sparse diet. Th Country-

Pinl Stts had thir own studs , frough lss ttntion ws pid to pedi;: s than to spd and looks. By gradual .-iiltion over this vst ontinnt, th -1i sprad its dorninane. Thus the

J[:n. Iaq and th Psian Gulf until lat .: o th nintnth en'rry. Sevral of tlre

run.brds, but when on onsidrs

::ds qulities ar said to inlude .an _.]rtin tmpe1. This is not true of all

ould surviv; hav undetaken tasks that rod them of their vigour, and litrally hav n xptd to .work till thy drop. pd , it is not altogethr surprising that although thy serv man) thy do not.trst his hand'. Th County-brd rangs in apprn nd siz from the edraggld 7ittJe tutoo, somtims no mor than 12h.h. to the agil, ompt 14 to 15h.h. polo pony, rar, ariag-horse, Ioss-ountry huntr, and the mounts for the army and poli. Govrnmnt, obsrving a ertain dterioration in th

vation nd mis-handling; hv livd in onditions that no othr bred of hors

tht thy have ndurd gnrations of star-

oppofite An gyptian Arab disp|aying the typia| harateristis of the breed in his neat ears, widely sped eyes, taperig muzzIe, and aristoti hed. bove Arb mares and fols tthe stabIes of the Emir in Bahrain on the Persian Gulf. Arabs are bred all over the world as well as in their original native desert lands. th big Australian Wlers and nglish rrige-horss, stablishd a std in vid th sevis of good Arabin and
Thoroughbrd stallions fr to ds
and thus improve th ountry-red stok.

Country-red following th importation of

Ahmednagar, dministrd b the Army Rmount Dpartment. Its im was to pro-

In I9o2' th British

sturdy riding horses; and th havy ons fairly song oah hoses'. This aim has

strong half-brds of high quality, th lighter speimens of whih will mak

foundation Arbian sirs - th Drly Arabin, th Godolphin Arabian and th Byerle Turk. The Hanoverian Stud Book says that .th ojt of th brds is to produ

this priod was th los dsendant of th

stok thre. Th nglish Thoroughbrd of

ben hievd in all rspts. Th State Stud at Celle, foundd in 1735' is still the offiial entr of this bred. Almost as popular is th Takhnr' or ast Prussian hos, on of th most sussful of the uropean breeds in every
spher of ativity. It desnds from ross
basd on th Smudish horss of Lithuani,

This wll-run organization is still arid

in rnt yas t Sharanpur in th rovine of Uttar Padsh in Northrn India. On the opposite side of the world, in
mor pronound. As a hose-breeding nation Polnd is atually seond to non, and in its agriltral nvironmnt' the horse has for nturis played an importnt part in th lives of its peopl. The Poles hav bn most suessful in brding horss for speifi purposs; fo th army, for agriulture, for raing' for work in harnss, and, mor rndy, for hunting and international qustrian vnts.

on, and a similr stud has bn stblishd


Poland, Arabian influen



PoInd is great breeding nation _ and expots Arbs |ike these on a stud in the Amerian state of oregon. Below Lipizznes ma ome in other o|ous, but the white is the o|ou most favoued. This and the horse,s nob|e beaing both show its pt Arab origins. Below right he Mogn breed ws established in one generation, in Mssahusetts atthe end ofthe 18th entury. Now it is a popu|ar breed, retining the Arb harteristis it has inheited. Below far ight he Akha|-Tek, Iike the Arb fom whih it desends, is smIlish horse of gret stamin.

and infusions of Arb and Thoroughbrd blood. Th Smudish hors was a bd of anint origin held in steem in th Balti Stats, vring in height fom 13 to 15 h.h.

ws foundd y William

|732'He gv tlr land nd the foundtion stok to th Impril Govmmnt, and supplid the Stud with high-lass Arain

Th Trkhnn Stud in ast Prussia I of Prussia in

his ow Royal Stud t

stallions importd from Poland, nd from


latr date, nd the inreas in height ombined with quality and good onformation,

Thoroughbrd sirs wee introdued at

widened th sope of the uss to whih thes horss ould b pt, ttrus adding greatly to thir popularity. Th Trakehnen Stud still stands as the ntr of th famous
beed whih it oiginated.

min' basd on Abian blood, for

fmous studs

Ths spialed breds a, in

importation of orintl hoss has a long history in Poland, nd som of tlr most

the th

yers 1714 and 1837. The novrin king, Gorg I, and his suessors took a natural interest in tlr horss bred in their own ountry of Ianover and sent ov
mny good Thoroughbeds to impov tre

ountry fo the First World Var. The atastroph of war dstroyed th valuabl lgay of t}re yrs, but th stok, although dplted, was restord gadually through
th initiativ of Polish brders. Th S-


urope istd


plays at the Spanish Riding Shool in Vinn, Austia, ut Lipizzaners ar also

One of th bst-known horss in th world and almost as romnti s th Arbin is t}re Lipizzanr. The nobl white stllions r wold famous for their dis-



\Dorld .Wr

tunatly by this time rprsntativs of

Polish-bed stok had bn exportd, and thus survivd in many or ountries. The lUielkopolski is a omparativly

hors-breding entfs in Poln but fo-

again dvastated


nw typ whih is rapidly growing in

favour. It is a mixrue of Arab,

nd is a hors with a fin outlook. Standing

Thooughd and Trakhnr bloodlins

The modrn Ianovrian ows its greatr finement to the introdution of nglish Thooughbrd blood btwen th

about 15.2h.h., it looks like a wll-ed hunt and is most useful and versatil individual of whih Poland is justly poud. Gemany (both ast nd \0st) hs a long tradition ofhors-breeding and lDst Germany today is notable for th advans mad in produing high-qulity omptitive horss. Formost among thse is the Inovrian tht is desended from th Germn Grat Iors of th lvtiddle Ages _ e war-horse who arid th havil amoud knights into bttl.



\.ugoslvia, Czhoslovakia and Hungary.

d elswhre

in urop,

notaly in

T bd originally ame ftom

from about 1526 to 1720, horss of orintal lood ntrd th ounty, and from
bam a srious onrn of th State. Th

1580 b th Arhduk Chales, son of the mpro Ferdinnd I. Th bred, bsides ing used for riding, makes exellent rss hoss and is mh in demnd for rmonial osions. Th original stok s foundd on a mixtur of strains _ notl the Austin I(ladruber, Spanish Jen-

I-jpizza Stud, n Trist, foundd in

thn on th hors-brding industry

Government ilitary Stud of Mezhgys

was stablishd in 1784 and that of Baolna in 1789, the latter boming th
ntr fo th eding of Arabians.

speial red, with its own stud ook. Trotting is a vry popula spor in Russi, far mor so thn onvntional raing, nd ttr Orlov was dvloped speifially for this purpose. Th breed ws foundThstrnnsky, using th pur-d Arab

d in L775 Count Alxis orlovm, Smtank sird th stallion Polkn, who in 1784 sid Barss, whos dam was a songly-built Duth mr. A1l the Orlov Trotters ar dsndd

dvotd to the preservation and improvemt of the bred. Count sthaz had suh srud at Tt and it ontind stok

rful ding,

L nd Aabian, nd the type was fixd by

in studs


rae' of pat-beds. Thy are part-brds who, fo a etury or mor, hav bn

.original full-blood Arabian' purhasd in 1836 from Bdouin ib. The dsndants of this hos, brd to afully slted mars' hav founded n .Arabian

The Shagya tks its nm from an

Smtnka. atd with

a Danish


rom Imprial Stud


wll as .\b Shagy stok from Babolna, in Hunat ID7il, as

hos of ompt build, stnding not abov ].5 h.. H dos not hav th long, elgant rk of he Aabin, but ompensats with

e Liplzzanr is very handsome

frir ansty. If ny furthe proof wr

ould surly b th mobility of arriag,

mog thm and tk thir part in th dssg goups, but th white is most favourd es ing typial of th bd and is phaps bst indiation of the Arabin blood in

in outlin, with larg, ll-st yes. Bays and browns ar found,I and onvex

glndid legs and good bon. The hed is

ded of its lgay of Araian anestry' it

mind with its intlligent esPonses to most eat aining. Th Hungarian Shagyas, instrumental : h development of th Lipizzanr' r bd at th Hungarian Stat Stud at Bbol. hir anstry goes bak to the anint

ilk breds of Hungary and Transyln' whih were renowned for their ld, ourage and nduan nd had hir origins in th small-hedd Tarpn. In th aftrmath of Tukish invasions,

whose pdiges also indiate Iungrian, Tansylvnin and Spanish lood. Th Shagya is an attrativ hors, standing about 1 5 h.h., and of marked Arab typ, mostly gry in olour. Thy ar vry hady and are beautiful movers, provd qully good in hrnss o undr saddl. Thy ar usd widely in Hungary and xportd all over th world. Th USSR, as might b imagind fom th vast xtnt of th teritories involved, hs th gatest numbr of hos and pony breds in th world _ most of them owing somthing' in som instans very get deal, to th Arabian horse. Two vry notbl Russin eds ar the goldn Akhal-Tek, a saddle hors ofgrt nduan, nd th Olov Totter. Th Akhal-Tk6 drivs from th ossing of Arab and Tukoman, or other Cntral Asian bds. It has a refined had and nk nd a short, lvl bak. Rthr lking in dpth but with good bon and ation, it stnds L4'2 to 15 h.h., and mkes an idl small hak. Its stead ot and kind very popula in Russia as a harnss hors. Th tvo is fixd nd is now lassd as a

matd with pur, o pat-rd, Aabians but

fom the thr sons of Bss; Lubeznoy' Doboy, and Lbd. Th dm of Lubeznoy was by an Aab out of a Nlklenburg mar; Doboy's dam ws a Thooughbrd nglish mar, nd tht of Lebed was

mre. Felkezamhikwas by Smtank out of Thooughbrd nglish mae.

Felkzmhik out

of a


ing about 17h.h., but it shows evidn

Th orlov Tottr is

a big hors, stand-

an inrdibly short spa of tim it has produed a remarkable variety of breds. Ameria, too, has the distintion of hving th largest population of pur-brd Arabins.

of z\ab blood in its small wll-shpd hd and tlr prdominn of grys. Amrian hors-ultur, by omparison with th est of the world, is young, but in

On of th svl families of horss brd in Amia of whih thy ar justly proud is th organ. Th brd takes its nm fom a little bay stallion.Justin lVlorgn' bd in Vmont in 7793. His blood has nvr been positivl kown, though it is blivd tht Arb and Thoroughd
pdominated. Prhaps th most onvining poof of this is the ft that this littl hos stampd his progeny from gnration to gnration with a uniformity of typ t}rat only pur eding ould hav ahivd.

tmprment also md th Akhal-Tk6

of good and song horss is a great hlp and dfen to the ralm' was his motiv' ut the implmntation of suh n order

ould not have n arrid out without

fvoural onsquene. Bredrs now had no ltrnativ but to inodu nd

fost hight in thir ponies and tlr surst

o-opration btwn vrdrrs and privat owners' whih was hardly likly to om aout. Th immdiat onsequn ws th limination of larg numbers of th wdy, unfit and und-sizd. Thr ws too' an unforsen and

way to do this was to introdu an out-ross. Ther wer many small horoughreds and Arabian stallions in Britin y this time, fw of thm ovr
larity. Thr re rords of outsid stallions bing introdud to pony-herds, ut

h.h. when ring ws growing in popu-

bd in Amria, but in the ourse of tim hav bom the most popular ll-purpos hors. The ar hardy, good-tmperd and attrativ in tp and olour. Bys still pre-

The orgns we th first trotting


A new genetion arrying Arab b|ood. fop A standadbred, one of the popu|r
MoUntain pony, one of the most attative of the British pony breeds. top right: Twin fols, an unusual ahievement for their Arab dam.

Amerian beeds. bottom /e/t: A We|sh

of thir brding th rords ar osure. In |756' Dorsetshir farmer bought Thoroughbred nmd Marsk at an ution and kpt him in th Nw Forst disit whre h served the mrs for four years. had bn prviously owned y whos ownrship, he had sird a olt who md raing history - th famous lipse. Anothr Arab to have influne on the Nw Forst ed was th Arab stallion Zoreb,lnt by Queen Vitoria in 1852. H

H.R.FI. th Duke of Cumbrland, in

dominat, although rown nd hestnut ar not unommon. Anothr famous brd of trottrs that has supersded th organ in this sphr ofraing is th Standrdbd. Bred ntirl for spd and stamina, it is a biggr hors
ows its origin to n osure horse fold

than th organ, standing 15 to 15.2 hands. It is a vry spializd brd and

wll as th importd Norfolk trotter, Bell-

1849 at the villag of Sugar Loaf in Orang County, Nw Yok. His pdigre, howvr' was not obsur, h had the rosses of th nglish Thoroughbrd ssngr (whos sir was th famous amrino) in his immdiat pdigr as


foundr, elivd to hry th blood of th Darl Araian. lI was bought as a foal y

with th phnomnal suess of his prog-

!illiam . Rysdk, and namd Iamltonian. Hambltonian's fam grw

ma b sn in th Ciollo, or Argntine Cow-pony _ a red believd to be th dsendants of th Arab and Br strains rought to South Amria y the Spnish invads. Criollos re notd for thir hrdinss and alm tmpramnts' and thir

n on e r-ak, and suding gnations addd to his fme. In South Amria, th Arb's infrene

teisti of th brd. Britain an justly laim to hav th most beautiful .native' ponis in th world, driving from original wild stok that wr loalizd on th moors' hills and forsts. Ths ntiv ponis wre to th pasants, the farmrs and the ordinary itizns a mans of transport nd avel, whil thy wr a beast of urdn and n indispnsible aid in griulture. With the passage of tim and th importtion of heavy horses of various breeds, howvr, ther must hav ben ertain amount of neglet of th small pony, in favou of the 1rgr animal of more pratial use in war o the pursuits of horsmnship. Th vr-inreasing .enlosur' oflnd also hd its fft on th numbers and onditions undr whih th pon hrds existd. In 1540, a drmati and what might hve bn atastrophi hang ourrd in th history nd fortuns of th pony breds.

of their natural envionmnt, is hra-

dun olouring, mthing th sand wasts

ran with the Nw Forst mres for ight years. In 1885, th Qun lnt two more Arabian stallions to th Forst. Th Nw Forst pon is now fixed typ pony of good proportions and a very asy ation' it stands aout 14 h.h. Its surfootedness and alm tmperment mak it qully usful in harnss. Possibl th most attrative of the pon brds in Britain, th lDlsh ountain Pony, is unmistakabl of Arab ling. It stands no more than 12h.h.' is ompt with good flt bon and has no hint of oarsenss. The hd in partiulr shows th Arbian hartristis of large yes, wid forhd, and onav outlin tapring to a fin muzzle. Its alrt and friendl tmpermnt' and stamina, ar attributes whih the $lsh Mountin Pon shars with th Arb. Its ation is showy and gay, and with its long nk nd wll-st had it maks an idal hild s riding-pony, in whih rol it has bn vr sussful in th show-ring. Th inodution of Arab blood to this bred was offiilly reorded in 1 838. Conand has its own stud book. An ideal iding

The pondrous I(ing Hry VIII dered th limination of all stok under 14 h.h., as one of his ruls for th improvemnt of hors-reedins. .Fosmuh as brd

-mr'orry ords ontinued to rpot th Isn of Arb stallions running with ritly-ownd pony hrds in the Wlsh ills, nd it ws from suh hrd that th Lil mr N{oonlight mrgd. Ir son

foundd dynasty whih hs rnd disition 1l ovr th world as th prft p of small pony. Volum I of the l0elsh Stud Book lays down the following stan.h Velsh ountain Ponyin its purst stte is undr 12 hands, and an bst b dsid by stating tht it is an Aab in min;ture' and any judg of horss upon sig ths ponis must at on priv th grt similarit thy ar to the Arab. T pny has th prft Arb typ ofhead, d lso stting on of tail th instant it
^\nothr uniquly British produt is th lkney Iors, whih is rltd to th


Starlight, and his son Grylight,

drd quid of th bred:

though forign y lood, is alld .nglish beuse of the long time it has bn brd nd dvloped in nglnd, and .Thoroughbrd euse it origintd ftom

th Ari .Kehailan' of .Thoroughbrd


.\.mrin Standardred. Both hav a lmon anstor in th Norfolk Troftr, a d volvd in about 1729' ombining fre blood of an Arabin stllion and a lkshi Elakney, nd in fat the majorArian' Th Hkny's ation is a ltulr high-stpping trot in prft hyhmand its wll-proportioned head and

bin brd, maning pue-brd

and whih is the gnri trm for e Ara-

is th literal translation,


Thoroughbreds at a stud in Germ ny. he f irst Thoroughbreds ame from Eng|and, but as their fme spread they began to be bred |I over the world.


of Hakn sis tra bak to th Dar-

igh-st tail ar always arrid with an air

influned y th introdution of Ar

omPirrativly big horse of about 15 h.h. its siz nv dtats from the ovIall pitre ot prft ontrol and rhythmi ation. On of the most valud brds th

of distintion and alertnss. Although

and of astern origin hiv its domination of all othr brds _ fust in urope and finall throughout th wold? Th Arabian' somtims alld Barb or Turk, indiating that it am from th ast, was riddn into urop s long ago as ment as it wer, to ttr movemnts of mn in war, ivasion, o tlr fruits of onqust. ought, and lthough stamina and tmpramnt must hav plad it in som spial ategory, it is doubtful whth sped or the valu of its blood would hv en rognizd as ing of th fust importan. Nverttreless, it was the influen of that blood that modified and gav distintion to the indignous ds of urop.

How did this hors .forign by lood

high breding. Quen lizabeth I had a raing stlishmnt at Grnwih, whr it is rordd tht sh kpt 40 orintl horss. Royal ares,, who were prsumbly th finst of th olltion of Araians red, purhsd, or prsntd to Royalty, but whatvr thir origin, the quality of thir progny was the est proof of thir

th thirtnth ntury _ the aompani-

Its subsquent us ws ditatd by th nds of the ountry to whih it was

Ier suessors aried on th tradition of Royal studs for th breeding of rehorss, and undr th Stuarts many mor studs longing to privat individuals wr foundd for the reding of.fin horss' sired by Arabians.

.\nglo.Arab. As its nam implis, it stems rom tlr two purst sours' th Arabian

blood, nd sond only to horoughred in distintion is e

Thoroughbrd must

inrasing spd, and for a igger horse

raing grw' th dmand for

have bn n xprimnt. As th intrst in evr-

Th volution of th nglish in its arly stags


Thoroughrd. In Britain, th .\r Hors Soity is rsponsile fo th Stud Rgister, and dfins th brd as

with gratr sop grw with it. It was dispur Arbians but th largr individuals rsulting from th nglish-rd Araians

ovrd that the fastst horss wre not the

and hom-brd mars of oriental desent. By th nd of the ightnth ntury the

.\glArab a most vrsatile hors. It is

ossing: that is to say they have no strains of blood othr an Thoroughred nd .\ in their pedigrees.' Prhaps the most notworthy ontribuions of its Arbian prognitor ar stamin nd good tmpramnt, whih mkes th
'rpemely good as a hak and as a drssag hos, and is most sussful aross ounr and in Thr-Day vnts. Frn ws a pion in th dvelopmnt of this bred nd in apprition of its lu and apabilities. As tstimony to this re ar 26 Anglo-Ara str'rds in Fan from whih stallions re leased to ountry


follows: .Anglo-Ars r the ross from Thooughred stallion nd Ara mare or

with thir

subsequnt re-

The arlist rord of Arbins in Britain bing rad in mth is in 1377,

although w know nothing of thir red-

tim ontmporary douments mntion an .astrn' horse bing prsnted to Royalty,

ing or thir dsndants. From tim


or brought into th ountry, but it is not until the nd of th seventeenth ntury

Auilla and Pompadour all of whih hav rd some famous horses, and in fat the .\nglo-Arab stok from hs studs ar th

drri. Notal among thm are Pau,

Th impotation of Araians into nglnd, variously desribd as Barbs, Turks, or Arabs, was onstant tfuoughout th Tudor period. Th ownrs of these horses wer men of walth and influne who,

value. This maks t}r beginning of th history of th nglish Thoroughbrd.

that w have authnti rords of th Orintl stok in the ountry, togthr with thir prformne, pdigrees, nd

establishd. Th first stdbook was pub.Wathry and lishd in 1791 by r James in it wr ntered th pdigr and stud rords of thos sires and dams who w the foundation of the d. from thr imported Arabian sis: The Byely Turk (out 168,t-90)

idntity of th Thoroughbred had ben


gratest onibution stemmd

The Darly Arabian (1700) Th Godolphin Arain (1730) All Thoroughbreds in th world today ta thir anestry in dirt male line
wn 250 and 300 yars ago. Thr ar othr Araians whos nams

through about 30 gnrations to thse thre sirs - importd into ngland bt-

hving had the opportunity to trvl abroad, had sn th superiority of the

st in th world. Anglo-Arabs are now rd in very ountry that promotes

w.orlds most stemed rd, the value of ^\bian blood is demonstratd at its high-

Finally, in th Thoroughbrd horse, th

Bitin: .Th nglish

st. Lady \entworth writes in Horss of


astn reds ov th havy ourss and mbling reds of ngland. Th sped, lgan, and quality ofth imported astern sires nouragd the sport of raing, nd th fame of individual horss, oth as prognitors and as rawinners, began to rorded. Thr is no exat information of the rding of th mares put to thse foundtion sirs. Ther ar rords of importd .Orintat mares'

are rmmred s landmrks in th breed-

ing and prftion of th Thoroughbrd. For example, Th Hlmsl Turk, th Listr Turk; th Leedes Arabian, the Alok Arabian (from whih evry gr
Thoroughbred in th world is dsndd); the Dary $hit Turk, nd the Dar Yllow Turk. Allhave ontributd to th makquality

ing of a hors, prdominntly brd for

speed, of prft onformation and nol - th nglish Thoroughrd.


Grat Britain

A Cleveland



ariag horse.

{unter, mny of th best Cobs may b sen in th show ring. Th Co always usd to b shown with doked tail and
apparan. Th Doking and Niking At' passd in Britain in 1948, mad th prtie of doking horss' tails illgl. It

hogged man'

a fashion whih



is, howvr, still sual to hog a Cos man.

Just as n hors whih follows hounds b alld a Iuntr, so any horse usd fo lisue riding an b lld a Hak. As with the unter, howevr, th Hak whih pproahes nearst to th idal in typ' onformation nd manners is tht xhibitd in th show ing. The show Hak

The Hak

must not xd 15'3h.h. and must hav impal

mannersj bsolute obdien to th ridr, smooth nd legant ps and b as na to prftion in onformtion s possi1: in short, h should the prft riding hose, a plasur oth to rid nd to behold. I ngland, it is Thoroughrd hoss tht usually make the most sussful show Haks.

The Hakney

Th Hakny hos is a dsndnt of th old Norfolk RoadsI' nownd trotting horse dvelopd in the eightnth nrury. The st Roadstrs wr desndants of a horse

alld Shals, who was a son of th Thoroughrd-Blaze, by Fl1"ing Childers, and an thus b trad ak to The Darly .\aia. Th Hakny' thIfoI, has both Arab and horoughd blood in its vins, and it is not suprising that it me into demand i the nintnth ntur as produr of good quality military and arriag horss. Today th Hkne is hifly to b seen bing drivn in th show ing lor whih its travagant, elvatd ot nd spiritd disposi tion re idlly suitd. Th nat had, aid high on an hed nk, and the high-set tail, add to th ovrll imps15

sion of vigour and alrtnss. Th usual olours ar ba, own, blak and hestnut and th averag hight a little ovr

A Cob



" -;:
!-: '..l -'


various paes, and ovr any ostals that may om its wa. In th show ring, horss r judged ording to th wight th re est suitd to arry nd muh importan is plad on onformation (th ttr th onfomtion th mor soud th hors is likely to main thoughout a season's hunting), mnnrs and ation. By riding th exhibits himslf, th judg an ssess thi suitability for th job of following hounds. In some ountries, th Unitd Stats for instan, ttr horss ar rquird to prov their jumping aility in the ring. on of th

A runtr is a hors whih is suitabl for arring a prson to hounds and tr red or type of horse requird will vary aording to th typ of ountry and th quarry huntd, as wll as th nds and ility ofthe ridr. Iowevr, a typ of horse hs emergd in som ountris, notaly Grat Britain, Ireland and the United Stts, tht my b onsidrd th most suitbl for hunting at its best. Th nglish Hunter is a hors of good onformation, oftn with Thoroughbrd blood in its vins, apal of arrying its ridr omfortaly, safly ad pditiously for sevrl hours ovr a varit oftrrin, at

Th Hunter

bst types of Eluntr produed is th Thoroughbrd/Irish Draught ross.


Blak Hors whose nstors wr th .grt horss' of mdiaeval tims. It stnds up to 18h.h., and may b ay, rown, lk or gre in oloul. An immnsely strong' bigbarrelld horse' with long lgs rring muh father, it nvrtheless has a fin had in omprison to its overall size. Despit its great siz nd strength (an avrag Shir will wigh 1 tonne and is apbl of moving a 5-tonn lod) it is the gndest ofasts and is a good workr in agriultur and as n rban draught hors. ]0ith th ver inresing mhniztion of th twntith entury' th Shie and othr heavy rds, ould asily hv bn llowd to di out, ut fortunatly thr has in rnt times en a great rvival of intrst in ths mgnifint animals. No show lasss ar mor popular with sptators than thos for the .heavis'. Shirs sti1l work th land in some prts of th ountry nd sval wers us them to pull dravs in th i strts.

On of the largst horss in th world, th Shir originatd in the .Shirs of ngland and is dsendt of the old nglish

The Shire


Suffolk V

heavy draught horse originting in st Anglia at h ginning of the sitnth ntury, 1l modern Suffolks an trae bk to one horse, foald in 1760, nd th brd is rmrkbly pure. The modn Suffolk is ompat horse with big ody set on short, len lgs. Although it stands twen 16 and 16.2 h.h. and wighing bout 1 tonne, it is a vry ativ horse and is still used on farms in some ras' s wll as pparing in th show ring. lDithout ption' it is hstrrut in olour nd may on of sven shads ranging from nearly brown to a pale .mealy shad. Th red is notd for its longeviry and aility to thriv on megr rtions and is exptionally gntl.

Th Suffolk

The raehors pr eellne and on of the most butiful horss in th world, th Thoroughbrd hs fin had set on an legnt nk, good sloping shouldrs, dep girth, powful quartrs, nd strong lgs with plnty of bon. Th brd ws volvd in nglnd by ossing astern stllions with ntive mas and th nglish raing ntlrusists of the sevententt and ighten enruris soon sueded in produing their ultimat objetiv _ th fstst hors in he world. Tfu stallions ar ptd as ing the .founding fathers', namely Byeley Tur\ importd in 1689, th Darle Arabia, importd in 1705, and th Godolphin Arabian, imported i 1728. Ths three horss stlishd th rrod, lipse and athem b]'ood lins whih ar of paramount importan i British Thoroughbred breding. nglish horss wer soon

The Thoroughbred


ing xpotd ll ovr th world and whrevr raing is ppular the Thooughbrd hs bom stablishd. any ountries hav dvlopd thei own stamp of Thoroughbrd. In th United Stts, for instan' thr has en muh mphasis on spd and proity, although th ountr is not ntirl lking in middle-distan stok' witnss suh great hoss s ill Rf, Al1z Fran and Daia, all of whom h aed in urop. In urop the ant is mor on stami. Itl, in partiulr, spializs in poduing middle and long-distn horss. !ith th exption of his own prognito, the Arab, th Thoroughbd hs had more influen on oher brds thn any othr hos, and has bn used to impov hos and pony brds throughout th world. It is suessful in all rnhs of questrian sport whre ourage ar "nd stamina ar prim rquisits. Th usual olours bown, by and hstnut, though any solid olour is pmissile, and th hight n vary from s littl as 14.2 h.h. to wll v 17h.h. Th avrg is about 16.1h.h.

The Irish Draught .\ Light drught hors, this bred is of unrtain origin,
rd up


lthough it is possibl that its forears w Connmras in s on the good grasslands of southern Iland. An lish Draught hors ook was fust opnd ln1-9|7. The rd sffeed srious losss during th First]ilorld \0ar, many of th est mars bing rquisitiond b th army. -N,[or reently th port trad in horss to t}re Continnt has aused futhr Jpltion in numbrs until lgislation to urb this ade was pssd in th mid-l960s. An xllnt frm workr, its hif lu, nvrthlss, is in produing top{lass huntrs and show-jumpers whn put to Thoroughrd stallions. Th hight varies etwen 15 and 17h.h. nd th bst xamples hv xllnt shoirlders and good sound lgs with only a lird hir on th ftloks. Th ation is fr and straight nd most a natural jumprs. Th usual olours ar grey, bay, brown and hstnut.


Th Ardnnais is a stok' ompat draught hors originting in th Adnns region wher th svr limat of th gion produs immnsly togh horss of medium hight, idlly suitd to farm work (se also th Belgian Ardenns). .\ftr 1r seond world wat, horss wr importd ftom other uropan ountris' inluding Belgium and tlr Nthrlnds, to hlp uild up th depltd Frenh stok. It is a horse ofgeat gentlnss nd doility nd is suital fo all ryps of drught work. Standing up to 15 h.h., it has normous ns and th usual olours r bav. roan or hestnut.

The Ardnnais

|ish Drught


The Auxois his is th modrn vrsion of th old Burgundian havy

hos whih is known to have xistd at last as fa ak as th

havier typ than th old hors of nortlr-ast Burg:ndy. Like its nar relativs it is an xmely hrd, willing workr with
the equabl tmperamnt typil of this ryp of draught hors.

.\tiddl Ages. Sin the nintnth ntry infusions of Phron, Boulonnis nd Adnnais blood hav bn dded and th presnt-day bred, lled the Auxois, is a

Tit du Nord, bing a strong hors with reltivly littl t.thr. Th verag height is 15.2 to 16h.h. and sltive
ding produs prdominantly y or red roan horses.

[n pparan th Auxois resmbls th Ardnnais and th

desndant ofth nint north uropan havy horse. It is thought to hav rivd infusions of astn blood as arly as th tin of th Roman invsion of Britain, whn Numidin avalry wr sttiond on the oast of Boulogn. astrn blood was ertainly inodud during the tims of th Crusds and the Andaluian also had its fft on th breed whih evins orintal haratistis to this day. It is a hav draught horse standing 16 to 16.3 h.h., but with great intelligene and ativity. Vry lik the Prheron, it is lgant and wll proportiond and it may gy, bay or hstnut in

The Boulonnais Th Boulonnais omes from northrn Fran nd is


A Boulonnais

Th original Brton hors is small draught o arriag horse indignous to Brittny in north-wst Frane, ut by rossing it with various othr bds three distint typs emrgd. Ths ar the Daught Brto ontaining infusions of Prhon, Ardnnis and Boulonnais blood; tlr Postir, hors with good' ativ trot, ontaining Norfolk Trotter nd Hkn blood; and th Corlay (now are, if not tually xtint)' a lighter typ of arriag or riding hors, ontining Arab and Thoroughbred blood. The Draught stnds up to 16 h.h. and th Postir to bout 15 h.h. The usual oliurs r roan (lu and d), hstrrut and bay, with osional blaks. Th Brton is a hirsut individul not unlik th primitive Stpp hors and hs used (notably in North Afria), to upgrd primitiv types and produ a usfl work hors. It is an ative hors of good disposition.

The Breton

Formrly usd s a avalry hos, the Chollis Half-Bred is now used in qustrin sports, partiularly as a huntr. Th rd originated by rossing Thoroughbeds nd AngloNormans, and togthe with two oher vry similr typs, th Bourbnnais and Nivrnis hlf-brds, is known undr the

Th Charollais Half.Brd

olltive trm Demi-Sang Charollais. The Chaollais stands btween 15 nd l6.2h.h. nd may b of any solid

olour. It is a sensibl sort of horse' that is rnownd fo its soundnss'

Frenh AngIo-Arb

Th Comtois is light draught hors of th Frano-Swiss bordland wher it is sid to hav istd sin th sixth ntury AD. Its nvironmnt has md it sue-footd, ativ and etmly hard nd it is ideall suitd to working in hill ountry. It snds btwn 14.3 nd l5.3 h.h. nd is a rathr plin hors, with lrge had st on a staight nk. It has long bak, and th song hindquartrs of a hill-brd animl.

The Comtois

Th trm Anglo-Arab refes simply to a ombination of Arb and Thoroughbrd blood and Anglo-Arbs ar bd ll ovr th wold. In Frn, howeve, th rd is of partiula importan s a quality iding hors whih has hievd muh suss in th vrious qustian sports. any hav rhd olympi lvel in ompetition. In the breding of th Frnh Anglo-Arab the progny must possss a minimum 25 p ent of Arab blood and th most usual ombintion is to put a pur-bred Arab stallion to a Thoroughbrd or Anglo mar. Many of th stallions usd at th Frnh stt studs speializing in Anglo-Arab breding (notably that at Pompdour) r importd from Noth Afria and Syri. Th brd trs bak to th seond mpire whn Fran gan to impo 1rg numbrs of nglish Thooughrds fo raing. Th Ntional Stud thn had the idea of rossing som of ths with thi boodmars who possssed muh astem blood. Seltiv brding hs takn pla ver sin and th modn Anglo omins th typially Arabian qualitis of soundnss and ndurn witlr th sop nd, to a lesser

Th Frenh Anglo.Ara


xtnt, the spd of th Thoroughbred. Anglos ar not usund hestnut.

ally as eitable s Thoroughrds. Thir avrg hight is 16 to 16.3 h.h. and the pedominant olours are bay' brown

Th Frenh Trotter A world-lass hrnss rahors, the Frnh Trotter was devloped in th ninetenth nnrry by putting

horoughbrd, half-brd nd Nofolk Roadstr stallions, imptd from ngland, to Norman mrs. Two nglish hoss who had partiula influene wr Young Rattler and

nintenth ntury. Ninety p nt of moden Frnh trotts tr bak to fiv dsndnts of ths two prpotent stllions, nmely, Conqurant, Lavt, Normand, Phton nd Fuhsia. or reently Amrian Standardbrd blood hs ben introdued but th Fnh Toer is a rathe bigg, mo upstanding horse thn th Amian Stndardbrd and nssarily so' for in Frne riddn totting raes, whih hv largly died out lswhr, ar still popular. It is a rw-boned typ of hors, standing up to L6.2h'h.' with th t.vpially sloping, musula quartrs of th trotting hors. Pedominant olours r blak, brown, ay and hstnut.

Th Hir of Linn, both foald in th first half of the

The Liosin Half.Bred

Sll Frngais (not to b onfusd with the Ang1o-Norman). vithin t}ris hading, horss ar dividd into rgional goups, h Limousin oming under th tttle Dmi-Sng du Centre, as does th Charollis. Thes half-rds r intendd to be usd as ll-ound sporting horss and th Limousin is a rsult of rossing good Limousin mas wilr Thoroughrd, Arab and Anglo-Arab stallions ov a long priod. Th rsultant hlf-brds, som of whih also ontain Anglo-Norman lood, somwhat resmbl th Anglo-Arab, but show a more

Frn whih om undr th geneal hading Cheol

This is on of the many good hlf-brd horss produd in


Frenh Trotte


dfinit liknss to thir strn forbeas. Th avrage

height is 16h.h. nd th usul olours hstnut and bay.

hors thn the othr .hvis', needing mo arful handling to produe th good rsults of whih it is so eminently p-

own stud books. It is still possible to disrn th modern Phron's Arb nesy and it is mor higy-sung

Oiginating in th Prhe egion of Frn _ hene its nm _ only thos horses brd in th Departments of Prh (Sarth, ur et Loi, Loir t hr and Orn) dmittd into th Perhron Std Book. Horss brd in othe rgions hv thir

The Perheron

le. It is a wll propotiond' gry or blak healry horse, stnding anything betwn I5.2 and 17 h.h., whih dspite its s has both buty and grae of movmnt. It has a fin had

stmin and ndurane with muh freedom of movmnt. It is a popular brd ll ovr th world, inluding the U.S.A. and Gt Britain. Th British Perhon has bn ossd with h Thoroughbrd to produ a heavywight huntr typ.

fo a hos of suh powful proportions and ombins

The Poitvin Th Poitvin divs from horses impotd from svrl ountris, inluding Th Nthrlands nd Denmak, and

ws oiginally used fo work on th marshlands of th Poitou gion, for whih its 1rg ft mde it extremely suitable. Its hif use tody, howve, is in the prodution of muls whih re otind by mating jak sses with th bst of th Poitvin mares. The Poitvin itslf is poor quin speimen omin-

ig may onformtionl dfts with very limitd mntal paity, nd in fat, is so limited in sop nd intelligen hat it maks a poor work hors. Its had is heavy, its nk short and staight, its shoulds saight, its ak long and its quarts sloping. Stnding betwen 16.2 and 17h.h., it is usully dun, alttrough som ays nd browns our.

rnt origin, dating only from 1965, although the stud ook of th S11 Frangis is a ontinuation of the Anglo-Norman stud ook. Th nm .Normn horse' was in us som thousnd years ago and rfrrd to a halry draught nimal whih susquntly beame a war horse. lDith the dmis of th havily-rmoued knight and the advent of th mor agil military mount) it rturned to eing a dught nimal. Lter, in th svententh ntury' th Norman hors rived infusions of Grman lood as wll as some Arab and Brb, produing as a rsult, a sturd saddl horse. In the eightnth and nintnth enturies, nglish Thoroughbrd and Nor-

The trm S1l Franqais (Frenh Sddl Horse) is of vry

The Selle Frangais

folk Trottr lood was inodud and th Anglo-Norman am into bing. or rnt infusions of Thoroughrd lood hv rsulted in good quality hunter typ whih is today alld th S1l Frangis. It stads etwen 15.2 and 16.3h.h. and is strong hors of good onformation nd tempramnt, well suitd to ompetitiv sports such as show-jumping and vnting. Any olour is prmissil but hstnut is prdominant.

A hors offairly rnt origin

Ardnnais and ontains Ardennis, Belgian and Duth lood. A vry powerful ut gntl draught hose whih, like th Ardnnis, is xeptionlly hardy, it is in fat biggr,
havir vrsion of that red. It has a larg head set on a hug nk, a strong musular body and hindqurtrs nd avrags about 16h.h. Th usual olours are bv. hstnut nd roan.

(a stud book was fist opnd in 1919 aftr he reed had ben fixd at the eginning of this ntury)' th Trait du Nord oms from th sam as th

The Trait du Nord


The Bavarian Warm Blood This hose an aed bk byond th tim of

it origintd in the Rott Vll of Bavaria,
hors-aising nd as

Crsads. It was known, until rntly, as th Rottaler sin


th Frisian. Vrious British lood was introdud during

a rgion noted for wr horse it was onsidrd the equl of

tlr eightenth ntury, inluding Clevelnd Bay

A Se||e Frangis

rit du Nod

Thoroughbred, nd Norman and Oldnburg horss hav also inflund th breed. Today it is hvyweight riding hors, standing aout 16 h.h., hstnut in olour, nd with a stady, relibl tmpeament.


The Beberbk
This type

produe a good quality avlry hors whih was also pable of light draught work. Th Bbrk is still bd tod although in rdud numrs, and it rsmbls hvir vrsion of th Thoroughbrd. Standing about 16h.h., with

th ightnth ntury until 1930, whn th stud losd. Aras and Thoroughds wr mtd with loal mrs to

ws bred t th Bbrbk Stud ner I(assl from

prdominnt olours of hestnut and y, it is a useful, wight-rrying riding horse of good temprament.

promoted th red, and Gorg II of nglnd opend the Lndgstt at Cll in L735 whr 14 blk Holstin stallions wr installed. For a time infusions of Thoroughbrd blood were mad in ord to imue th brd with mor ourag and stamina. The im was to podue a really good

as ak to the sevntnth entury whn Spnish, Ointal nd Neapolitn stllions wer impotd into Grman and rossd with lol mares. mbrs of th Iouse of llnover

The formost German .warm-blood hors, th Ianoverin

The Hanoverian

ll-rounde suitable fo riding, driving and drught work. Si th mid-1940s' th aim hs en mor towards produi-ng a good omptition hors' to whih end, Trkhner nd mo Thoroughbrd blood hv bn usd to hlp upgrad th bd. Tody it is in partiula demand as a drssage hors nd in show-jumping. It is a big, strong' upstnding hors,

stnding 16 to 17 h.h., of good onformation, tending perhps torvads plainnss. Ativ nd bold, it has th ourg of th horoughrd although not his spd. All solid olours r pmissible, the usul eing brown, hstnut, bay nd blak. hose known as the'Wsdlishs Pfrd o Wstphalian

th Hnoverian undr anoth, rgionl, titl.

The Holstein

han th Ianoverian, and taes ak to th fourtenth n'wa hors. Spanish nd strn loodmad it lightr and

h Holstin is somwhat havir stamp of riding horse

ir th ninetenth entury Yokshir Coh Iorss and nglish Thoroughrds wr imported to upgrad th brd still further and produe horss suitabl for oth light harness and saddl work. or Thooughbrd blood hs ben dded sin th seond world war nd the Holstin is today an ll-round saddl hors, partiulaly notd s a show-jumpr. It is powrfull uilt, wih stong qurters' good dpth of h and short legs with plnty of bon. Th usual olors ar blak, brown nd bay nd th avrag hight, 15.3 to 16.2h.h. It is a good-tmperd hors possssd of intllign and willingnss to work.



Th oldenurg
This is

bloods' and it n th havist of th Germn b trd bak to the svntnth entury Oldnburg, whn it ws bsd on the Frisian hors. Th brd ws originall
dvloped as a good strong arriag hors and ovr the ars Spanish, Npolitan and Barb blood wr added, followd at a latr stg y Thoroughrd, Clvland Bay, Norman and Flanoverian. During th twntieth entur, whn th nd fo arrig horss dwindld, mor Thoroughrd and Norman blood ws introdued, rsulting in th prodution of n llpurpose saddle hors. It is vry tall' standing btwn 16.2 and |7,2 h.h., but in spit of its height it is a short-lggd horse with good bon. Notal too, for its strong bak nd dpth of girth, it maturs arlyand has a kind, t old ntur.


Th Rhinland Havy Draught

A Oldenburg

Rhineland Heavy Draught V


when th ws a gleat dmand for havy draught horss. It is very bulk, and powrfull built, stading 16 to 17 h.h., with massiv quartIs and shoulders, dp, broad bak, rstd nk, and short, strong lgs. Good-ntured, nd notd for its early maturity' it may ithr rd roan with blak points or flaxen mane nd tail, or hstnut. As with many othr ha\,ry dught animals, it is in muh lss demand nowdas, but it an still b found, albit in deresing numbets' in Lowr Saony and Wstphlia.

.Rhinland o Originating in th Rhinlnd _ hn its nam .Rhnish' this horse was bd along the lins of th Blgian horse, and was dvelopd during h nintenth ntuy

Th Shleswig Havy Draught

Up until th Sond World

Developd in Sswig-Holstin in th nintnth ntur, th brd traes ak to Denmrk s Jutlnd hors, to whih was addd Yorkshir Coh Flors and Thoroughbrd blood.

blood has bn intodud to iron out th notial onformational dfts of sla-sids, long bk and soft fet. It is a mdium sizd' ompat hors' standing 152 to 16h.h. and' bing willing work, was forml muh in dmand as a trm and bus hors. Th prdominant olour is hstnut, though bays and grys also ou and it has a very plaid disposition.

\0ar muh us was md of Dnish stallions' but mor rently Boulonnais nd Breton

Hans Wink|er on HaI|a


V Sh|eswig Heavy



Th Tkehnr

nd was rnownd for its grat ndurne. At th seond world war, whn th Grmans rtrated rL.., lPlnd, som 1'200 of th 25,000 horss gisterd in

]r .l.ntlr ntury' Ara blood ws introdud ut as f]Er Fnt on' mor and mor Thoroughbrd stallions wer :-rs.*:. B 1913 ov 80 per nt of th studs mas wr by ]-:r:ol.shbrd stllions. Th ast Prussin hors md an s:^-lnt avalry remount' as well s bing apbl of light

Fiedih !ilhelm I foundd th Stud of Trakhnn ir,L d it .rvs hr that th st Prussian Elors, known nri]i s tr Trakehn, was dvelopd. At the ginning of


li k. r. l

.West ri l:.khre Stud Book rhed what is now Gerl- ft a th-month trk from st Prssi (now part of ?:.d .h its influne is still to found in th bred

anestos wr notd. It usuall maks a good so many vitoris by llans T-r-<ir. is fin rprsntativ of the red.

a:1 in Gmany and is a top-lass saddl hors, of xlri :.-Jmation, having muh of t}re Thoroughbred aout . ]: s=nds 16 to 16.2 h.h. and may e of n solid olour. It is l -:;.. u kind hors and posssss th depth of stmina for

]]:E: s th Wilkopolski). Today th Trakhnr is brd

A Trakehner





Hll, th mare riddn to

Th Wiiremberg


r.iremrg hos tras ak to th end of th sixnry and was dvlopd by putting loal mars to .1*-- silions from th famous aah stallion depot. To . : h sort of hors ndd fo working th small mounE.r: :.:IIs of th !tirrtmberg are, ast Pussian and Nor:r- iggd was latr introdud, followd infusions of .t-ug and Nonius. A stud ook was not opnd until -$.i5. whn th requird typ hd ventually ben ahievd, --s.1 rhrough th influn of th Anglo-Norman stllion c Fast. Rently, still more ast Pussian blood hs ry =odud nd the presnt-day W.rirttemerg is a strong' ::.t] :1 standing up to aout 16h.h., suitbl for work


:: Lrrnss nd under saddl. A songly uilt horse with --'. ]gs nd ft, it is a good wokr nd an eonomial
he usual olours

A Wtirttembeg

Furioso V


lak. own' hestnut and v.

a handsome saddl or arriag horse asd on two Thoroughbrd Furioso, foald - -6. d the Norfolk Roadster North Star, foald in 1844 - J -r mated with the loal mares of Nonius typ. .-f:..rns of Thooughbrd lood ontinued nd th rsult is . f,u:s of suffrint quality to tak part in all modrn qus]': spots inluding steeplehasing (half-bed hoses ar l-.- usd fo'hasing in this part of th world whr th n.i_: ls not as hig devlopd as lswhr). A hors of jP*:itrtrbl. good onformation, with ft, slightly xaggr-*::ion, th averag hight is 16h.h. nd th usual ol:t-s -]'k and rown.
=- .
.sir tundation sirs _ th



Tte Gidran Arabian

.r^6 d foundd th strain known as th Gidrn Arabian. ] l i-. Shga, it has the hratristis of th Arab whil i of pure Arb dsnt. Thr ar now two distint 1:rrs f Gidran: the iddle uropean and th Southern and s; uopean. Th first is a hors of mor substn than E sond, whih is mor akin in apparan to th strn :t .:ghtr Th havier typ is often used in harnss whil f .\ab. r** typ is an all-purpos omptition hors. The .-.ll olour is hstnut' although by, gry nd lak som=A-_s

!;l;q Gian was importd into Hungary from Arai in




The lllurakoz A draught horse, bd in tlr rivr Mura gion of Hungry (nd also i Poland and Yugoslavia), this reed hs bn

numrs. It is a fst-moving horse of som quality nd is notd s being good tempd, sound and an eonomil fed. It is usually hestnut with flaxen mane nd til, ut ays, browns, grys and lks do our. Th avrag hight is 16h.h. nd the hors is a good agriultual woker.

dvlopd duing tlris entury by rossing nativ mars with Pheron, BelgianArdnnes and Norikr stllions as wll s with home-brd horses. In the 1920s a flfth of ll horses in Hungary wr urkoz, but the brd suffrd many losses in tlr Sond lDorld \D(/'r nd has not rgained its fomr


Lik th Fuioso, of whih it is th prursor, the Nonius was dvlopd at th futzihgys Stud in Hungary. Th foundation sie is said to be a Frenh stallion alld Nonius (foald in 1810)' itslf th rsult of a mating btwn an nglish half-rd stllion nd a Norman mar. Nonius was apturd during th Napoleoni wrs nd taken to Hungry whr he sird 15 outstnding stallions fom a variety of mars, inluding Arabian, Iolstein, Lipizzaner and Anglo-Noman. The red flouished and ame very populr and tody is a good riding or arrig hors of medium to halry wight, standing anything from 14.2 to l6h.h. It is a lt dvelopr nd is, onsequendy, a hose of some longevity. Th usual olours ar bla( brown and a and it is a tough, ompat hors, of equable temperamnt' qually suitbl for agiultural work and omptitiv spots.

Th Nonius

A Nonius

The Shagya Arabian

stain sin som of th foundation mars wre of dubious dsent. The bed tks its name from a Syrian hors, Shagya, who ws importd to th Baolna Stud along with seveal other Aabs in 1836 for rstoking purposs, and beme a vry prpotnt sir. Like Shagya, many of the modn horss re gry, and th bd possesses th usual Aabin hratristis and temperamnt, with n avrag height of l5 h.h. Although th Shagya is prinipally n 1lpurpos riding hose, it is also usd in harnss.

The Shagya Arabian is not, sitly spaking, a .pure' Aab

The Lipizzanr
This brd is notd fo its doility and intllign nd has bom world fmous for its onntion with th Spanish

bak to the Spanish Andaluin horses importd into Yugoslvia by th Arhduk Chles who foundd a stud t Lipizz in 1580. The stud ontinud to import Spanish horss ntil th sevntnth entury ut as the importation of Spanish stok began to dwindle othr blood ws intodud' notabl that of th Arabian stallion, Siglal. Today Lipizzanrs ar brd in Austia, at th famous Pibr Stud whih supplis th Spanish Riding Shool, nd in sveal ast uropan ound, th ar ompat horss, with strong baks and qurtrs and short, strong lgs. Thy rah an verage hight of aound 15 to 15.2h.h., and the pdominant olour is gry,

Riding Shool of Vinna. Th modrn Lipzner

tries, partiulaly Yugoslavia and Czhoslovkia.


mak ellnt rriage horss. Its doile tmprment

although som bays and browns ou. Mny Lipizzaet foals are born blak or brown and tak a long tim _ sometims up to tn yrs _ to qui thir gy oats. Baus they matur slowly' Lipizzanrs re often ale to work in their twntis nd, esids eing used for high-shool work, they

makes t}re Lipizzaner an ideal hors for rossing with oth, more higy-strung breeds

.-:- \..ikr. o South Germn Cold Blood' taks its nm ].- .l stat of Noium, whih formd part of th Roman =.--:j nd orspondd roug in outlin to modrn -. -j:,. The Norikr is proaly dsnded from the tough -!'_--: Lf;tl Haflingdisuitof Austria, butows its prsnt .: _ 16 o |6.2 h.h. _ to late infusions of Neapolitan, Bu-


:-:]:.:;.1 nd Spanish lood. Th trm Norikr now inluds -_. ?.:zgur' a spottd hors whih was fomrly designted

i :.i]:-]i

].:-:::niaant olours are ay and hstnut and the red is ' -: irroughor]t South Grmany as wll as in Austri. It is ''... s:iid fo work in ths mountainous rgions and ar-- ilrion of stallions _ weight pulling' walking ad trot.

. ;- hd st on

brd. Th present-dy Norikr is a sure-footd horse of quale tmpramnt, with rod hest,

short, thik nk, good ft and lean legs.

.: _ l:frol.d.

_. -:-ls must b undergon bfore a stallion ma stand t - nsurS that th standard of the d is maintaind


.--. ::d hs n devlopd this enrury at th stat stud :.-. lP1r-en, by putting Nonius stllions to Anglo-Ara . ,.;s h result is a good typ of half-red whih, although : - . : utstanding quality, annot onsidred .ommon]. .-..

lh Danubian

.'.l 'lak or a drk shd of hstnut, th Dnuin is a -.::.:;.i hors stnding about 15.2h.h., with a song nk, :, .o =i1 quarters' and a dep body, set on omparativly ...::;: 1gs. Strong and ative, th Danubian is usd oth s

. |: nd saddle hors, but its prforma in th lattr .s i:npovd when rossd with th Thoroughrd.

h st Bulgarian :,-t: riginall on horoughbr Arab nd half-brd -..,.. jle ast Bulgarian tp was fixd in the arly twntieth


o =:- :...armblood horss, this red is still expeted to work on -:; -.:.J s wll as undr saddl' it is sussful in ompti: !.ts as divrs as dressag and steplhasing. In :i:::ine it is not unlik a good stamp of Anglo-Arab, with . .:.::hI fa. Stnding p to 16 h.h.' it is hstnut or blak - :-.ur, with a good, o-oprativ tmpIamnt and ativ

::.. ---. sin whn onl Thoroughrd blood has bn used .: .::lding. Although' in ommon with many othr uro-



-.i:---: ompa, whn it omes to a ial of sped' with th

::.. Siti.v reeding hs brought aout improvmnts in : --:,mptiliv disiplins, although the ast Bulgarin


l Plven

Dimitrov farm nar Plven' ';hih it taks its name. In th arly part of this entuy --_ _:.erin Ab blood of the Gidran type was addd nd th
i-] ]-1,.1opd at th state-ownd
' :-_

._.:-. ::ed, of rent origin rsulting from th rossing of _=.-n .\glo-Arabs with loal Arab nd ross-rd horses,

. i:::=
.:- _ ..


's dmd fixed in 1938, lthough sin thn som


.\raian, t round 15.2 h.h. It is hstnut in olour, jrough it has a kindly tmprament' it is none th less -,'-:. spiitd rid. As with th ast Bulgrin hors, the ].:::.;oa still xptd to srv as a dul-purpos animl l]: -:- som aras an e sen doing light agriulturl work as .Drg iii:-. ]s riddn. Howver its narural jumping bility also j a good omptitiv horse and the est horss r -:t:. -!.: J.s show jumpers.



Not surprisingly th Plevn has n .Aray' although it stands somewhat high than th

nglish Thoroughbred blood has n


fae, but stnding rather highe tlrn its Spanish antdnt. The mpero aximilian II founded std at Kladuy in Bohmia tn |572, using Spnish foundtion stok and the horses bed thr bam known as Kldruers. They wre

The Kladrue is a big, upstanding horse similar in ppearan to the Andaluian, with th sam onvx shap to the

The l(ladruer

A Kladruber

mad from tim to tim and horss wer exhangd btwn the various stat stds (all th horses deivd, howevr, from Spnish stok). It was not until h 1920s tht the fist suessful ross was mad and this was with Shagya Arain. Ovr th lst 50 yeas o so the I(lubr, whih formrly stood t an averg hight of l8 h.h., hs bome smallr and ospondingly more ativ. Th avrag hight is now L6.2 to l 7 h.h. and lthough it is still harnss horse, it is also usd to produ ross-bed iding horses, whos equable dispositions mak them prtiularly suited to dssg. Only gr nd blak Kldrubers hav bn d sin th aly nintenth ntry and today the old Kladruby Stud produs only grys, th blaks bing kept at a naby, ut seprat, stud.

usd for drawing th impeial arriages. lVluh inbrding took pla, although infusions of Napolitan blood wre

as th Swiss Anglo-Norman this is a dual-purpos hors losly rlatd to *i Anglo-Normn. Its nm dives from th stud of Kloste insidel. Th aveg hight is 15.3 to |6.2 h.h. and it is a vestil hors, of good tmprament. Its ativ d tue pes mke a good ll-round

Also somtimes known

The Einsiedler

depth through the gir powrful quaters and stong lgs. Any solid olour is prmissible, th most usual bing hestnut nd bay.

riding nd driving horse, nd a partiulaly good ava mout. Th onformation is usuall good, with plenty of



ntury ago Anglo-Norman stllions wr imported and rossd with the lol mrs. Ther my also hav n infusions of nglish half-brd hunter nd Ardnns blood during th early days of th bed. Sin thn, howver, th bred hs emaind rmarkabl pue. Being small, ativ and vy sur-footd, it is idally suited to work on the hill frms and is a very popular agiultual hors. At one tim it was also muh in demnd as a militry drught hos. It is a hvily-uilt ob-type hose with poweful body st on shot, stong lgs and tlr avag height is ound 15 h.h. It invriably possesses a good tmperamnt and makes a vry versatile work hos. Any solid olors ar pmissibl.

The Franhes.lvlonta$le This smll drught horse originated in th

Swierlan whn about

Jr region of

Norman bloo so that today it shows mor Arabin hratristis thn Frnhs-Montagne. It is an atativ riding horse standingI5.2to 16h.h. with n Araian-looking had, good shoulds nd quarters, short a\ dep girth and stong lgs with plty of bon. It is an ative, intelligent horse possssed of gat stmina.

Th Fibrgr is a saddle hors whih has ben devloped ompratively reIrtly at th Avnhes Std in Switzerland. It is bsd on th old-blood Fanhs-ontagne but hs n pogssively upgadd by hvy ifusions of Shagya Aian blood from Hungrt's Babolna stud' and also some

Th Freirgr


Th alapolski
lightr. It is brd mainly in the south-wst of Poland and has similar regional vritions to th \0ielkopolski. Th

loo the Malapolski is similar to th \0ielkopolski, but

A rently dvlopd beed ontaining good dal of orintal

alapolski is asially a qulity iding hors, aveaging

15h.h., although th Sadki whih may b igge' is also strong nough to undrtke light draught work. An eptionally sound hors, with grat stamina nd an equal tmpramnt, any solid olou is pmissibl.

The Polish Arab

Arbian horss hav bn brd in Poland sin th midsixtentlr entury. During th Turkish wars horss of astn oigin, inluding pur-brd Arabs, wer aptued by th Pols and, latr, Polish bders importd mor astrn stok. Over ttr years xported Polish Arabs hv had a profound fft on othr Ar-breeding ountis.

Th Sokolsky A powerful light

A Wielkooolski
daught hors of norttr-est Polnd, this

beds sound onsitution and very onomial fding habits hv made it popular as frm workr. It is now bred in

U.S.S.R. as well as in Poland. It hs rathr lrg had' notably good, sloping shouldr, and shortish body, aied on shot, strong, lan lgs. Th tmpament is alm nd patint and it is a had-working animl. Th vag hight is 15 to 16h.h. and th prdominant olour hstnrrt.


lVielkopolski is omposite nme for what usd to b two sParate breds, Poznan and the ]Vlsun. Th Poznan

The Wielkopolski

ontaind Ara, Hanovrian nd Thoroughbred blood nd th .lVlsurn was based on tre Trakhnr. Although all the Polish .warm-bloods' a now known s lDilkopolskis, thos brd in ertin aras e still rgarded as bing of spifi types. Th \Dilkopolski is a good quality iding horse standing around 16 h.h., of sound onstitution and sensibl tmperament. It is notably good movr and an b both iddn nd divn. Any solid olou is prmissible.

Po|ish Ab

|t|ian Heavy Draught

The Italirr Heavy Draught A medium siz drught hors,
standing 15 to-16h.h., th Itlian Heavy Draught hose usd to be an xtrmly populr agiultural woker but hs, in thse days of inrasing mehniztion' ome to b bd mor and mor for mt. It is an tive hors, bred thoughout nl nd norttrern Italy nd has Brton nstry. It is oftn a vry stiking dark livr hestnut with flaxn mne and tail, although otlrer olours
(notably ron and hesmut) do our. Th had is fin fo so heavy a hors, and is set on a shotnek. oth haratristis a dep hst nd girtlr, a ompat body and strong quarts, witlr ft tnding to boxy.

The iVlaremmana A rathr olrnon heavy

saddl or light drught horse, tlre aremmana is indignous to Italy. Its hif uss ar s a mount fo tlre Italin mountd poli and for th Itlian attl hedsmen, he buttri. It is a hrdy hors and n onomial fder, standing about 15.3h.h., and as a good stadyworker it maks usful fam hose. Any solid olours ar pemissible.

The lllurgese

Th modrn urgese hors, whih takes its nam from the fmous horse-reding rgion of Nlurg nar Puglia, dates

from th 1920s, the old rd having died out 200 yars ago. It is a light dught or riding horse in whih orintal blood is obviously prsnt' although this nnot b positively identifid. The avrag hight is 15 to 16h.h. and th usul

olou, hstnut. Whn urgs mares ar put

of riding hors.

Thoroughbd and Arab stallions thy produ

a good



The Salerno A good saddle horse brd in th aremm and Salerno disItalian avalry. Standing bout 16 h.h., it is a snsibl hors possssd of intlligen and jumping ability and although

trits, this brd was formrl th favourite mount of the

thr is now less dmand for avalry mounts it still finds favour as an all-round riding horse. It trs k to th Napolitan and is a hors of good onformation. An solid olour is pmissibl.

A Duth


Th Ntherlands

This halry draught hors has ben dvlopd sine th First \D spifiall as suitbl horse for working on both th sand and lay lands of agriultural Hollnd. Zea7and-tpe mres wer hosn and rossd with Brabant stllions nd latr with Blgian Ardnns. Th resultant Duth Draught is massivl built hors that losel r-

The Duth Draught

smbls the Brabant. Despit its weight it is an ativ hols, with a kind disposition, grat stamina and quit turn of foot whn rquired. It stands up to 163 h.h. and its olouring is usull hstnut, bay or grey.

The Friesian

Th Frisian is on of urop's oldst brds, and taks its

nam from Frisland, whr

as 1000 . Throughout th



sventnth ntry' th Friesian was muh sought fter as a wight-arrying saddle hors. Thn th populaity of trotting ras in th ninetnth enrury' oupld with th Frisian's ffotting prowess, ld to th prodution of a lightr, fster hors lss suited to the agriultural work hithrto requird of it. As a rsult th rd wnt into somethifig of a dline. Fotunately a breding plan ws adoptd just in tim and with the aid of importd Oldnburg stallions th brd was revivd. Today it is flourishing. Th Friesian is attrtiv, and swet naturd, nd its willingness and ative pa mk it an idl all-round working hors. It also finds muh fvour t hors shows and in iruss. Smll in statur' standing around 15 h.h.' it is ompat and musular, wittr a fine hd, strong body, short legs with som fethr on the hls, and hrd feet. Th olour is xlusivl lak, with no whit markings.


hors xistd as far ak

tras bak to the lst entury whn variety of imported stallions, notably Norfolk Roadstrs and Arabs, wre mated with nativ males in th Geldrland provin to produ an upstanding rrig hors. Latr, asl Frisian, Oldenburg and Hakny blood was addd and in

The Glderland This populr hors

this ntury infusions of Anglo-Norman lood hav bn mad. Th modern Geldrland is a stong, ativ sort, stand. ing about 15.2 h.h., usually hstnut or gry in olour, wit skwblds making an oasional apparan. As wll as

ing first-lass rriag hors, with its great psne and y-athing ation' it an also make a usful riding hors Some Geldrlnds also make good jumprs.


crivs, th Groningn is now a vry aI bred. It was produed by rossing Fisians, ast Frisians nd oldnurgs and th rslt was an attrative arriage hors standing 15.2 o 16 h.h., with grat dpth of girth and powerful quartrs and shouldes set on shoft' strong lgs. An onomil fdr, it is a hors of sound onstitution and quabl tmperamnt. Th usual olours ar lak, drk brown and bay.

he Groningen Similar in apparan to th oidnburg from whih it



:-_... erglum

The Blgian Ardennes

f the draught hoIss praisd by

he modern Ardnns hos is thought to b th dsndnt

Gllico. It hs in mol lent tims reivd infusions of Brabant (Blgin avy Daught) blood. Standing up to aout l5.3 h.h., it is ompat, havily-uilt hors, with
lvid' dp hst, a big road had and a huge arrl arried on short' massivly-built lgs. Thre is a pronouned rst to th nk and th lgs arry good dal of feathr. Prdominnt olours ar ay, roan and hstnut. It has an xptionall
gntle tmperamnt' and makes a willing daught hors, wll suited to hill ountr. (S also th Frnh Ardnnis.)

Julius Csar in!:,is D Bello

Blgian Healry Draught Iors, is th produt of nturis of s].tiv breding. Today th Brabant stands betwn 16.1 nd 17 h.h. nd is usually rd on or hstnut, although grys, duns, bays and browns still our. It is a handsom, powerful hors, with a short ak' dp girth and short 1gs lr'ith a good dl of fathr. Th had is squar and small in proportion to the ody. A willing, good-temprd draught hors, with a notbly ativ wlk, ovI th yars, the Brabant has had muh influen on othI uropan hear,ry hoses.

The Braant (Belgian Heavy Draught) originally known as the Flandrs hors, Braant,



North Swedish

Dle-Gudrandsdal pony. It stnds about 15 h.h., somtimes little highr, ut rtains th pon appearan of th Dl' rotting stallions have en rossd with Dl mars to lr,lop th ativ trot hratristi of th pon and th sultant trottr is a tough, ativ individual that prforms

The Dole Trotter h Dle Trottr is somwhat lightr offshoot of


in harnss.

nativ hols of the region, this brd is losl latd to th Dil pony of Norwa. It is a powerful hors with a lag head, short nk, long, dp bod, shot, strong lgs with plenty of .on rnownd 1ongvity and kind tempramnt, it is also xptionally sistant to quine disase. The latter, oupld with th fat that it is an onomial fdr, mks it a popular hors for rvorking on th farmland and in th forsts. Th usual ol-

The North Swedish .\ ativ, medium-sizd havy hors taing bk to


and good, lively, long-siding ation. Of

ouls ar dun, brown, hstnut and lk and the hieht 15.l to 15.3 h.h.



rehors. It stands about 15.1 to 15.3h.h. and is usully blk, brown, hstnut, ay or dun.

within th bred to dvlop th ntual otting ability. It hs a short nek, longish ody, th sloping roup hartristi of ttr trotting hors, short lgs with some fethr and thik man and ail. Th stride is long and ativ nd although the bd annot e ompared wittr th Amrian Stndrdbrd and uopen otting horses it is a popular hrness

The trottr is of th sam red, bu a lighter version of the North Swdish Iors nd is th result of sltiv brding

The North Swedish Trotter

A Swedish Ardennes

Swedish Wrm B|ood

This heavy draught hors ws brd from importd Blgian Ardnnes horss rossd with th North Swdish llors' fter th fust Blgian Ardenns had ben inodud into Swdn about hundd years ago. A fixed typ was quikly developd with th Ardnns boming th dominating
horse oth in its ountry of origin and in thos ountries whih hav impoted it. Th avrag height is 15.2 to 16 h.h. nd th usual olous lk, by, hstnut and brown. It is a

The Swdish Ardennes

influne. hanization has led to deline in numrs in reent yars but the Swedish Ardnns is still muh liked

with rested n\ and a dp and vry musulr ody, whih is st on short, song legs rrying littl fethr.

good-nturd hos, quit to handle ut nrgeti in its pas,

Th Swedish \Uarm Blood is a saddl hors of som quality, nd the rsult of seletiv reding going bak for some 300 years. In the arly years, Spanish, Friesin and ointl blood ws imported nd mor rently infusions of Thoroughbrd, Arab, Ilanovian and Trakhnr hav bn mde. It is a strong' sound riding hors of good tmpament and good onfomation with plnty of depth through th gith and short strong lgs. It maks a very good omptition hos and has a prtiular aptitude for drssage. Stnding about 1'6.2h.h. and usually up to a fir amount of wight, 11 solid
olours ar prmissible.

The Swedish Warm Blood


estmd militry hagr as wll as being onsidred a good shool hors in th days ofth grt uropan riding shools. It has also always n sd for light haness work nd today

Later Napolitan, astern and British lood was addd and th Frediksbog was dvlopd. It bame a higy

The Frederiksborg King Frederik II st up the Royl Frederiksborg Std in 1562, stoking it with Andluins impotd from Spain.

(round 15.3 h.h.) with partiularly powrful shouldrs and hest, and good lims with plnty of bone. The fa is oftn onvx in outlin, showing it to be a hors of Spnish oigin and the pdominant olour is hstnut. Its good tmPrmnt makes it very usful working hors.

fo th purpose ofupgrading othr breeds. But privat brdrs hv kept the Fderiksborg alive and today it is found 1l over Denmrk. It is a strong' tiv hose of mdium height

still fulfils the dul rols of drught and riding hors. King Frderil{s std no longer eists, having losd its doors in 1839, following the injudiious sl of muh of its est stok

The Jutland

priod into batd. The modern bre gratly influened y a Suffolk stllion lld oppnheim LII who was xportd

The Jutland hors takes its nm from the island of Jutland and hs xisted fo som thousnd rs. In the Middl Ags it was usd to arry th havily-armoued knights of th


from Britin to Dnmak in 1860' is a havy daught horse of massive proportions. It has great deph of hst and girth nd shot, ftherd lgs, nd avrgs 15.2 to 16 h.h., but in spit of its nomous strngth' th Jutland is vry gntl animal, o-oprativ and esy to handl when working. It is unfortunatly on th dline owing to inrsed mehanization nd onsquent lessening of demand for good daugh hoss. Th prdominnt olour is hestnut, ut roans, ays and

blaks a also sn.

alld Flabhoppn who, in 1808 ws put to a Frderiksorg stallion and foundd lin of spottd, lightr-built horss. In nt tims th nt in breding hs ben on ot pattn ath thn good onformation and it is doutrul whther the Knabstrup as brd ny longr exists, although thr r spottd horses simila to it still in Dnmrk. Standing at bout 15.3 h.h., it was partiularly popular as a irus hors.

Th Knabsup trs bak to a spottd mar

Th Knastrup


Th Finnish

Finnish hose is dsnded from two losl rltd brds, the Finnish Dught and th Finnish lJniversal. Ths two
eds ontin mixtr of many warm and old-blood typs

offrially rognized brd of horse in Finlnd, lre

good all-roundr, being used as daught hors and under saddle and elling at suh divers oupations s timb hauling nd trotting s. Trotting is very popular in Finlnd nd th bst trotters ar th sult of seltiv brding. Th Finnish hos stands up to 15.2 h.h. and is a strong sort with good bon, usully olourd hstnut, y, rown nd lak. Having ben brd pimaily with prformne in mind h is a little laking in qulity but although h laks in looks h gains in staying pow, tmpermnt and onstitution.

whih wr impotd into Finlnd nd ossd with the ountds native ponis. The psent-da Finnish hors is a

A Finnish

Knabstrup V


0Rs RDs

The Andaluian
This famous old brd tras bak, at least to th oorish oupation of Spain, whrt Barbs fom North Afria wre
introdud to the Ibrian peninsul. The hors whih rsultd from th mingling of th indigenous stok with th


invadrs' Bars was to bome the formost hors of urop and remaind so until th ightnth ntury. It had a grat influene on othr uropean breds, most notably the Lipizzanr. Cordoba was a vry rl entre of organizd brding and rmains on of the prinipal ntrs toda along with Svill and Jerez. As far bk as the fifteenth entury th Carthusian monks of Jrz wee dvoting thei attntion, and onsiderabl mans, to th brding of horss with grat purity of bloodlines. Th Andaluian is very strong and tive hors of normous prsne' and it ombins agility and fir with a very doil tmprament. Usuall white, gy or a, it has a luxuriant man nd tail and sptaular, high-stpping ation. It stands bout 15.2h.h.

The Hispano (Spanish Anglo-Arb)

A Andaluian


matings have produd an attrativ saddle hors with mor hig pronouned Arabian haateristis than the avrag Anglo-Arab. It stands out 16 h.h. and is usully by, hestnut or grey. Its attibuts of intlligen, grat ourg and agility have mad it popular as a ompetition hors in vy branh of qusian sport. It is lso usd s a mount in tr oso drribo ontsts in whih ridrs test th fighting bulls by ringing thm down with tfuust from long pole. Th horss used in this rise nd to b xtrmly athleti, for th mole spiritd bulls will rise and harge thir ssilnts at som sped. Dspit bing a spiritd animl, the Hispano is of a vry tbl disposition.

The Hispano or Spanish Anglo-Arb is th result of putting Spanish Arb ms to nglish Thoroughbrds. Suh




The Alter-Real
This hors is


sed on th Andaluin and is similar to it in apparane. It origintd in the mid ightenth nftlry at th

imported som 300 mrs from th Jrz rgion of Spain. The rd flourished, and was muh in demand as an hute ole hors, until th Npoleoni invasion of 1821 when the stud was sakd b th Frnh and the stok dispersd. In subsqunt yrs th remaining Alters wre rossd with a motly olltion of horses ranging ftom Arbs to Ianoverians. It ws not until th bginning of the twntith entry that stps wer taken to rintodu Andaluian blood and rstblish th formr typ. The Altr hs survived thse viissitudes nd is still today a.good saddl hos espiall suited to hut col, although with its diffiult' high-strung tmpelmnt it nds reful handling. Th tion has geat lvation and, as a rsult, lks xtension. It is a ompat hors, standing 15 to 16h.h., usually bay or brown' som-

de Portl Stud in Potugal's Alentejo Provin, whih

tims gry.

Vry lik th Andaluian in apprane, th Lusitano is an old red of obsre origin ut probal ontaining Andalin nd orintal lood. It is a good looking' ompat horse with n alert xprssion and a wavy mn and tail. Th avrag hight is 15 to 16h.h. nd th pdominnt olour gr. An intellignt, agil horse of grt ourge, it was formrly in demand s a avlry hors nd is today muh prizd in th bulling. The Potuguse mountd bullfightrs,

The Lusitrro


known as rjonadors, rquir higy shool thlti mounts, sin th ntir fight is arid out on horsbak. Unlik the sorry speimns usd by piadors in th Spanish bullfight, th rjonado1s hors is a vry vlual animal, trained to a high dgr in hute ole.


A1bino is a type of olouring whih an our in horss anwhr in th wold, just as it ous in ohr retures. In Amia, however, Albinos are rd dlieratly and ar frquntly onsiderd distint rd, although some popl would argu that thy ar a olour type rther thn bred. Sltiv breding has rtainl takn pla in Stts sin th beginning of th twntieth ntuy and Albino olouring is rgularly hievd. Th haratristi pal olouring of th Alino is th rsult of a ongnital lk of pigmntation whih produs pink skin, a pu whit oat, and very often pal-olord ys. lDhil undoutdly being an ey-thing horse, the Albino is sujt to rtin disadvntags as a rsult of its olouring. The skin tnds to b sensitiv to th sun nd th vision is oftn weak and may evn deftive. As a esult mny horsmn avoid nirnals of
dsndd from on si alld

The Alino

A Albino

Amerian ourter Hose

hav ontaind ogan and Ara lood. Apart from their uniqu olouring, Albinos hav no vry mrkd haratristis nd may b a varity of ss and shapes.

sh olouring. Th Amerian Albino is said to b old I(ng who is thought to

The Amerian Quarter florse

lar rd and on whih has bn exported to ounties throughout the world. It was devlopd by arl nglish olonists in Viginia and th Carolinas nd is th result of rossing mrs of Spanish dsnt with imported nglish
stallions. Th breed ws used as an all-purpos riding and hrnss hors ut was also rd ov short distans. Th improvd r traks usully onsistd of rough paths lard out of undrgrowth, although th main villag set oftn srvd as onvnit venue for as. The Quatr Iose took its name from the qurtr-mil sprints in whih it omptd nd at whih it was so dpt. Vhn Thoroughbred raing ousted th Quar Iors vaiety, the breed was moe and mor used s ow pony and ovr th years dvlopd a remarkble instint fo hrding and utting out attl. In

Th Amrin Quartr Iose is Noth Amria's most popu-

g.={- -i

rent times howevr tlrere has en a ig revival of intest in Quartr Hors raing ov short distans and th futr of th brd sems assurd. It is n attrative' ompat hos of kind disposition and good onformation' with massiv, powrful quartes' strong shouldrs, and a shot, musular bak. The avrage hight is abot 15.2 h.h. and any solid olour is gne nd grat agility mak it an xeptionally good mount for working attle or as a popular all-purpos plasu hors.

pemissibl, lthough hestnut is prdominant. Its intlli-

s the Kntuky Sddlr, this bred was dvloped by th Kentuky plntation ownrs of th ninetnth n'rry who nedd a horse that

The Amerian Saddle l{orse An legant saddle hors, originlly known

}rorse is rd primarily for the show ing whre h an

ompte in thre typs oflasses: in light harnss' as a thrgaited sddlr or as a fiv-gaitd saddlr. In the light harness

tmpramnt nd grat stamina. Toda the Amrian Saddle

A Amerian Sadd|e Hose

mens, suh as growing the ft long, and fstning weights round th oront to dvlop the xtravagant tion. Prdominant olours re bay, rown' hstrrut and lak and the verage height is 15 to 16h.h.

Th show apparne of th hors is ntuatd b th rtifiilly high til ariag (obtind y niking 1h dok musls and stting th tail in ruppr); and vrious othr

travagant' elvted tion elovd of its dmirers. Th .slow-gait' is a praning movmnt in four tim, whi-le th .ralc is its full-speed equivalent. Th Saddl rors hs a small, legant hed set on a long, musula nek, nd strong shoulders, bk nd quartrs. The legs are strong and m,,s,,-

ws rossd with th Nraganstt per' a type of hors deriving from hossof Duth origin taken to th Nw World

dardbrd originatd in Ameri narly 200 years ago. It tras bak to an importd nglish Thooughbred, ssngr, who

The Amrian Standrdbred On of th worlds finst harness ahorses, th


A Ameian Standrdbeo

Darley Aabin, podued progny with mrkd trotting ability nd it ws on of his dsndnts, th ppotnt Hmbltonian, who was rsponsible for essnger bing dsignatd the breds foundation sire. Nint nin pr nt of modn Standardrds tra bak to four of Hmltonian's sons _ Gog !ilkes, Ditator' H"ppy Nldium and ltionr. Th trm Standardrd drivs from th tim stndrd, whih was adoptd to tst the bility of hanss rrs befor


settlrs. lVlssenger, who ws a dsendant of th

orld. It is a mdium sizd horse stnding up to around I52 to 16 h.h. and the pdominant olours ar bay, rown, blak nd hestnut.

saight. any Stndardbrds oth trot nd p (i.. mov the legs in laterl' as opposd to diagonal, pirs) and those whih show a naturl tndeny to pa at an r1 age ar large sal had a grat

This brd of sddl horse originatd in th Palous Valle of north-wst Amri nd ws brd by the Nez Pr Indians who inhbitd the vlley ntil 1877. It is desnded from
dores during the siteenth entury. Th Appaloos is noted for its spottd ot whih may b an ll-ov spotted pattn' onsisting und (lopard); light spots ; and spors on

The Appaloosa

horses taken to South Amria by th Spanish onquist-




pttrn typs mntiond is permissible. Th skin of th nos,

although any olou omination whih fits on of th six

inlud marbl, fost and white blankt, the latter in fat not bing spottd at all, but onsisting of whit quartrs and loins on an otrwis dk oat. Th usual ground olour is roan

rmrkble olouring it is muh used as irus and parade hos. It is ompat hors, standing up to bout 15.2h.h., with notably powerful quartrs. It is vy agile, of eptionall tratal disposition, nd possesses both spd and

whit slra round th ys. The fet ae oftn vertially sipd and the man and tail ar sparse. Th Appaloosa is one of th most popular horss in Ameri, nd today finds muh favour as n all-round saddle hors. Bause of its

lips and gnitals of th Appaloos is mottled nd thr is

stamina. It also jumps well.

The issouri Fox Trottr is desendd from Thooughbred, Arab and organ horss. Sletiv inreding podud a .fox-trot' sddle hors with a puliar brokn git alld the from whih th brd tks its name. Th hos wlks briskl with its forefeet nd trots with its hind fet' and an ahiv spds of up to 16 km/h (10 mph). Th git is a omfortal on nd th hors was originlly usd as an all-purpose mount in the hill ountry of issoui and Arknsas. It is a strong' ompat hors with an ttlativ had, short strong bak and plnty of dpth through th girth. Th hight an b anything up to 16h.h. and any olour, inluding th mor xoti ons suh as palomino, permissil. In rnt yars infusions of Amrian Sddle Horse and Tnnsse lialking Hors blood hv bn addd and thr ar today show lsss for this unusual bred.

The }Iissouri Fox Trottr

A Missouri

Fox otter

aquird him towads th nd of the ightnth ntury. Ie is thought to b of Thoroughbrd and Ar exftation' and it is possible h also hd Wlsh lood in his vins too. Ie was a hors ofquite inrdibl ndurane, used as a farm hors, in harness nd for timbr hauling, and although he stood onl 14 h.h. h xlld in wight-pulling ontsts. In spite of his hard working lif h bam a ppotnt sir and although the modn organ has more rfinmnt it is still notable for the sam qulitis that Justin organ possssd. Today the organ stands up to 15.2h.h. nd maks an ideal ll-round plsur horse. Of good onformation, possessing strong shouldrs, short, strong lgs, hard ft and an ttrativ had st on a musular, rstd nek' it is frquently shown both undr saddle and in harnss. It is an xptionally ative and verstil hors' with oundlss stamina and a kindly natlrr. The usual olours r bav. hsmut. rown nd blak.

This song littl horse posssss gat physial stength and to this day taks prt in the wight-pulling ontsts whih mad Justin ogan, th brd s foundation si, famous. }ustin organ was named afte his sond own who



A Morgn


Th ustang he ustang is a srub-typ of horse whih is dsndd

rd and travelld up into North Ameria via lyIxio. As ths wild hrds inrasd in number thy sprad through many stats and m favourit mounts for the Indin ibes. Th wr lso usd by the first sttlrs to mat with their imported horses to provid foundation stok of varicus breds. Formrly muh used as ow ponis, thy hav now largely ben replad by btter quality animals nd thir numrs have dlind in nt yars. Th brd, howvr, is prottd in some aas and is unlikly to di out entirely. It is small, inlegnt, lightwight hors, standing twn 14 rnd 15h.h. and posssss an inatal tmpramnt. It is treml hady and its ars of foraging for itslf hv mad it an onomial feder. Al1 olors ar found.

rom th sixtnth ntuly onquistdors' horss. Some of ths eithr saped or wer turnd loos, and susquntly

Lik th Albino, the Pinto is olour typ whih in Ameri is sltively bred nd is ognized s a distint rd. It

The Pinto

is sometimes rfrd to s th Paint Hors. It is an ll-

taks its nam from th Spanish word mning.painted and


Tennessee WaIking Hors

typ of hors.

ent types within th rd: th formr is basill dak ot with whit paths whil th lattr is white ot with dark paths. The overo is onsidred to th esult of the influne of ressiv gene and is found mostly in South Amri while th dominnt Tobino gne is rsponsibl for th type found in North Ameia. Th Pinto ws a favourite mount of the Indian tris, sin its rokn oat paftrns ffordd good mouflg. It lso finds muh popularity with produrs of owoy movis' Today it maks good l1round riding horse thr is no vry definite stmp of Pi med primaily at produing th right nifom size and

ws devlopd y the plantation owners ofth south to arry thm on insption tous of their lnd. It ws fomerly known as th .Turn-Ro/ beuse of its ability to trvel twen th rows of rops tion sire is a Standdred, alled Blak Allan, foald in 1 886.

The Tennessee Walking orse One of Amria's most populr reds this hors

Ara, Thorou th making of


with partiularly powerful shouldrs and song limbs. It stands round 15 to 15.2h.h. nd is usuall blak, bay or

at gait that is half walk nd hlfun and whih hs beome the hrtristi ftur of the red. It is an xeptionlly omfortal p for th ridr and th Tnnsse \Dalkr is atually laimd to th most omfortable id in the world. It is a notaly good-tempred hors, of good onformation,

H vind a prefern for travlling at the puliar four-

V Cndin utting

This whi Like

Th Native exian l{orse

is lso likely that th wild ustng has plaed a part in the devlopmnt of the &lian Iors. It stnds about 15 h.h., my b ofany olour, nd invariably has good bon and ft. It is sometims usd in the exin bullrings wh its handiness and ourag mk it an idal mount.

ss mke it idally suitd. world it is dsndd from Spnish stok and so onins Andaluian and Arab lood. It

used for rnh

wor\ for

The Canadian Cutting florse This is the Canadin equivalnt of th Amrian Quartr lrors fom whih it was dvelopd and whih it losly

rsembls in apparane. It is an intllignt hors with an att] and its prowss as utting highly dvloped for omptition I5.2 aod 16.1h.h. and may b of



r l-eru
Also known as the Pruvian Stepping Iors, this brd of Criollo typ, dsndd from the invading Spaniard's horss

Th Peruvian Paso

tken to South Amria in th sitnth ntury. It has en systematially dvelopd for its harateristi git, in whih the forlegs displa xtravgant ation and the hind legs a divn powfully forwrd with th qutIs lowerd. It an st b dsried as resemling th amle, and is omfortale pa for th ridr. Possessing geat stamina, th Paso an

ahiev and maintain


a stad spd of about 18km/h (l1 mph) over th roughest of ountry. Its hight varis twn 14 and 15.2 h.h. and th prinipal olours ar by and

Puerto Rio
The Paso Fino The Paso Fino is a small hors, stnding a littl undr 15 h.h.' rsembling th Andluian and undoubtdly

four-time gait; th Paso orto) a simila' but unolltd, four-tim gait whih is used for tavlling long distans; nd ttr paso largo, th tendd fou-bat gait whih an ahiev speds of up to 25 km/h (16 mph). These four-tim gits r inhitd and do not have to be taught, nd l1 r xtlmly omfotble for tlre ridr. Th Paso Fino is brd in Peu nd Colombia as wll as in Puto Rio nd is an intllient littl
hos of good tmprament.

dsnded from the sixteenth enflrry Spanish hoss whih wr takn to South Amri. It displys th gaits whih usd to b ommon in urope and at whih th Andaluian was partiularly adept. Sltiv brding has prpetuatd ths paes whih are: the pso fino, olltd, highly-levtd,

a horse of unrtin origin, but its appearane suggests oriental forbrs. Brd in southern Irn, it is a spiritdriding horse, with Ain hratristis, standing aout 15h.h. It has a good tmprament nd is usually gry, hestnut, brown or ba in olour.

A Peuvian


Pruvin Paso V

Th Drashomi o Slurazi is

Th Darashomi

spiited horse but has gntl disposition. Th aveag height is a littl ovr 15h.h. and the usual olours ar ay, rown, hstnut and gry.

horse. It is brd in I(urdistan nd has all th haratristis of tlr dsert hors, ing tough, wiry and possessd of great stamina. It is partiulaly notd for its tough, hard fet. It is a

The Jaf Lik th Darashomi, the Jaf is an orintal-looking saddl

Th Thnaani, red in th north of Irn whr it has bn known for ovr 2,000 years, was podud by rossing Platau stllions with Turkrnn maes. This is still the favourd

The Thenarani



to Thenarani, and also if Turkmen stallions ar matd with Plteu Prsin maes. (Th diffrnt strains of Arab-ryp

ross sin stok tends to dtriorat if Thnarni is matd

hors tht hav for many enturis bn brd on th plateaus of Iran, formerly Prsia, r now olltively trmd Pltau Prsian. Today both th Darashomi nd th Jaf ome under this blanket heading.) Popular for a long tim as a valry mount' th Thenarni is wiry little saddl horse, standing about 15 h.h., araby in pprane, with th hartristi toughnss and stmin of horss of this rgion. Lik th Jaf' it is a spiritd hors, but nverthelss has a gentle disposition.


solid olours are prmissibl.



The Tkoman is also a desndant of the anint Turkmn nd is brd in nothern In whr it is muh prized as a rahose. It is slow-maturing horse, lling partiularly in long-distn raes. The Turkomn is n oriental-looking horse of som distintion, and posssses grat spd and xptional endurn. It is noted for its fin skin and floating ation. Th avrage height is 1 5 .2 h.h. and the prdominant olour is bay.

The Turkoman

The Karaaby
whih had n in xistene for mny yars before oming undr th ontrol of th Turkish Governmnt in rnt

This dual-purpos hos origintd

t th Karaby Stu

tims. The bred was basd on 1ol mares who wr mated to imported Nonius stalLions, and th modrn Karaaby still shows its Nonius anstry. It is a vrsatile horse, stnding round 16h.h., strong nough to undrtak light farm and draught work s wll as making a good saddl hors. Notd as ing a vry good avalr mount it has a alm tempramnt nd is willing workr. A1l solid olours ar prmissibl.

The Brumy
whih wr turnd loos on th rngs during the midThe Bumby is

wi1d hors dsndd fom domesti horss

ninetnth ntury gold rush. Thse horss bam somewht inbred and tendd to dtriorat in quality. Iowevr thy thivd numerill and in tim bam so numrous' thy wr dmd a pest' at whih point orgnd ulling am nessary. Consequend there ar fwer Bumbies in istene today, but th ar invarialy inatale ifaught. Thy vary onsiderbly in apparan nd olour and stand anything up to aout 15 h.h. The origin of th trmBrumby is not known' though it probably drivs from an aboriginal word' broornby, meaning wild.

Although in tim ths ars wr dividd into sparat stats with thir own nams, th overall trm .Wale1 ws rtained. llorss wr not indignous to Australia and the fist ons were importd by Europan sttlers in the lat eightnth nrur. Ths initiall am frorn South Afri nd sus-

ftr its pl of origin, Nw whih in th arly days of sttlemnt was th nam givn to all nwly inhaitd ars of Australia.

The Waler This sddl hors is namd


0sE BDs

I}lrpos saddl hors.

quntly from urope, with th nglish Thoroughrd and h Arab being muh in dmnd by brdrs. Th !0alr is h sult of rossing hak mas with Arab, Thoroughbred nd Anglo-Arab stallions, nd th st spimns hv man of h haatristis of th Thoroughbrd. The avag hight is 16h.h. and all solid olours r permissil. Th ale is a horse of equabl disposition, with rathr mo 5mmin than th Thoroughbred. It mkes a good, gneral-

h Akhl-Tk is a strain of the nient Turkmn or
muh fvoured by mounted wrriors. It is notable for its outstnding powers of enduan and is n idl hos in ds onditions. Akhal-Tks took prt in th famous trk ftom Ashkaad to oso' i 1935, a distan of ove 4'100 krn (2,500 mils) whih inludd 360 km (225 mils) of Js. The latt wr ovred in th days by ths raodilry horses tavlling totally without watr. The
A Akh|-Tek ukoman horse whih tas bk ovr 2,500 yas and was

The Akhal-Tek6

^\khal-Tk is vry distintiv smll, wiy hors, giving an vall pparane of being long and lean. It has a long had d nk, st on to a long body nd lgs, with slping qurtrs d low-st tail. Both mn and tail ar sprs and vry fin in !trrre nd the pedominant olou is a very stfiking gold wh oftn has mtlli shn. Grys and ays do also our nd th avrag hight is L4'2 to 15'2h.h. Th on

hih my, howvr,

lisdvntag of th Akhl-Tk

ivitis as raing and dressage.

Il-round saddl hos that hs xlld t suh divrs

b th rsult of its nvironmnt. It an etmly obstinate, but when o-opertiv, maks a good

is its untain


his qualit riding horse developed in th arly prt of this ntry as a avaly mount nd was nmd aftr Marshal Budyonny, th Russin avalry genel who instigatd th brd. Th ]Vlarshal based his brding programme on Don mrg5 nd Thooughbrd stallions and the st of th rsulet progny wr intrbred. Still rd in th Rostov rgion here it originatd, th Budyonny, unlik th Akhl-Tk6, is lm, snsibl sort of horse although it, too, is possssed of get stamina nd eduan. Originall brd to srve ttre , its grat vrsatility toda is bing xploited in th fild of ompetitiv sports. It exels at stplehsing and Budyonnys hv in th past won th taxing Prdui, th thon r held in Czhoslovkia. It is hors ofxellnt onformtion standing L5.2to 16 h.h., with a song body t is dp through th girth. The quarters and shoulders are god, the hd attativ and rried on a long, elgant nek nd th lgs strong' with genrous bon. Th pedominant olour is hstnt and the gold shn so pvalnt among Russian horss is oftn sn' Bays and grys ar ommon.

The Budyonny

A Budyonny


h Don horse, whih was the mount of th Don ossaks as long ago as th ightnth ntury, ontins th blood of ukmn nd Karabakh stallions whih wr turnd loose on th stepps to mingle nd bed with th nativ hrds. nglish Thoroughbred and Strlts Arab blood wer introJud during th nintnth ntury, sin whn no nw ifusions hav ben mad. Cnturis of life on the stpps, tging for food in th harsh wintr limate, hav podud exeptionally tough hors that is wll l to for itslf sih th minimum of help from mn. It is, in fat, still herded n th plains and its toughnss maks it a vry usful woking
hose. It also xls in long-distane res' dspit th rathr

he Don

H0Rs Ds

rstrited ation. Toda th Don horse is both iddn and drivn and maks an idl mount fo th herdsmen of he Kirghska and Kazakhskaya rgions of Russia. It is a wiry horse, rathr long on tlre lg, standing 15. 1 to 15.3 h.h. The usual olous are hstnut, bay and gy, and som horss
have the hateisti

Russian.sold shn to th ot.

I i E

The Iomud Like th Akhl-Tk6, th Iomud is strain of th nint

Ttkmn hose though it shows an Arabin influn and has a muh mor trtle disposition. Also in ommon with th Akhl-Tek, it has geat stamin nd it, too, took pat in lre epi Ashkhabad to ]Vlosow tek. Popula at on tim as a avalry mount' tody it xls in long distan raes. It is a sinw little hos with longish legs and it is usuall ge, although ys nd hestnuts also our. It is little small than its lativ, its maximum height eing about 15 h.h.

::! j::

This mountain hos origintd in th Cauasus som 400 yars go, whn th indigenous mountin ed rivd

The Ibardin




resultnt progny is vry song littl hors of equal tmprment, with the sue-footednss and homing instint that mak it an idl niml fo takling tlr tortuous mountin uaks of its nativ land. Like all mountain horss the Kbrdin is xptionally hardy nd is partiularly suited to making long-distn journeys. It is a popula sports hors in its loal aas and is used fo aing. It stands about 14.2 to 1 5 h.h. and is usually ay or blak in olou. It hs song legs and good ft but the quartrs a oftn ofpoo onfomtion and sikle hoks ae vry prvalnt. Th ars e distintiv in that thy tnd to turn inwds.

infusions of Aa, Tukmene nd Kaabakh blood. Th









th Kaaai, hs ben rnowned for its good quality horss for 2,500 as. The eat origins of this red hv en lost in th nnals of tim but the distintly Araian appearn would suggst orinl influen. The Krabir is a spiitd but table hors with the boundlss nduan typial of th Russin mounti brds. Th haviest nimals mak good agriultural workrs whil th lighter framd animals ar suitl fo eing driven or ridden. Th aveag height is about 15 h.h. nd the beed rsmbls rathr stoky Arb ut witlr rtlrer lss rfinment. The usual olours a by, hstnut nd gy. The Karabi is n idal mount fo th popular and ratrer hir-raising Russin mountd gams, suh s .I(, a team gam in whih a stffed goat arss hs to b rid though th opposite gol.

The l(arabair Th rgion now lled Uzbkskaya, th hom of

Also known

The lGrghiz

relativly rnt devlopmnt of nativ I(irghiz hos. In th lst 100 yers or so infusions of Don and Thooughbed blood to th old Kirgh stok hv podud a small ut immensly tough riding nd pak hors, idally suited to woking at the high ltituds of its native Tien Shan mountains. It is a sure-footed hose with a longish bak and stright shoulde, and short, stong lgs With plenty ofbon nd good feet. It stands btwn 14.1 and 15.1h.h. and may b of any solid olour, though bay is th most olmon. It is a goodtmpred, ativ little hors t is used both for work nd leisur.

s tl

Novokirgh, th prsnt-day Kighiz is


The Latvin


reords. Th modm Latvian, however, dats from the svntnttr ntuy when warm-blood horses begn to b ossed

urop whih dtes k to befo

reed deives from the nient forst hose of nothen


tims of histoial


H0s REDs

'.ith th nativ stok. Severl breds wre used, among

them th Oldnbug. Cold-blood osss wre also md to dd mo substn nd thes inludd th Ardnns nd Finnisfi Daught Iose. Th rsult is an all-pupose draught hos whih may, howv, tk its tun s saddl or hrnss hors. It is stong nd snsible and a willing wok witlr tiv pes and a kindly tmpeamnt. The onformation is god, with dpth though th girth and good bon. Th lgs ry little fethr. Th avrg hight is 15.2 to 16 h.h. and usul olous a bav. rown and hstnut.

The Lihuanian Hvy Draught was volvd aout l00 years go by rossing Zhmud horss of th region, with importd, Sldish Adennes, im bing to podue a good, stong giulturl hos. Sletiv breding of th Zhmud/Ardnes progeny ontinud and ttr ed ws finally egisted s suh in 1963. It is a massively built, mdium sizd hors, wi shot lgs and good bon. Th bk is usully dipped nd sikle hoks ar prvlnt' but th tion is fst and ftee. It is hos of xtemly mild tempramnt with normous powes of tation. Th pedominant olour is hstnut, with l\ oan, bay nd gry also ourin5 and th veage hight is btwn 15 and 15.3h.h.

The Lithanian Heavy Draught

A Lithuanin Heavy


Th -lvtetis troft is brd of rnt oigin, dting from th rly 1950s, when importd Amian Standardbrds bgan to matd with th orlov trott. Th sult is slightly lss rrativ hors than th orlov, witlr th sam upright shoulder. Th Stnddrd influn, howv' hs been bnefiil for performan nd th ]Vttis is fast hos on ttr rtk tlrn th orlov' The usul olous re gy, lk, hsmut and bay nd th avrag hight is lre same as th olo i.. about 153 h.h.

Th etis Trottr

h olov is named after Count Alis Orlov who founded rhe Knov Stud in 1778, thy laying t}re foundations of sht ws to bom on of th wolds bst totting brds. h Orlov derives from Arab and Duth blood and y the ginning of the nintnth ntuy ws on of Russia's lding brds. Totting ras wer hld in Mosow as fr
k s 1 799 nd as tlre sport dvloped duing the nintntlr tty so the Olov postrrd nd am fastr. As wll as ing usd for ing tlr Olov was a popular riag horse,

he orlov

s pobably the best trott in th wold. Over the

nd bfore the development of the Amerian Standardbd

ifusions of various oth blood have been made, inluding Thoroughbrd nd ]Vleklenburg. Today tlr olov stnds
vrrrhee between L5.2 and 17 h.h.' th avg bing a


A Orlov

Russin Heavy Drught

udr 16h.h. It is strong type of horse with powrful' if thr straight, shoulds, a long ak ut plnty of depth ough the girth' stong legs with good bone d a rathr evy ut attativ hd. Itis long-livd, tough sot ofhos d lthough it is bred fo aing in hanss, it is sometims used undr saddl in othr sports. The prdominnt olours r gy and blk.


Dveloped duing tlre past 100 years or so, prinipally in th Ukrine, this is a smll daught hos, with distintly.ot' ppaan. Loal drught mrs wr rossd with .ldennes, Prheron and orlov stallions and the est of th

Th Russian Heavy Draught

progny w int-bed to at flxed typ. Th Russian Ivy Daught is an tiv but vry kind littl hors and is noted for its grat pulling powr. It is a vry ompat animal, snding oly about I4.2I1.h.' witlr powerful shouldes, bak

nd qurts st on firly shot, strong legs. The pedominant olour is hstnut. It is a popul work horse on the fms of h Ukraine and in th Urals.

H!sE BDs

an attmpt to psrv th old Slets Aab whih hd viually did out during the First World \0ar. The Stlts was an Anglo, not ptrr-bred Arb, th rsult ofrossing pur-reds with Anglos from th fmous orlov and Rstophin studs. Th Slts thivd during th nintnth ntury but by 1921 only two stllions rmaind, oth hving th haratristi silvry-grey olouing. Pu and part-red Aabs w matd with ths stllions nd by a arful systm of sltion nw Strlts-typ hors was developed. It was alld the Trsky' aftr th Trsk Stud in th Cuasus whih, along

The Tersky Th Tersky was volved btwn L92l. and 1950 in

with th Stavropol Stud' was its bitlrpl' It is about 30 yars sin th brd was onsiderd fixd and tody the Tsky is vry like a lrge Arabin, though with a littl lss efinment. Th vag height is l5h.h. and th olour silvr grey or whit, often with a ros tint usd by th pink
skin. It is a good-natued, ativ hors, with plnty of stmina and mks good ll-round riding hors. It is also usd for raing against Aabs nd as a ius hors.

The Tori This obby typ of work hos traes k to a Norfolk

I(lepprs. Initially the pogny wer interbrd to som tent but thr blood has at various times bn introdud, inlud-

Roadstr stllion alled Hatmn, who was impoted into stonia in 1894 and mated with th lol mrs, known as ing Olov Troftr. Th Tori is an ative, fast-moving, light

A ersky

Vldimir Heavy Draught

ing bout 15 to 15.2h.h. and usully bay or hstnut in olour. It taks its nam from th Toi Std wher reding fist gn and is still usd in agriultue in stoia.

draught hos of good onstitution and tmpelamnt, stnd-

The Vladimir Heavy Draught This is a powrful draught hors whih dates bak to 1886 whn a varity of havy horses we ought into th Gavrilovo-Posadsk stbls for rossing with lo1 mas.
arly twentith nrury infusions of Clydsdal and Shir blood wr addd with th Shir taking predene up until l925. After that tim a poliy of interbrding mong th best progny was followd nd th brd was onsidred fixed some 25 yrs latr. Th Vladimir is not unlik the Shire in apparan although it is slightly small, avraging about 16 h.h. It is a wll-uilt, powrful hors, a ifl long in the
healry drught work.

Suffolks nd Clveland Bays wr importd from ngland, and Prhrons and Ardnnais wer also introdud. In the

k but wi good, sound lims. It is brd in the Ivanovo and

Vladimir rgions and is usd for agiultual and gnral

All solid

olours ar prmissil.


A Arab

Barb V

Th Arab The Ara is a horse of gat antiquity and hs had more

ponies and horsesfo up-grading purposs. Iorss ofrognizbl Aa typ an e sn on g1ptin antiquities going

oth hors. Originating in Arabia, it is now bed throughout th world, and has ovr the ears bn rossd with all sorts of

influn on othr rds throughout th world thn any

witing in th 8th nftry AD, tIas the pdigres of Ara horses bk to th tim of Baz, Noah's grt.grat grndson. Th oldst and purst ofbrds, th Arab is hors of exeptionl bauty nd refinmnt and of quit distintiv pparan. Its lovel had with haratristiall dishd profile, broad forhad, larg s and smll muzzl, is arid high on an lgant nk. Th bod is ompat and rnusular, the lgs slnder ut strong, and the oat' man and ti1 e silky, th latte bing arid vry high. Th ovrall impression is of a gay, spiited hors, who nevrthlss has th gntlst of dispositions. The Ara is rnownd for its powrs of endurane and its ability to rry wight dspit its relativly small siz (14 to 15h.h.). It is eellnt for long-distan iding.

ak some 3000 yars nd th Arab historin'

l Keli,

Libya, Algeria, lVloroo

Anothr hors of anient origin, th Barb omes from the Baary oast whih has n notd for its horses for som 2000 years. Like the Arab, the Brb has had onsiderabl

The Bar

infln on other reds. It was usd in th dvlopment of the Andaluin during th .Nloorish ouption of Spain, and through that beed has influened man ot1trs, nd it ws impod into urop, espeially ngland, in large numbrs during ttr svntnth ntury. Standing aout 14 to 15 h.h. it is th all-pupose iding hors of North Afri. Not th hndsomst of hoss, hving long head, and sloping qurtrs wit}r a rather low-st tail, it is, howvr, immensly tough nd ombins onsideabl sped ovr shot distans with grat ndurne ovr longer ons. It is an onomil fedr nd is usually b, rown, hestnut, blak or gr.

Following Eohippus and his desndants, four main primitiv types of hors survivd th Ie Ag. Thse wr the whih lived in Northn urope; th Steppe horse, a finer pony, light in uild, whih m from Asi and North Afria
Forest hors, havily buil, solid typ with a big, havy hed

nd stood about 12 h.h.; th Plteau hors, and tlr Tundra. Of thes, th Forst hors is the asi foundr of the oldbloodd beds nd th Stpp and Platu hos are the joint founders of the wrm-bloods _ th Stppe eing th anestor

of th Orintl brds. Th Plteau hors originated in

Sibri and Northrn Asia and urop nd is th lss ommon of the two. Th Tundr has hd virtully no influen on ny of the pesent-day bds, with th possible exption of th Ykut hors rvhih livs in the pol regions.

Th Przewal ski

survivor of the Plateu hos and was disovred as lat as 1881 by a Russian eplorr from whom it taks its nm. Colonl N. ]V1. Pzwalski found a small herd of thes animls in th rea of tlr Tahin Shr Nuru lV1ountains at th wstrn dge of the Gobi dsert, and thy a th last truly wild horse or pony' on whom no attemPts t domstiation have bn mad. Known b nativ .futongolian hrdsmn s th Taki, it is dbatble whelre ny still eist today in their wild stt, si th xtnsiv hunting to whih thy hav bn subitd hs diven them bak into th dst nd mountain regions and into China. lVlany are still peserved in zoos all ovr th world. In its wild state, ttre Przwalski stands betwn 12 and 14 h.h. and is powrfully uilt, with a|arge, rathr heavy, but short, had whih has a straight or onvx profil. Th ars ar long, the nek short, somtims with a tendeny towds a .ewe' nk, th shor'ildr staight, tlre hst wid nd ttr bak short with viually no withr. Th quarters r genrall larg, shllow hoovs omposd of good hon. Th mne, devoid offorelo\ is short and rt nd th til his ar long nd oas and spars at tlr top. At bfuth, th ot is right yellowish-rown and this hangs to shds of dun _ varying etwen eddish-ay and a pale gry or sandy olour - as the animl maturs. Thr re mely markings round th yes and muzzl, the man and tail ar lak and thr is pronouned lk l stipe down the ntr of th bk with zbra makings on th legs. Th Pzewalski has grt pows of ndurane and was able to xist on th vry poorst of vegttion in th slty stppe and mountain regions of ongolia, wher it ould withstnd th severest of limati onditions. Th fulongolian, Chinse and Tietn ponis ar dirt dsndants of the Przewalski and r probably not unlik
thos usd by Gnghis Khan. wk and underdvelopd and the legs short and storig with

(E quus p r z w l s ki i pr z w /s&f i Poliakoff) Th ongolian wild hors, lld th Przwlski, is tlr last

! I



livd on th Southen Russian stpps in astern urop. It would appr tht thr e two strins of Tarpan, on living on th stpps and a foest type, ut both wre xtnsivly

This is th last suvivor of th pimitiv Stpp horse, that

The Tarpan

(Equus przzalskii gmlini Antonius)

land of Poland, ut th numbrs of this gradully diminished. The last surviving mar finlly esapd from th fr-rang hed, with her foal, who had een sid by a domsti stallion. Sh had suh a disquiting ffet on th loal stallions, who pursud hr into th stppes, that hrdsmen organized a div to ptur her. Iowver she did ftom shok ftr falling down a rvass and braking hr lg, nar Askania Nova in 1879. Th last Tapan in aptivity is eported y the Russian zoologist, I{ptner, to hav died in 1919. Polish pasants had n in th hbit of athing tlr 1o1 wild ponis to us on thir holdings and with th xtrmin-

hunted for mat and wee finlly killed off during the nintnth nty. Ttre last hrd, privtly-ownd of th forest type, livd on th Zmoyski state in the Tauri Stepp-

togthr all thos that bor marked rsmblan to the Tarpan with th ob jt of .prserving' or .rstoing, th forst stain. Thy wt put into t}r forest breding rservs at Popielno and Bialowiz, wh mny sti.ll liv in a smi-wild stat. Ths ponis are around 13 h.h. nd ar brown or mouse dun in olou with a lk l sip down th nte of th bk. Thy hv a blak mane and tail, zebr markings on h legs, and oasionally' stips on th body. In the winte th oat may tun whit. Thy hav a long, brod head, with straight or onvx profile and ulg around th nostrils, longish eas, a short thik nk nd good shoulder. The ak tnds to b long with high withers, the quaters are wk nd sloping nd th tail is set low. Th lgs r fin, long and

tion of th wild Trpan, th Polish authoritis olletd

nv suuming to th olnmon disass. primnts t oss-brding undertaken by Pofessor Lutz Iek at th zoo park at llallabrunn, unih, using Przewlski stallions nd Polish Konik mars (to whom th Tarpan bars likeness),

lions will attak othr stallions who t1rratn thei mares, oftn fighting to th death. They are very study and hrdy,

Rnowndly rv nd indpndnt nimals, Tarpn stal-



hv produed a horse that strongly rsmbls th stepp Trpan.

Grat Britain
originally a nativ of Irland, th Connmara pony is now bd in ngland as well and has bn xportd to many pItS of th world. It desndd from th elti pony, but ovr th

The Connemara

yrs has had infusions of Adluian and, surprisingl, Clydsdl lood. Rathr mol rntl, Arab stok has n introdud to add qualit and refinmnt, and when put to Thoroughbrd rathr larger, vry good all-round riding hos rsults whih is suitbl for lmost any prrrpos. Standing 13 to |4'2h.h., it is a sturdy, usful genral-purpos idig pny, with good fr ation, a qualit pony head, good lngth of nek, dpth though th gith nd a good sloping iding shouldr. h bk is straight, th quartrs well legs with plnty of bon. It is sur-footd and vry gil pony, with a kindl' tratabl ntur' and it may e gr, by, lak' dun or brown.
dvloped nd th il wll set on) with good had feet and

Vry similar to the Fll pony, th Dal, togthr with th Higand, is th havist of Grat Britain's nativ brds and is rd on he eastern side of th Pnnins in Northumbr-

The Dale

lnd, Co. Drham nd Yorkshire. Thr is also a likeness to the \ilelsh Cob and in fat, all tody's Dls an e traed bak to Comt, a \071sh Cob stallion whih omptd in tlotting maths and was usd xtensivly on Dals mars out 100 yars ago. Th trotting spt is prsent in th modrn Dal, making it a good harnss pony, apable of pulling gret wights. It is lso usd as ekking pony, ing vry sound, tiv and sure-footd, with a doil nd snsile tmpmnt. Standing 14.1 h.h., th Dal is blk, dark brown or osionlly grey in olour with an aundn of man, tail and fathr on the lgs, quality.pony' had nd a dal of good hd bone.

The Dartmoor

had arriage. It is lso snsibl and sue-footd, with an quable, kindly tmpramnt. Th Dartmoor has a rputation too' for bing a naturally good jumper. It hs fine, prtty, intellignt had whih is hld high, a lag e, small prikd ears and good front and sloping shoulder. Th short, ompat ody has strong qurters, a well set-on tail and good hard lgs nd fet. Blak; a and rown with only a small amount of white markings r the ptabl olours and th height limit is I2.2h.h. This goodlooking pon is also usful as a foundation stok from whih to brd lager riding pony stok and is brd at many studs throughout Britin.

ara of Dvonshi from whr it gts its nam' this tough littl bred has inhabited the moorlands for thousands ofyars. The typ has vrid during the ags, infusions ofArab and \Delsh lood having ben inodued at th eginning of this ntury. It is idal as a hilds first pony, bing small and narow, but hving a firly high

A native of th Dartmoor

brd of gret ntiquity' the xmoor, a nativ of th south-westrn ra of Devon nd Somrset is fust rorded in th Domsdy Book of 1085. In fat it is a muh oldr brd probably bing the lst survivor of th Celti ponis of th

Th xmoor

A Drtmoor


Pliston ag. Comprtiv perimnts ondutd btwen t}r fossilizd rmains of original Clti ponies found in Alsk with those of th moor, hve rvld th same shapd jaw ones and beginnings of a svnth molr tooh whih ar found in no othr brd of horse or pony. An xptionlly tough, strong and hdy pony witlr gret powrs of nduran, thr r now only tfu prinipal herds tully running on th moor' nd lthough a numbr re rd in studS throughout the ountry thy tnd to los ryp and grow slightly largr whn brd wy from the moor. Thy ar highly intelligent and indpndent and may b wi-lful if not orrtl handled. Th hight limit is L2,2h.h. for mars and |2.i;,.h. for stallions nd olours may be ba, brown and a mousy dun, with no whit mrkings prmittd. Th ponies ar notd for their distintiv mal muzzl and maly olourd markings round th ys, th underblly and btwn th thighs. Thy hav shot, thik had with straight proflle whih is wll st onto a nk with a good lngth of rein, good sloping shoulders, depth tfuough th girth, a shot bak, powerful quarters, and short legs with plnty of on and good hrd ft. Thy hav uniqu .toad eys tlre heavy top lids ofwhih giv a hooded look, and short, prikd ars set wid apart. The tail too, is distintiv and is known as an .ie' til. It is vry thik with a fan lik growth at th top. Th ot is short, lose and springy and virtually watrproof. A1though when proprly taind th xmoor maks a good, if strong, hitds pony, its xeptional stIngth maks it quit apal of arying a fully grown man. on of its prinipl ssts, howvr, is its use as a foundation from whih to breed largr animals. If put to Thoroughbrd a suprb, useful qulity littl horse rsults.

The Fell

lDstmorland areas of th Lak Distit. It ws xtnsivly used in th ightenth ntry as a pak pony fo arting ld from th mins, for ll kinds of fam work, and for th loal spot of trotting. Hving a muh bttr riding shouldr than th Dale it produs a vry good stmp of hunter whn mtd with a Thoroughbred mr, nd bing dp through the girth, ompat and with plnty of bone it has a good had arriag and moves wll from th shouldr. Snsibl, vry hrdy and song and sur-footd, it maks a good kking pony. Th hight an vary btwen 13 to 14 h.h. and th olour may blak, dark rown, dark bay nd oasionally gry. Thr a non' or vr fw whit mrkings.

Slightly smaller and lighter than his los reltion the Dal, th Fll is brd on th northrn sid of }r Pnnine ange and

in th Cumland and

Th Highland A vry old bd, th Highland is probably dsndd from

th pimevl Fost hors, and som of the ponies show th pimitiv markings. They ae nativs of th north of Sotlnd and th \0estrn Isles, and would appea to omprise two distint typs _ th igger nd rathr havier ainland typ, .Wstrn and the lightr, mo ative Isles pony. Both hv hd infusions of outsid blood; Frnh nd Clydsdale in th inland typ and Ar in th Island typ. Although originally brd for working th rofts (they ar vry sure-footd and ae still usd to arry shot deer down from th hill)' ing very doile, strong, steady, hrdy and up to weight thy r also usd in harness and for trekking nd gnral iding. Th Wstn Isles type in partiular, produes very good huntrs

whn rossd with Thooughbreds. Th hight varis be.Wstrn Isles type bing smaller twen 13 and 14.2 h.h., th and mo refind. Th usual olors ar gry' lak, ay' and vaious shds of dun from mousy gly to dep, rih hstnut with a flaxn man and til. Th hv fin silky hai on th lgs, nd lmost all of thm have a dark 1 strip down th ntr of the bak. Som hav za markinss on
th lgs.

Ntives of th Nw Forst ara of Hampshi, thes ponis hav had many infusions of outside blood. As f bak as th hirtnth entury' it is rordd tht lDlsh mars we turned out in th Forst nd sin thn Darnoor, xmoor, Highland, Fll, Dle, Iakny, Clydesdals nd Aras hve all ben introdud in n ffort to improv both th siz and substan of th reed. Nlarsk, th Thoroughbrd sir of lipse, stood at stud in th Forest for a tim, to serv seleted mars as did thre Arbins _Zorah, Aagan, and Yusson. It is thought that ths hv hd onl a limited influne orr the bred. howver. Ths infusions of outsid lood hav made it diffiult to dfin a fixd typ of New Forest pony, but y average L2.2 to |4'2h.h. and may b any olour xpt piebald nd skwbld. Various shades of bay ar tre most usual' Nw Forst ponis r notd for thir sur-footdnss and adaptailiry, and they usually hav good riding ation, mad possibl by a nil sloping shouldr with fre straight movemnt. ost hav plnty of bone, good fet, short aks and strong quatrs nd are dep through th gith. Thre is a tendeny towrds somewht large head and shortish nk. Thy ar ral famil ponis ing suitale for any mmr of th family to rid or driv, and thir usually gnrous and doile tmpramnt mks them easily handled by hi-ldrn. At prsent thr ar probably bout 3,000 ponis running on ttre Forst, ownd by thos with.ommonrs' grazing rights. Thy ae roundd up regulrly fo randing, tail marking o slling at th regulaly-held Nw Forst Baulieu Road sls. Vry popular ponis' thy ar bd at man studs thoughout Great Britain and abrod, ponis hving ben xportd sin the early 1950s to the Unitd Stats, Canada, Holland, Dnmark, Norway, Sweden, Fan' Luemorg, Grman nd Austalia.

The Nw Forest


New Forest


pony brds, oming originlly from the Shetland Islnds

Th Shetlnd Th Shtlnd pony is th smllest of Britain's nin native

possibl tht the Shtland was intodud to thes islands from Sandinavi bfo tlr lnds we dividd in around 8000 and that subsquentl it rossed with ponies bought ovr to Sotland by th Clts. B tht as it may, th Shtland

som 160 km (100 miles) off tlr north oast of Sotland. It is

has bn usd y th islands oftrs to work heir land, as a pak pony to ollt ttr pat ftom the moor and s a mens of transport' both riddn and driv fo vry many yes. rn ttre mid- 1800s many Shetlands wre exportd to th mainlad for us i th ollieris of Co. Durham, and Londondry. Bing vy stfong and low to the ground' tlry povd ideal pit ponis and wer soon brd seletively for this purpose. At tlr prsnt tim ther a around 100 Shetland ponis on ttr islnds ut trey r also brd tnsivl on th mainland as wll s in

A Shetland

Australi' North and South Ameri, Sandinavia, Spain, Hollnd, Fran, Switzrland and most other ountris of urope. Th Shtland varies in height ftom 95_106m (8_42in) at the witlr nd is xremely song and hady, with short, stong ba\ and onsidrbl dep though th girth. The most fvourd olour is lak but ponies may be any olour inluding pibald nd skwld. All hav n abundnt supply of man and tail hair. hanation has
mad them no longer in demand to wok th islandrs' rofts,

and instad they hav beom very popular s smll hildrerf s ponis - a task thy admiraly fulfil providd tlrey r not llowd to gt over fat.

The Welsh ountain Pony

On of the most nmrous as well s probably the most bautiful and popular of th nativ pony eds, th l0elsh lVlountin pony (Stion A in th Vlsh Std Book)' has roamd th mountains nd moorlands of Vles sin Romn tims, altrough ovr th yars rtain outrosss hve bn introdud. Julius Casar formd a std in rionthshie at

A Welsh Mountain Pony

Welsh Pony

Bla, and latr introdued orintal blood to upgrad th stok. In th ninetnth ntury thr wr infusions of Arab blood as well s tlr now etint prdessor of th Hakny, th Norfolk Roadstr. At bout the same tim th Thoroughbrd iV1rlin was introdued. Fo many yars iow, tlr !lsh iVlountain hs bn fte from outsid influne. It is vry intllignt nd ouageous as well s being kind nd gentl. A splndid hilds riding pony, its good fre movement omind with a tain mount of kne ation mk it equally suital for harnss work. It hs a fine, slightly dishd head, vry larg wid spad eys and small prikd ers. Th l .fu' and it is very sound, outlook shows the native lti

limit is L22h.h.

and substan nd the feet ar good and had. Any olour, xept pieald and skewbald, is prmissil and th hight

plnty of bon

The Welsh Pony


\0lsh pony is known s th iding pony of th Vlsh rds, (Setion B of th !lsh Stud Book) and is drivd from the Wlsh lVlountain nd th \i7lsh Stion C Cob with an infusion of Thoroughbrd blood. Formrl, it was used

xtnsively for shpherding on th Vlsh hills. Sussful rosss with smll Thooughbrds or Aras often produ

tlr larg show pony typ but e must b taken that hadiness and substan re notlost. The hatristis ae similr to those of the Wlsh Mountain, but th ation is lowr to the ation. They ar

mall, nat had, a houlder, rounded, and rrid gily. Lgs should e strong nd hard with good flat joints and hrd ft. Th hight limit is 13.2 h.h. and any olour xpt piald and skwbld is pmissible.


The Ielsh Cob, largest of the Welsh beeds (Stion D in the Wlsh Stud Book), again follows th onfomation of the !elsh ountin pony but is pobably asd on th old Welsh Pmbokshir art hos' although the Cob is mainly red in Cardiganshire. Th lagst and strongest of the \0lsh bds, it is ourageous with grtpowrs ofenduran and is fmd for its totting aility, nd its pfomane in harness. nd a good jumpr maks splendid hunter in all ut th fastr grass ountris. Addd size and spd is ahived b ossing with Thooughrd. As a gnrl, all-round riding hors there is littl to bat tlre otoriousl sound nd hardy Wlsh Cob. It stands aI L4.2 to l5.2h.h. nd my be ny olour xept pieald nd skwbald.
It is just as good undr saddl, howeve, and ing vry ativ

The \lelsh Cob

ountain, th Wlsh pony of Also dsendd from th Co type (Setion C in th l0lsh Stud Book), has had infusions in th past of Andaluia tlre now extint Pembrok art hos and Nofolk Roadstr lood as well as mor rntly that of th Hakny. originally used for shephding and for gnral farm work, it is ourageous, kind, intlligent and very sound and hady. l0fith a hight limit of 132 h.h.' it is th smaller dition of th lDlsh Co, and is vr vrstile, ombining stfngth, witlr qualiry and orrnon snse. Ideal as a hild or small dult's hunter nd fo trkking purposs, its good, fre trotting ation also mak it suitale for harness work. It should hv an abundn of pony harate' wll laid bak should nd a good lngth of rein with a ompat,
.stuffy' ody that is dep though th girth, powful quartrs, and good bone. Nlan and tail hir should silky and ttrer should onl b a small amount of fathe on the hls. Any olour is prmittd ept piald and skwbald.

The Vlsh Pony of Cob Tpe .Welsh

A Welsh Cob

The Palomino

th To qualify fo .a desription Palomino, th oat olou must b that of newly minted gold oirt' o thre shads lighte or daker than this, with a pu whit (not flaxen or silvr), man and tail. lDhite markings on the legs nd fe r prmissile. Foals tend to darkn with age, th olour hanging slightly oding to ttr time ofea, and tlr oat olour is not onsidrd to hav st until th animal is six yars-old. Breeding ttris orrt olouring is a rthr hit or miss affair' but th rosses most likely to produ Palomino olouing a two Palominos ossd, hors and pon breds.

Th trm Plomino refs to olour type and not a rd. Inded the olouring an found in numr of diffrnt

hstnut ross Plomino, hestnut oss alino and Palomino oss albino. The olouring is thought to hav
aft the

We|sh Pony of Cob Tpe


oming inreasingly popular for

originated in Spain whre suh hoss wr tmd Ysbllas Spanish quen (1451-1504) ut there is evidn of goldn hoses many nturies efo hr tim. Plominos a


Polo is one of the world s oldest mountd games, nd was

plaed in Prsia foe 500 . Latr it sprad to China, India

Th Polo Pony

nd Tibt nd

Connmara and Nw Foest, being used extnsively until 1918 when th 14.2 h.h. hight limit was aolishd. his let in th largr, but still small Thoroughbrd types of aound 15.rh.h. as well as th muh sought aftr impotd ponis fom Argentin. The prinipal rquimnts for Polo Ponies a stamina, ourag and alan, omind with sped, and th ability to .turn on sixpen'. In addition thy must b odint, hndy and sponsiv. Thos that hav strong, short baks, powrful quartrs nd hrd tough legs r likly to mk th most suessful Polo Ponis.

in th nineteenth entury Army offirs stationed in India ought th game bak to ngland. Now it is played all ovr the wold. Small hunter typ ponies wr one th fvouit mounts _ nativ pony osss' partiularly



The Riding Pony The Riding Pony is of firly rent dvlopment being
Pony stallions nd ntiv pony _ prinipally Welsh

drivd for tlre show ring from small Thoroughbred or Polo

from th should (not th kne), and possssing that

Dartmoor_ mars. Aras, too' hav bn rossd sussfull with ths ponis and th idal is probably a !elsh ross Thoroughbrd with a dash of Arb blood at a previous o subsequnt mting. Th Riding Pony is ssntially a quality nimal with suprb onfomation, and fr straight tion indfinabl .psne'. It should in fat b a smallr dition of th hak, with the sam impabl mannr. Th hd should be full of qulity, intlligent and fin with lrge, wide spaed ees, and small ars. Thr should b a good lngth of rin, sloping riding should, a fairly wid hst, dph through th girth and a stfight, mdium length bk, wll musled quarters nd wll set-on tail. Lgs should b ln and hard with short annons nd flat, hard joints, and th ft, hrd nd of qual se. Ation must be stright and tre, th hind feet bing plantd in th prints of th fo ft. Th prinipl height limits r ted for in th show ring: up to |22 h.h.' |23 to I2 h.h.' nd 133 to 142 h.h.

Th Spotted Pony

Riding Pony

brd. Tfuee diffrnt types of markings re rognized, namly Lopard, Blankt and Snow.flak. Loprd markings rfr to spots of any olour on a white o light oloured bakgound; blankt fs to spots of any olour on a whit

Spottd refers to a typ of oat pattrn nd is not thrfor

rump or a\ and snowflak refrs to white spots on a foundation of any olour. In addition, spottd hoses or ponies hav

spial haratristis suh as whit slra round the yes, hoovs with yllowish-white and blak or brown vtial stlips' mottld bar skin, and usually very spars mans and tails.

The Camague rea of Southern Fn in the Rhon dlt btwn the town of Aigus-orts nd th sa, is th swmplnd hom of th amargu pony. Currntly thr ae only about 30 herds or mnads omprising som 45 stallions .whit horss of and 400 mars in th ara. Known as th sea' th whit oat is th most striking point about this hardy reed whih thrives on a dit of tough grss and salt water. Rarly eding 15 h.h., thir onformation is gnrally poor, hving a larg squar ha shot nek and upright shouldr, but thy ar notd fo their dpth through th girth nd short strong bk. Thy hav plnty of bon and good hard ft and long, thik mns nd tails. Their ation is pinipally notd for th high-stepping walk' thir aility to

The Camrgue

A Cmrgue


twist nd trn, and tlr gallop, th ps most usd to work the famous blak bulls of tht ara for th bulling, and the job for whih ths hoss ar so frquntly usd. Th foals r born blk, dark gry or brow ut their oat lightens with g.

The Haflinger
Th Haflinger is
a hard mountain brd whih originatd in th Austrian Tyol. Tough nd thickst with plnty of bon and substan, its breding n b ted bak to th Arabian

on on sid and to th old-blooded hvir rds on ttr othr. This ombination maks it ideal for both draught and idden work in its nativ land nd its su-footdnss nd


Haflingr was xtnsivly brd. Stat studs wr ltr estblishd t Pir nd Ossiah but th ponis now widly bd tfuoughout Austria although individual brdrs r allowd only to kep mares. Stllions are 1l owned by th Stt nd kpt at th govrnmnt stud frms. Colt foals a subjted to rigorous inspetion by offiial inspetors and only a vry fw will b hosn as possibl futue stllions' Hflingrs are also bed in som 20 othe ountris, of whih Grman, Swirlnd nd Holland ar th min ons. Raly xeding |4.2}r.h.' th Haflinger is exptionally song for its small siz. It is always hstnut in olour,
ranging from shades of gold through to rust, and it frquently

plid tmprmnt mke it speially suitabl for bginnrs to id. Th name was tken fom th village of Hafling, the ntr of an ea in wht is now Northrn Ital, wher th

has white faial mrkings. The mne and til are flxe
varying ftom greyish-em to rddish own.

Th Diilmn
the Snner and lthough th ltr, on found in th
thes reds hve hd n influn on th rth bttr known hors brd, the llnoverian. Th Dlmn is now a rther

Germany hs orrly two nativ pony brds, th Drilmn nd

Tutobug Foest of Ianover, is virtually etint, both of

mied red, having run in th ]Vleerfldr Bruh in rtrstphali in a semi-wild stte sin tlre early 1300s. It avrgs about 12.3 h.h. nd may b any olour although brown, blk nd dun ar th most usual. Not unlike the Nw Forst pony in ovrall pparan, the Dlmn tnds to hve n upight should, shot bak nd poor hindquartrs wi nk a littl on th short side. Ths ponis a pivtly ownd b h Duk of Cro and they re rounded up to sll th suplus stok nnually.


Th Huul is nativ of the Carprthin region of Poland, whre hds hv wandrd th mountain rgions for thousnds of years and whr it is known loally as th Capathian pony. It is probably a diret dsndant of the pimitiv Tarpan, whih it rsmls moe thn any oth
rd. In faily nt tims, howver, Arab blood has bn inodud to improve th bred nd sletiv breding is now arrid out t svral stds thIoughout Poland, th prinipl on being at Siary n Gorli. Th Huul mks an idal pak and drught pony and bing very hard is used tesivly on th mountainous famlands of southm

The Huul



Polnd. Sur-footed, doil, strong nd willing, it avrages 12.1 to r3.1h.h. and hs a hartristi .primitiv', shot had, a rather poor bk end nd a low st tail. Th prinipl
olours r dun and by but most olours may b sen.

Th Konik

Polnd, as wll s stern uop, whr a numbr hav bn portd. It also has had infusions of Arab blood nd although it stands only out 13.1 h.h.' it has lost a dgre of its .pony' qulitis, mor rsmbling littl hors. It is brd sletively at the two stte srds at Popilno and Jzwi as wll as by numeous small fmrs fo use on their land. It is vry tough nd hardy, works willingly on a limitd dit and is easily mangd. It is always varying shads of dun in olour.

Similr to th Huul and havig a ounon nstor in th Trpan, the I(onik is usd to wok the lowland farms in


-r Dpaln

The Sorraia

and undrdvloped with th ti1 st low nd th lgs tnd to b ather long and laking in bone.

ntre of the bk and th zbra makings on the lgs assoitd with th .primitive, types. The had tends to b lrge with a stIaight or onvx proflle, th ars long with blak tips and the eys st littl high. Th nk tnds to b long nd the shoulder is upright. Th hindquaters ar poor

regions bordring the Sorraia rivr and its tributaries, on into Portugal. It is tru .primitivd having harateristis of oth th Tarpan and Przwlski and ing xtremely hardy it is abl to suvive on th very poor vegetation available, whilst wihstanding the xtrem limati onditions. The Sorraia was at on tim usd for agriulturl work ut h numers hv now gratly drsd. Standing L2.2 to 13 h.h., it is usully dun in olour although it may also gry or Plomino. It has th blk el stripe down th

in the

only native pony, th Sorraia, omes from the westrn

Also known as the &tinho, this native of Portugl omes from mountin valleys of the Grrno do inho and Trz dos ontes ares. Arab blood has ben inodud into the bd by th seletiv ding of rtain ponis and th rsult is a lightly built animal with good onfomation and notibl quality. It is very strong, hrdy, and sur-footd and usd extnsivl for huling timbr and light agriulural work. Garranos also mak good riding ponies and ae in demand s pak ponis. Standing 10 to 12 h.h., thy ar almost always dark hstnut in olour with a luurious mane and tail. At on time vry popula trotting as wr run with ths ponies, th p bing olletd rot' for whih thy wer speilly bred nd traind. Th hos fairs t Vil Rl nd Famliao spialized in th sl of high quality Grnos.

The Garrano

A Sorri


Th Pneia
tlre Tfuaian, Thssalian and Ahean having long sine
Gre hs only thr brds ofntiv pony left, thos suh as

disappeared. Of thos remaining the Pneia is th loal pony rd in ttre distrit of leia in th Ploponns, and it is used for light griultural work nd as a pak pony. Usually y, own, hstnut or gey in olour, it is small, rrly xding 14 h.h., sturdy nd very willing and n liv on the magst usd to bred hinnies.

of rations. A pony of.orintal' typ, the stllions ar oftn

Brd in th mountinous gions of Thessaly nd pirus, Ire Pindos pony is anothr of .orientaf typ and is usd for light fam work, as wll s for riding. Song and hardy, this mountin pony an also liv vr frugally nd is tlrefor popula witlr th farmers. Stnding L2 to 13 h.h., th Pindos is usull drk gy ut ma lso e bown, bay and blak. Th mres a frquently usd for brding muls.


the Agan sa and is the smallest, and probaly the oldest, of th


The Skyros The Skyros pony oms from th Island of Skos in


.primiGrek brds. It stands no mor than 11 h.h. nd is of

tendny towds ow hoks. It may b almost any olour but own, gry nd dun ar th most usul.

nlik the British Dals pony It is also similar, although


lightr of th sk from O

of Thoroughbrd to Norway in ttr nintenttr ntuy) as wll as infusions of haly draught lood mak it of mixd oigin. Th Dl Gudbrandsdl hs


Was bed from th

girth dp nd th lgs short with lots of fathr.

Dd|e Gudbandsdl

xtnsivl in th mountain ras fo farm work in the rgions whr to use a trator would e impossibl. It also pfoms w in harnss or as a riding or pk pony.



Th oldst of th Sandinavian breeds, th Gotland or Skogsruss pony is now brd extnsivly on th mainlnd s well s
tims. It is probably a dsndant of the Tarpan and a numer run wild in the forst lands of Lojsta. About l00 yars ago Ointal blood was introdud into the bed but th still

Th Gotlarrd

on Gotlnd Island from whre it originatd in Sto Age

tain thir .pimitiv' hartistis and ar not unlik Poland s Huul nd Konik nd the xtint Lofoten pony. Thy are now in dmand as light giultural workers and,
wittr the interst in trotting aes, r also sletively brd fo

Gotland ponis ar fst and also good jumprs.



Norway), this Clti pony hs sin intrbred with ttros importd ltr from Sotland, Irland and th Isle of an to fom what is now known as th Ielndi pony. From subsqunt sltive brding, two distint types hv emrged; on rather havy sort used for draught and pak work, and a lightr typ for riding. Both wr used tnsivly until som
50 yers ago' as up until thn, thy formd the only tansport on the island, speiall duing th svere wintr months

The Ielandi Intodud into Ieland from Sandinvia (prtiularly

whn the fw existing rods wr impssal. IJp to th turn of the entury, ponies wr expotd from Ilnd to work in th British oal mins wher their extrme hardiness, strngth' small siz and grat powrs of nduran made thm very popul. With th nd of this port trad, the numbr ofponis kpt on the island deline but sin loal onditions do not favour attl farming, herds of ponis ae oftn brd for mat instead. Ilandi ponis ar small nd stoky, dp through th girth and with a rather larg had st on to a short, thik nk. Thy hav n aundan of man and tail hir and feathr on th hls, and lthough usually gry or dun, all othr olours may sn. The usual hight is between 12 to 13h.h. but osionall larg ponies ar

found. On of th toughst of th pony breds, th a xtremely intlligent and doil and notd for eir indpndne and homing instint. The usual pa is a fast and omfortal mbling gait known as the tlt whih ovs a
great dal of ground. Rently thr hav en ttmpts to improv th red y intoduing smll Thoroughbrd stallions ut this has mt with verv littl suss.

A native of ntral nd northrn Ital, ttr Aveligns is brd prinipll in the hill rgions surrounding Vnda and Tusany, whr it is usd extnsively for light agriultural draught work. In the Alps and Apnnins it is popular as a pak pony. Vry similr to the llaflingr to whom it is reltd (thy shar a olmon anstor in th now xtint
dgre ofAraian lood having dsended from an imported Arb, l Bdavi. It is xmly hardy and sur-footed and n pik its way ove th mountin trails in th worst of wintr

The Avelignes

Avellinum-Haflinger), th Avligns is blivd


ontain a


Amerin ShetIand V

onditions. Always hstnut in olour with a flxn mn nd tail and possibly white faial markings, it is vry stong and tough, notd for its doil disposition and its longvity. It is dep through th girth with a wide hest, a wll musled nk and quarters' short lgs, and short broad had, with plenty of bone and good hard horn. It stnds 13. 3 to 14. 3 h.h.

Developd in th United Stats b rossing importd Shetlnds with Hakny ponis, the rsultantAmrin Shtland is a lrger and finr dition of its British ountrpart. It is bd throughout th Unitd Stts and Purto Rio, and in addition to eing kpt as a pet and as hild's pony, it is rad in trotting res hithd to lightwight raing sulk, as wll s being shown in haltr nd harnss lasses. Ifused in th latter

The Amerian Shetland

ponies hav thi tails nikd to give an rtifiially high il arriag' nd thir ation, espially at th trot, is high d eggratd. The Amrian Shtland an ny olour nd the height limit is 11.2h.h. T Chinoteagu

Inhitants of Chinotegu ad Assatague' two small lands off the oast of lvlaryland and Virginia, it is unrtain horv ths ponis ame to b living on th islands whr thir kp onsists of whtvr they an find on the sandy marsh-

ld, and wher thr is no shelt from th Atlnti storms. On thory is that thy ar dsended ftom animals that survived shipwks duing th nglish nd Spanish o1oril piod, nd that thi size bam str.rntd on ount of th sparse vgettion. Th re no mor thn bout 12h.h. nd r mor like smll horss than ponis. n ar pibald improvd thir quality. Currntly thr ar out 150 living n Assatagu, whih, unlike Chinoteagu is uninhabitd. Consquently on the last \0dnesday in July ll thse ponis r roundd up and swum aross to Chinotague for th rul grand round-up, sal and branding xrise. Thos ht ar not sold ar swum bak to Assteagu the nxt day.

nd skwbald and th rent infusion of Arab blood hs

The Pony of th Amerias .\ rd foundd only 20 yars ago ossing a Shetland


tl.ilf'lld a nd throughout Amria for a smll, usful, hilf 3 pony with pln of sustane. Th hight must

nd an Appaloosa mar' the Pony of th Amerias has

l12 to 13 h.h. and any of the six Appaloosa olours aptal for rgistration purposes. They ar willing' tiv, vrsatil and s to manag, with straight, fre ation. h had should b small and .Abt' with a dished profil, lg es and small as, th shoulder sloping, ttr hst wid nd the body dp, with wll rounded qurtIs nd tail st gh, and short legs with plenty of bon. These ponis hav
omptd suessfully in jumping lasss and trail rids and r. lso n usd for rains.

A Chinoteague

Ponv of the Amerias V

t, lvlx1o
The Galieno
Dsndd from th Garrano or inho ponis of Portugal nd th Spanish Sorraia, th Galino's anstors re

ought to hav ben tlrose brought ovr to Amria y th Spniards from Hispaniola. Although nativ of Mio' sin 1959 it has sprd throughout the Unitd States, and in bttr onditions lswher it has grown in stature. In
hes plaes it is usd in harness and for rnh wok as wll s fo ordinary riding. It my b b, lk, du gry or hstnut

il olour nd stands 12 to |3.2 h.h. A lightly built, ompt pn, it has a fin hed' larg wll spd ys' n upright sholdr nd short bk. The hst tnds to b nrow but th limbs and fet are good and th pony movs with a haratristi natral gait of fast omfotbl running walk. It is hrdy and intellignt and bing of trtl disposition, is usd a gat dal in omptitions.
^1 uanaoa

Dsndants of th. prinipally Frnh stok whih wr ke to Cnada by th Frenh in th mid 1600s, the Sabl Islnd pon is also supposd to hav ben inuodud to Sble Island (a sndbnk som 320 km (200 miles) or so off Nov

The Sable Island Pony



stok, running on tlr small 40 km (25 mile) long island, and they r tremely hrdy, tough and w, living on th poo vegttion th islnd offes' Standing about 14 h.h.' they may be hstnut, by' bow, blak o grey and having a trtabl nafllr are sd for both riding nd light daught purposs.

Soti in th Atlnti oean), arly in the eightenth entury. Ther ar t prsent som 300 ponis, most of thm sru

Th Criollo
Andaluia bought over to South Amria by th sixteenth
Desnded from Spanish stok, mixtu of Arb, Barb nd

nry onquistdors, tlre Criollo has ow sprd all ovr

South Amria aquiring slightly diffrnt hateristis aording to its environmnt. ssntilly it is sturdy, ompt nd vry musul with short broad had, straight profil nd wid set yes. Th nk and qurts ar wll dvelopd, the hest wid, tlr bak short nd th shouldr fairly sloping. Th lgs re shot with plenty of bon nd th fet hard. It is a vry willing and tough pony with grat powrs of ndurane dnd n ability to arry wight. Th fvourit olour is dun with blk points nd n l strip down the entr of the bak and zbr markings on th lgs, but hstnut' gy' roan' Plomino' ay and blk ar also found. Th hight and typ vris slightly tlrroughout South Amri although all types are essntially the sam. The ponis ae used priniplly as stok horss by the gauhos and for gnal riding. In th Argentin they ar known s Ciollos; in Bazil s he Crioulo; in Chil _ the Cballo Chilno; in Venzul _ t}re Llnro, and in Pru thr ae tl types _ th Costeno, t}r orohuo nd th Chola.


The Falabella

Th Flablla is eally and standing at und

miniture hors rathr than a pon, h.h., it is th smllst hors in th world. It was fust brd by th Flaell family, from whom it gts its name, on their rnh near Bunos Aies in th Agntin, by ossing a small Thoroughbed with small Shtland poies and hereaftr inbrding. It is not suitable fo iding but is sometims usd in haness in th Unitd Stats. Its pinipal purpos howvr is purly as a pt and bing very frindly and intllignt it fulfills this objt wll. Smll stds of ths ponis ar now stablishd all ovr th world.

Brd in th hill stat of Assam and th Himalayas, th nipuri is a dsendnt of both th ongolian wild hors and ttre Ab. It has ben limd as ttr oiginal polo pony, as a rsult of the British tea plnters using it to play th loal gam in 1850. (The gam was puted to hav ben introdued to th Stte of lVlnipur in th sevnth entury). A sturdy pony of btwn 1 1 and 13 h.h.' it is tough, and sure-footed and an b ny olou. It is dp tfuough th girth with good shouldr, short bak and wll dvlopd quarters. Th lgs re short with plnty of bon and tir feet a hrd.

The }tanipui


.s hnovrn s th Shan pony this bred is vry simila to th !nu ut is a native of Buma nd th Shan stats, whe i brd by th hill tribs. A strong and ativ' but not vry mst poy, it was usd by the Bitish as a polo poy for want of r-hing bnr. Now it is usd as a pak and iding pony. The tight vis but averags about 13 h.h. and th pony an b . olour. Genrally bad tmprd, lthough very hardy and s-footd, it is athr plain with small hed, longish ak nl rther undr devloped quartrs with a poo hind 1g.

Th Burmese

Th Chinese
his tp xist thoughout th Far ast and nnot rally b sidd eed. As there has ben no form of onolled L!dirrg' thy hav brd with the wild lVlongolian hoss fr rl times. In onsqun, thy are similar to th wild

Frud in most distits of the Chines Rpubli' ponies of

dongolin pony nd ar frquently dun in olour with til,^rck l stripe and blak points, although other olours tund. Thy are xtremely hardy nd sur-footed and thir s ov shot distans hs ld to them bing usd for ig s wll as gnral riding. Confomation howevr, is Enerlly poo nd undrdevelopd with lag head and k nk. Th hight vais btwen 12 and 13.2h.h.

imalayan mountin ea of Indi s pk pony on th montain asss. It is sur-footd, tremly hardy and intellignt with @ of stamina and the ability to liv fruglly' Usuall gy i olou, it is stong nd study with musular qurtrs and
.a thik-set pony fom the

A Chinese

Th Bhutia

Bhutia is prinipall used

gd bon, and stands 13 to 13.2h.h.

The Kthiawari and arwri .\lftough separte rds, th I(athiawari and awari r irlly idntil, both having dsendd from th indig-

os Indian ountfy brds rossd with Arab stok. Thy nd to generally ad tmpd ut tremely tough with ]o of stmina, and the thriv on littl food. Varying in hight ftom 14 to 15 h.h. they are vry light and nrrow with k ks and quartrs, low st til and sikl hoks. Any r-.lour is found inluding pield and skwblds. Th ears u' iwrds with th tips almost touhing at th points' us inditing th Ara influen.

From th sm llimalaan ea of India as th Bhutia, nd r similar to it in typ and onformtion, altlrough smallr, Spiti is rd prinipally by th I(anyat ibesmn who use it to trd with neighouing tries. It is only aout 12 h.h., u up to wight, as wll as being hardy nd tirlss witlr

The Spiti

,Wll musld with a short, thik nek, sright shoulder, shot bak and song lims and feet, th Spiti, lik th Bhuti, tnds to b tmpramntal. Both th Spiti and Bhuti ar losely rlated, and vry similar, to th Jl-pupos Titn Nanfn out whom vry litd is known.

lty of stamina.


This nativ

of the island of Bli is of primitive typ, baring a resmbln to th wild &longolin pony. It is frequendy dun

The Java

The Bali

in olour with blak el strip down th ent of its bk and n upright mn. It stands 12 to 13 h.h. Very song and onomial to kep, it is a willing workr and is usd primaily as pak pony.

built it is tough, hady, very willing and pprntly tirlss, apabl of worng 1l dy in tropial onditions. Its prinipal funtion is to pull the heavily ladn two-wheld Sdos

Slightly lrgr than some of th other Indonsin ponies th Java, a nativ of tht island, stands 12.2 h.h. Although lighdy

whih srve as txi srvi on th island. Th Java is found in almost any olour and is gnerally of poor onformation with wak nks and quartes, long baks, rattrer long legs and ftquentl ow hoks.

The Btk is brd seltively on th island of Sumtra wher Arbian impots have bn introdued to the studs to upgade th rathr ommon native pony, and lnd littl qulity to th breed. The rsultant young stok are then sent to the other Indonesian islnds to impov h reds there. It is kindl, gentle pony, esy to manag and onomial to kep, but th Arain blood hs ddd a touh of spirit nd legan whih is not found in most of th othr Indonsian brds (th Sandlwood eing an xption). It is a gnral purpos animal, an b ny olour and stands 12 to 13 h.h.

The Batak

A nativ of the islands of Suma nd Sumbaw, the Sandalwood is th quality pony of Indonsi bing finer than the othrs and with an .Araby' had. Named after th islands prinipl xport' it is sd minly for barebk raing although it stands only 12.1 to 13.1 h.h. It hs a small, wllshapd had, with lrge y nd wid hst and is dep through th girth. Legs and feet ar good and hard, and th oat, whih my b any olour, is vry fin.

The Sandalwood

The Suma


sibl that the anient Chins may hv brought th ponis to Indonsi in vry rly times. Th ntive ponis of Suma and Sumbw, whih are lmost idential, ar very tough nd willing and again somwhat primitive in appearan, being dun with th lak 1 stip and upright man. They stand about 12.2 h.h. and r agile, and intllignt. Thy ar usd
sport of Indonsi' as wll as in.daning, ompetitions, whn thy are ridden bebak in a bitless bidl by young bos, whil a trainr on the othe end of a lung line direts th vrious movements. Th ponis hav blls ttahed to thir kns and thy dan in time to th bat of th tom-toms. Judging is o tlr lgn and lightnss of performan.

golian and Chins ponies is vry appnt, it is quit pos-

Sine ttre likenss of the Indonsian ponis to th wild


on th islands in lne-throwing, th ompetitiv national

The Timor

Indonesian brds and is usd by the islandrs as ow pony. It is xeptionally agil and stong, although standing only 11 to 12 h.h., and has grat powrs of ndurane oupledwith a mss of ommon sense. Also very doil and sure-footd, it makes a good hildren's pony, and mn have en imported

Th ntiv pony of th island of Timor, is th smallst of th

to th Austalin mainland for this purpos. It is usully blak, brown or bay in olour and is finl made with a small
had, short bk, strong quarters and good hard lgs and ft.

The Caspian

Until ently the Caspia pony, a nativ of th are around th lburtz mountins and Caspin sa in Psia, was thought to be extint, but in 1965 numb wre found pulling arts in t}r oastal towns and wndering along th shors of th Caspian Sea in Northrn Irn. The urnt

theory is that th Caspian is the anient minitur hors of .fulsopotmia whih, after eing usd y the lvlesopotamins in the third millnium until th svnth ntuy AD' ws blivd to hav beome xtint. Rsearh into this theory is howevr still in pogrss. ore like a small hose thn a pon in apparan, it may b gy, brown, bay or hstnut in olou nd stnds etwn 10 to 12 h.h. It is sur-footd, intllignt nd trtabl, with rmarkale jumping ability all of whih maks it a usful mount for hildrn. Th Caspian has a small, fine, Arab-typ head with wide st eys' short \ poor hind lgs, nrrow hst nd is light of on.

h ntiv pony of Ausali hs derivd prinipally from ::nported \0lsh ountain with a mixtu of Ara, horoughred, Timor and Sht1and ponis, and is thus not :hjld s iding pon, it is intllignt, hard and sound with 3ood, fr movmnt. Prinipal olous ar gry and hstnut
tt this ompt, obb sort ofpony my b any whole olour.

The Australian Pony

::rdignous. The hight varis fom l2 to 14 h.h. nd usd as a

.\n nint d originally bd in th rgion of Itazahstan, is ponis ar xptionlly hrdy and able to withstand i etrmes of limati onditions, eing xptd to foage :l.r themslvs qually in thik snow or in the dsrt. Som ::v rntly had infusions of Don lood and rosss with .-i Don or Akhal-Tek hav produd good avalry mounts. Snding L22 to 132 h.h., thir prinipal us, howvr, is as a .:rr, pony' and they ar strong, willing mounts with good :d limbs and ft. Thy ar usually grey, bay, hstnut' or

h Kazakh

A Australia


:1k. The mrs ar usd to produe stok re fattnd for mat.

milk and many of th

3d mainly in the basins of the Viatka and Obva rivrs' ths 9'nis ar usd pinipally to pull th troik sldges - a job :..r rvhih thir puliar totting gait, mkes thm patiularl s:irl. Th ar also usd for light agriultural work nd f: vry useful all-round ponies. Possssd of grat powrs of nduran' th Viatka stands 13 to 14h.h., hs a full mane ild tail and is usully gre in olour, somtims with th

The Viatka

;jmitiv zb markings on th lgs. It has a ratlrer plain

.d with a wll musled nk and quartrs, a short bak, :pth through th gith and good strong limbs nd ft. It is a .st and willing workr and its aility to liv on th minimum ..: tod makes it onomial to kep.

A Viatka

Bsuto V

Lsotho (Basutoland)
h Basuto pony is derivd prinipll from th Ar and Barb hoss whih wr impotd to th ap Provine of S outh Afria from Jv in 1653 and, by various rossings with horoughbrds, formd th Cap Iors. Following raids in .tl arl ninetentlr ntuly the Cape Iors found its way ::rto Basutoland wher a ombination of rossing with 1oal sru stok and th unfavourble limti onditions, usd rr to dgenerate into wht is now known as th Basuto pony. his xptionlly tough, hardy and nduring pony is not jrn an indigenous on' but bing wll up to weight ws usd nsivl duing th Bor l0ar. It is 14.2 h.h. and provs its '..Isatility by eing used for polo and raing as well as for iding and as pak pony. Th usul olours ba, brown, g- or hestnut nd it is tlrikset, frquently with a qualit had, long nek and ak, nd upright shouldr. It has very eard feet nd is tremel sur-footd.

The Basuto



-.i .:i1._l

j:-:' 1:

working t Vrsills, laorated and dvlopd fully the original Grk prin-

iples, stblishing onlusivl tht th rough and vn brutal mthods of training horss that had rept into prati during th Rnaissane were unnssary and unaeptabl. D la Gurinire's onepts wr odifid in his grat work .f o1 d Cavalari' whih rmains th sour of all ontmporary thinking. It lso forms th basis of t]r work pepetutd at tlr grat admy of th Spnish Riding Shool in

mlly rfrred to as drssage, an b traed at last s fr bak as th fourth or fifth nturis whn its valu nd basi prinipls were appreiated and stablished by the Greks. The Grks studid the sstmati taining of thei horss oth s an artisti and plasurabl aomplishment, as wll s a mens of improving th prformane of thir avalry. ,&tost notabl among these earl horsmasters was a avalry gnral alled nophon who emodid t}re priniples in book, parts of whih xist and ar valid toda. It also mntions th xistn at tht tim of another book or tratis on same sujet b one, Simon of Athns. The nme dressag, bing Frenh, did not om into us to desrib this aining and riding until th rly eighteenth ntury. It is drived from th Frnh vrb drsser' whih mans to train, to adiust' to saightn-out. Lik many other Frnh words adoptd y the Anglo-Saons, it ould hardly b mor pt for its purpose. A dressur is a man who pratiss drssg. Dressg as we leogniz it tlrrfore, was dvlopd in the first pla for t}r essentially Pratial purpos of poduing easily ontrolld horss, that would b battle-winning assets for army avalries. Trooprs who ould not ontrol thir mounts with one hand in attl wre then, as in muh late times, no asst at all. Fortuntly for th horss of all subsquent priods, th Grks disovred that a quiet
nd ivilizd approah to obtin th oop-

'T."" origin of training horss for th l. most lassial form of riding, nor-

One mjor distintion betwen t}re genral pratie of dssag and lassial riding in the twntith nrury and that of l1 previous tims hs bn th introdution of omptition riding. This is bst exprssed in th interntional ontests that lead

Vienna whih stands s th arbiter of tre lassial riding aross the world.

up to and inlud the olympi Gams.

Previously, s w have sen, dssag hd bn primarily the onrn of the military, minoritis foussd round roal ourts and similar ntrs of ultur. In th military, drssag was profssional rquiremnt, whereas among the wlthy ivilians, it was a gntlmanly aomplishmnt, highly regded as an intgral part of a omplete duation. No doubt ttr harsh nessities of military lif peluded all ut a small minorit of the soldiers from following dressag to its highest levels ut through thm the spirit of Vrsaills nd Vinn was kpt frsh nd was hndd down and prtised t mny rlatively shools maitaind at the royal ourts, th drssage ahivemnts may hav reahd higher lvls. B the beginning of this entury, ttr ourts wre apidly dwindling in number, nd th improvment in ommuniations and travl failities hd radiall hangd th lif in thos tht rmained. The avalry shools onsequently beam virtually the

through th thing t their ava shools, and lso of th wlth ivilian

small establishmnts. In th riding

ertion of ths bautiful, ut powerful,


aimals invariably produd b far the best

to tr presnt dy, drssag hs dvelopd

ovr th intrvning nturis right up

It has always flourished howver only in th mor advaned iviliztions nd soial

in sporadi fashion in diffrnt ountries, in diffrnt dgrs and at differnt tims.

sole barrs ofthe dessage torh and they thmslves wre to lst on1y for the next forty years or so. By the end ofth Sond \0old IDar thy had all gon and the lad pssd to ivilians and to th fw profssional or rtired soldis who hd rivd thir training bfor the war. Interest eame mor widly sprad nd quik1

sag rides fom ll ovr th world provid an exllnt and reurrnt opporruniry to ompare standards, tehniques and idas. The also srv to ring drssg bfor a muh lrger audin tlran has expriend it sin it was used in th sixtnth

found its xprssion in the xpanding world of omptitiv sport of ll kinds.

Dressge was fust inludd in an Olympi

sntial, ito a pratil proposition. Rvivd ftr th dark nd middl ages long with all othr ulturl ativitis in
assum lmost prisly the form in whih we know it toda in th lt svententh and early ighteenlr ntur. This was partiulry tru of th latter period when th Frenhman FranEois d l Gu6rinir,

ulturs, for thr has nvr en any pla for tivitis rquiring suh patine, applied intellign and asthti snsitivity in poo or primitiv soieties. There has to b a ertin amount of leisure time to turn what is dsirabl, but perhaps ines-


in th Stokholm Gams of

This hnging pattern rsultd in som variation btwen wht ws taught and Pratised in th seludd aadm in
dud y the majority of ridrs in th wider, nd mainly amateur, wold of national and

Vienna on th one hand and what was pro-

apted stndard that might have been lost for vr if twntith entury drssg had bn rstfited to indoor displays nd aadmi institutions. A vry bnfiial aspet of ompetition riding is that th ridrs have rgulrly to subjet thir prformanes to th omprhnsiv srutiny of trained assessors.

a dgr of fredom of movmnt as an

they hav rsultd in the rintrodution of

nflrry in popular fstivitis. Aov all

Renaissne Itly, drssg bgan to

intrnational ompetition on th othr. The artisti lemnt in drssag is all too

major vnt. On the other hand, ttre hangs hv not all bn for the wors.
Th priodi gatherings of dediated dres-

asil sarified to the need to sor points or to speed up th training programm in tim for th nt olympi Gmes or oer

Thir duty is to reognize and expos wak results or fals thniqus as wll s to ommnd ort and admirl work. This ontinuous nd worldwid pross of thnil ssssment annot fail to impov and maintain th purity of ontemporary dressage to an xtnt that ould hrdly b possil without ttre stimulus providd omptitiv vents. A further


bnfiial aspt of ontmporry dressage

is that in its lowr hlons it has om a t lisu sport, giving plasu to many

thousands of th less amitious ridrs. This is prtl bus of the widly flt ulg to sap _ ven for short priods _

partl eaus of th ever dreasing

from th strsses of modrn day living, and

dangr of eoming vry intns indd, and vry larg sums of mon are sPent in th pursuit of fm and suss in omptitions. Climati onditions hav always had a markd impat on th dvelopment and prati of dssage within differnt ounis. Givn th opportunity, mankind th world ovr shars th lov ofriding horss in som aspt, but muh dpnds on the

oppoltnities for long lang or rossountry riding. Paradoxially though, in th high omptitiv ehelons' it is in

of pur horsmanship rather thn th more

ardour of oung mn has often expssd itslf in riding oss ountr usually following hunt. In othr ountris, pItiularl Grman nd ntral urop, the trrin and th limt ombin to kp ridrs indoors for large portions of th ar. This has produed an atmosphr that iS onduiv to an interest in th skills nd sien

he dressage horse. Sun nd Ai, idden by Miss SheiI WiI|ox, in an advaned dressage ompetition at Goodwood. The supple outline of the horse ombind with the obediene to the ide,s ids shown here are the prodUt of the Iong hours ofshoo|ing required to bring a hose to this leve|.

fust forty yars of this entur th art of drssag riding in omptitions was pursued throughout ontinntl urop ut ws hardly rognizd as existing, muh lss undrstood, in Grat Britain. Th result is that th ontinntl ountries, with thir 25o-eat unrokn tradition of skilled horsmanship, arrived in th prs-

hunting. It followed therfor' that for th

immediat and simplr xitements of

onditions availabl. In Grat Bitain fo example, whr ttr wintrs r mild and mh of the trrain is agriultural or pstoral, it is possibl and plasnt to rid outdools th whol year ound. Thus th

This is partiulaly apparnt whn th rsults of major ompetitions are srdid. Th twentith entur transition from a mainly militry or ristorati ativity to the prsent status ofdrssag as n interna-

nt ra of ompetitiv drssag with a long start ovr Britin and th youngr ntions.

aly smooth. Although, sin th midsixties, th sight of a military uniform in the arna has bn rar and *re tids rarr still, this hang hs not afftd th sport advrsely. Th military stablishments wr slrprsdd b ridrs fom privat domsti stales, many of whom had onl modst finanial bking. on signifiant innovation was the emrgene of womn ridrs at th highst levels. From a previous standpoint of non-prtiipation in th spolt, they were Soon to show thmslvs wll abl to halleng th mn on qual

tionally rognized nd almost totally ivilian sport has in prati bn remrk-

terms. The fust woman to Win an Olympi mdal in dressage ws m Liz artel of Denmark, a oulgous ladywho hadben



svrely handiappd by poliomyelitis. Ridinghr hors Jubile, lvlme Irtl won th silvr medals at Hlsinki and Stokholm' 1952 and 1956. Fru Liselott Lin-


len Ptoushkova of th USSR' tlrn th reigning Vorld Champion, took the Silvr on Ppel and in 1976 Chrisdn Stuklbrger of Swirland took th Gold at ontrel. In th World Championship omptitions in Copen1972

senhoff of Germany won th Bronz medal 1956 nd th Gold edl in 1968. In

ered th mn.



1974, womn ridrs out-num-

mny thousands of rids ll ovr th world to pt the hallnge of improving thir riding whih is larly of grat nfit to thir mounts. This hllng, oupld with the tirn and onntration ndd to
train a drssge hors, has sultd in dessag riding boming lmost a way of lif for mn people in whih they find gat

s a sport, it has enourgd

The influen ofdrssge on th gnral welfa of ttr hors must e rognized s eing onsidrabl. Takn up vry widly

Apart from the pivt dssage iding patisd and njoyed by individuals soll for their own intrest' there two foms in whih it is known and appritd by the puli. As alradmntiond' one is in th world of omptitiv vents whih r governd by preis rls nd onvntions. The fat that th performane of eah omptitor hs to b judged sparatly, means that most omptitions tnd to too slow and polonged to hold th attntion of larg adines expt t the highest lvel and whr major hampionships r involvd. In addition som asi knowldg of th piniples of this somwht esoteri sport is ssential for a real ppeiation of its finr points. The othr and mo popular form is that of speial and relatively shot displays given y on or mor ridrs, usually as only one itm in progErmme of moe vrid ntrtinmnt.
thousands for thir aesthti value and for th sns of hthmial movemnt nd preision timing that they provok. lrowever' as with most othr ativities, rally top lss performrs ar requird to nsur th full suss of suh a display. Regula displys ofvry high quality and rnown r given ll ovr th world by the

not onfusd wittr th typ of exhibition normally seen in iruss whih' lthough oftn of vry high quality and demanding vry fin horsmanship, is likely to aept a dgr of liens in th intst of ntertaining a possily lss ritial audien. Suh an audien, howvr, will have no diffiulty in appriating a disply of fine drssage for peisly the sam rasons as would influn spttors wathing daning, skting, g.yrnastis or othr form of physial prowss that ombin skill and gra with strngth and fisipline.

horsemanship suh as Nuno oliveir of Potugl. Some of th top ompetition rids lso giv displas. In all ases, th dressag prformd onforms as losely as possible to pur lassial onpts. It should


Suh displys n b njoyd by many

from ttre prssurs of ontemporry' ovr-mhnd lif. It also hs th

nonous advntag of being prtiable for rides in th sventh or eighth dads
rasonbly fit.

intst, grat plasur nd grt relief

of thi livs, providd thy hav


uniformd ridrs and whit Lipizzaner horss of the Spanish Riding Shool, and a very few gat mastrs of lssil

he,passage,, an advned dressage movement, pedormed hee by Piff nd his German rider, Liselotte Linsenhoff, who won the go|d medI at the 1972 Munih o|ympis. Opposite top Dressage on display: the white Lipizzaner stal|ions at the Spnish Riding Shoo| in Vienn enteing their mgnifient aren for the oudri||e. opposite bottom left qudri||e an onsist of four o more horses and riders nd the group will perform dressage movements in

Opposite bottom right Mrs. Lorna Johnstone, who rode in the Munih o|ympis qed 70.




Competition dressg overs a vry wide vari of sndards from those of provinial riding-lub evnts through to onti-

dard international tests is revizd approximately vry four rs so as to prevnt th routind, ut the alwas tak from ight to twlv minuts to prform. The progalso frequendy inluds a Free-Style ontst or l(ur, in whih omptitors dvis

nntal or world hampionships and th olympi Gams. Th sme basi prinipls and ruls apply to ll of ths and

horss from beoming too narrowly

omptitions at all levels ar ontrolld by th Drssag Burau of th Intenational qusian Fedration foundd in L92L' th hadqurtrs of whih ar in Brussels. The Burau lays down and keps up-todte th nssry ruls to ovr th stndrds of performane' the rules and guidlins for judgs and omptition organizrs' th qualifiations for judges and ll othr fators that dirtly afft th sport. ah fdratd ntion maintains its own national drssage urau to ontrol its purly national affirs nd tfuough whih ontat is mintind worldwide on mattrs of prinipl and method. The highst priority is givn throughout th organization to maintaining th purity of lassial onept and to prventing the growth of potntially false mthods of training that would ld to lowring of standards. Thre ar various onventionall rognizd grades of aining in drssag and ontsts for all or som of th grads may b hld at a normal omptitiv evnt. Comptitors an enter for on or mor ontst, and in eah se will b rquid to prform prordained squn of movments in exatly th ordr stipulated. In

rmm at an interntional ompetition

that they inlud nd show all the partiu-

thir own displa, th only poviso bing


lar movmnts that th oganizs may

Drssag ontsts ar alwas ridden in

rtangular arenas' th standrd siz of whih is eithr 20 x 40 or 20 x 60 m. The standard international tsts invaribly onventional systm of lttring to indiat to ridrs nd judgs whr the movmnts to e prformd should bgin and nd. Th origins of this somewhatillogial lttering system r obsur. Competition judgs are rquird to alloate a mrk out of madmum of ten for eah movment or omination of movments as st out on the pulishd test sheet. To do this ffiintly th judg has to ritiize and evaluate th prformane,

rquir larger ana. A11 arns us a


An exampIe of the power and ontrol needed to exeUte some of the testing movements in an advaned event. Granat, ridden b Christine StukeIberger. Below ALipizzanerfromtheSpanish Riding Shoo| oratises the,ba||otde,.

mnt at suh admies s th Spnish Riding Shool are nvr inluded in omTh national fdrations ar rsponsibl for dvising and publishing a set oftests for all levels of ntional omptition. Thes ar alld Ntional Tsts. Th International Fdration further deviss and publishes four stndrd Intrnational Tests, all at Advaned grad, th lowest bing th Prix St Gorgs whih is sparted from

Advand. ah grade

Novi, lmentry, dium nd is furthr sbdividd into two or mo dgrs of diffiulty. Th advand grdes in all
ountris ar larly distinguished ftom th early grades by th inlusion offlinghanges of leg and piroutts and' at th Grand Prix or highst lve7,t}:e hut ole

the Unitd lGngdom th grads, and thus th ontsts' are rfrred to as Preliminary,

mad availabl for prusal by th omptitors. Th marks allottd by ah of th

always aompanid by a writer whos duty it is to rord on th judging shet providd for eah ompetitor' th mrk llotted together with a summry of th judge's ommnts. Ths shets ar latr

and thn voi his onlusions. II is

four tsts aI rolrmndd' although this diffrnt plaes. From one to tfu judges r normally rquired for nationl ontsts.

tlr Grand Prix at th top b th Intrmdiat I nd the Intermdite II. Thse four tsts form th asis ofall Intrnationl Comptitions. Five judgs for ah of th

numbr has vrid from tim to tim in

airs of piaffe and passag. Airs aove th ground' suh as th lvad, ourbtt and others, whih ar th ultimate ahiev-

a vry thorough knowldg of th priniples of dessag and of th problems involved in training a horse. It is grat
ne of thos problms from th saddle. H also hs to mmoriz th test he is judging'

and totalld by th srtarit and th omptitor soring th highst total is th winnr. It is obvious that a good judg must have

presiding judg ar olltd, heked


if h has hd pratial eperi-

Th preis ontnt ofah ofth stn-

th ompetitor during the prforman and h must know th orrt point t

whih eah mark has to e givn. Quik thinking' good judgemnt, morl ourag,
integrity and perin are essntial qul-

sirre h annot afford to tak his eys off

almost as diffiult to perform wll s tht o{ th ridr! The Internationl Fdertion maintains its own panl of judgs who may offiiate

ities for a good judg. In fat his task is

maintains its own list of judgs, gradd


international omptitions. ah ntion

aording to th stndard of drssag for whih they are onsidred qualified. As a

Intrnational Fderation has speifid rtain onnotations for eah of th marks from nought to tn. These are:

guid and aid for standardizd judging, th

0 Not pefomd 1 Very ad 2 Bad 3 Fairly bd 4 Insuffiient 5 Suffiient


6 7 8 9


Good Ver good xllent

Firly good

UtltssAtit lN l t|t zuH UtN IUHY

Dessage for ombined taining o eventing is not so demanding as the advaned form. Horse nd ride have to Derform n esier test but must sti|| be supp|e, ative and obedient. he tests are designed to show these ttributes and are marked aording|y by skilIed nd experiened judges.

To assist in mintining rasonably high stndard of training and perfoman it is stipulated in the ruls that no hors shall rive a pr unless h has arned at last 50% of the maimum marks availbl. As an indition of th standard atu-

all ahivd in this entury, it is a fat tht ther is no rord of a hos vr soring as muh s 80% of possible marks from all fiv judgs. A soring at an intrnational Grand Pri of anthing over 7 5o/o is xptional. Th eord is 79.5% ahieved y Switzrland s Cfuistin Stuklbergr nd h hors Ganat at Salzburg,in I975. In Olympi Games and i Continntal


award tam prizs for tms of thre from any on ntion in ddition to th individual

and \ilorld Championships it is usual to

Swedish ridrs wr plad first, seond, third' fifth, sith and ighth. By th nxt Gams held in Antwrp in I92o, a muh more omprhensive st tst had bn dvisd inluding ounterhanges-of-hand in trot and nte and squne hangs of 1g in four-, tfu-, two- nd on-tim. Vrious oeffiints wr usd for what wre onsidred th most important movements, the highest hanges of leg. Th offiint of 20 was givn for th ountI-hang-of-hnd in ot and ant' th spntin in antr

prising five jumps and an odin stion wer inludd. ight nations ompetd with a total .of 21 omptitors and

piff, no passge and no squn hngs of lg. A jumping stion, om-

in the form of a Fre Styl and the dgr of diffiulty was xtrmly modst b latr standards. No lateral movmnts of any kind were rquid, no
40 m arena, was

ol1npi Gams, 1912, staged in 20 x

Th drssage ontst

at the Stokholm

ahiv outstanding suss' but thn, as on' or perhaps two, of their good horss rtir, thr may e no rplament avail-

ountry may show geat pomis or

apt a light, ut ontinuous, ontat though th rins, rmining onfident,

aount fo some ys. Fortunes an also b seriously afftd by ttr vailility or ottrrwis of ally good ains _ invlubl assts who a lways in short supply. On l1 thes ounts Vst Gmn stnds supply of rinrs, good hoss and skilful ides. A fw ountries (som of thm famous in othe forms of horsmnship' notably Italy), hav ithr shown littl intrst in dressag or hav mad no signiflant impat intrnationally. This is lso tru of ountries with relativly small popultions suh as Australia, New Zealand and Nor-

abl. Thus ttrir tm may b of littl

alon with an apparndy iexhaustible

gives the impression of doing of its own aod wht is required of it. ogether hors ad rid should rate an imprssion of lgan and total harmony. The typ of horse likely to onfom to hes rquiemnts and to work sussfully in th gymasti disiplin of drssg and high shool will always b on tht omins mntal alrtness and musular frdom with a thorougy strong, robust nd symmtrial onformtion. In partiular it must have th potntial ability to arry muh of its own weight and that of its ridr, with th hindquatrs. Th quartrs and th loins thfor hav to b

ttntiv and diligent, so that in effet, it


offiint bing 30 for nter irls inorporating hangs ofrin and without

asir to undrstand wh most ountries

aims of modrn drssg,

!hn on onsides the pinipls and

it is


ing position in rlation to th quartes

thmselves. rtain breds of hors to be popularly rditd with possessing th st qualities for

naturally fll into pla in a weight arry-

strongly onstruted with hoks tht

and one-tim. Th piff and pssag wer fust intodud into the olympi dssg tst in Los Angls and hav rmind thraftr, with th exption of th post-wr Gams hld in London in 1948. nt piroutts were quird for th fust tim in Berlin in L96, intrst in plesur riding and th various forms of qustrian sports that has bn suh fatur of th mid-twentieth entury, the numbr of truly fust lass international horse/ridr ombinations from any ounty (with th singl exeption of Vst

and for the squene hangs of1g in two-

an boast only a few top lass hoss at any on tim. Firstly it is rquird at a horse should ativ and free, but still display all the qualitis ofpowr and spd tht r

hr has always een tedny for

Dspite th normous expansion of

light in hand, allowing th idr to onfrol nd deploy its movmnts with no visibl effot and no mol than a light ontat with the rins. It must b lm, but kn, so that it givs th imprssion of always wanting to go forwads when llowd and askd to do so. It must b supple and submissiv, willing to adjust its paes without rsistan or resentmnt aoding to th slightftom its ridr. Othr requirmnts ar tlrt th hors should rmain perfdy saight from its hd to its tail whn moving on a saight lin, and bnt slightly in th dirtion in

its inhent harteristis. It must


est and outwardly invisibl indiations

Grmany), rmins surprisingly small. It atully seldom xds four or five, and with suh small numbs, it is hrdl surprising that the repsntation of any one ntion has ben liabl to flutuat quikly and damtilly in qulity. For a fw yars

walk. ot and ant. Th hors must

ntural impulsion. All paes must hav prft r:gulity of rhythm, with th orret ntural sequen of footfall at th

whih it is travelling whn on a uved lin, so that full us an be md of its

nt, ouragous nd wll baln wr vry popular in the sitnth and svntnth ntuis. Iorss of umistakably Andaluin type wee frquently hosen for important qustian sttus or paintings, th mountd sttu of King Chrls I in Traflgar Squa in London bing n xampl. Fo similar reasons horses of Spanish blood w hosn as the breding stok for th gat shool in Vienna in the lat sixteenth entury. It is fo that rason tht th shool originally bam known as th Spaish Riding Stable and latr as the Spanish Riding Shool.
befor Thoroughred lood, whih did not xist until th arly pat of the ightenth ntuy, ga to b used to influne th

levl ompetition drssage. Th Spanish breds, speill th Andaluins, whih wr onsidrd to b unusually intllig-

high shool o, in this nlry, for high

It was a furthr tfu hund


onformtion and mental aspets of othr reds throughout urop and th worffij


Th Thoroughbrd itslf has not yet bom widly aepted s idal for dessage puposs although thr have bn a numbr of pure Thoroughbrds that hv arnd thmselves great distintion in this spher. Thr is littl eviden to suggst
tht thy ar physially o mntlly unsuitabl or inapabl of vn th most demanding movments suh as piaff and pssg.

Elowver thir inhrnt intlligene and snsitivnss demnds a highr dgre of sympatheti hndling than is essential in som oarsr brds. It is gnlly onsidred that hoses of most, or at least many'

rds an bom xllnt drssag horses provided that thy are wll onstruted, well handld and wll riddn.
Suprisingly it is also tru that for omptit}re Lipizzaner,

tion purposs

populr as might b supposd among ambitious ompetition idrs, though tlrere hav ben on or two with distin-

ability nd fam, is put t som disadvntg by his elativel small se ombined with his naturally rath short ation. Consequntly th bred is not as

for ll his

lVlrs R. N. Hall and won a numbr of Grand Prix and othr prs in urope. Wi its smingly ndlss supply of good horss, ridrs and talntd profs.Wst sionl tinrs, Germany lads the wold in th fild of drssage. Thi
impressiv ahivements at past olympis show this to b a position tlrey have njoyd for som onsidabl tim, and thi ovwhlming domintion of the

guishd ars. Notabl among them ws Convrsano Cprie who reprsntd ngland during th sixtis when riddn by

world drssag sn sems unlikely to hang signifiandy during ttris ntury. Th sport is undoubtdly hlpd by th immnsely strong srrpport given to it
ernment. Th stt ontrolled shool at Varndorf, for eample, with its prmanent stablishmnt of shool horss and trainers, ats as a ontrolling ntr. Drssag has virtually assumd th stflrs of a national sport in Germany, and although this is pady aus of the estritions on outdoor riding in wintr, the intrst is widly sped, with a high standard of onnoissurship among th population. The vry large numbr of omptition horss that re regularly trained and ridden up to Grnd Pix lvel tfuoughout th ountry, has resultd in Grmany boming th main sou of supply for othr ountries wishing to import top quality, at throughout th ounty nd this is futh upheld y th iterest shown from th gov-

Horses from the two remining |ssi| entres of haute cole. top: A rider from the Fenh shoo| of the dre Noire at Sumur. he horse is in ,pssge,, n dvned movement. bottom: A Lioizzner stIlion in ,piffe, on the |ong rein, which forms nother spet of the training t the Spnish Riding Shoo| in Vienna. Long eining in its simp|est form is one of the er|y training stages for

quit reent years. Th Ianoverian' Trakehner, Veshalian and Holstin

young horse.

Nowadys it is nowned fo its spil qulitis of spd, lightnss oftion, and beauty. Curntly th most popular and
suessful dressage horss appa to b the

Thooughred blood although it has only ben introdued into th German bieds in

whih are songly modified

Gman nd Swedish brds, both of


horses do hav man xellnt qualitis. They hav en brd for many yars ssetially as riding horss rather than for spd lon as has lrgely bn the ase with the Thoroughbred. Swdish horss hav ben lmost as sussful as heir Grmn ounterpats and ae mainly a mixur of Grmn and Thooughbred blood'

lin, ut it annot be dnid tlrt thir

sflrds all produ fin horses of substan and quality, and th brding is arfully ontrolld so s to liminat lins tht do not ome up to th quired standards of movment and tmpramnt. som of th popularity of thse horss as drssage mounts no doubt stms from th fam and suss of th German rids in this disip-

least prtly-trained' drssage

and inded the Grmn ridrs thmselvs prepard to pay larg sums of mony for trained hoses. lsewh on the ontinent of urope, dssag training in Fan has mainly ben bsed at, and fostrd by, the longestblishd, on-time avalry shool at Sumur. In reent yars howevr, th shool's ouut hs dwindled and,is now bing ovrken by individual ivilians. Switzrland hs ideal onditions fo drssge whih it ows to wrtim nutral-

Ths horss ommnd vry high pries,


UtltssAtit IN ll-|t


ity and a sver witr limat. Th lading ridrs have until ently all ben soldiers asd on th avalry shool at ern, ut s in othr ounties, the losu of this estalishmnt has rsultd in th balan

restblish their postwar onomies. Swden's northrn limat has alwas nour-

tilting in favour of ivilian rids. During

to th tahing and prati of Saumur

th flftis and sixtis, the Swiss dvlopd distint style of dressag that owd mo

agd indoor riding during th wintI, whih invitaly led to a feling for ad an intrst in drssag iding. Swedish ridrs ompltely domintd th omptition wold drssage arns during th first twnty-fiv yars of th ntury
and thy hav rmained a strong fore evr sin. Possibl thi most famous ridr has

might hav povidd nuleus of skilld idrs had bn aolishd by th nd ofthe

war and it was left to a very small numbr

form of equsinism in a

than to that of Vinna or the mor prise ad foreful Grman styl. Moe reently, th Swiss hv tnded to mke use of thiir

link with Austria to liais mor losely with th Spnish Riding


Flowvr, on of thir most sussful nd fmous horses, Granat, ownd nd iddn b Christin Stuklbger is a llolstin, who was traind with th hlp of the

ountris' Swden in partiular, for thit st avalry, and thus dressag, horss.

Th Swiss hav alws lookd to othr

other ountris.

olled and intllignt breding systm hs produed a very robust and handsom typ of hos that has found popularity in many

in L952 and 1956 riding ,N,l'aster Rujus and Juli. Th ountry's well onmdals

ben Major H. St Cyr who took th gold

ountry infinitl more intestd in suh sports as hunting. In spit of th fat that thr ws litd in th way of knowldgabl or professional help availal, is small number inludd two or thr with onsidrble talent _ all of them womn - who quikly ssumd a pl in uropn irls. Th gneral disinterest prsisted, making ovrall progrss slow, ut by th sixtis a substantial degree of ahivement hd bn made, th highlight oming in 1963 whn took the onze position in th uropan

of ivilian nthusists to stablish this

njoyed a high dge of partiipation in rlation to th population, although th

In Dnmark,




Mrs Brnda !illiams and Littl odel

Austrin x-Obrbritr of th Spanish

Shool, Geog lDahl. Grant is onsidrd by many to b on of th fist dessag
horses in living memory.

Sweden, hav long bn prominent on th dssage map' and Swedn in fat held a lding rol in th dvelopmnt of moden dssage tfuoughout th first half of th present ntury. H inspiration ame from the avalry shool at Stromsholm and

The Sandinavian ountris,


estalishmnts. Dnmark fust m to prorninn in 1952 whn Mm Liz Hartl took the olympi silvr mdal at Hlsinki on Jubi1, a hos whih sh herself originally traind. Susquent progss and suss an b mainly ttlibutd to the tlnt of trainer Gunna Andrsn.

min intrst oms from th small privat

hr nutrality during boh wold

helped to nsure a stIong position whn most othr ountris wre struggling to
Brue Davidson and Irish Cap preparing for the dressge phse of the o|ympic Three-Day Event in Monte| where he ws a membe of the winning Amerian


many Grman hoss, most of thm at least partly aind in Grmany, hav en used but th a definite inditions now of swing in fvou to the many high quality

Partiipation in intrnationl drssag in the Unitd Stts has een spordi oth in qulit and volum. In the past,

mdals for dressag to her redit. Drssag in th USSR ows its origins to the work of th nglishman Jams Fillis, who was uy-en-hf t th valry shool t St Ptrsburg from 1898 to 1910. Widely onsidrd to be the glatst high shool idr of his or an prvious ag, Fillis hd prviousl n a pupil of th Frenhmn Buhr, who had dvlopd theories and thniqus somwhat at vriane with those of Gurinire and the ightnth entury lassiists. Fillis simplified and modified Bauh1s teahing

hampionship. Britain hs no olympi



Below right HRH Priness Anne nd Doub|et. For n eventer, Doub|et,s dressage was

Amian Thoroughbreds. h rlin has bn plad on the fqunt visits of top gade pofssionl trainrs, many of whom hav takn up tmporary rsiden, and as suh, are in onstant dmand. As w have seen previously, Grat Britain lgs far ehind other nations in this sport, and virtull no intst was shown until just bfore th Sond liorld l07r.

Prinipls of Drssge nd Equitation. Th spot ws inevitably elipsd by th

and set down his own idas in his ook e

gadually bgan to b pratised again aftr

volution and its aftr ffets, ut it

Th vlry shool at Wedon, whih

th Sond \iorld Wr in th stat riding shools of th bigge itis. Th U.s.s.R. fust ahived major intrntionl stats in th Rome Olympis of 1960, sine whn thy have been onsistntly to th for in thir nnual xursions to th !'uopan hampionships and their partiipation in the olnpi Games.

prominnt in

graind and strong. Thes ar the qualities

Armenian, Ahaan, nd th famous Cappadoian


horss, and suh ar tlre horss for hunting wild easts or for us as hrgrs in war.' Oppian refrrd to th need in hunting

spially the nlosur of filds in th aly ightnth ntury, inrased the mphasis on hunting th fox in th opn,

for.n ativ hors ustomed

to lap over ston fns and dks', ut for man n-


first us of the hors s a mns oftranspot

not a hors 'T." hunringther is is a type. of th no rord .l. brd, nd in pursuing hounds. It is something that
happned in th mists of pre-ordd history.
\De must dfin hunting as th pursuit of wild animal in its own environmnt b man mploying a pak of hounds. The link t.wen hors and hound is vital, sine th spd and ativity of th. hound has lways ben th majo influn in produing th hunting horse. Th anint Chines, gyptin and Grek iviliztions did muh of their hunting on foot, lthough thy usd horss xtensivl in th Chas s well as on the battlefield. Th grat hors mastr' enophon, born in 430 in Athens, mad

times _ th hunting hors was not rquird to possess th jumping bility xpetd from th modrn top-lass quality huntr. To be rlevant, it is inevitabl that any

- ertainly

throughout mdieval

rther than pursuing the der in the woodlnd. Th greatgrazing grounds ofLeistrshire allowd hounds to run fast in th opn ountry, and th fox proved a worttr quarry in suh a stting. In the lat ightenth ntur Willim Child am to th reditd with introduing th art of riding .to hounds' as opposd to .aftr hounds'.

Quorn ountry from Shropshir nd is

disussion of th hunting hors must b entrd almost xlusivl on Britain nd

whr) hs en mjor qustrin ativity for som 300 yrs and hs xrted, in onsquen' a orrsponding influn on hors-brding. Inded, bfor th grow of omptitiv riding to its prsnt lvel, an xtnsion blonging only to the last quartr of a ntury, hunting was th prinipal horse sport and toda it is still th one

hunting (providing th pattrn fo that pratisd in Amria, Southrn Afria, Australia, Nw Zaland, India and lse-

Irland. In both thse ountris organizd

it ler in his lassi book on equitadon that basiall th same priorities i stami na, fitnss and oedine wre requird in

attrating th largest numr of partiipants. As a rsult, stlishd hunter breeding industris ist in Britain and Irland but are not found in othr ountris wheIe lss emphasis is givn to th sport.

Now the hunting hors was requird to gallop and jump fs and take diths in his stride. H had to lar without hsittion th nw .oxr fne' - a hdg with a rail in front dsignd to kp young bf attl from damging the hdg. A doubl oxer, a hdge with timer rils standing on oth sids, was a formidbl obstal indd, nd is still nountrd in som aras in the hunting field, s well as in a more sophistiatd form in show jumping ourss. As foxhunting gaind strength' th hunting mn in Listrshir requird far more quality in his hors and it bame
produing hunters. Not vryon approved of the trnd. Hugo enll astr of the Quorn, omplined tht aftr th young

ssntial to use Thoroughbrd sirs in

th hunting horse then' s ar still sought by th hunting ftaternity of toda. i3n, in th third The Roman wri h would AD

The rt at whih Childe and his friends rossd ountry in pursuit of hounds ws to b fr xedd in th ninetnth ento th Chas. o pursu thes, the hunting hors nedd stamin for th long days in tury whn huntsmn of th Listrshir pks dvloped th art of providing .t}r th grat oyal hunting grounds, of whih quik thing'. This was a vry fast urst th New Forest in ...aross grass nd fns with h mountd surviving xampl, .l.,,fild riding as los to hounds as hei rquiremnt for a nervsJ and thi horss' ability, would ing vrtial obst fild rndays of th nine tnlr e tioning of huntrs popular mor th nw Th lran turis, and ontinued to be so long aftr William th Conquror brought disiplin

main quarry for hounds in urope for n-

Stg, boar and fallow buk wer th

mthods .h had not njoyed a day's hpDlss


.loods' multd .Flying, Child's


hunting. Charls Jams Apply, who

was th most lbrated hunting orrspondnt of th priod, writing undr th nom de plume Nimrod, advisd: .Do not trspass too far on th willing powrs of our horss. Rather than insist upon thir oming hom, when showing signs of distrss, let thm main at som villag for th night. laving a whippr-i in attndane. }Iundrds of good huntrs have ben dsoyd b th nglt of this m at of humanity towards xhsd nature in a nobl and willing animl.' Th prati ws growing of tking out two huntrs for a day's sport' pItiularl in the gass ountries of Listrshire, Rtland and Northmptonshir. Frqundy th hunting man would lso us .ovrt halc as well, riding this hors to th flrst ovrt to b dawn b hounds. Thre h would hange to his first huntr whih would hav ben takn on ahad by th groom so as to b fit and frsh for the first run of the da. The growing dmands for suitabl horss wre immns, nd providd imptus for normous growth in all th nillry ativities suh as growing orn and ha, hors dotoring and daling' and mking saddlery. Nimrod had grnd idas, but h ws a good portr, and h stimated that a astr hunting hounds would nd 14 huntrs to rid himself, and a furthr 12 for th us of whipprs-in. Labour was heap, but th pri of rally top-lass hntrs ould b


Hunting _ one of the gret British trditions that hs spread to other ountries


he hUntsman asts his pk f houndsforth rst drw to pik u p the sent of the qrr', in this ase a fox.


exmly high as an be realizd y translating several thousand guineas in th last entury into today's mon valus. A1rady Iland was reognizd as a sour of supr huntrs. The mild li-

mt and bundant grass produd horss .It of bone nd substan; as Nimrod said, is owing to th prati of the young horss of Irlnd samping aross th ountry in their olthood, that the ar suh good

Th new dmand for riding horss in th hunting fild was suh tht nearly t7 million ws spent arod on importing horss into Britain in tlr ten yars up to 1882. In

in the hunting field. This was obviously gullil and redil eploited maket.

1885 th Iunters' Improvment and Ntional Light Horse Breding Soity

fnrs as we find thm, unlss it be t timber, at whih th hav no prati.' Irelands importane as a produer of
huntrs is as strong now s then' ut today the nglish hunting mn finds it inrasingly diffiult to ompet with buers from th ontinnt of urop, the Unitd Stats

was foundd to nourag breeding in Britain, nd it ontinues to prform n invaluable srvie today. The Soiety distributes tlrousands of pounds ah yar in th form of prmiums, or susidis, to th ownrs of out 60 stallions slted at th Soiqy's

pries fo Iish horss s potntial show jumpers and vntrs. At th top of th sport in th nineteenth

and even South Afri, who py high

enfl.rry suh olourful hratrs as Squir osbaldeston and Thoms Asshton Smith wr pforming xaordinry

annual stallion show, hld ah spring at Newmrket. The owner of h stallion awardd a prmium, reivs a grant' and in ddition .supr prmiums' the ar a numbr of awards. Through ths reiving xtra subsidis the stallions ar mad availabl

to non-Thoroughbred brood mars at rdud fs. Fs for Thooughbrd

mars mad by arangemnt with th ownr of th stallion onerned. The stallions, seletd from rgions throughout th ountry, are rgulrly and rigorousl hked to nsur that thy remain sound and therfore fit for tlrir work.
IreIand, aguabIy the best hunting ountry in the wo|d and orodue of some of the finest

hunting hors in isolation for it was from the hunting field that stplhasing, show jumping and horse tils volved. Th HIS shme, tlrrfor, hs produd distinguished winners in Nationl Iuntraing as well as other typs of equstrian sports and its basi influn on the quality of horss in the hunting fild has doubtlss en immensly bnfiil. Th HIS summer show for mes nd youngstok, held at Shrwsbury, is a wondrful shop window, displaying muh tht is est in modrn hunter reding. Irlands grat ehibition of hunters is in August at th famous Dublin Hors Show. This vnt is s muh a fair as a show, for nearly vry xhibited nimal is availabl for buyrs, who ome from ll ovr th world. In ngland th geat ounty shows, nd th Royl Internationl and Iors of th Yr Shows at \urmbly in London, provide th stag for the show hunter

It is impossibl, howvr, to onside th

quality of horss availabl, and

fats ofnduran and ourage with thir huntrs. Yet the ottom of tlre hunt markt ws oftn appalling, oth in the lak of

lsses. Dspite inresing osts nd


muh lower prize mon thn is available in show jumping, ths lasses are kenly Judging th riddn huntr lasss in the main ring at say' the Roal at Stoneleigl requirs onsidral aplomb as wll as

diffiulty of finding a sound on. Robrt

Surts wrote musingl, yet sthingly, of th triks emplod by horse delers who .mugs' in th influx found nw markt of of newly-rih, middl lass mrhants and


The West Wteford foxhound pak in

skill and perin from the

businssmen enfiting from th industril volution and sking to gain status

Bottom An


ng|ish hunt going on to draw.

they rid nd assss h entry in th ring is as knly notd as th qualit of the animals on show. Th judgs who offiiat at th walth of in-hand and ridden lasss throughout th summ sason shows provide an immnse srvi in helping to maintain standards. But th grtest boon of ll to th huntr type is that it is still a genuin working horse for whih attstd performan is th priority. It is never iust .how dos h look7 ttr mor a question of ;

Thi own prformane in th saddl


working hunt lsss plaes the emphasis vn mor fumly on pfor-

important qury in th mind of a hunt judg does h move7. any a good looking horse nvr gts into the front row of a huntr lass eaus he dos not gllop well. The rnt growth and populrity of th

mne' and hr the huntrs ar rquird to jump as well as wok on th flat in front of the judgs. It is, howvr, th ontinuan of mor


rJtan245 pks of foxhounds in Bitin and Iland, plus naly 60 harrie pks, nd half a dozn ah of stghounds nd draghounds' tlrat ensues moe work and demnd than vr bfor for th hunting horse. Foxhunting, in partiula' has sn an immens boom in tlr postw yas and ther a ovr 30 mor paks of foxhounds

nd half-bd huntr is still havily relied

upon for adults in the Unitd Kingdom

and lland.

and onrn ov th dras in th Irish daught hors, whih probly onstituts th bst foundation stok of all for produ-

Ther has bn onsidrl disquit

tha at th turn of th ntury. Iunts ar bettr supported nd mor pople r following hounds on hosbak t}ran eve for, in spit of th fat that th qulity of ross-ountry iding avilabl to the huntig field hs dtrioratd onsiderably in man aras. This is minly attributable to

in existn in ngland 4nd Wales now

ing huntrs of

draught is not a healry horse of the ilk of the Shires used on th land in ngland. As a fam on th lnd' ut whn rossd with Thoroughbrd, the ma would provid a first rate hunter _ no dout a great help in
bd, it was traditionally usd by th Irish




modrn farming,s inrasing rlian on nomous inreas of rbed wie in the ditionl bf' dairying and shp farming aras has bn anothr low to the mountd fild. Th biggest problm in trms of the hunting horse in rent yars hs en in

able land instd

of grass, and


hlrywight mn. I rquirs a svnighths bred hos with qulity and substan, but not only is this th hardst to om by, it is also th most epnsiv to purhs nd maintain. Suh a hors an fth svrl thousand pounds nowadays

finding suitable mount for

ln rd horses re still in a minorit, ut those popl who ae of th ight weight, and possess th skill to rid

til fo show jumping or hors trils. In th nglish and Irish hunting fild

as an untried youngster if it has real potn-

Thooughbeds out hunting, laim tlrat no bttr hunte eists. The thrquatr-bd

stok dsve every nouagment. The ral wight-arying ob is sadly a muh rarr sight in ttre hunting fild nowdas than at one time, ut there is a onsidabl ines in middlwight iding horss whih gnrally ontain large poportion of Thoroughrd blood. Ths ar suital mounts for many of th lad idrs who nowadays oftn form th majority of the mounted follows in th hunting fild, speially on wkdays. The nativ pony breds hav had onsidrble influen on horss usd in the nglish hunting field. Their inhrent hrdinss, toughnss and agility a all traits rquired whn following hounds in the xtrmly varied ountries whr hunting still flourishs. Galloping on th moors of

urnt fforts to save this foundation

Govrnment to safegurd and improve th breding industy, has rently eognized th importan of ttr drught hos and

augmnting the frmt's inom whn snt to th loal horse fair, or up to Dublin. Th Iish Iors Boad, formd y the

Top he winning line-up at reent sta||ion show at Newmarket, England. he Hunters, Improvement Soiety sheme he|ps to make good quaIity sta||ions viIabIe a|| over the oUntrv for reasonabIe stud fees. Above An Irish Draught horse whih, when rossd with Throughbred produes the renowned lrish hunter.


th !7est Couny and th north, traversing hill traks in Wales and th Boder oun-

mentl qualities whih an well supob lood.

plid y holss ontaining \0felsh Pony or favoued foundation stok for produing xllent huntrs, and th native ponies thmslvs hav sssfully inodud many an aspiring Nimrod to the hunting fild in his youth. Th modrn riding pon ontaining Thoroughrd blood, may prform brilliantly in th hunting field' but tlre nativ pony's snsibl tempramnt' sur-footdess and instintiv knowldg of his own nvironmnt still mak him th est hoie for a hilds fust pony to e riddn ft hounds. Indd th ar not xlusivel for hildrn_ in Wales, and the .Wst

tries, srambling ovr anks, or ngotiating stone wlls, all all for physial and
Fohunting originated in Great Britin but hs spread with remarkb|y litt|e hange to

Th Connemara is nothr


pony. Th :noor shephd, on his sturdy little mount, his legs dangling y its sids, will se more of the spot than most fol-

lowrs when th Devon and Somrst

Tipperry. Mny young lrish horss are ,made,in the hunting fieId, and ae mUh sought after as show jumpers nd event horses' middIe: he Ra||ye Piqu,avnt Nivernais hunt in Burgundy. Hunting in ontinenta| urope is threatened by the spread of rabies. bottom: There are about a hundred paks of hounds reognized by the Ameria n Mastes of Foxhou nds Assoiation. Both the indigenous grey and the imported red fox re hUnted.

other parts of the Wor|d. top: n Irish dith in

Stghounds ar running. In Fran, whre der, har, and wild boar are still huntd, ther are in gnral far fwr obstals to b iumpd in the hunting fild than in th majority of nglish hunting ounuis. A blood hors,

or narly lean bred horse, would

man an dult enjoying his hunting on

Couny partiularly, you


assoiatd witlr dr, dre man long, fst points tfuoughout th day. Foxhunting njoys popularity as a sport in th United Stats and th Thoroughbrd hors is usd far more widely in following hounds than in Britin. In Virgini and ryland, partiu1arly favoured for the sport' thre is still plnty of grass, and th horss re minl fad with timbr fns, som of whih ar imposing in height and solidity. Amrins who visit Britin usually find the hdges and diths of the vale ounies and High Listershir a most novl hallnge. Australins and New Zealandrs often us Thoroughbrds in th hunting fild, but again th natur of th trin is a major fator. In Nw Zealand thr re no foxs' nd it is the harrir paks that are frquntl

appropriat to follow staghonds whn the spd of the quarr nd the strongI snt

habituall jump fomidal barbd wir fns, fiv or six strands high. Teahing horses to jump wir is

s with

somwhat inrasing trnd in th nglish by hunting fild, b of man ridrs. In h Co. ath, and

fmous hunting ountris as Limrik, Tipperary and I(ilknny offr a speial hallnge to th hunting hors and his

intrpid rider. It is still onsidrd advisabl to buy Irish horss oung if thy ar to hunt in nglnd or lswhr. Th experiend Iri huntr tnds to take his fnes slowly, often fom a tlot or a wlk. H will usully jump on to an obstl rather than

over it, whih works brilliantl over an Irish ountry, but woe btide th hors

who taks off slowly and attmpts to bnk an nglish thorn hedge with a wid dith on the landing sid! Proprl ut and laid
hdg hedg ven

for the hunter. The Blakmor Vl in Dorset' th Brkl ountry in Glousshire and

areas of ontris offring th stiffest fns still takled by th modern huntr. Th hunting horse is a mirale of evolution nd survival; h is muh in dmand, and still prforms a tough job in n xaordinry divrsity of environmnts. And buse h rmains a tru working animal, h has avoidd the dstrutiv fds nd fanis whih have ruined so mn breds
of pt dogs.



fl I-ou mn hav n riding lf, horss fo mor than 3,0OO yars, pr-

th Frnh, in 1788 and although th Bitish foxhunter thinks of his prdes-

suading thm to jump ovr obstals is a omparativly new ida. Show-jumping, whih has gown out of this, is thus also a fairly rent innovation ompard with othr questrian ativitis. Only in th sond hlf of th eightenth ntury did jumping on horss bgin to ahiv som reognition and then it was slow to gain gound. The fust mntion of it bing inluded in an avalry mnual blongs to

sors going aross ounty from time

immmoial, it was th nlosure Ats of th ightnth entury, bringing about th onsidrl ineas in the numbr of
hedgs and fns to nlos filds, that set

years bfo jumping, as opposed to stplhasing, was offiiall rorded,

thm jumping. It ws somthing lik anothr hned

Agriulturl Hall, Islington, London, in

nd thn it sprang up in vious prts ofth world within a very short priod. Irlan in whih ountry steplhasing hd its infny, was again a ftont runnr in showjumping, nd at the Royal Dulin Soiqy's annual show in 1865 thr wre omptitions for.wid' and.high' leaps. Thr wI omptitions in Russi at about th sam time) nd in Pais in 1866, although h' th omptitors pardd t th show and thn wnt out into th ountry to iump ovr mainly natual fns. Nin rs later the famous Frnh Cavalry Shool at Sumur inludd an xhibition of jumping in thei display of hute ole. In nglnd jumping ws primarily a part of agriultural shows, and was fust offiially rorded at th show at th 1876. Hoses ntered for he show lasss wr also ligibl for the leaping, whih was didd solely on styl, nd judgd by asters of Foxhounds. vn whn a fw

ruls onrning jumping abilit wr

In the Unitd States th National Hors Show was strted at.&tadison Squar Garden, New York, in 1883. Th .Gardrf has bn movd twi sin thn but the show goes on as strongly as vr. By th turn of h ntury, th .nv/ sport was very fumly

introdud, sryl was still an important fator' It nabld th judgs to arriv t th most diplomati result for it would never hav don for the loal squir to be baten b one of his tenantsl

Jump and Prize jumping. Th following

yar in

tions wer inludd, High Jump, a Long

Turin' saw th first rordd offiial intrnational show-jumping, with German Amy offirs invitd to pit *rir

estblishd intrnationy; Grman hld shows in towns 1l over th ountry and in h sond of the odrn Olympi Gams, at Paris in 1900' th jumping ompti-

against thir Italian ounterparts. In London th fust Intrnational Iors Show (forrunner of th Roal Intrnationl), was hld at Ol}npia in 1907, as a result of mting hld t Th Hagu two diretd th International Iorse Show, th board and diretos of whih. omprisd


op-|ss show jumpinQ hs beome the major money sport in the eqUestian Wor|d apat fom raing. he Germn iders and hoss are a|wys hard to beat.

men from mny uropn ontris and United Sts. High and wid jumps wre inludd in th progamm, and th priz mony was quite onsidrl. Two

yrs arlier. The r1 of Lonsdal

Blgian rids

_ llagmann and Van Langndonk _ had won at th Paris Gams, nd th sam ountfy, and Hollnd, dominatd that first Intrnational.


urope. In th Unitd Sttes in 1917 wht Was to eom known as th Amrian

Hors Shows Assoiation was foundd' with reprsntatives of 50 shows at its

United States in internitional affairs.

inaugurl meeting. Th AHSA was to b th offiial rpresntativ body for the

The ffts of th famous Italian, Fdrio Caprillis systm of training was givn dramati mphsis at the first postI07ar Olympis hld at Antwrp in 1920
mthods, Lt Tommaso Lquio, and ajor Valio, won th gold nd silvr mdals. The Itlin tam took the bronze, hind

When two Italians shoold undr his

Tommy Glnross' who was to play an important prt in the devlopmnt of show-jumping in Britin, won a Iigh
Jump omptition. In 1906 th Swdish Count Clarn von Rosn had put a proposition to th Congrss of ttr Intrrrationl ol1npi Committee that qustrin sports should b inludd on a prmanent basis in th Games _ the had bn non at all in St Louis in 1904 _ and although th suggs-

Spekesy jumping at Hikstead, with Harvey Smith, one of the sport,s geat persona|ities nd big winne. th Russian rvolution, th Czarist avalr ame to London to omplt a glorious hat-trik of wins of th Cup, in L9I2_I4' under th leadrship of th Captain, Paul Rodzianko. He and his ompatriots took th l(ng dward VII Cup, whih the hd thn won outright, bk to Russia, in 1914

took prt in th 1920 Games, baus of a attl-disas ban, ut the London Intrnational was reopnd that same yer. Although qustrian sports Wr now reogned part of th olympi movment, they had no ruling od of thir own. But Baron d Coubrtin, looking ahead, had nouragd th ration of lDorld fdea-

Swedn nd Blgium.

No British ridrs

tions for h sport' so tht thy ould

tion was not grted wih

nthusiasm, Baron Pirr d Coubrtin, ttr foundr of th odrn Gmes, sked von Rosn to pesnt more dtiled proposals to the 1907 Congrss. Ths w for
thre evnts _ drssag, n qustrian pntathlon and a gam lled Ju d Ros. The British mmbers of th IoC aged that these should b inluded in the 1908 Gams, whih wr to b hld in London,


and it was nvr seen again.

mndant Gorges Itor, of Fran, drw up statuts for the Fderation qust

uniformity and ontrol into sports, Com-

standardiz thir ruls and ring n overall

dedutions for faults, for xampl a first rfusal ost two marks, a sond, or fall of hors nd rider, four, a thid, or fall ofridr only, six. Clrly it was onsidrd mor

marks wre givn for ah fn, with

run undr a ompliatd st of ruls. Tn

Til,e L9I2 olmpi show-jumping was

ignominious to fall off a hors than to

and th ommitt of th Intenational Hors Show onsnted to organiz thm, provided there was a minimum of 24
ntris from si diffrent ountris. In fat thr wr 88 ntris from eight ountries'

hining a fne with hind or forelegs, for landing on or within th dmration lin of a spread fn, and altogther so many ompliations that judging must hv
n far from eas.

ause him to fall too. Thr wr mrks for

whih prhaps provd too muh for

t, with himself as sretary-gneral and

Internationl Show, itsif still in its infany. At th last minut th quesian vents wr droppd from th olmpi prograun. Von Rosn did not los hart, howvr. Th nt olympis wer to b hld in Stokholm, and in 1909 a ommit-


show-jumping. Intrnationl jumping was inrasing. In 1909 the first Lurn show was hld, with Itlians, Grmans, Frenh and Bl.

Prin Carl of Swdn as prsidnt, produed thre vents for the L9I2 Gmes. Ths wr, drssage, a thr-dy vent' othrwis known as the Military, and

Prhaps on of t}r grat ppals of show-jumping nowadays as a publi sptal is th ase ofits judging. very ringsid spetator an se for himslf whthr or not hors has hit a fn and lowerd it, and only th watr still produs disputed judgemnts. Ths ar now eing liminatd by th use of plasti strips on th lnding dg. In th early days however, it ws so ompliated that at th London International for xampl, vry fne had its own judge, who would snd his maks bak to th main judging box, all to b added up bfore th winnr ould b

in e r of its ration, and Switzrland joined in L922. Canad gan to tak an ativ intrst whn th Toronto !inter Fi startd in 1922, and th first Cnadin Nations Cup ws hld fiv yars later. Show-jumping was y no mens onfind to th Nortlrrn hlf of th Amrin ontinnt. Th first

Congrss in Paris in November I92I. Thus Swdn and Fran wre th prime movrs in th stalishment of the FI' and th othr si foundr-mmbrs wr Blgium, Dnmr\ Ital, Japn, Norwa and the Unitd Stts. Grmany bem affi'liatd to the Intrnational Fdration

Intrnationale, whih were adopted at a

intrnational show in Bunos Ais was

hld in 1910, with rides from Italy, Spain and Frne as wll as other South Amerian ountries. Two Chilan rids had also omptd in London and th olym-

pis in 1912.


sm ar th National Hors Show in Nw Yok introdud international jumping. A tam of fiv British Army offies, aptaind b ajor J. G. Bersford, took part, and won on ofth vents. Four yars
forrunner of th Nations Cup, was held at th show. Tm 1.umping was hld at the London Intrnational for the first tim in 1909'

in opposition to th swiss. That


ilitry Team


In th 1912 Games ah ounty was allowd to ntr six omptitors for th individual jumping and four, with th bst thr sors ounting, for th team. ight ountris - Blgium, Chil, Fran, Grmany, Britain, Norway, Russia and Swdn - ntrd a total of 31 ridrs in th


aptd th position of President of th Assoiation, with Colonl v. D. s. '$illims, father of tlvision ommrtator Dorin Yy'illiams, s sretary. A mixtur of militry men nd th top ivilin ridrs hlpd to form th Assoiation, whih' by improving both judging and the ourses th jumpd, gan to produe British rid-

Assoition in I92. Lord Lonsdl

Britain s firly hapti show-jumping sitution was grduall sortd out aftr th foundation of th British Show Jumping

individual, whih was won by Captain Cariou of Fan, also the winner of a ronze in th Tfue-Day vnt. Swden
won th team gold mdl, from Fran and Germny, followd, in ordr, by th United
States, Russia and Blgium. The nxtyear

from 17 ountris t h flrst Olmpi events to be held undr FI ruls, at Pris

rs and hoss of intrnational standard. A reord entry of 99 ridrs on 1 10 horses


when th Frnh won ttr inaugural I(ing

in populaity. Swedn gin won the tam event, but Lequio, th individul winnr four years rlir' was
tinuing to grow

1924' showd that th sport was on-

dward VII Cup. Bfore th show, in

ommon with lmost all othrs, was suspndd fo the First World l0ar' nd befor

qusian Committ, ut of ours th wr brought th sport to a stndstill in

Germany founded their own olympi

now btn b th Swiss, Alphons

yr nd in 1926 th Royl

Britain joind the FI th following Dublin Soity,


aduous and xpnsive business, nd only

World powr in show-jumping. olympi qustrian evnts wr hld outsid urope for th fust time, when th Gams went to Los Angls' but thy wre hardly a suess. Only six ountries and a total of 34 ridrs ompeted. Intrntional travl for hoses in thos das was a long,

tional suss. Both wnt with th sussul British Am tam to Nw York the ollowing yar, hlping to fostr in Ansell an enthusiasm for th sport whih grew and in turn helpd Britin devlop into

intrntional jumping. Although susss for Unitd Stats show-jumprs r no arity nowadys, their rider Fred Bonteou was something f an xption whn h won th ovtd King George V Gold Cup at the London lnternationl in L926. Jk Talbot-Ponsony, th fust man to win th King Gorg V Cup thr times, and latr to bome on of Britin's finst ours buildrs, hd th fist of his thr vitories in the 1930 show, at whih Mik Ansll lso hd his fust tast of interna-


hving hlpd to gt the sport offth startlok som 60 yars arlir, intodued

Frn, Holland, Swdn and Japan sent horss to tak on the Unitd Stts nd xio. Fran and Holland did not enter show-jumprs, and no ountry had th

finishrs ia th show jumping, so ttre wr no team wards. Baron Takeihi

Th Brlin Gms in 1936, provd a show as for Germn superioriry, and thi ridrs won th individual and tm gold mdls at show-jumping, dssag
During ttt war, whil a prisonr, th now lgendary figure ofBritish and intrand th Tfuee-Day vnt.

ver produd.

Amian Harry Chambrlin, on of the most rilliant horsemen his ountry has

Nishi won th gold for Japan, bating th

national show-jumping, ik Ansell, started to work on his mastr-plan for

ringing ttre sport in his hom ountry up

to tlr top intnational 1v1. It was fortu-

nte that Ansll, who had ben partially blindd and was to end up ompletely wit}rout his sight, should hav found himslf in the sam prisoner-of-wr amp as two othr show-jumping nthusiasts and old team mates of his, Nat I(indersley and Bed Camron. From th idas they tossd

above: Co|' Sir Mihael Anse||, hief rhitet of modern show jumping in Britin even though blinded in WoId \Ilar ||. below: DougIas Bunn, founder of Hikstead. h was epatriatd in L944' Ansell started to mk into a ality. In Dmbr of tht yar h ws invited to beom hairman of post he hld for mo than two dads. Ie hos fo his ommitte, mn of like

Two leading figures in British show jumping.

around grew the dam whih, as soon as

th British Show Jumping Assoition,

mind, intnt on making show-jumping into th xiting, rowd-pulling spot it

hs beom. Thy had a lot to do. In thos days thre was virtually no limit to tlr tim

a ridr ould tak to omplete his round,

ping his mrtingal as h ame to th watr jump. On ah fn ws slt, a thin lth of wood whih, if knokd off, ost half a fault. Thus auray was ssntil, no mattr how long it might tak. Th ouss

irling as oftn h wishd to make his approh to fen extly right, unilip-

w unintrsting, normll onsisting of a fw uprights long ah side ofth ring,

bfore tuning into a watr jump or big spd in th middl. Gadually thes impdimnts to a slik
show w wdd out.

Thn Ansell and his mn looked for a vnue at whih to put thir new-look show-jumping to the publi tst. They hos th Vhit City' London, nd so
gan what ws to a long and suessful

that horses would ompet ginst others of ougy simil ability ad experien.

on priz mony won, was introdud, so

A grading systm'


rpatitd Nat l(indesly. Th following ya, two shows wre hld at th ltr7hit City, and th Vitory Championship wnt to Colonl Hy Llwllyn, who i th

Nationl Championship, won with tht story-book touh whih Ansll so oftn smd to onjur out of ttrin air, b a

assoiation. Th fust show inluded th

jump-off bt tlr 18-yr-old Douglas Bunn _ two mn who w to hav inal-

ulabl influn on Bitish

jumping ovr th next fw deads.


Th Nationl Show in New





sports, was restartd. For th fust tim ivilian ridrs took th International stage,

in I945i th FI ropened its in |946, and throughout urop show-jumping, in ommon with othr

th on-ed Arete. His tam, too, emrgd triumphant, beating Spain, with th

inluding one of th gratst of all, tr Frnhmn Pirr Jonquers dOriola, a

startd with the 1946 Grnd Prix in

merrial man whos rr hs ben a suession of ups and downs. The ups

edals _ a fat no ottrr ridr hs ahivd _ tn 1952 and 1964. The Intrnational ws

Zurich and took in two olympi Individual Gold

so far to have won this lassi thr tims. And four yas lt in Helsinki, Foxhunt-

jumping mdl, th tam bronz. The following wek, th British tam ptain, Harry Llewlly and Foxhuntr won th first of their thr I(ing Georg V Gold Cups - Foxhuntr is the only horse t's finl lar round linhed th tam gold medal for Britin. \0i1f White and Nfela might wll hav takn th Indi-

British gaining thir fist Ol1npi show

Piro d Inzo, an auspiious ast indd to h nw hmpionship. Initiall th !7or1d Chmpionships wer hld evry year and two yrs latr Ians Guntr !07inklr, won th first of two sussiv \world titls on Hall. This hors ws rguably th gratst show-jumping mare of all time, on whom \Dinkler lso

won th Individual olmpi gold in

re-born, t th l0rhit City, whn d oriol won the I(ing Gorg V Cup. For th fust tim th show was tlevis so beginning th build-up of massiv udin whih, in turn, hs had a onsiderl ffet on he growth of the sport. Th Olympi Gms restarted in 1948

petition' for th show-jumping whih' was to b the last omptitiv vent befor the losing remony, in th vast lDembl Stadium. Gtting th ours built in tim was a hrulan task, for wks of rin hd

when thy wr hld in ngland. Th Rol Intrnational Committe, undr N1ik Ansll, wre givn the job of prpring ombind tam nd individual om-

lft th ground a quagmir and work ould had finishd the night fore. A1l th fns had to b mnhandled onto the ground, and th wtI jump dug by hand beaus of the stat of th ground. Fiftn tears of thre startd' and e Individual Gold was won by th Mexian Iumerto.lV1arils on

only start after th Sor final

vidul gold too, but for a bltd deision, by onl on of th two judges, tht he had gone in th watr. In th nd thr ws a fiv-sidd jump-off for th mdals, won by doriola, with Chil's Osar Christi winning th individual silvr and ensuring that his tam lso finishd sond. That yer was notable also for th fust of the offiial FI Championships, for _ Juniors _ thos btwn 14 and 18 years in whih thr wr only two tems. Th Italians' inluding Graziano lVlninlli, bat Belgium. Gradually th Intrnational Fderation introdud othr hampionships' for seniors also, bginning with th en s \0orld Championship, hld for th first time in Paris in 1953. It was won by

th popular Spaniard Franiso .Pao' Gooaga, n ahivmnt made more remarkable by the fat he was riding a
lost his enthusiasm for th gme. Th point. D'Oriola was third' followed
hors who had, or so it smd bforhand,

bat Grmanf s Thiedmann by just half a

Stokholm, 1956, whn she had pratially to arry him round the sond ours fter h had adly hurt a musl. lDinklr was lso in th winning tam, a fat h rpated in Rom, Tokyo and unih, to giv him fiv golds, more thn any ottrr rider in olympi history. Raimondo dInzo, the mor sussful of th two lassial Itlin brothers, won .!i7orld tit1s - aftr going the nxt two down to.Winklr and Halla in a jump-off in 1955. By this tim, !orld Championship had setded down to four-yr yl, intrsprsd y th uropan hampionships, whih are now hld evry other yar. I0inklr won the fust of the ontinental titls, in |957, and Thidmnn th sond. Thr was often a hllnger from outsid urop for th title, and in 1966 Nelson Pessoa, th Brzilian who spends his summrs in urope, won from Frank Chapot of th Unitd Sttes, with ugo Arambide of Argntina third. Soon after this the FI dred that th uropn hampionship should b onfind to th ridrs that its titl suggestd, a snsibl enough mov, for
Championships rltivel mor impotant.


maks th





two hampionships. The uropan is

Thr is

fundamntal differne in th

didd on basis of tfu rounds, with points from ah aumulting to did th hampion, while th World ChampThese produ th top four ridrs who, in th final' all ride ah oth1s horss. This has bn a somwhat ontrovrsil for-

ionship has thle qualifying


herefore b no suprise if the vnt ventu-

opposition to it is still growing. It would

mul evr sin its inption, and th


all falls in lin with th


Smyth, who is onivably the greatst womn rider th spot hs produd. Britain has dominatd this titl ovI th yars (until it was amalgamatd with the mris Flangan.

was lso intodud

A uropan hampionship for womn in |957, going to Pat

title in 1975), but no-on mor so than Pat, who ahivd a hat-trik in 1961_63 on .Whn

Four of the world's leading international show jumpers. above far left: CapL Raimondo d,|nzeo and TIky. Cpt. d,|zeo won two world tit|es and With his brother Piero hs formed the bakbone of the lt|ian team for some twent ears. above: United states team aptin Frank Chpot ompeting at the InternationaI Horse Show in London. He was a finalist in the ,l974 t WorId Championships he|d in Hikstead. above right: AIwin ShokemihIe of Germany, goId med||ist t the Montreal o|ympis. Due to eurring bak troubIe this gret ompetitor has now retired from the show jumping arena. right: David Broome of Great Britain, who won the World Championships in 1970 on Douglas Bunn's fine horse Beethoven. He is aIso joint maste of his IoaI fox hunt in Wa|es, the Cure, whih oupies muh of his time duing winter months.

women wr first admitted to olympi show jumping, Pt Smyth and Flangan wre in th tam in Stokholm, 1956, togther with Wilf \hit and Ptr Robeson' and thy took th bronz hind Germany and Italy. Pat Smth nd Flanagan wre bak in British squad four ers latr in Rom, togther with anothr of thir sex, Dawn

Raimondo dIreo took th Gold and his brottrr, Piero, the silver. Thir tam ould finish only third bhind Grmany, in whih \0inklr and Thidemann wr
joind b anothr dstind for th highest honours' Alwin Shokmihl, who, hav-

young David Broom joined them in the Individual on Sunsalv, horse h hd riddn to vitory in th I(ngis Cup within two wks of fust trying him, and now took th bronz. It was Italy's day, howvr and

n Palthorpe. Th brilliant

jumping and Tfu-Day vnt tams four yars earlier, was making his debut. Alwin, aftr winning this tam gold, wnt though an aggravating seris of individul nea-misseS for majo titls, thr tims sond and twi third for th

ing bn rsrve for oth the


uropen, and fourth for th World in 1970 behind Dvid Broome. He finall broke his duk in 1975 in th fist running


of th uropan Amateur Championship (until thn Profssionals and Amatus alik wr ligibl fo all FI titls), nd

thn wnt on to tk th olympi Gold in ontreal. H did not hav a t'rors good

Continnt. I(athy I(usne, ttr Amerian gil, with two vitoris in th Dublin Grand Prix to hr dit, was onfidently ex1rted to tak this first l0fold tid' ut
ould finish only seond pony Strollr. This pir had just om the youngest rider and th smallst hors to win th Quen lizabth Cup. Hikstad was to prov th hppist of hunting gounds for fulaion nd Soll, where thy also won th British Jumping Dr two yrs lat. Thy lso won th silvr medal in Ntxio in 1968 bhind Bill r y giving th Unitd Stats their first vr individal show-jumping gold. Th ours for the tam omptition ws gnerally ondmnd as on of th worst
bause of th awkward plaing of fns,

nough to mk his ountry's tm in Tokyo, whe \0inklr was joined y Irman Sfuidde nd I(urt Jrasinski, who olltively provd good nough to omplt Grman hat-trik of tm golds. f/oriola hlpd his tam tk th

(now Nlarion Ntould) and her brilliant


arion Coaks

riding a hors who had only mad his

silvr, ut for himslf it had to b the gold,

intrnational dbut that sam sason. With doriola in the Frnh tam at th Tokyo Gams, was a gil, only 18 yars old, whose brilliane was on a par with his, Janou Lefbv (now Janou Tissot). Sh

Stinkraus, who limxd

a brilliant

wnt on to tak anothr tam silv in x-

io, and holds two of th only

women's \Dorld hampionships t be hld. Th first of thse was in 1965 at Hikstead'

thr had

vr for an Olympi Gams, primrily

foundd in Sussx fiv ars lir. With its xiting pemanent ostals and gradually improved failitis, it hs had a profound efft on show-jumping in ngland' introduing th sot of ours that had prviously on1y bn found on the
Show jumping is one of the few sports where men nd women ompete on equ|terms; nd the women are just as suessfuI as the men. /eft: Marion MouId nd Dun|ynne cIeaing th Hiksted Water in immau|ate style. She wi|| alwys be emembered fo he unique patnership with the great |ittle pony StoI|er on whom she won an o|ympi silve meda| in Mexio. below far /eft: Amerin Bil| Steinkraus desending the formidabIe Hiksted Derby Bank. He was a go|d med| Winner atthe Mexio oImpics.below middte.. Kathy Kusne, one of Ameria's Ieading Woman jumpers. She also hs a keen interest in raing. blow ight: Frenh rider Janou issot, former women,s show,iumping wor|d hmpion, shown here ompeting in the 1968 Championships at. Hikstead, Bitain,s on| permnent outdoor show jumping ren.

th ground that Douglas Bunn

whih produed som

with I2/+ fults. By ontrast Grmany won in Tokyo with 68 _ itslf a rord _
and in unih with 2' Th ours in unih was a muh mor sensibl one, although still demanding nough. Th onl ours had to rdued i siz

sors. It was finally won by the Canadians


aus of the torential rain whih nealy prevntd th omptition bing run in th

main olympi stdium at all. Thr has long bn dbat whthr th olympi ours should b of a st pattern'

ratlrr than lft

to th loal oursedsigner. As it is th suprm tst thre is a lot to b sid in fvour of suh a proposition. Th aks for thleti ras r, aftr all, uniform to a large dgr, ut this dos not in th last dtat from th xitmnt' nor make winning any asir. It would hlp liminat th elmnt of luk nd mak for fairr sult. Th tendny among ours-buildrs to
eret vr highr, moe dmanding ourss for th major hampionships'
givs an advntage to those, suh as the Grmans, with big, powerful hoss, rthr than giving sope for th skilful ride to

ompnsat for an lak in his hors's make-up. This is a fashion whih may, and on hops wi1l, swing th otlrr way. It was in 1'975 that all quesian om-

Womn. This mad sens, for in the olyn. pi Gams th omptitions wr mixed, nd th women, though numrially outnumbed, patedly showd thir mrit

petitions me opn fo men nd

to th vaious hampionships sparatd amateus from profssionals. Thus th

by taking a larg peentage of th medls' It was in that sam ya also, that hangs

uropn hampionship, won y Alwin

Shokm6h1e, ws for matus on1y, as a

result of whih, aftr som arguing, no

British riders took pat. Th British fdration was th only one whih hd tken Prin Philip s striturs to .put thir hous in ordt' sriously, reaming off tlr top sor or so, of their ridrs into profssional status nd putting th ountr at gIat disadvantage in olympi omptition. The World Profssional Championship that should hav een hld in 1975 was not' beeus the FI refusd to allq


tions evrywhr, sav in th Olympi Gams, ovr whih th FI dos not hav
but that is surl a long way off. Although Shokmohl's vitory in th 1975 mtur hampionship was a fily loodlss one, with his ompatriots also filling th minor plas, he undoubtdly
th final say. On day thy too may be opn

th sponsors to appnd their nam to it. It sems likly that th flid situation will rsolv itslf gain' into .Opni ompeti-

was hld in th stadium at Bfomont, som

Gold dal in N{onal. Th Individual

70km (43 miles) from N4.ontral, on

gave a suprltiv prforman to win th

srf whih rod dep aftr a lot ofrin. Ovr two big ourss, thr was onl on
ever to wir an ol1npi gold with two lears.


lar round h tim, both from Shokemihl. His hos was thus first
bfore and during th Games, on ground whih had not bn draind eaus it ws aftrwards to hav n artifiial surfa, thr wr doubts until th vr last minut whther or not it would b possibl to hold th tam jumping ther. Lukil


of th

unxpeted rinfall

th wathr lntd suffiintl just in

tim; the ourse was redud in siz, the

final fn, whih should hav n

trebl bam doule, and th omptition wnt on. At halfiva, the Frnh and Germn tams wr levl in the lad' th pndulum slightly tippd in favour of th onsistnt Frnh qualtet' and although a lar by Shokm<ihl would hav linhd anothr team gold for Grmany, they hit tw fns. Thus Fran hievd

thir fist show-jumping tam gold in

Olmpi history. Th British, labouring undr th handiap of hving most of their top iders

hav refusd to ountenn' or to qualiz


inligil aus of thir profssional status, never got into th running. It is doubtful if nything is likl to b don, ithr to leinstat thm' whih th IoC
mattrs b making their main rivals als

i"l ii

Show-jumping is ssntiall an individual sport, but to nourag tm spirit the FI inoded th Prsidnds Cup in results in Nations Cups throughout th
1965. It is basd on ah ountry's six bst

turn profssional.


season. Five points are givn if thr ar fiv tms or fewr (ther hav to e at lesl thr for Nations Cup), six for six tams, and svn for sven or mor. B onfining the numr of omptitions that ont t six, th ountlies whih hv a long wy t Eavl ar not pnalizd too muh ompard with th nal uropn nations who an gt to many offlial Internationals with littl diffrulty or xpns. So fl
the Prsident's Cup has en dominatdb Britain, Grman and th Unitd States.

Two of Britain,s top internation| showjumpers. fop: Ann Moore on April Love' bottomi Pat smthe on F|anagan, with whom she mde history, t the height of he |ong areer, s the first womn ride to ompete in the oIympic Games at ,|956 when her tem Won the Stokho|m in bronze md|.

IHt ll-ttt-uAY tvtN

For most sports, intInational omptition got under way with th foundtion of th modrn olympi movmnt by Bon

. Pnltis are inurrd for flls or rfusals at th ostls and for

d Couertin in 1896, but

events wr not intodued to th Games ntil 1912, in Stokholm, largly at the instigation of Count von Rosn, Mast of


xding th minimum tim

allowd for ah phas.

(iii) Show-jumping _ a ours of 700-900m (750-1000yds) with

10_12 obstls. Penltis ar inurred for flls or refusals at th ostales

th Iors to th I(ing of Swdn. H ralizd their trmndous valu _ that of

intrst and improving standards of quitation nd horsemastrship, and h saw th olmpi Gams as a mns of sprading this impovment eyond amy irles to all hosemen. nis for th olympi qustrian vnts were elusivly from th military t fust, ut gradually ivilians took part too. Th Thr-Day vnt bame known as th .onours Compled' oI omplte

.ilitart' in partiular

in stimulting

xhilarating sport whih alls on th full range of a hors's ability and his rid1s skill. Though th nme implies som form of thrfold omptition' it divulgs nothing of the qualitis to e tstd. Th Thr-Da vnt was dsignd originally as a trial for military hargrs' and was in fat known as th .ilita/. Th rquirmnts of a harger wre that he should b fit to over sometims long dis-

r term .Tfu-Day vnd is l. vry inadquate for an xiting,

inspetion bfor the stat of th ompetition, anothr during the sped and nduran tst nd final on bfore th showjumping test on the last day. Th sam hors and ridr hav to omplte all three tests and the ompetitor with th lowst total pnaltis is the winner. In a tam

llorses r sumittd to a veterinary

and for exeding th tim allowd.

rank is to e found amongst the om-

omptition, and today hardly a militry

ompetition, thr may b tfu tm mmbrs or fou, and it is th thre bst final sors that ount for th tam's final

tans at a good avIag speed, travl ovr open ountry jumping whatevr ostals stood in his path and e bold enough to

takl an nkown hazrds at whih his rider prsnted him. For his part, the ridr had to b 1 to produ a really fit hors and kp him that way) to know just how muh h ould ask of his mount and judge exatly the right pa' or ombination of

putors. Th form of the Conours Complt was firly fluid t first' ut betwen th wars it settld down into mor or less th form in whih w know it now. Th omptitols) following ah othr in sussion, mst undrtk the diffrnt tests on thr sparat days. These ar: (i) Drssag _ a st programm of som

The sal of mrks weights th valu of th thr tsts in th ratio ofthr for drssag, 12 for sped and endurane, and on for jumping. lDhilst th uls lay down the spds and distns, and th dimnsions of the ostales' th ours and ondtions
losly as pratiable to this ratio. Although this is th asi task onfronting a Tfu-Day vt omptitor, it is rall only th bginning. No two events r alike; the ssn of th ompetition is th natural ountryside in whih it is st ad this, of ours, an vary normously. Bsids th tp ofterrain, thr ar lways variations in th stat of the going, th

should b so planned as to onform

20 differnt movemnts of mdium diffiulty, to e prformd t th walk,

trot or ant' in an arn 60 x 20 m aa. lvlaks a waded by a pnl

_ bt without exhausting his horse, buse nw day would bring frsh

Th hard ore of th .Nlilitaqy', thfor, was an nduan test at working p' with a stion aross ountr ngotiating natural obstales, and generdmands.

paes' to reh his target safl and quikly


the judgs, who assss fluen and


aur of prforman, balan, impulsion' hthm nd supplnss in th hors, as wll as the ridt's seat
nd appliation of th aids (or diretrons). a four-phas

(ii) Sped and nduran _

' and obdin to his ride1s unspoken ommands. Finally ther was a simpl show-jumping tst) to rpesnt th vryday lif to whih a hargr must e fit to return' vn ftr an xeptionally dmanding xris. The arts of military quitation have long ben pratisd and admid on th ontinnt of urop nd for mny yers this was stritly a ontinental sport. Frane's military aadm of equitation at Saumr still maintains th highst avalry tradition, while th Spanish Riding Shool in Vienna is famous to this day for its ultivtion of lssil quitation, using th whit Lipizzanr stllions thy hav used for gnrapas

lly som form of steplhas ours to e riddn t sped. Later, a drssag test was added to dmonstrat h hargeis physial dvelopment, his mastry of th bsi

test onsisting of: Phass A and C hld over rods nd traks totalling 10-20 km (6_12 mils) to e riddn at the trot or slow anter; Phase B, a stplhase ours, roughly 24k:. (1_2.5 mils) long with 8-12 fens, to iddn t th gallop; Phs D, a

altitud, th limat, wathr _ and that is all quite apart from th ostals. The pmuttions ar ndlss and th hors must e fit and bold to ope with them all, as h gallops and jumps ovr ours h has nvr sen bfore. Th ridr hs th dvntag of bing allowed to walk th ourse the da before, to ssss th prolems it poss nd did

how to takl them in th light of his

ross-ountry ours'

obstals, to b riddn dt th gllop.

5-8 km (3-5 miles), with 20-32 fixed


venting is a tough sport. Here the rider is about to tke a bath in the wter jump, one of the formidab|e obsta|es on the ossoUt ourse at Goodwood in Susse.


nativ hoss wre th small, stoky, hardy, Mountain and N{oorland brds _ had no

Th British - possibl beaus thir

rid out-of-doors thloughout the yar and

l0ith thir tmprat limat they ould

suh tradition of high-shool equitation.

hunting was their ntional qustrian sport. I0'hn they did import Arabian

horss to found the fletr, mor rfind Thoroughbred strin, it was for the headir delights ofraing, both o th flt and ovr


horse's partiular pailitis. I must work out th sped, th lin of approah to

an obstal, and th angl and xt point at whih to lump it (thr is oftn a hoi, with one lternative perhaps asier but more time-onsuming than anoher). He must not b tmptd to rid th stplehas faster thn neessarn or h will tak too muh out of his horse too al in th day, and h must keep up a good stady pa on th ross-ountry, taking th jumps in his horsds stide without any waste of tim, if h is to esap pnalty. -b The hos ma tiring y thn and it will take all th rid1 s strngth and skill to get him safel round without undu ffort. Both hors nd rider must b supreml

fit, With steady nrves and onsidral

ourag' nd th gratr th experin

they an mustr _ preferbly in patnership _ nd th gleatr thei murual undrstnding nd onfiden, th bttr.

individul suess.

There is a notle absn of prsonal rivlry amongst omptitors. For thm th hallenge lis in the ours ather thn the othr ontestants' and it is with th ourse that ah on must sttl his own ount. Furthrmor, vitory for th tem is, in gnral, muh mor hig prized than
Th rods and traks for Phases A nd C, whih onstitut the enduran elemnt,

stplhs ourse for Phas B, although th dfinition of a stplhase fne may vary in diffrent ountris. Th rux omes in Phs D, the rossountry. Fo this the trak ma b flat or step, and the ostals ar fixd, solid in apparane nd built of th songest matrials. Th stronger nd mor solid th ostal, th more inviting and rassuring it will appr to th hors, and thrfore the safr it will to jump. Also, eah obstl

re perfetl straighdorward. So



must b bl to withstand the assault of

wind and wather, so that it is th sm for tlr hundrdth omptitor as it was for th

ships in Normndy in 1969. The Hlsinki Stps _ rails forming th outlin of stps dropping down a hillsid _ first appeard in th 1952 ol1npi Gams, whil the Trakhner - a tall post-and-rails st in th bottom of a dith - is familiar in Grmany. An Irish Bank _ high bank whih is too big to fly at single lap, so that th horse hs to touh down fletingl on th top, _ n b very disonerting to a hors tht hs nevr met on bfore. As an be seen, evry ountry has its own styl of obstales and th more distintiv ons ar su to find a pla, soonr or latr, in th rprtoire of ottrer ors-builders. Th first Olympi Tfu-Day vnt, at Stokholm in L9L2' startd with sped and endurn tsts, followed by th showjumping. The dssag ame last. Swdn

he rout Hathery at the BurghIey hree-Day Event. he ju mp into the Wter is a good test of the horse,s obediene and tUst in his ridr.

with th orgniztion of th Tfue-Da

the London Games, in 1948, th rntlyformed British Iors Soity ws hargd

vent t Aldrshot - th first time Grat Britin had ever hld suh an vnt. Th Unitd Stats won th tam omptition and Capt. Chvallier, of Frane, the individual' but this was turning-point for Britain in th history of th sport.

and aining rm tms for ah Gams as thy ame long. But in 1948 th Duke of

Despit the omplet asn of Thre-Day vnt bakground, Britain hd got along well nough so far, rruiting
Bufort, thn aster of th Iors, m to the onlusion ttrat this was a sport at whih British hoss and riders ought to eel' I was dtrmined that at th next Gams in Hlsinki in|952, Britin would put up a tem whih was not only poprly
traind, ut hd gaind som priene at

won both th tam and individul gold mdals, as sh did again at Antwrp, in

Th ours-buildr must ontriv to tst th rid/s judgment and nv, and th hors's sop' ourag and obdine, but without making any unnatural dmnds or springing any unfair surpriss. Iis ous must produ a worthy winner, ut must not destro th losers and it is udoubtdly a jo whih alls for speial skill nd great expriene. Like any othr rft that is exposed to onstant omparison and ritial inspetion, ours building in general is improving all th tim and th intrntional standrd is now vry high inded. Crtin obstals hav eome bywords in the sport and will b found in mo or lss th sam form on many ourses. Th

1920, when the dssag was replaed by a seond endurne tst. For th 1924 Gams in Paris, the Tfu-Day vent took shap as th ompetition w know today, with drssag first, sped and nduran seond and showjumping lst. Holland managed to brk Swdn's grip and won both team and

the gam befo bing thrown into th

international arna.

A rord numr of 20 nations took part at Amstrdam in 1928' inluding Japan, Argentine and th Unitd Stats. on again, Holland won both titls' the individual gold mdal going to Lt. C. P. d ortangs on .Nlarroix, who together st up a rord nvr yt rokn, by winning again in Los Angels in 1932. On that

individal ompetitions.

hold a ntionl Thr-Dy vnt thre in th spring of L949.It was to be lld th

Horse Soity' h invitd th B.H.S.

The park of the Duk of Baufort's home at Badminton, in Gloustshire, ovrd som of th finest open ountry in nglnd, nd s Vie-Paon of th British

.olympi Iors Trials'. Th vnt attrated grat dal of interest and

Coffin' at Badminton, is one and om-

priss a narrow trough at th bottom of a wid ditl with a post-and-rails on both banks, efore nd aftr. The Tout Hathry' at Burghly, is another - a pool approahd downhill, with a tr trunk o rails to b jumpd on the wa in or out, or

osion only six nations wr rprsntd, proably baus of the enormous ost to uropan ountries of transporting thir tams halfwy round the world. Th Unitd Sttes took the gold in the tam evnt.
ourse was a partiularly stiff on and the fourth obstl, a pond, with sloping bed nd swollen with rain, aused havo both tam and individual eold mdals. For

fat, that it turnd into highly suessful annual fixtur and soon gind a rptation as the formost Three-Day vnt in more intrnational honours in Tfu-Day vnts to hr rdit than any othr ouny, nd rgarded as an authorit both on ours dsign and organization in gnral. But bak in 1'952, a small and of British riders and horss who had shown up wll in national vnts wr snt for svrl months of onentrated trainins under th

quikly eam popular, so muh so in

As a esult, Britin was to beome a lading Olympi ontnder, with

th world.

At Berlin in

1936, th ross-ountry

both. Th Normandy Bank, whih is

unknown bfor tlre uropen Champion-

jump up on to a flat bank with a rail on th dg of the drop on the far sid, was

mongst th omptitors. Germany won


Ht HL-DAY tvtN

dirtion of Capt. Tony Collings (winnr of the sond Badminton)' at his riding

establishmnt at Porlok, in Somerst. Two ys later, Capt. Collings was trgially killed vrhn on of th arly Comts, in whih h was avelling on a ltuing

the team, who finished svnth. This was a rd-lett Yea for Britain on svral ounts: thir nw-found suess,

proof that girls ould hold their own in what had been regarded hithto as too

tmendous influn on Thr-Day vnting in Grat Britain and must take his pl amongst th sport's
ly, Brti

th ditranean. In his liftim' howvr,

nd judging tour' rashd into

he had a

Th British tam

vry good show, but Laurn Roos hors unfortunatl put his foot in a hol towards th nd of th ross-ountry ours and his ridr was onussed in th fall. Rook emounted nd omplted th ourse, but pssd ttr wrong sid of the finishing post and was liminatd. In hos dys h ountry was llowd to enter only thr omptitors, so this put th whol tam out of th running. Swdn rgained both tem and individual titls, their gold mdllist bing Baron Elans von


at lsinki (Rg Hindand Lauen Rook) put up

tough a game for them, and th mergn as a tam of three ridrs, Brti Hill' Frank ID7ldon and Lurn Roo\ who, apart ftom thir outstanding rord of suss' we all to ply a leading part in th Thr-Day vnt world. Hill was to produe some superb hoss and trin man of th lading ridrs of futur gnrations; Wldon was to aptain th British team whn he gav up ompting and ame a world uthority o ross-ounEy ourses whn he susquently took ovr the dirbeome hirman of th spot's govning ody in Britain and the thnial delegt of th Fd6ration qustr Intrnational at man offiil hampionships and Olm-

th tam hampionship and Switzeland's Hans Shwarzenbah th individual, on hose h hd puhasd ftom Frank Wldon. In th intrim, l0ldon hd suffrd th tragi loss of his grat hors I(ilbarry, who had broken his nek in falling at an innont-looking fen in a on-day vent at hom. In 1960, Ausalia snt a poss of horss and riders to trin fo six months in Britain

the U.S.S.R. ntrd for th fust tim. Bitin's sr had wand, and Grmany won

th uropn Championships, in whih

tion of Badminton, and Rook was


before takling th Olympi Gmes in Rom. Thy joind th iruit of national hors trials, as thy had done in 1956, ut this tim with mrkd suss. Bill Royoft won t Bdminton, and th tm wnt on to aptur th gold mdal in Rom (Bill

Royroft was tkn to hospital with

pi Gams.

wr held at l07indsor, b invitation of

II. Britain suessfully dfnded hr tid with th sam tam


1955, the uropan Chmpionships

but dfid dotors' ordrs to rid in th show-jumping nxt day). Austrlia's Lauri organ won th individual gold t}r silver.

roken ollar-bon aftr th ross-ountry,

Th suggstion ws then put forward tht a uropen Championship should b hld in non-Ol1npi rs and Badminto was skd to b the fiIst to hold it' in 1953. Sadl, Badmintorris April dat proved too arly in the yar fo most uopean ountris to produ rally fit horss, and only


HRH Queen lizabth

mdal and his ompatiot, Neal Lvis took

nd Wldon arid off th individual

hampionship. In sevntnth plae was a youngstr from Lanashi who had won

Austrlia aftrwards, but Morgan rturnd to ngland, to ride in th Grand Nationl

sprg. A new Thr-Dy vnt was statd up at Burghley, hom of th arquss of xter, in 1961, to tak th pla of th Iarwood vnt, whih had losd down. It ws won by Annli Drummond-Iay on ly-A-onarh, th geat hors with whih she wnt on to win at Bdminto in

Th ottrrs wnt hom


and win at Badminton th following

Switzrland and lrland, apat from th hosts, wr ble to rais a team' so the hmpionship was bandond. That utumn, the B'H.S. startd up an utumn Three-Day Evnt at llarwood, in Yokshir, b permission of th Priness

ad suessful rids, mountd on proven, high-qulity horss. Thy didn t hav it all

wre rprsntdby thr vry expind

hmpionships, Shila Willox on High And ighty. In th Olympi Gmes at Stokholm in 1956 Britin s hopes wre high and the

Pony Club

!* ffi

thi own way (Brtie Hils Counyman slippd in the havy rain nd got hung up
on a trakehnr fn, but was salvgd and

|962 and then to bom a sussful intrnatioal show.jumpr. In |962,

Royal. Vivien ahin-Goodll won,

Day vnt. In 1954, Switzland voluntrd to hold th hampionships and put on an vnt of high standard t Basl. Britain s Brtie Hill ws the Winnr and British rid-

bom th first ldy winnr of a Thre-


went on to finish th ous), but the stablishd a lar lead whih thy

retaind to th nd. So Britain won he first

took th individual bronz. Sweden's

tam gold mdal, whil Frank l0ldon

Kastnman won th individual gold medal.

Burghley was th sn of the uropan Championships, whih wr won y the U's.s.R.' th individual hampion bing Britain's Jams Tmpler.

rs filld four out of th nxt si plas, so th took th tam hmpionship as wll. Among thm w the first lady ridrs to

' Chmpionship



Britain won the uropean

in n offiial international hampionship _ Margart Hough, who


finished sixt nd Diana son riding for

beam th fust lady hampion. She mad history again in 1958, with h third sussiv vitory t Badminton. In 1959 Hawood was th stting fo

Shila !0illox on High And ighty


Copnhagen, whr

left The first stage of the Three-Day Event is the dressage test. Hee Buce Davidson and |ish Cap perform we|| at .l976 Bromont' Cnad, for the o|ympis. Below one of the greatest hree-Day Event horses, Mere|y-a-Monarh, with AnneIi Drummond-Ha ompeting t Hiksted. Afte winning t BUrghIey and Badminto they turned to show jumping With some suess.

-DAY vN .'HE

At th 1964 olmpis, th only .firsd sord by the British horss ws tht of flying ovr the Noth Pol on th nwlyopened route to Tokyo! Rihrd Nlead, frsh fom winning at Burgey, had led at
only to jump a dissous round on th finl day. Italy won bottr tam and indi vidual tit1s.
the end of the spd nd endurane test

Britain s star was in th asendnt on mor nd y 1968 she was gin in position to snd a team of xperiend, suessful ridrs on top-quality hoss to the olympi Games. Th ourse at unprdntd ltitd

titl wnt to something of an outsidr, Prinss Ann on Doublet. This brilliant

hors she ws lter to los in most distres-

in 1965' whil Polnds &larian

It ws fitting that Russia should win th uropan tam hampionship at osow

in lVlio ws not diffiult one and was approvd as suh by Bitain's tehnial dlgate Laurene Rook. Halfiy thIough the spd nd
endurane test tlre rain strted to fall hvily, turning he ous into a quagmire and

hind leg during gentl xeris at home.

Dspit hr suss at Burghly, Prinss

sing irumstans' the hors braking a

unih in 1972. Th British tam, how-

expeind for th olympi Games at

Ann was onsidred


Barirki on Volt won th individual, gining this ountrt's sol vitory in th history of th sport.

urope. Nvrthlss, Ireland,

the U.s.s.R. and the Unitd Stats ovram the veterinary ban flying their horses dirt to ngland and a gallant band from Argentine made the mammoth journey by s, their horss rgaining halth and vigour during a month' s enford quarantin.

shduld for Burghley in 1966, ut an outbreak of Afrian Hors Siknss prevnted th movement of horses throughout

Th flrst l0orld Championships wer

Bn Jons on The Poaher and Rihard ad on Cornishman V to perform epi

spring) slippd and fll twi. It was lft to

the wtr jumps into torrents. Drek Allhusen on Lohinvar was safly round, but Jane Bullen's our Noby (th littl hors ttrat had won at Badminton in the

vr, took th gold mdal, and Rihard ad, at last, ftr many yrs' sterling srvi in th tm, won a well-dserved
(and Britain's first) individual gold.

J. Guyon on Pitou.

They took th gold mdl and Allhusen th individual silvr, bhind Fran's

fats of valour to bring th tam out on top.


end of Britain's sond yle of intrnational suess. Grmany won th tam' and Russi th individual uropan titl at I(iv in 1973' and th Unitd Stats took
\DTorld Championships

This momnt of triumph markd


Burgy 1I:,I974. Amia's Bru Dvidson) on Iish Cp, won th individual title. Prior-Palmer won on B Fair and Priness

by storm


Runitd with his ownr' ry Gordon-\07'atson, Cornishmn won th uropan individul hampionship at
Haras-du-Pin th following year and Britain th tam titl' with what amounted to her .sond elevn', although it inludd

Things perked up a bit for Britain at Luhmuen in 1975' whn Luind

Anne was seond on Goodwill, but th
to ollt th lurls.
team hampionship slipped from th grsp of th first all-gil tam, laving the USSR

Tokyo silver medallist, Carlos oratorio, put up prforman worthy of th first ID7orld Champion. Irland, lways dashing and joyous partiipant in Thre-Day Brnnan, Pnny Moreton and Virginia

It provd worthwhil' sine Argentine's

Bn Jons on The Poaher. These two

gret horss (who both have th

vents) ahievd the tm titl at lst, with their suprb tam of ddi Boln, Tom

Irlands first interntional vnt ws th uropan Championships, held at Punhstown, in L967 . The organization th Argentinian tehnil delgat had


of onibuting to th British tam's vitory in fiv sussiv intrnationl hampionships or Olympi Games) figured in th tm again in 1970, for th World Championships at Punhstown' Th Poahr riddn this tim by Rihrd


The various phases of the Three-Day Event. below left: Rihard Meade and Mj. Derek AlIhusen,s Lurieston in the show jumping ohase' below middle.' he sme horse and
rider on the ross ou ntr ou rse at the M u nih o|ympis where they Won individua | nd te m go|d medIs. below right: Here they both onentrate on their dressage phase. right.. HRH Priness Anne and DoUblet at Badminton in ,l97,l' Thev were to win the uropean Championships at Burgh|e |ater the sme yer. hree-Day Eventing is the omp|ete test for hos and rider, s it overs aIl aspets of horsemanshio: obediene nd aImness for the dressage on the first dy; bo|dness and speed aross count on the seond day; and the abiIity to jUmp a smaIl ourse on the third and fin| dav.

was good and th hospitalit genrous, but

thought it st to add an apron of gors to th front of eah steplhas fn, with disastros fft. Irelands ddi Boylan won the individul titl with Durlas ile, on whih he had won Bdminton two yrs earlir, nd Britain arried away th team title.

th individual. Nobod was surprisd whn Britain won the following sulnrner, but th individul
th uropan Championships at Burghley

An insubstantial fne onstrutd on th brink of a shrp drop ausd lot of troul at Punhstown and olltd muh ritiism, but th British tam survivd to win the tam hampionship and ary Gordon-IJftson, on Cornishman'

Australia,s gold medls in 1960. The Unitd Stats hs had vry onsistnt olympi rord right from the strt, and thir progIamm of national fixtrs

has gown eormously in th last oupl of dads. Canada is a kn prtiipant too.

exio and Argntina hav alwys had

strong qustrian dition nd thes four ountris hav been th mainstay of th

Pan-Amrin Thre-Dy vnt, held at regular intrvals sine 1955. Jpan, too,
has adoptd tlre spo though it has lss oppotunity thn most for intrnational ompeuuon. In uo1r, th Tr-Day vent tradi-

tion has ontinud to grow' notbly in

downs (in Swdn, for instn' TheSwden, Holland, Germany, Swirlnd, Italy and Fn. Ther hv bn ups ad

Day vnts disappard altogthe for almost a dad, following a fatal aiben maintind. astern uropn oun-

dnt), but h genral devlopment has

ies hv followd suit

P|umb nd his horse Better and Betterwel|through the Wter omp|ex at Bromont ner Montre|, 1976. Above apt' Mark Phi||ips on Favour in the Lake t Badminton'

Top Amerian rider Mike

Both thse leading ladis we in th Bitish team for t}r ontral Olympis in |976, bllt B Fair slippd a ligament on ompleting the spd and ndurn tst, Prinss Arrn was onussd in a fa||

(though sh mountd nd ompltd

Rihrd lVleade, riding n inexperind hors and omPting now i his fourtlr olympi Gms, was bl to finish wll up

evnt most rditbly) nd Hugh Thomads horse broke down. OnlY

hundrds of ompetitors, most of whom tke part simply for fu witlr no aspia. tions to rid fo their ountry' Populr though tlrs vnts are witlr omptitors, howvr, it is diffiult for tlrm to mk nough money to b really self-suffiint, and ommril sponsors have providd invaluble support. Badminton and Burgey, bo}r hv thir sPonsors, nd 1r priz money hey ontribut t last hl th winers towards th high ost of keeping hos for tlrs omptitions. |n|969,*r B.H'S. had th good

alm of annul fitrs and a egistry of

ity evr sin. Controlld by th B'H.S.'s Combind Trining Committ, the spot has taken firm root, with a pakd pog-

U.S.S.R., Poland, Bulgaria and Rumania.

- prtiully


titions, rlievd of the impotarr and

to thir domsti pograrme. Ths om-

iional Thr.Day vent

lVlost ountris hav at least one intnaa year, in addition

solmnity of n offiil hmpionship, are extrmely frindly, njoyabl affirs and do muh to fostr inttionl goodwill.

But lr large-sal dvlopmnt

th lin, in fourth pla. Th muh-

th internationl wv, took a ritrly-

fanied Unitd Stts tam on tlre rst of

fortun to find a sponsor for its offiil

individual gold and silvr by Td Coffin nd ,&lik Plumb rspetively. For Britin tlren, Three-Dy vnting strted with bang in 1949. Badminton sparkd off sussion of prParatory on-day evnts and ths have grown
stadily in numr' ffiieny nd popula-

dsrvd team gold mdl, and also th

nship whih has playd an im1rortnt paft ifl onsolidating the spot in Britain. Britin is not the only ountry to hav >rined a postwar boom in Three-Dy

horse trials, in th lVlidland Bank, a part-

vnting. Irelands progrss hs ben

simila, sin Irish omptitors hav id-

dn at Badminton ftom the start. Interst sprd to Australia and thn to Nw Ze-

land, who ived grat stimulus from

addned th hea of Count von Rosn nd that is a stdy improvmnt in th stndrd of fimss nd training of the horses tking part and th general stte of Prpration amogst omptitors' Ofours ther is still plnty ofroom for improvmnt, but it must b a sour of onsiderable stisftion tht, by ontinual ompron with th bst hoss nd most sussful rids ovr th best-built couss i all ountis' and onstnt striving for suess' standrds ar being st whih ar improvig th lot of hoss tlr world ovr. Iorss re no longe a neessity of lif to most popl, but sou of plasure. It is fitting tht they should rap th bnfit of a sport in whih thy play suh vitl nd gallnt 16l.

Tfu-Day vnts as a whol hs hd anoth rsult _ on whih would hav


t|AU|Ntj & HAEH0Rss

in th important intrnational invitation


event un vry Novmr at Laul Park,

Vaguly Nobl's many suessful sons, mpry, was shippd from Amria to
Frane to lrn the raing gam and thn, ha a lg t ah ornr, a head at on nd and a tail at th othr. His k had nve flt a saddl and he was only a littl ovr 12 months old. So what mde th hstnut yealing olt wor th s1'500,000 _ a world-rord pie for any nimal_ that a syndiat of Cnadins paid fo him t th l(nland Sals in Kenruky in th summr of L976? Th short :lsw is tht h ws, or would be whn mtured, a raehors, nd his pdigr idiatd him to b a prime ample of that

by Vaguly Nobl, a stallion who ws a produt of th bst British Thoroughbrd lins nd won Fran's rihest ra, the Pri d l'A de Tiomph, befo being snt to stud in th Unitd Stats. on of

Dahlia was Charming Alibis daughter

J t. J.

Drby at psom. mpery, lik Daia, ran in th ownship of an Amrian, lVI Nlson Bunkr Hunt, who ontrols a raing mpire with rPrsentativs in Australia, Nw Zaland, Canada, Fran, ngland, and Ireland, as wll s in his hom ountry. Aother pson who oPrates on an intntional sale

in 1976' rossd th nglish Chnnl to win Britain's pmi lssi a, th

priz mony lags fa hind most ot}rr important raing ountris, taining fees n amount to as muh s !2'500 a year, and lulations hv fixd th .aveg loss xpettion' _ figur ahivd b masuring annual osts against winning potntial (ssuming qual shas of the
total) _ at about mnt for sport njoyed might ppar small

gind from owning prhaps just one rahors1 from seing it rry thir olours in som minor ra t an unfashional tk, whr th priz money - vn assuming it managd to win _ would go onl littl way towards ouping th ost of keping it in trining. In Britain, whr

'1,800 Tht suh a loss in fat rpresnts pay-

pr annum.

is an nglishmn, Mr Robert

pftd though a judiious prograrm of sltiv breeding in man of th ounis to whih it has sprad and now, in th final quartr of th twntith entury, it is th bsis of an intrnationl industry linkirrg five ontinnts.

swiftst of all th equin brds, the horoughbd. This suprb brd was stblishd in sevnteenth entur Britin,

Sangster, who t the most rnt ount had 95 mars sprad round studs in urope, Ameria nd Australia, in addition to owning or

onsoltion, yt th lur of the raetrk rmains. A rahors n provtde th royal road Io rihs lthough th vast mjority simply rn up bills. But the glmour of th ours' th tingling itmnt of th rae, nd ven th attration of th additional

having shaes in numeous stallions.

his global onntion boms vidnt from an xmination of th rordprid rling,s nestors' Iis sie ws Seretariat, on of th gratest Amin horses of rent yats who, on rtiring to

sason th from February to May. The British rhos Gundy, bd t th Overbury Stud in Gloustershir, nettd 1188'375 with susss in th Drby nd King Gog VI nd Qun lizbth Stks in L975 for Dr Carlo Vittadini, an urop. But it is Jpn that has shown th geatst inrs in raing and breding intersts in the yars sine 1945. On lading Japanse owner, I{Lr Zena Yoshda, has stud farms in Hokkido and Kntuky maintaining som 250 brood mrs and25

bfor rturning to stand in Irland fo th

whih runs from August to Novembr,

Som of ths r flown to Austrli for th southrn hemisphr ovring sason

In its rlist days the ost of raing would hav bn of sant onern to partiipants. Not fo nothing dos it still ary th old tag .th spot of kings'. It ws a riging monarh _ King Charls II _ who was responsibl fo its fist major stp forward in Britain, ountry whr raing in some form or anoth had been pratisd sir he arrival of the Romans. Th
Grks, for vnts involvig mounted horss wr roded in th olympi
Romans had probabl pikd it up from th

soial doors that ownship n opn, mns that thr is no shortg of willing losers.

Italin whos horss ompt l1


mar Charming Alibi, whih makes him half-rothr to th hampion filly Dahlia. Fane, Dahlia twi won Bitairt's rihst a' th King Gorge VI and Qun

1973, had won $1,316,808 in stks. His dam was the top Amian ra


mrl a knightly pastime, with one

noblman mathing himslf and his hors
The sport of kings and the king of spots. The arena for the Thoroughbred, swiftest of all equines. bred to rae and possib|y to net m ny thousands on the trak.

Gams of 642 . Rords of hors raing in Britain prior to th sixtnth nnlry r fw. It was

owned by n Amrian but trind in

lizabth Stks t Asot. Sh also

trned to th land of hr birth to triumoh

stallions. Ths, of ours, ar th men at th top. But raing,s pyramid rsts firmly on th ountless enthusiasts whos plasure is


aginst anothr' rathr as thy tsted thir prowss with lan and sword in th jousting tournamnts. Rol sflrds wr sta-

Arabians _ ahivd littl atual

the nativ stok was to hav

suss, but thir blood, mixd with that

lishd under the later Tudors and arl Stuarts, at ampton Court, Tutbury and lswhe' only to b dispsd aftr th Civil \ar had lft Olivr Cromwll as th pow in th land.

raing sire of prhaps th most fmous rahorse of of all tim, lips: a profound lips ws bredin |764 th Duke of

f whih was for horse raing.

Charls II, a mn of sevral passions _ one

With th Rstoration m


ous astern stallions

dvlopd th sport ound the litt1 town of Newmrket in Suffolk, whre his grandfthr' Jams I, had stblishd hunting lodg, and whr his father, Chales I, had ndowd th fust up ra in 1634. Charles II ws o ompetitor and orgnizer, using his roal authority to arlang ras' stablish rules and arbitrt in disputs. Until his tim most ras had bn mths' tht is just wo horss laing to sttle an rgument of wagr etwen thir owners. Th king nouraged th provision of speial prizs _ ups or ash _ to b


- th Byrly Tur\ ing 1 l IGng, s Plats - rs run in hets of the Darle Aabian and th Godolphin 6.4km (4 mi]es) in whih runnrs had to Arabin - who rahd Britin as the six- carry 76kg (l2 st). On of th st-known tenth entury was moving into th sevn- pfuass in the annals of the British Turf' .lipsfirst,therstnowhr',wasoind tnth. At th time thir importrs ould hav had pious littl id of th-nom- by his ownr' a somwhat disrputable Irishman namd Dnnis o'I(ll' whn o,.,, .o.'..q,'.nes of their ation. First to rriv was th Berly Turk. He alled upon to forast the result of his first got his nme from his owne, Colonl Bely, who aptured him from th Turks at th Battl of Bud. For sevral yaIs th
olonl usd the horse s his hgr,


way from his opponents thr-quaItrs of

ontsted by large filds' and the lvel hathlands round Newmarkt wre idal for the stamin-testing 6.4 km (4 mile) gallops to whih th horss wr subitd. In ft, it ws not iust a mattI of distane, most of the rs we only didd aftr thre or fur heats, separated by about hlf-an-hour btwn ah running. Up to this time, horses usd for raing wre narly all nativ-rd, and probly diffred littl from th animals whih arrid thir owners on thir evrydy journing. In the north there wee fast ponis .Hoby lld.Gallowas; Irland had its horss'' But fom th rign of Quen
h had bn sent hom to ngland i

aft 4 by Thoms Drley, British onsul in Al.ppo,,. .a horse of xquisit eauqy'. He

Th Darl Arabian was desibd

ben disovred pulling

gnration phinandthhors progeny, siring Flying Childrs - th firs

did-mak a mrk with his first grat rahots - and through th lttl s brothr, Bartltd s Childers (usless n th raourse bus of,wak bloodvess1s), h barne th grat-grt

Cok. Coke ltr


1729from Fran, whr he is said to hav oal a tfuough




rahors Nlan O'Wr, who, affetionatly

RAlNG & BAEH0sts

nmd .Big Red Was to Amrian ' IagoIs of th l920s wht Srtriat
rvs to e 50 ars later.

sul b laid t th door of irnprovd ourss and onsequent ttI going,


ma on th Tuf and t stud, the Thoroughbrd was still volving. Considrd in trms of Darwinian theory its
t, for aftr less than 100 ars it ws

!(zhil lips was njoying his supr-

togthr with mor nlightnd nd sin. tifi training and managmnt mthods'

dvlopment prodd at an outstnding

stablishd as n indpendnt eed, rvhos abilitis hv maind largl


unhangd vr sin' The viden tht th ahorss of th 1970s n ovr a given distn slightly fstr thn their

Nwmarkt, where his favourit hors* old Rowle, gav his nm to raing,s bst known l,600m ourse, the Rowl.Ivlil. In his da th ristorti ownrs not

ativly assist th hors's movmnt. Iting Charls II won at last on ra t

and the modrn riding styls whih

George stubbs, portit of E|ipse, one of the outstnding raehorses of al| time; foa]ed in 1-]64 and nv baten. Below ar| mrning exerise fr a trainer,s string at Newmarket, one of th world.s most fmous aing etres.

ninetnth ntury ounterpafts, an

infrquntly rod their Wn horss' but s the sportprogrssd, so ntered th ag of the pofessionel joky, to b followd latr bv th profssionaI trai;rt- Crses

Nwmaket, whre King Clr:ls rlad j and kpt th ruls, vrall on-trol was.l. Chls ws aidd y.a Dotst squir . .]. _^l -^-^--..^11 D.-_:.^^ ^^-. -t named Trgonrell Ftmfon, a sort of. royal. rring rnangr-iim.trint 1ryho;

bgan to sring up all ovr th oun in the rly eightenth ltury but.l'ny of them wer disrpuabl plas. pt t


following his mast1s dath' maintaind his position of influen undr four suof th rors at Asot in Berkshire' now th venu of what must b the most notl Ia mting in the world _ the four days of Royal Asot vry Jun. Th gp lft whn Frampton did was not filld for a oupl of dads, but around 1750 ame an event whih was to hav tlr utmost signifin. This ws th formation of th Joky Club by group of sportsmen at Nwmrket. Its original aim was to regulariz nd ontrol raing t its own ntr, nd this ws evntually ahievd over a fily lengthy period y methodial aquisition of th frhold thre of all lands on whih th sport took plae. \Dith this proess ompltd, th Joky Club bam the suprm authority over this small ornr of Suffol\ nd its right to .wam off ny whom it onsiderd undsirabl ws rognized y th ourts
extndd until ll raeourss in th ontry ame under its agis. It assumed rsponsiiliry for santioning traks, approving progralmes, liensing offiials and framing th rgulations. Its rul ws absolute and it bme th modl on whih similar authoritis wr set up in the mn essiv sovrigns. On was Queen Ann, who was responsile for th onstrution

whos rly laim to fm was as th rdr of Highflyr. Und his rul th Joky Clu was strong nough in 1791, to warn off the Prin of Vals, later Gorg IV, aftr n inquiry into th suspiious irumstans onrning th running of
Bunbur ownd Diomed, winner of th first running of a r at psom tht was to bome th worlds prmier .lassi', the Drby. This ws in 1780 whn th movement away from tlre 6.4km (4 mil) ras of old was gthring momenrum and when th raing of younger horses ws boming mor fashional. Halfiray through the sevnteenth ntry fw horses rad bfor th wr fiv rs old. In 1744' fou-yar-old raing was introdud, to b followed a dozen yars later y raes for thre-ear-olds. Susequently rs wer
a hors lled sap.

An engraving ptures unhanged eitement as the winners pass the post at the end of a re at Asot Heath.

2,800m (17+ mile) St Lgr (1778) at th Donstr Sptmbr mting.

onl th toss of

- also

oin that didd it would e Lord Derby's name and not his that would b pptuatd by th psom lassi

Sir Chrls Bunbury's

era _ and it was

saw anothr signifiant dvelopmnt. This was th introdution of th

rid y th horses are allottd in aordan with thir known ability so as to

qulize thir hans. In th first impor-

handiap, a ra in whih th wights ar-

brought in for two-yr-olds and ven, for a

fw sasons, for yarlings. The oldst two-yar-old ra in existen - the July

in 1827. Graduall th lub's influn was

Staks, thn of 50 guinas eh _ was fust un over 1,000m (five furlongs) in 1786 at Nwmarkt, whre it hs n hld vry ear sine. bam th nimals for the pattern of supreme tests _ th lssi raes _ designd to stablish th ideai Thoroughred apl of raing over 1,600m (1 mile) in th spring through to 2,800 (1% mils) in the autumn. Th series begins with th ras

populr mdium for tting. Btting rmains th spords prinipal attration

finan. Wagring btwn individuals

rangd ftom 57 kg (9 st) to 33 kg (5 st 3 lb). Handips gratly inrsd ring,s hold on the puli, as they beam th most

tant handiap, th Oatlands Stks t Asot in 1791, the urdns imposed

and, in the modern era, its main sour of

But it was th thr-yer-olds whih

had always xistd, but as publi interest grw so did publi btting, their needs being atered fo b mn who offrd vry-

othr ountris to whih the Thoroughrd was spreading.

ing odds aginst h hors. Thes mn earnd th nm of bookmaker, through their hbit of reording details of transations in notbooks. Sir Chrls Bunbury was followed at th Gorg Bntink. During his omparativly short rign, this gntleman was responsibl for numrous innovations,
among thm th numbring of horss, th

ltd od, with xutiv powrs invstd in its stwards. In th lat ight-

Th Jokey Club was, and still is,

a slf-


ful personality. One of th first was

powr was oftn in the hands of on for-

enth and niteenth nturis' suh

Sir Charles


at Newmarkt in April over th Rowly ile, th 2,000 Guins for olts (estalishd in l809), and th fillis' equivalnt, th 1'000 Guins (18r4). Thse are followd by the 2,400m (1z mil) tsts on psom's downland iruit in.&lay or Jun, th Drby nd oaks (for fillies, first run in
1779). and tlren th oldst of thm 11. th

had of Jokey Clu affairs by Lord

played an important part in exposing the Running Rein fraud, when the olt of tht

introdution of raards and modrately ffiint starting y means of a flag' H

RA|NG & RA0Rss

triumph in hndiapping.

he FIying DuthmnNo|tigeur rae at York in 1851 . he former horse won this gieat math, a

proved to hv bn four-year-old namd

nm who won the 1834 Drby was later


amount idntial to th allown whih his published sal indiatd a fiv-yaold should give four-yar-old over 3.2 km (2 mils) in ay. In th vnt Th Flying Duthmn won th lbratd otst b what is quaintl dsried as . short

was 'vannd to Donastr to win th 1836 St Legr. At that tim horsboxs wr virtually unknown and horses w rquird to .Whn it bam walk to th rourss. known that lis was still in his stabl in th south of ngland a fw days bfor th St Lger' th ookmakrs, assuming a nonapparan on th day, xtndd th odds. lis ws pld in a spially-built van drwn by teams of horss nd rrivd in onntlons.

ing history whn th hors lis

Lord Gorg lso rnd

nihe in r-

tim to land a substantial gamble for his


desribd as the .first grat handiapper', and spnding a grt dl of his tim lulating thse wights, paradoially he

Third and last of th Trf .ditators' ws Admiral Rous. Though h was orrtly

of handiaps, rfring to thm as.boons to bad horss'. H is prini-

[or-ag allowanes h drw up to b usd

pally rmmbred for th sal of wight-

non-handiap ras. Rous's sal is basially th same as that still in us today) ove
100 yars latr.


Duthman _ th winnr of th Der and St Lgr in 1849, and Voltigur, who won the sam two ras th following year. Th Admial is said to hav spnt man hours dlibrting, but finally drd that th
old hors should onde 4 kg
(8 7z

ping ahivemnts was fo th Grt Mh of 1851 betwn Th Flying

One of Rous's most famous handiap-

th arrival of the settlers from th astm hemisphr, it xistd in arly olonil days. As sul howvr, it annot hav ben of muh aount, sine th first priority was to import horss suitable for agriulturl work. Quarter Iors raing_ so alld beause it was ptisd on rougl quart-mil sips lared in th virgin forsts _ nj oyd bief popularity and the Quarter rorss of tody a th fastst of all quines over a 4oorn (2 furlongs) gallop. But th sport proper did not gain a real hold until aftr th revolutionary war' whn among man influntial horss importd from Britain was Si Chrls Bunbury's Drb winnr Diomd. A failur at sfud in ngland, h was 21 efore ariving in North Ameria whr he soon bgan to produ offspring of fine quality. Anothr hors, .Nldly, who rahed Ameri in 1784' was also to hav n enormous effet on th volution of the Amrian Thoroughbd, whil two of th most suessful sirs in th history

Throughout this tim raing had been in othr lnds. In North Ameria' a ontinnt dvoid of horss until



sions, but stigmated in Britain y eing pronound ineligibl fo te Gnerl Stud Book. The stlitiv lauses whih prevntd th inlusion of ny of his stok, prinipally inodud in 1913 by th thn snior stward of th nglish Jok Club, Lord Jersey (th masurs were rfrred to as .th Jrsey At') rmind in xistne until aftr th Sond lD7orld War. Lexington's areer spanned the priod .War, of the Civil whih shattrd raing and breding in th southrn stats. But dvlopmnt ontinud ap in th north _ whe Nw York bam ma jor entr togther with th mid and far wst, as well .borde1 stats of aryland and Kenas th

tuky. Th lssi thre-year-old ras wr all institutd in th dad following

the Civil Wa. First am the Blmont Stkes in l867, ommemoating the nam

of leading owner nd brder of the day, August Blmont. Sine 1905 this ra has bn run at th famous Nw York ours' Blmont Park, ovr 2,40rn (1z mils). It was followd b th Prakness Stks (1,900 m' I rnile Iz furlongs) stablished in 1873 on th Pimlio ourse near Bltimor, arylnd, nd in l875' by th I(en-

tuky Drby (2,000 m' 1+ miles) at hurhill Downs, Louisville, I(ntuk1'. Thus
he Amin .Tripl Crown' prograrm

of raing in th Nw World

fiv tims lding sir, and Glno, who lft an indelibl mrk on both sids of th oan. The greatst Amrian-brd stallion of

Lviathan, who arived in 1830 and was


is of an ovrll lssr distane than its nglish nd Frnh ountrprts' a trnd ontinud throughout the Unitd Stats alendar, whih has relativly fw important tests longr than 2'4o0rn (1umiles). somtims trmed th .Goldn Ag' of ra-

Th 40 years following the Civil


ing in the Unitd States (and during it

lb), an

hampion sir on no fewr than 16 oa-

th ninetnth entury was Lexington,

Amrian-brd hoss egan to om to Britain ahiving no littl suss, notabl Iroquois, winnr of th psom Drb- jn



tarnishd through th mlpraties of

tflos onernd solly with .making a fast

1881)' but they also had a darkr side. The sport's image was beoming inrasingl

bul{. vn the formation Joky Clu on simi].r lins


of puli indignation, whih


orgniztion faild to stm th rising tide


to th

1894 of a


suffiiently strong to lead to raing being banned or severel urtaild in stt after

system th odds - or dividnds_ ar deided in diret relation to the amounts stked on

only arylnd and I(ntuky saped and vn in l(ntuky th thrat was ut narrowly avrtd. Shortly bfore th 1908 I(ntuky Drby, the lVl'ayor of Louisvill, bowing to prssu fom reform groups, nford an almost forgottn law prohiiting bookmakrs. Without the draw of betting it smd s if Churhill Downs would have to lose its gats. Iowvr, Col att l0inn' th man primarily responsibl for raising th lassi to its pla of honour, ovram the problem y borrowing an ida from Fran and introduing pari-mutul or totlizator wagering. In this
h hors.

rsulted in

Amrin brding is heavily inlind towards stisfing the needs of owners anxious for quik rrurns, and this has stok dsignd to win as two-year-olds. Iowver, th supriority of its middla

refrd to arlir was sold, offr th highst quality loodstok anwhere in th world. suh is th onrn for stndards that th autionrs rfus to apt an but th hoist for their atlogues, and in th July L976 sa|e' thy turned away narly 700 from n ntry of ovr 1,000.

Lexington. The I{nland Sals, where ttr reord-pied Sertarit yearling

thr did not bgin to gt under way in an

eordal mannr until more tha 2a ears aftr th nglish hd thir Joke Club. Thn wht littl oganization ther was disappard in the holoaust of th Revolution and th nsuing bb and flow of th Napoloni Wrs. It was an nglishmn, Lord Hnry

high prodution of sprint-brd

distane hoses in th 1960s nd 1970s has n proven in uropan lassi raes. Amerian ownrs and rdrs hav nver een fraid to tst thir bst animals to th limit and, beause of the sheer volum of

Fran. Literally, this was th Soiety to enourag th btterment of hors raing

intrsted in th soial aspt of th lub than in raing, thy ld brakaway group to form the Soi6t6 dnouragmnt poul ]]Am61ioration ds Raes de Chvaux n

thir fellow-membrs w

Symour (slightl ntri and Prisorn) who ws largely insumental in th rnissan of Frenh raing in the sond quartr of th ninetnth entury. With his los frind the Du dorl6ans, thn hir to th thron, h foundd the Jokey Clu in 1833 and, whn it eam ppant tha1

in Fran


evrywhre to th Soi6t6 dnourag.



ws soon bviatd

ah stat, howvr, stblished raing ommissions to lin taks and supevis mtings within its oundaries. The only authorizd form of gamling was
the totl stks being reamd off for th

attratd th attntion of lgislators, who sw in it a lurative and easily workabl form of tx gthring. Now th pendulum bgn to swing, and ring slowly ame bk into favour, with the Jokey Clu and its ssoiatd odis exrising ovrall ontol and guidan.

rs, this .mahine btting, provd an instant suss _ a suss whih soon

Faing no omptition from ookmk-

On stablished and rognd by th Governmnt, th Soit movd rapidl. In 1836 a nw raeours was opned nol far from Pris at Chntilly, and th training en whih has grown up around it now

the psom Drby, was foundd ther in 1836, and was followd within 10 yrs th other lassi ras, ttre Poul d'ssai ds Poulains nd th Poul d'ssi des Poulihs (equivalent to the 2,000 and 1,000 Guinas), th Prix de Dian (Frnh Oks) and th Prix Royal Oak (St Leger). 81oodstok in Frane was based entirel

rivls tht at Nwmarkt. T};.e2'4o rn(Il/z mils) Prix du Jokey Club, equivalnt to

on imports from ngland _ th Frnh almost lusivly onfined

through th totaliztos' a prntage of

being hannlled ak into the sport itself. Thus th mole attrativ the raing and th raourss' th mor mony the publi stakes _and th more money the various stat govrnments wr al to tak out (nd put bk in). Now th states thmselvs had vsted interst in th suss of th sport, but still its reovry was slow, for the lmost total stoppag had bn a virtual bod blow. Th bottom had dropthe period whn thr wre so few raing opportunitis and a great dal ofth bttr stok had en sold, muh of it at givaway pries owing to th prottiv measurs intodud by Britain and Frane. Iowvr, with th money supply sur gradual though it may hv ben, was rtai and now the Unitd Sttes holds the prmier position on th world raing stag. Ptize mon annually totals bout

stte's offrs nd nothr proportion

Tattooing the Upper Iip of Amerian hoses safeg uards a gainst fruduIent substitution i n
vaIubIe raes.

pd out of th bloodstok markt during

Deft in a major handiap arying a big wight is onsidrd no blot on reord. Suh a rigorous testing programm, plus a voraious aquisition of representativs of th worlds bst bloodlins, has brought the Amerian-brd raehors to an sen-

wothwhile opportunit, hampion may ra as mny as 30 tims during his arer.

the resurgn of Amrian


dan wll xemplifid by th nglish Derby susss ofsuh as Sir Ivor (1968), Mill Ref (1971) and Roerto (L972). In between am th vitory of Canadianred Nijinsk

apparently shattring blow to raing in Fran, yt rovry was drmatiall sped, as it was to b again after th I939_L945 onflit. The Prix d I]A d Triomph, now th geatst of all th international ras, was founded in I92 at

wer horss foald in Fran nd this prottiv rstrition was not totally removd for ovr 100 ars. Pris soon hd its own aours, Longhamp in the Bois d Boulogn, and the swift advn of th breding industry ws rownd in 1865 with the vitory of Gladiateur avengr of \07atr1oo' _ in th nglish Tripl Cown. Two yars earlir an xtra .lassi', th 3,000-me (1 mile 7 furlongs) Grnd Prix d Paris, on of th fw ras opn to foreign hallngers, had en foundd. Th First !orld War dlivred an

Pur Sng Anglis - but the ras

Thoroughbred ws and still is named th


$172'000,000 nd foal prodution eah yr stands at about 26,0o0, mor than tfue times th Bitish figur and about six tims grater than the other grat bloodstok produing] ountry, Fran. The prinipal brding ra is in Kntuk, th world-renowned .Blu Grass' ountry onntrated around th town of

rsurgne of th Fnh-brd. In 1976 suess in four ofth fiv nglish lassis wnt to horses from aross the Chnnl, nd thy also won numrous other big prizes, inluding the I(ing Gorg VI nd Qun lizath Stks. Frne, in ommon with othr uropan ontris, ws lat to entr th ring sn. Th sport

ost rntly tlrre has n



Longhmp. Raing is still on a mor limited sal than in Britain and thr ae fwer mjor ourses. ost meetings are onfined to wekends, with Sunday th most important day. But prize mon is

largr, thanks to the hug ash intak from th pentag ddution from th parimutul, the onl lgal form of betting. Th most popular pool is th Tir, on whih millions of frans ar invested on, and off th ours, by punters attmpting to forast the first *e in th big rae ofth dy.

A|NG & RAH0Rss


Raing at Deauvi||e, Frane. The Frenh horoughbred is based entire|y on its EngIish ounterprt nd has aIways been bed for its stamina as we|| s speed Right A Thoroughbred stud in the fabled ,BIue Grass, region of Kntuky, where many of Ameria,s fastest horses hve been bred

brdrs' prizs.

ross-hnnl ountrparts' sin this mony also llows for th provision of

Frnh drs r lso happir than thir

Th mphasis in Frn has always ben on stamina s wll as spd, and two-ear-old raing is opratd on a muh
th 1939_1945 war only thr Frnh horses hd won th nglish Dby, tlris poli or fruit thereftr, with seven Frnh-brd winns from 1947 (Parl
Divr) to 1965 (Sa Bird II). Sa Bird was
on of the outstnding Dry winnrs, nd

lowr sal than in Britain. Although up to

his unatn five-ra

length vitory

ree ndd with n astonishing six-


Triomph from Rlin, the Prix du Joky Clu nd Pri Roal Oak winnr. A grat hofse himslf' Relian was mad to look almost a sond-rat handiappr.

in th Pri d Ar

Th immdiat post-wal era will be forver rmmbrd in Britin for th eminn of horses ownd by.N1. arl Boussa, a lading ownr-brdr sin the
l920s. Thnks to his possssion of two

A|NG & RA0EH0ss

grat stallions, Pharis II and Djebel' h ttaind n aur of invinibility, winning th psom Dy and Oaks in 1950 with Galdor and Asmn, and hading th list of winning ownrs in Britin. Ie was

th fust Frnhmn to do so

Gladitu/s owne, Count de Lagrang,


to produe tough horss, with endurn and as muh spd s possil. ah stat hs its individual lassi programme, but ttrs ras are supplemetd by valuabl long-distane handiaps, like th 3'200m (2 mil) lbourn, Sdny and Brisbane

Italy is th most important of the othr uropn ring ountis, ut again hr start was lat' ilan, now th prinipal

industy is small, it hs hd disproportionately lag intrnational influn,

entr' had rgular mtings only from th 1840s' nd raing in Rom did not begin until 1868. Although the Italian rding

mor horss of top international lss nd two world-etrs, Naro nd Ribot, both

primarily du to th genius of one man, Fdio Tsio. H foundd what is now th Dormllo-Olgiata Stud on h shoes of Lke &laggior in 1898. Betwn 19l 1 nd his dath in 1954 Tsio produed 20 winns of th Italian Dey, a dozen or

off atttive btting opportunities. Ausali is on of th few ontris outsid Britain whre bookmakers an opat frly on ]r ourss. It was from Australia ttrat th fust Thoroughbrds reahd Japan in 1895. Th publi eadily took to th nw sport of raing, whih had bn introdud for native-bred horss t th instietion of

Cups, whih rry big prize money and

nglish rsidnts around Yokahama about 25 years earli. Sin th Sond \Dorld .Wa _ nd in 1945 only 542 mares remained _ Japanse raing and breeding has made immns strids. Fol prodution is now unning at 7,000 nnually, but lthough Japanes buyrs hv paton2ed th wolds bst markts for their foundation stok, thy hv yet to show that th anprodu animals of intrnational lass. Raing as h dos in about 50 ountris,
proved himslf to b n xtrmly adptabl niml. But his sussful breding to high stndrds dmands an equabl, temperate limat, suh s tht existing in prts

th Thooughbrd has


Dontllo II, both eam leading sirs in ngland, nd Naro's son Nasrullah and grandson Bold Rul reignd suprme in the Unitd Stats, whr Ribot vntually hld ourt. Th hors was unknown in Ausalia nd New Zealand whn th early nglish sttlrs landed thr in th lat eighteenth entury. Now th Antipods rank sond only to North Ameria in numrial terms, with more than 25'000 raehorses ompting fo prizs worth an annual A$25 million. The breeding industry is thriving, but imported stallions still onstitut over 50 per ent of th leading 500 sies list. In Ausli th poliy has always bn

undfated throughout thir rrs. Nearo and anothr Tsio hampion,


Australia, New Zalnd, Japan and, to a lesser xtnt, South Afia. ]Vlodern i tanspot failitis hav led to th spad of intrnationl bding, but intrnational omptition on a global basis is still pr-

of urop, North Amria, Argentina,

vntd by insuprabl diffrns in satks, alimitisons' training mthods,.Washington Intrzation and so on. Th national, u vry Novmber at Lurel Park in rylnd, is n xption, but this is an invittion vnt whih ows its suss in no small msue to th ffots of

who sous the ma!or raing entrs of th world seking possibl ontstnts. vn so h does not always sud in obtinig the bst vailabl eprsentativs. The grading ofras in h ountry has gratly assisted the worlds breedrs to lassifu thi hoss. Usually suh gading dpnds on priz mony and th numr of gadd vnts for eh ountry is in dirt poportion to th totl numer of es run' mitt ws st up in 1960 with th im of poviding a omplet systm of tsts for ttr st horss of all gs ovr all distnes. Otlrr ountries adoptd similr poliis. I Britin and urop ther rr 297 Pat-

Laul Park presidnt John D. Shpiro,

so and ookmakrs nd totlizators xist sid-y-sid, ut th formr mak thir ontibution in th sums xttd from thm annually by th Lvy Board. lVtost British wagring is off th ours, ithr by rdit or in sh though th 14'000 or so btting .shops' of whih only very fw are run by th.totalizator. Th Llry Board is able to provid ovr !6 million nnually from totl btting tunover of !2'000 million. Raourss reiv fixd amounts aoding to thir grading, and also put up mony themslvs. ownrs ontribut to thir own prizs by way of
th totl is provided through sponsors. Although th bsis remin th same'


latr' th fust volume of lhe Generl Stud This now appars vry four yars

and rgisters the dtils of

Irland. Th 1Watherb firm has bn trnsformd into a highly ffiint modrn

stools of Jams's d rplad by a omputr whih stors th rords ofvry horse

Thoroughbrd foald in Grat Britin or


businss, with the quill pns nd high

and ownr, bulats th form, grads th

hors for ntry and vn, with a littl human assistane, produes th handips.

nty fes and stkes, and ovr a quater of

lat th moto ar, th sport has bom a

th ring sen hs alterd dastilly sin Admil Rous's da' I0ith irasd publi mobility, fust via rail transport and

shpd .dird traks lsting a month or more

ound, with metings on rgular, oval-

Raing on the world stage is flt raing. In th Unitd Stats it oprats all th yr

t time' In urop, th raing-on-grss season runs only from arh to early

Novmber, but thr

major entrtainmnt. Thnial

In Britin the Pattrn of Raing Com-

Grdd Stkes. Priz mon mins th inntiv irr all ontris olrr than thos wher raing is totally stat run. Th mony dirtly ffts th quality of th horss, th lvl of entertainmt offrd to th publi and th posprity of the supporting brding industy. Bttig, through lre perng
lrg, ssurd inom whr mahin bettig has monopoly. In Britain this is not

trn rs in 1976; North meical:ad27

Provmnts hav inludd th mhanial strting stalls to pla the rising tap .gats' whih vn Rous nevr sw' At the other nd th photo-finish has bome an indispensibl id to judges, nd indd th whol r is rordd on film by mans of paol mas mounted at vantage points. Suh film is immdiatly availabl to th
stewads t the nd of th ae to hlp thm ome to dision if ny inqu should b


ring, sgd ovr fns or hurdls and, in Britain and Iland at last' attlating almost .th flad. as larg following as National Hunt raing an nvr gain the brothr, mainly baus

gamd. This

is National llunt

is also th .wintr

intrntional importan


of its

dos not, by



nary ontrol, with finan in tlr hnds of the I-vy Board, but dy-to-day administation is still ied out by th fmily fum of .Wethrb, foundd by Jams Weathrby

Th Joky Club mains in disipli-

deduted fom totliztors, povids

wh h was appointd Kep of tlr ath Book to the Joky Clu in 1773. Sholy aftrwrds h began publishing

Raing has become a huge industry round the wor|d, with mi||ions invested in breeding nd betting. opposite top: Ring on a snowy oUrse at St. Moritz, Switzer|and. opposite bottom: A re in the A|garve rggion of PotUg| -afar cry fom Epsom, Longhmp or LaureI Prk, but sti|| hot|y ontestd whteve the prize. below left: he paddok sene at F|emingto Raeouse in Me|boune, AustraIi, with runners being esoted to the stat. New ZeInd and AustraIia have some 25,000 horses ompeting
annu a||' b e l ow ri g ht.' r he start of f at e i n Frankfut, Gemany, using the stfting sta||s.

the Rcing Clendr and thn, 20 years


ovr hurdls and fenes. The fist annual

ritor of th Turf Iotel, an e-ahors traine namd Tom Colman. Th first St Albans' Steeplhas -. .a sweepstaks ol 25 sov ah' _ drw 16 Strtrs nd rvas rpetd ah season, attrating th st horss nd riders, until l839. This was to


jumping meting was inauguratd at Sl in 1830' organizd by th prop.

be a ear of onsiderable signifine in

ah, 5 forfit, with 100 sov addd _ ws won by Lottry, a 16 hands bay hors, riddn by one ofth lading professionals of t}r day, Jm .Nlason. ah hors arrid 76kg (L2st), and th 6.4km (4 mil) ours' most of it ovr plough, ontind 29 ostals. Ths varid from smll banks to mssive stone walls, and inludd two brooks to b jumped. One of them is still known today as Bh1s Brook aftr th Cptin Bher who am to grief ther riding Conrd. Lottey's time ws rorded as 14 min. 53 s. _ wll ovr five
minutes longr thn is tkn in presnt da

fust running of wht has eome the gratest steplehs of thm all, th Grand Ntional at Ain, near Livrpool. This rae - .a swepstaks of 20 sov

stplehasing histor sin it brought the

The wor|d,s

reatest steep| ehase, the


Nation|, inorporates 30 fenes in 4Yz mi|es' Probab|y the most fmous fene is the formidab|e Beher,s Brook' whih has to be negotited twie on the ourse.

obsrvd glloping hadlong over a gte, his ompanions assumd his horse was bolting. Th British nlosur Ats of th

something of a rarity. On on oasion whn th Duke of Dvonshir was

mind and most of th lading performers stem from rnowned Anglo-Irish jumping

itslt support a larg brding industry. Some horses are rd with jump raing in
.familis., ut th majority of the run-ofth-mill partiipants r horss who, for on rson or anotllr, hav eithr proved unsuital for flt raing or hv outlived thir usfulnss in t}rat sphr. The ras, either ovr fns of birh or

gors (alled steplhases) or hudles, ar longr (th minimum is 3,200 m, (2 miles)) and ontested y older animls. Nlost of

mnt that a omptitiv elment arose, whih found expression in maths in whih on young lood would test his
hors and his ability against another aross fild, hdg and dith, usually with substantial sum wagrd on the outome. Ths mths wre ovr ntural ouny, from on landmrk to nother, and wht mor ovious landmark in th ightenth entury British ountyside than the stple ofthe villag hurh. Ine th

seventeenth and eighteenth nturies, howvr' brought th spread of hdgs, dithes, timb rils and othr obstls aross th lnd nd the followrs of th hs found it essntial to teah their horss to jump if thy wr to sta with th hunt to the end. nthusiasts so muh enjoyed this nw nd exiting devlop-

big, upright hdges paked with gors

annually xtrtd havy toll. Although the hav een modifid in rnt ers they rmain formidabl obstales. The nms of some of them - Bhe1s Brook,

establishd'hasr, bing at least a dozen tims mor vluble than th Gold Cup whih was stblishdjn 1'924 as th prinipal lvel wight tst for th staying'hasers. Aintr's ours was uniqu' and its

Grand Ntionals. IJntil soon after the Seond World Wr the Grnd National ontinued to hold sway as th only worthwhil pr for the

th Canal Turn' Valntin's Brook' the Chair - are emblazond in th history of the world's grtst stplhase.
b man to hav ben the finst of t}rm

Grand Nationl. Golden iller, laimd

Som magnifint horses hv won th

life than her flat raing sistrs nd so will

as grat an

an whil th suessful jump raing mr will fquntly be used for reding' she will have omptd until muh latr in
opportuniry to produ

the male horses taking part are gldings

offspring. In this sphr stallions often bom known as bgttrs of .jumping blood only aftr thy ar dad, sin

steplehasers usully do not ahieve thir st until th ag of nine or tn.

huntd to liv; whn this m no longr nssary' hunting ontind as a sport' minly indulged in y the aristroray of the day. &lountd on horseak, thy pursued a vriety of quary; th stg, the oar, nd later, th fox. arl hunting in muhforstd Britain was a slow business,.but' as th land bam mor open, so the spd inreasd. Iounds wer brd to run faster, and horss had to e faster to kp up.


Hunting is th dirt anstor of Time was when man

pipe of port and a quartr sk of old

Jmaia rum'. Th first half of the nineteenth ntury rought a gradual division oftlr sport' on

rordd mathes, and rtainly the most elebrtd, took ple in Co. Cork, Ireland, in1752' whn Cornlius lCallaghan and dmund Blake sttld an rgumnt as to th reltive mrits of thir huntrs by galloping the 6.4 km (4 mils) from Buttvant Churh to St Leger Stepl. Blak won, and his prize was . hogshead of lart, a

name stplhs. One of th rlist

and suessful in five onseutiv hltenham Gold Cups, won in I94. Rynoldstown eame a dul winnr in 1935 and 1936' a fat not surpassed until th mighty Rd Rum triumphd io L973' I97 4 and 1977 . L,sargot, who bat Red Rum in a memoral 1975 ontest, had landed Gold Cup vitories in 1970 nd 1971 for his Amerian owner, Ra5lmond


Gust. But it is thorougy appropriat that th fifst nm on the ro11 of honour should have been that of Lottery, for with th hug fields _ oftn 30 o 40 strong - and with the handiap wights ting as th

pointing, nd th ottrr gathring round it

half retaining th ssntially amatur, hunting-ased elment whih was to eome the foundation of point-ton inresingly profssional ura, with
res on rgular publi ourss

remarkbl upsts and dramas. By th 1960s the Grand National was no longr out on its own in th priz money staks. Thanks to th dvnt of ommrial sponsorship there ar now a seris of rih prizes to b won b'hsers and hurdlrs, whil th injtion of Lvy Board funds has lifted the value of established ras lik th Chltnhm Gold Cup and

grt lvllr, thre hv en some

Jumping in th hunting field ws still

Champion Hurdle

- both also partlysponsoed _ to mor resptbl levels.



Committ of its own to plan th main

Ntionl Iunt raing now hs


his nfored rtiremnt in 1966 with a raked pdal bone, had won 27 races, inluding thr Chltnham Gold Cups, rning total of f73'6L7 for his owner, Anne, Duhss of Wstminstr. In operation in Britin toda I}:ere are62 raourss' staging som 5,500 flat and Nationl runt ras annull. Nwmarkt rmains xlusivel a entr for flt raingl Chltnhm is th iumping ountpalt. But mny othr ourses promot both.ods' and in the spring and autumn .mixd mtings xtremly popular. Th .jumping gam' hs never eally aught on othr than in Bitin nd Ireland. urop has on oI two annual .sptulrs', like th Grand Pardui in Czehoslovkia (lly mo of a Iossountr ra). Thr ar som wint opportunities for hurdlrs and stplhasrs in Northrn Itly, whil th bstknown entrs in Frn ar t Autuil
and Enghien. Autuil is th venu' vry Jun' for the

rv out a worthwhil arr without undrgoing rh gruelling tst at Aintr. on who did so in th 1960s was th now legendary Irish'hasr Arkle, who bfor

vnts ofth sason and stplhasers an

6.4km (4 mil) Grand Stplehs

th ground so as to slope away from th approahig fild. Th hight from top ar hurdles ar lowr and fixed upright, and a hors n rush through the top half. rly Amian jump raing was' lik its British ounterpart' bsd on the hunting

sheep, but led with gors and stuk into

whr th hurdles ar rathr similar to those wih whih a frmr would pn his

hudle raing, th prinipl vnt ofwhih is the Grnd Cols d His dAuteuil. Again th obstals r somwhat diffrnt from thos found on British ourss'

of th prizes on offr ar still mouthwtering by British standards. Thr is also good mony to be won in Frenh

h |egendary Rd Rum at exerise on the sands at Southport, ng|and, the setting for muh of his traiig. Winner of three Grand Ntiona|s nd twie rUnner-UD, he holds unique pIae in raing history.

to ground is l06m (3ft 6ins). Frenh

But on regular traks it had a latr eginning and it was not until 1865 that th fust A novie hurdIe rae at Kempton Park

whih istd on the astrn

Rubio (in 1908) and th 15 hands Bttlship (1938) wr Amrian winnrs of th Aine Grnd Nationl and in 1965 Jay Trump bam th first hors to pull off th aryland Hunt Cup/Grand National doul. }Ie ws ridden in oth his rs y
mtur, r Tommy Crompton Smith. Th amatur has always been strongly reprsentd in th jumping gam. on the flt, jokeys and trinrs ar liensd professionals and although few rs ar st aside for both mal and fmal amateurs' th n nvI ompet aginst thir paid

Iently ben attrating entris fom aross th Atlanti. Th New Zea7andbrd Grnd Canyon, ined in Britain, won in Novembr 1976.

4.5km (2 mils 67z furlongs) ovr brush fnes, was stblishd in 1970 and hs

his owner, th then lading Amrian

Eng|and. HurdIing often forms the trnsition between f|at ring nd steep|ehsing for the sIightIy sIower-paed f|at e horses'

the National Stplehase Assoiation,

Amrian stplhas was rordd. Thirty years latr rought th formation of

publi following orded to flat ing

ut th sport nvr hievd th enormous

mor than hurdles, othrs ar ig privt hdgs, and thre is th osional ank with a small brush fn on top. It was in this rae in1962 that Frd l0inter, perhaps th gratst nglish steeplehsing rider of 1l time, hivd undying fam by riding to vitory on th gallnt littl Frnhrd bt nglish-trined andarin, aftr its rubbr it had brokn bfor th fourth fn. Th months arlier andarin had won the Cheltenham Gold Cup.
definitly th poor rlation of th flat' som

Grand National, though th ostales ar very diffrent from Aintree. Som ar littl

Paris' oftn efrrd to as the Frnh

National, thouglrin reality th two evnts dissimilr. he aryland mting is more lik an nglish point-to-point, with th rowds piniking on hillside ovrlooking th ous. Th big a is
ar totlly

howev' nd th aryland Hunt Cup is often liknd to the Aintr Grand

stales at. major ntres grdually diminishd. It is not ntirly defunt,

and, as nthusiasm wand, as over ob-

are always smaller _ somtims as fw as

undulting ountry than Ain. Filds

over 6.4km (4 mils) of muh more



Though Frnh stplhasing is

amaturs. Th obstales ar fid timr ils, with whih no librties n e tkn. Strngly, t a time of dwindling intrst

_ nd all ridrs must

a nw $100,000 rae' th Colonial Cup

mounts agairrst horses traind y profssionals and, lik thm, an usuall hoos eithr amatu or profssional jokys. In point-to-pointing, th third lemnt of th aing sn in Britain and Ireland, the professional is pohiited. Priz mony is rstritd to altifiially low lvls and

tions ths .mteur' trainers an put

immedit family, ar issued with .prmits' to train. Sujet to rtin rstri-

Int traine holds a professional line, but whol rm of men nd women prparing thi own horss, or thos of their

litrally rub shoulders in rae and wighing-oom. In Britin a Ntional

ounterparts. This is not the as in National Iunt raing, whr th two sids


RA|NG & RAH0ss

onomis of th ountrysid and th inreasd moility of th un population providd by the advnt of the motor ar. Iunt ommitts wre finding it inrasingly diffiult to ris th mony ssentil to maintain thir usual levl of sport nd

the annual rae mting hangd from a loal soial osion into a mjor mony-making ativity, with very ffort mad to draw th paying ustomrs. The National unt Committ, jalous of th rival attration offrd to ra mtings

proper' has alwas st its fe against prmitting individul admission hargs, but ar-prking fes ould not ruld out. In onsequn, these now make up th prinipal soure of rvnu for th narly 200 metings staged in th Fbruary to early Jun sason. Venus ar hosn with th

in mind, and ar-parks, fes fo whih rang from !1 to !5, are prefraly sitd on hillsids from whih all the day's raing an b seen. Ntural ontry has givn way to mad fens, idntial in strutur, but slightly
steplhase ourss. Inded, som meetings ar stagd on defunt reourss' lik Twsldown,

smllr thn those on

Bukfastleigh nd Bogsid, whre

is dntralizd and in amateur hands. It is, in fat, still based faily and squarly on th same hunting fild from whih its snior

b the National Hunt Committ,

th organiztion, subjet to ovrll ontrol

Patnr sprang. Somewhre along th

ninetnth enlry road of devlopmnt

fork was rahd; th infant National Hunt Committ, fully oupied with its
stblished ourss, was quit ontnt to leav individual Iunts, whih through thei Mastrs xerisd sponsibl utlrority, to run an annual fixtur for their

he field streams over fene at a these oigina||y began with Wagers between hUnting men on raes run Iiter| |y from,point to poi nt,. Now they a e rU n on a more sophistiated and orgnized basis b hunts, Iike mini re meetings and ttract a |rge folIowing.

rmain an lso b utilizd' Fequntly sverl Hunts will shar th sm ours, whih hlps edu finanial outlay.

pnanent buildings and grandstands that


Th normal progamm ompriss five or six ras, ll of thm a minimum of 4.8km (3 mils). On will b onfind to mmbers of th promoting Hunt (this is
whr one usully ss th genuine huntrs), thn thr ar a oupl for horss

efforts to rgulriz jumping mtings on

to-point aspet gav way to start and


add to th intrst, th litrl point-

from th half-a-dozn or so adiant Iunts, and two so-alld Opn ras,

finish sitd at

t}r sam spot' so ourss bame round, ovl, oblong' triangular or, osionally .thr-and-blc wittr flags to

own njomnt. Thus th privat maths from whih steplhasing grew ontinued mong hunting folk and bame nd-of-sson .jollis' whr tlr sportsmen rd thir huntrs gainst one

mark turning points. Th arly point-topoints wr solely for mmbes of th

Iunt, with a prize for th fust

fild dspathd from on sPot by th statr and ordered to gallop to nothr' prhps 8 to 10km away (5 to 6 mils), hoosing thir own rout. Little attntion was paid to th neds of spetators. Th lol ountry popl would gathr at vantag points n oute, or mor likly nr the finish itselt whe the brathlss winnr would riv his piz, whih might b a small purs mad up from a swpstak, or a trophy presntd by th Hunt. Gradually the osion bm a foal point in th Hunds alndar and th soial

anothr aross natural ouny. These were the rl .point-to-points', with th

harrywight, the first srving offier, the first farmr and so on - a adition maintaind to this day in rtin ross-ountry ras lik th elton ride, whih regularly draws filds 60 to 80 song in Listrshir ah Fruary. Latr, programms of four or fiv as wr introdud, drawing ontstants from nighbouring Iunts.

th Unitd Kingdom. Sin th advent of sex quality' ladies nd mn may ompt against h othr. Bfor the nw lgislation th ladis' opn rae was oftn th most popular on th ard and, with a minimum wight quirment of 70kg (11 st) instad of 80kg (12 st 7lb)' wre run at a sorhing pe thfoughout.

whih, as thir nam implis, an b ontstd b horss qulifid with an Hunt in

Courses were still ovr ntural ountry,

although, to nourag fastr raing, som

of th hdgs bgan to be a .improvd.


Baus of thir popul4rity the division has ben retained, with th othr Opn ra onfind to mn. Thr is not inonsidrabl affi between 1l the typs ofraing that have bn disussd in this hpt. From flat raing to hurdling is a simple stp. Th hurdler an grduat with great diffiulty to stplhasing, and then nd his das happil as a huntr/point-to-pointr.

stg from Novmbr to Mrh, but th ned for spd in th hunting fild was

hd arrid their owners in pursuit of fox or

Th horses wr still th huntrs that

lading to a greatr use of

spt gaind emphsis. A marqu or two would be ertd nar th finish nd th

Thoroughbrd, or t last th pogny of


has always ben its .glorious unrtinty'. Shining lassi prospts at two an turn

Part of the fasintion of horse raing

oppotunity sized to entrtin th loal frmers by way of thanks for thi having llowd th Hunt ov hir land during

the prding season. Ths slightly

vn early in th nintnth ntury, Dik Christian was prolaiming, .I nevr hard of a grat thing in the hunting field yet it was done by a Thoroughbrd, and today th boolc.

Thooughbd sir and a huntr mare.

into bottom-weight failures in minor hurdl hndiaps at fou - and a point-to-point hampion at svn. A sprint-rd two-

er-old an nd

important fatur of th day for mny yrs, but now have almost ntirly disappeared.

buoli farmes' lunhs rmaind an

.in th maiority of horss ompeting ar

Breeding hs always bn an inxat sien and .paying for pedigr' hs often sultd in badly burnt fingers. Thos who ing mentioned t the outset will b hoping that this time th have got things right.
bid th $l,500,000 for the srtariat yarl-

up tripl Grand Nationl winnnr _ as Red Rum provd.

th twntith entry was mouldd by the

Th evolution of point-to-pointing in



p ou riding and its ltd .t-z qustrran ndvours' omptltlv

tril nd long distne riding ar omparadvl rnt additions to th great vrity of spots in whih mn and horse partiipt together. Grat effort and ourag is

quird ftom th hos in this instan, as wll as an appliation nd dedition from t idr. As its nam sggests it is a suprme test, for grt distans a ovrd ovr all types of trrain) in sometims dibolial limti onditions. At the finish of a 120 km (75 mile) or 160 km (100 milg) 1idg' !6th partis must be in fit state to rn aound nd go again - uly a feat of nduan. .\lthough the yongst of th qustrian rs, endurne riding has a large intrdonal following. In its prsent form it bgan litd mor than 20 years ago in th

Unitd Stats whr

gst varity of horses and ponies imginal. Indd it is on of th sport's min trations tht no spifi typ of hs is nedd in order to partiipate and
nduan rides in Amria, I hav om oss the typial Amerin brds suh as

widst rang of ridrs mountd on th

dd efor athing on in Austalia. .\!'oe ndy, Grat Britin' South Afri. , New Zea|and, and !st Grman hv om similrl involvd. Among its nthusiasts, may b found ttr


flourished for

A group of ompetitors on a |ong-distane

|ong ago when horses wee man,s only form of tnspot, is one of the most ent of ompetitive events. Very popuIar in the US, it is a suoreme test of a horse's stamina.

ride. This spot, a|though its origins date from

omplet th ourse sussfully. In

Apploosa, organ, Quartr llors,

ovrll than an other brd. lloss are rquird to be fiv yrs of ag or older bfor thy an ompte; thr is no maximum or minimum ag for rids and vry young hildrn oftn ompete, aompanid by an adult. The olltive tn .long distan rid-

Ieovery to norml aft healry xrtion. If a fit young hors has sttld into th routine of trvelling smoothly nd ffiintly nd is unflustrd by extranous ativity, h will rgistr be,ttr rovry than on who is larmd by all the unusual happnings of th rid. CTRs rang in distan from th lower

limit of 40 km (25 mils) to th upward limit of 96km (60 miles) in on day in

^\[ol, Standrdred, Sddlrd nd lkirg llors, as well as th Araian, hooughbrd, Connmara and l0lsh. In Bitin rang of reds is not so grat, u h Araian and Thoroughbrd nd thir osss are a popular hoie, as ar

ing' ovrs th sport's thr major aspts.

tion to nwomIs by patiipating in shorter-distaned plasur rids, of betwn 23km (15 mils) and 46km (30

In its lowr hlons it offrs an introdu-

Bitain. Amria stages a great numbr, rnging from 40 km (25 miles) in one day up to 160krn (100 mils) run ovr thr days. Grman has many ids run along similar' although not idntial lins, with awards going to horss in th bst ondiours in fit ondition and approimating to idal timing. Th top rung of th long distane riding laddr is nduran riding with ourss anging in Britain from 80 km (50 mils) to 160km (100 mils) in one day, and in

tion and also to thos omplting


s' Vestphalians, Holstinrs, Grman Tottes nd Bndnburgs will b sen as

ll as suh non-Gmn breds s No-

rossed witlr Araian o Thoroughbrd, as lll as many importd brds. On Grm2nf S l60km (100 mil) rid from Hambug to Ianover, rpsntativs of suh ntionl eds as Ianovrians, Trakhn-

huntrs and a varity of obby types. T .ger ntiv brds ar usd, som

mils). Ths ar idal for novie ridrs, andi or horss and ing non-omptitiv, provide an opportunity to learn to travl quietly nd omptntly over varity of travelling in ompany, so that whn ridr wants to turn to ompetitive iding' his mount will have ahivd a fair amount of mntal nd physial stability on the trail and is thus ale to op with th stsss ngenderd by omptition. Comptitiv trail ids ar th nxt stp. hse are judgd rids in whih ther is a
sped braket whih vris slighdy in diffrnt ountris. Th prim judging fto howvr, is overll fitness of horss bfor, during, nd aftr th omptition. All CTRs hav winning and plad horss, th ritria usd bing prft time sor and a vlrinry assssmnt nompassing

terrain. Young horses bom usd to

Amri from 40km (25 mils) up

163 km (102 mils).

Thr is a strong mov in Amria now to hv a low limit of


wgian Fjords' !elsh Cobs, Aras, Lipizz:ianes' Iungarian Halfbloods, Hafl ingers and Ilndi ponis.
h t-vp of hors used is ver wide inded,

Fom just thes thr partiipating ountris it an b sn that th sop for

lough thos popl who ally bom
involvd, gnerlly find the lean thlti p of hos is th most suitbl nd sussful. Aras and Aabian rosss are notl for nj oing markdly greatr suess

many aspts that indit fitnss. Th major strss fators r thos relating to puls and rspiration and th speed of

bing that ids of this distan nd aove indu greater aution in omptitors. Grman has rides of 80 km (50 miles) up to 160 km (100 miles); Nw Zaland has a lowr limit of 72krn (45 mils) and prsentuppr limit of l20 km (75 mils), whilst Austrlia has the famous Quilty 160km (l00 mil) rid and a numr of shortr 80km (50 mile) rids. Souttr Afria has a series of 80 km (50 mil) rides and a major 220fur, (130 mil) ride eah year. An ndurane rid winnr is the fastst fit hors over th distan, and th tims turnd in on som of th ndurn rid-e.

80km (50 mils) to stop ovr-stssing horss at too high spd, th feling


undr 12 hours. Th 80 km (50 miles) rids onsistntly show winning tims around th fiv-hour mark. Th leading ountry in this sport is undoubtdly still th United States, whose inaugurtion egan in 1955 with th first

ar a tribut to th stamina and ourag of th horss taking part. Som of the 160 km (100 mile) rides hld ovr rally tough trrain are rpeatedly won in riding tims of

running of th Tvis Cup. This 160km (100 mil) ride was originall run from Lake Taho to Auurn, California ovr the Sirra Nvda and was mappd out .Westrn along th old Stats Trail that arried hordes of hopful minrs during th Clifornia Gold Rush, as wll s th equll aquisitive pionrs, hding fo th Nvad Silvr Lod. grippd th nthusiasm of thousands of Amerian horsmen so that this rid has blossomd into a fistful of similar distand rids run nationwid, with mor thn 150 shorter, ut dmnding, events

Sin thn, endurn riding


filling ah ya1s long distan alndr.

rgional, as would xpted whn suh enormous trritoris ar ovrd, but two in partiular an b termd ntional. Th Amrian nduran Rids Confrne ontrols th nduran sid and th North Amerin Trail Rid Confrn govrns omptitive trail iding. other egional bodis ar th Paifi Northwest nduran Systm; th idwest nduran Syswhih atrs for both enduran and ompetitiv trail rids, and th astrn States Comptitiv Trail Rid Assoition. The Roky Mountin Trail Rid Sstm oprats ovr ontana and Idaho, and thr are man loally based groups that run unofflial rides prior to joining into th systm bst suitd to their ativity and loale.
tm] the ast Coast Tril Rid Assoiation

Assoitions xist solely to hlp run th sport's mn aspets. an of ths r


any of th brd assoitions r realizing t distan riding is th idal

he AppaIoosa gained its name from the PaIouse river in the Iands of the Nez Per Indians; th beed descends from Spanish stok. he AppaIoosa Hose CIub Registr was .l97 to Iook after the interests of founded in the beed, and is one ofth breed assoiations testing and promoting horses by entering them in endurane rides. Below A sene ta veterinary hekpoint on th San Antonio 50-miIe ride he hea|th nd wel|-being of the equine ompetitors is igorousIy srutinised on all rides by veterinary speiaIists; the fitness of the horse is n important pat of winning in ompetitive riding. |t is not nough just to reah the finishing post first.

One of the most gruelling - and the most fmous - of the Amerian rides is the evis Cup, so named fter a president of the WeIIs Fargo Compny, L|oyd Tevis The ride foIIows the route of the Compan,s express riders and stage oahes, and takes oU over the Sierra Nevda range, from snowy mountain |imbs to valleys in sweltering heat. 100 miles must be overed in one day, and onIy the fittest possibIe horses omp|ete the ride opposite .bottom: he pproach to Cougar Rok, one of the |andmarks of the ride and a stiff |imb, fop

left: tCougar Rokitse|f toprighti AooIing moment for both horse and rider in th San Antonio 50-mile ride. Variety of terrain is part of the ha|Ienge of endurne riding.

tsting ground for thir horss, and many brdrs ar using th sport to plov their stok. Th undoubted leader in this is th Appaloosa Hors Clu Rgistry. Thre is lso onsidrable mount of vtrinary rsarh bing don in Amri on distane rides, in an ffort to determin what rl1 maks a hors suessful. From th results it is apparent that th lightr typ of hors is mo to th fore, and winnrs and plaing horss onsistntl weigh aout 430kg (960lbs) or lss. A real ross-ountry ndurane test, run in th 1976 Bientnnial year, was h Grt Amrien Iors R from New York to Sarmnto, Clifornia. For the 4,800km (3,000 miles) plus ours h entrant was allowd two mounts _ on ld whi1 th othr was riddn. It gan ovr th Nlmorial Day wknd in ay and th shduld finish was Labour Dy in Sptemr, thus kping horss n route for a littl ovr thr months. Vtrinry rinarins on the Tvis and othr enduran rids. Th winnr from 100 ntries

suprvision was drawn from top vt-

was Vrl Norton riding a mulI





Anglo-Arab gelding. An up-and-oming

partnership is Luri Bethun ad Flika, a partbrd Aab plomino mare) and Phil Poto with Flla ar notiabl for aking th Ara dominane, Flla being a bay gelding of mixed Standrdbrd nd Hak blood. work towards th 160 km (100 mil) rid in one day. As in othe ountries wher the hors tivit, many ridrs ar joind in a dediatd group whih keps nthusiasm gowing by ative PtiiPtion. Currntl in Britain thr r two bodis involved with long distn iding. On is undr th gis of th British Hose Soiety whih oprtes stion for long distn riding. It runs a series of lol Goldn Iorssho Qualifying Rides of 64 km (40 mils) and finl omptition of 120km (75 miles) run ovr two dys on xmoor, in Somrst. Thr ar also plans fo xpanding th sop of rids. The othr bod is th nduran Hors and ony Soiety (HPs), a national body whos sol onrn is the managernnt of rides and th dissmintion of idas and pratial information gaind from veteri.

Plans for Nw Zlands futur ar to

sport has not long emergd s a maior


nry eserh and tual rid dat. Th

A Germn ompetitor sponges down his dun Norwegian Fjord sta||ion t the ha|f-Way hekpoint and veterinary inspetion on the Summer SoIstie ride.

run in limti onditions whre tmpturs and humidity soar, and ovr a tough


Three notbl nduran ridrs in th Unitd Stts ar Dr. Rihard Barsaleau, DVNI, also on of th natiorfs leading nduran judgs, and s a rgular and sussful omptitor in the Tevis and

othr enduran rids, he ss both sids of

th oin; Appaloos breder

Shron Saar, vry experind nd onstntly sussful omptitor who rids a viety of horss' nd Jn \trorthington' who has ttr outstanding rord in the astrn

Bln Surat. othr ountris hv drawn havil on th trid and proved formt used in th Unitd Stts both for ndurn and omptitiv trail rids, with Australia being on of the fust to tkl a 160km

160km (100 mil) ride at som tim with her rossbrd Appaloosiarr/Araian mar,


of having won

very thr-day

with ll nduran rid systems th help of veterinary surgons is ssntial and the Austrlians hv bn ble to 1l on th xprin of a tam from the Sydney Veterinary Shool t amden. Nw Zland also has a vry thriving, although young' endurne riding struture nd almost ll th rids r in the ndurn ategory. orrly on or two ar run long omptitive trail rid lines. Up until rntly, thr hav ben ight mjor stablished nduran rides, fiv in the

Sin 1966, th Austrlian enduran sn hs grown) with new rids onstantly bing inluded and also with a Ntional Assoiation being formd to guide th spot along th right lins. As

South l0als.


th Blu ountins of New

work of rids thoughout th ountry, th enduran rides following th Tevis Cup formt, the omptitive trail rides following along very similar lins to thos usd by the North Amerian Trail Rid Confrn. In 1975 the HPS ran its first 160 km


was foundd

in L973 and

has a nt-

(100 mil) rid

Hampshir with

nary advisors, l\,Lessrs R. G. Orton, Rvs, John Hartley-Sampson, B.V. S.' RCVS, and Petr Hall-Path' B.V. S.' RCVS. Th winnr of this, in ridMontgomri's blak gelding Tarquin,

surgons hded by the Soity's vetei-

in th Nw Forest in team of vtrinary

ing tim of 12 hours, on minute.l0innr was Nizzo|art, a purebred Arab stallion. of th bstonditionprize was iss rgaret
also plad third in th rid. It ws this pir who journeyed to Hamburg in L976 to takl th Grman 160km (100 mil) rid.

As a result of this HPS rid, vterinary rsarh into hamotology prtaining to

Tvis Cup. This was the Tom Quilty ndurn Rid first run in 1966 nd won

(100 mil) rid in on day pattrnd on th

tim of 11 hous 24 mints. The h rode th whol distan


in its inaugural yar by Gabril Stehr on his purbred Arab stallion, Shalawi, in a hivmntwas vn mor rmarkabl as

Rls a drawn from th Tvis and Quilt rids nd th varid trrain inludes many stply limbing stions. Veathe onditions oftn turn the ground in som aras into boglnd ovrnight, making an additional hazard. Th logest rid is th Rokmils), run in January ah yar. lDinning tims for 80km (50 mil) rids rnge ound the fiv-hour mrk with some omptitors finishing in an appriably shortr tim. Leding ombinations in Nw Zalnd ov the past few years, ar Alastai l0hirlwind, a pure Arab glding; Pat Hansen and Silvr l(ing, pur Arb stallion, nd Alln on Roal Blu, an

inlud more in the annual lndar.

South Island nd thee in th North Island, but thr ar dfinit plans to

lands 80km (50 mils) and 120km


Stged annually evr sin, the winning time has bom inrsingly fst with winnrs now oming in not mh ovr the lO-hour mk. Th id was namd aftr Tom Quilry, a famous horsman who was prsuaded by Reg Williams, the ditor of Ausli's premir qustrin mgazine Hoofs nd Horns' to sponsor th rid. It is

nduran horss hs bn startd' and other aras of rsarh ar under way. Similar to th Amerian judging produr, the HPS also has a points system whre horss umulating points throughout th er ampaign for High Points Trophies. Th ovrll trophis a th Manar Trophy for the Lding SenioI Horse of the Yr' and th Zarpa Troph fo th Lading Junior Ridr. Th South Afrian Long Distan Riding Assoiation hs ben oprative sin |972 and was initiatd by F ogan. an Aab horse brdr in th Transvaal.

Flming riding Jo Pittarrfs


seretary, and the group owes a lot to its Vtrina Advisor nd foundr mmbr

Anothr Ar hors bredr from th Transvaal, Dik d Voss, joined him s

Profssor Sndy Littljohn. Ativ par. tiiption is rportd to b growing, with

indications that the sport is soon to njoy tmndous upsurg. Th South Afrin


\-1 Chmpionships are hld ovr -d. 220kli (130 mile) rid hld at rnsod joindy, with trophis .Wkl Trail at dtd ttr Frmers Fe,mih fo th winner, and th Arafu. Is Soity, for the lading Arab. f, :l,-i is run ovr varid trrain and ml]Is r dwn from th Tvis Cup. .ki],il.l run ovr thre dys' it is judged m "lrran |ins. h1 to th hampionships, thr re fi to}m (50 mil) p-rides from whih lm ..mis dide th hoss apabl d kle th longr ours t Farm. h pr-rids r hld in Ntal, tt**g Fe Stt, Transvaal and Cape

Fsmit i th Ornge Fr Stat.


h..i.. .\{inimum wights of


;:lpnid by an adult rider. Rsults til:m fr Pst thJe yrs indiat again

th yars -:id th wight. Juniors must

li ls re mndatory xpt in
diion, whre ridrs up to

73 kgs

: h ility of th Arab is prominent, rmi jadgd most horses usd in South

-{js disn iding ar of Ara blood. x' t9:.1. .\rglo-Aabs filled fiv out of tn jrc highest plas in th NtioIral
:::d ^\bs.

JiA ins hav onsistently

i&r=ionships, nd in following as,


S.lth .\frin distan horss ar gn:*5 of th lan thlti typ' that is 6g-.ming universally known fo its ility g.jure as it is not hamprd by xess
r:. .nd

flsh. It is indiativ of th suss f his typ that throughout the ndur iding world, horss that are :gtdl sussful fll into this tg-

.i quin

-.:.n fimss definitely

r nduran riding is ertinly one of sphrs wher athlti ability

.-t.hsion amongst orgnizrs, so omrr'ill know what to pet through....:t th v.hol ountry. Rgular orrsponi has ben hld with the HPS of G Bitin, in efforts to hiv an =-.nionl st ofrulings with only slight .ionl nd gional diffns - itself a tSnie help in the furthring of nduru^ idig. \!'ost urnt Gman rids fall into th 'lurn atgory nd rang from 80 km 5o milg5; to 160 km (100 mils) in lngth. Ssal short ids r hld throughout fr r, ut th major ides at prsnt ae i I-ihingen 100km (60 mil) ride held

that th spolt has flourishd in wa it hs. It is apprnt that th major-::nui' :: f Germany's nthusists wish fo

;] nd

:'js. h organr thus had to lrn b

:l.luies with majo involvmnt in th ..t nd a nationl ody was formd in \ame 1976 to ssist th running of j::-"e riding. Distane rids in Grr tv long ben well aterd for in "*i of ids ut up until th fomation lE. fr ntional body ther had been no s.drd guidlin for the managmnt of ror.

sst Gman is one of the uropan

major plus.

ride s I eperiend thm in 1976 tndd to vastl diffrent fom similar distane rids hld in othr ountris. Bsilly an nduran ride with th fastest horse pronound th winnr (xpt in a ti whn th hos's ondition was the diding fator), it also had sris of pnalt points nd onus points. Dviating from th ours inurrd pnltis for so doing, as wll as loss of tim. Other pnaltis ould

Conditions on the amburg to llanover

Pat of the training austom the horse or feats he may be as pulling his rider

for endurane iding is to

a ny stra nge encou nters asked to undertke - suh




nings of organd distane riding

to om.

riding is on a purel informal frindly bsis, th sam Way it hs startd in all

that ndurane riding is a major growth sport intrntionally. Thr is furthrmor a trmendous apport betwn intrsted nd involvd ountries s vidnd
oth ountris. It an sn fom this ovrall pitur

At present all long distan


inurred for ovrtking unlss prio prmission from ladrs had bn givn


says a lot for thir

in a speifi tim, idrs not knowing how long or whr th .tim trial' was to tak plae until they arrived t th vnu. Pnalties wr inurrd if horses went outsid th tim limits, a on minut leway bing allowd. The rid itslf was wllvetted and there were no asualtis, and th wrds for first four plas wre filld by ompltly diffrnt types of hors, namly an Irish healrywight glding, an Arabian stallion, a 16-ear-old me of mixd Hakny typ (judging from hr ation) and Trakhenr gelding. A 13 h.h. Norwgian pony, with a tn-yar-old ridr won the lss for I{in Pferd (Small Horses), proving that ponis and young hildrn an radily tkl rids of this distan. On ottrr ountry in urop that is

and lso fo failure to ngotiat hzads at first try. A urious featr of th rid was an 1 1 km (7 mil) setion that had to riddn

horss to the Grman ides, and South Afria has both hosted ovrsas ridrs s wll s snding rprsntativs to omPt

omptitors who avel abroad to ompet. Th Germans have snt a tam to Britain nd in L976 t}:e HPS eiprotd. Sharon Sar of th Appaloosa Horse Club of Amria hs ompeted in Bitish rids. Th intrflow etwen Austalia and Amri for th Quilty and Tvis Cups is now ommonplae; Swizrlnd snds

lr lm in Southrn Grmny

jmding trritory, and the Hambug to

novr 160 km (100 mile) rid held eah


showing signs of joining th nduran mrry-go-round is Dnmark. Disussions hav ben hld with th HPS Committe

and advi sought on the founding of a long distane group. It would sm to b ftom amongst the Arb brdrs and nthusists in Dnmark that th besin-

ours n onl genrll enefiial, spially to th ouragous horss that onstndy giv of their bst thoughout
vn the toughst of nduane rids.

relvant statistis ftom rids so that rsearh and vtrinary knowledg of th strsses involved n be furthrd. This of

ah ouny has its own minor diffens in ruls nd rgulations bt it is rassuring that the bsi strtur is similar so that riders avelling from on ountry to anoth know what to xpt. This lso givs a nivrsal sis on whih to work towds gathering infomation and



biggr and fstr. In 1876 th hight limit in India was st at. I32 h.h., and in ngland at 14h.h. Twenty yrs latr it ws



sid, is a vry anint gam whih originated in the Orint wll ovr 2000 yers ago. Th earlist rfrenes to it are mad in onjuntion with Alexandr th Grt and Darius, I(ng of Prsia, from whih ountry th game is blievd to hav originatd, although it was ertain1 playd in on form or anothr throughout the ast, from China nd ongolia to Jpn.

f)oro, stik and ball gam playd on t. horsbak y opposing teams of four a

IDorld l07ar.

nglish polo, issuing the fust nglish rles in 1875. At aout th sam tim th Indian Polo Assoiation was formd. It framd its own ruls until the Sond
Tournamnt, nd in 1893 the Ntionl Pony Soity ws fondd, with th purpos of promoting th breding of polo

ngland by som army offirs from th 9th Lnrs, 19th Iussas, 1st Lif Guards and Royal llors Guards. Th plad polo, with eight aside, on Iounslow Ih, nr London and thos who wathed dubbd it .hokey on horsebalc. It immdiatly aught on and the Hurlingham Club bm th hadqutrs of

hight limit was bolishd. Nowadys, th averag hight is about 15.r h.h. In 1869 tlr gam ws introdud into

to L42 h.h., and in 1919


1878 saw the first Inter-Rgimental

North-ast, took the gam into India. In the middl of the last ntury) nglish plntrs disoverd it in Assam and brought it ak to ngland. In Assam it ws plyd on th loal anipuri ponis, som of thm barly 12 h.h.' and alld

North-\0est and


.N{oslm invders

th Chinse from the




ary fashion. Silhar, apitl ofthe Cahar distrit, ws soon to om the birthpla of modern polo, and the Silhar Club is th

i' In Pesia it was known as hug an mallt _ b whih nam polo stik is known in th Unitd Stats tody) and its prsnt nam is a derivative of the Tibtn wordpulu, meaning a root, from whih th woodn polo ball is md. It did not tak th British ver long to otganize the sport in typial nglish milit-

Argntina. In th last-mntioned ountry it was an immdit sussr s it still is toda. Inded, Argentina beam the biggst breders and xportrs ofpolo ponis, owing to th sal on whih hors brednumbr of natural horsmn availabl for shooling ponis on low wage, and th toughnss of the native brd, whih ning is aried out thr on th stanis, th

British mpir, th Unitd Stts and

ponis. Th gam soon sprad ross to othr prts of the worldJ prtiulaly th
bove and opposite The essentiaI handiness and onsious prtiipation of top-c|ass poIo ponies. A good pony will not just be obedient but wiII foIIow the game on his own aount, with experiene aImost antiipating What the rider wiI| sk him to do. PoIo hs not beome espeia||y popu|ar as a spetator sport in spite of the sped and exitement of the game, pehps beause it n be hard to fo||ow progress in the me|e _ even though the referee iswearing a striped shitto distinguish him from the players.

onomially. A numbr of nglish dealers have had ontats nd onnetions in Argntin for many years; othrs went out thre to liv, so as to ploit a lurativ
markt, ndmak frquent shipmnts bk to ngland. Stats

bld ponis to b produed extmely

ers, but this ws latr redud to svn and

founded in 1859, and th ruls drawn up then re those on whih th present ules ar basd. Teams originlly had nine rid-

oldst polo lu

in th world. It


who brought

Polo ws inodud into the United in 1876 .Western Gordon Bnntt, by Jms

eventully to four, as th ponis bam

known to man, originated in Chin and then moved on to the Indian ontinent' In Assm it ws p|ayed on these Mnipuri ponies, some of whih wee sare|y 12 hnds in height.
Po|o, one of the oIdest games on horsebk

ained for th gam. The .Goldn Ag' of U.S. polo was during the 1920s and'30s whn Tommy Hithok, il Smith nd othrs omptd in ntional and internapolo is miniy plyed on a lub lvl undr th agis of th U.S. Polo Assoiation.

horses ast to be

tional mths and tournamnts. Now

Unitd States ompting for th Vsthster Cup. Btwn the wars, skilld teams from India _ whre most of the polo was still ondutd on a rgimntal asis wer frquent visitors to nglnd. Tams lso me from Australia, but it was from the Unitd Stts that th most sussful playrs ame _ that is until Argntina ovrtook thm. Aftr 1945 the Argentinians

International polo maths startd in 1886 with teams from Britain and th

Cup of th Ameias, th only international hmpionship whih rmaind in xistne. Agntina by then had some
3000 ativ playrs to 1000 Amerians and

rignd supreme nd wer unbtn in th

aout 500 British.

dnd Rohampton we no longr the headquartrs of th gm and it nearly bame moribund. But thr was rnissan in 1950,largel thanks to the efforts ofLord Cowdra _ who was a pr-wr player as th Hon John Parson _ along with a handful of othr pre-wr players. The patronag of I.R.. Prine Philip, Duk of dinburgh .N,lountbattn' was a distinguished writer on th gam undr th pen-nam of aro _ was anothr song ontriutory fator in

Aftr th war, llurlingham, Ranlagh

_ whos unl' Admiral of th Flet arl

land. He was used on numrous ponY

Th lat Sir Humphrey d Trfford's small Thoroughbrd, Roswatr, is gnrlly onsidred to be the foundation ofth modern polo pony whih is brd in ng-

th gnral upsurg of intrst.


strokes ar: off side forward' offsid bkhand, offsid undr th nk of th pony,

on a dummy horse in a polo pit. The

nearsid forward, nearsid akhnd'

narside under th nk, and offside and nersid bak shots undr th til. Othr stroks whih y be usd to good fft ar th push, an offsid strok to ntiipt th ation of an inoming playr' and the

latral, that is undrnath the pony's bod and btwen his lgs. Fo a forward shot, th all is suk when it is in front of th withrs' and a rar shot is taken whn it is about lvl with th quartrs. strokes d provd abl to hit the ball with auray in th pit, plogresss to mountd work and thn to slow hukkas in prati gams. The gam itslf is playd in hkkas of 7z minuts ah. Thr ma b

The novi thn, having mastrd


forman on th polo ground. His thre most famous sons wre: Sandiway, out of Cuddington; Lord Polo, out of Lad Florn1 and Hurlinghm, ot of smeralda. The prforman of an polo pony is the aid test of prftion, for in this very fast gam h must b abl to gallop flat out, stop in his own lngh' .turn on sixpne', swing round in a piroutte, and start offfrom standstill at top spd in ny dirtion. \0hn riding off other ponis h must do two-k work at gallop, and

mars who had n seletd for thir pr-

bove A

four, six, svn or eight' although now thr are usually tween four and six.
gol is sord the teams hang nds.

po|o pon at speed disp|aying the need for agiIity and perfet obedience to the rider's aids.

Thre ar 3 minutes etwn hukkas, and a 5-minut brak at half tim. very tim a

(|/ins) in diamtr and wighs l20_10 gms (4a_4z oz). Th polo stik (mallt in

Amria) is a an of som I20-I37 cm (48_54ins) in lngth with a had set at right angles. This forms th hitting surfa, and

Th numr 3 playr is the on who initiats attks nd overs numr 4 in defne. Thus it is ssntial tht he is well
mountd, and is a long and aurat hittr. Numrs I and 2 follow up the attaking movs made b numer 3' and in dfn

flying hanges of leg must e sond

natur to him. Courag is a prim ssn-

tial, and so ar a long nk, good shouldrs, a short, strong ak' depth of girth' exptionall strong quarters and hoks that aI

wll lt down.

dgres are th most important of all mnoeuvrs on th polo ground. It is also ssntial that th pony, iddn as h is wit}r onl on hand, should have been taught to nk rein. Th mouth is unavoidal subietd to onsiderabl strin from th hasty hks and turns. Likwise, th legs also om undr grat stress, for whih reason supporting andgs are vry nessary.

Th quik stop, nd th turn t


amboo and th whippiness of th an varis; a more whippy an allows lngth of driv with a minimum of ffort' ut it is lss asy to manouvre in lose work. A stiffer ane is more aurat but rquirs mor strength' nd mor aurat timing. Th grip an be bound in lthr, ruber, lampwik or towelling' and a wrist sling prvnts th stik from bing droppd. Th im of th gam, of ours' is to gt th ball into the opposing sid's goal' to whih purpos, baus polo is ssentially a tam game, th four plars _ th forwards, numbrs 1 and 2; th entre-hlf, number 3 and th ak' numbr 4_ onniv and manouvr to attak th enmf s goal. Not all top-lass polo plaers r outstanding horsmn, although bsi horsman-

is 2|-23cm (8z-9zins) long. Th stik is md of samor, ash or

mrk th opposing numers 3 and 4. Number 4 defnds his sid's half of th

trritory, and is at th same tim rad to support numr 3. ost gams ar plyd on a hndiap
basis, with all plaers ratd at thir value

A polo ground may not eceed 274r:r (300yds) in lngth and th goals, 7.3m (8 ds) wid' must not be less l}rarr 227 m (250yds) apart. Th goal posts ale at last 3 m (r0 ft) high. Th ball is mde of willow or bmboo loot' is not mor than 8 m

ship, good lan nd a sure seat ar ll nssary attriutes. -N4.ore important still' howvr, is a good nrurl ye for a moving bll, whil ourg nd judgment, plus a sns of timing, ar qually ssential. Plars r taught how to sik th bll

goals or minus-goals, fom minus-two to tn. In handip touInaments th total individual handips ar added togethr and thn on is sutratd from the other, in ordr to assss th numbr of gols strt givn to th tam with th lowr handip. Th ruls ar prinipally onrnd with safty, and thus ar mainl onernd to laify right of possssion of th ball. Thy ly down penaltis for infringing this right and ausing dngr - for exampl by rossing th lin of the ball in front of a playr who hs right of way, riding into a playr at a dangrous ang|e, zig-zagging aross a ridr at full gallop' intimidation or sandwihing a playr etwn two oppo-


pnlty goal. Dangrous fouling aries27 or 36m (30 or 40 d) free hits at an opn, undfendd goal. Th gam is stoppd if a pony falls or is lam, if a plaer is injurd, if thre is a potentially dangous aidnt to th pony' s gar, if a player loses his helmt, and finall, if th ball gos out of play. Polo is not a poot man's game, for ponis ar xpnsiv and at lest thre ponis ar nedd to pl in a math. A pony an onl

nnts. Pnaltis vary aording to the offn and its grviry, whil a dlibrt foul to sav a goal inurs the ward of a

pla two hukks, nd thr must b rsrv in as of injury or lamnss. But

although th old das of mounted avalry

bing able to use troop hoses and

nthusiasti young offlrs bing mountd

Protetion for the legs of both horse and rider is essentiaI to guard against tendon strain nd injury from hooves and stiks.

through th rgrmnt hav gon, thr ar numous polo lubs whih nable th ioung man to play th gme. ost hav a pool of lub ponis' whih thy hi out fol spifid fe pr hukka. A rtai numbr of young playrs ome up through th Pony Club, whih enourages the gm inrasingly, and this has led to a umer of girls eoming ative plays. Th govrning body of polo in ngland is the Hurlingham Polo Assoiation' but sdly th intrntionl ffot is urtaild y lk of funds. Argntina and the Unitd States had th world lagu from Auslia, exio and othr South Amerin ountris. Polo is also plyd regularly in Iland, Indi and Pakistn, Frane, Grmany, Italy, Nw Zea|and, Rhodsia, South Afria, I(enya, Nigria, Ghana,
^\lalaysi and Jmia.

thousand yars arlir nd is now popular in Australia, had a brief vogue in ngland, .Wst

A varition of polo known s polorosse, whih ws playd in Japan in th

Contry. The

than th whit man.

lumsy instrument with whih th all is soopd up and thrown md th vogu short one, howver, muh to th elif of those who w dediatd to th rvival of polo in post-wa nglnd and rsntd this distion to potntil followers.


Polo in thre very different settings top: A game in progress in West Pakistan o the Gigi Kakoram Range' midd|: Swift tion on the fie|d at the Lahore Re CIub. In India the gme Was at its height duing the period of the British Rj, and used imported Thoroughbred ponies from the best stok. The Indins showed thmse|vesto be formidabIe p|ayers bottom: HRH The Prine of Wa|es, who hs n obviousIy nthUsiasti t|ent for the game, warming up before playing for his team, the Guards' CIub, at Windsor

bnfit to nglish polo, s it has to 1l other qustrian sports, and so has th intrest vind by th Prin of Wa1s, who hs followed in the footstps of his father as a kn and giftd playr. A shotag of wll-shoold ponis an onl b rgardd s invitabl in view of th urrnt shortge of high-lass trinrs of horss. Apparntl it tks two ears to tin polo pon ftom the tim of his initial ^\rgentina ponis hav narly

Cirnstr, Cowdray Park and Windsor. Thr r som 49 polo lus in xistn in the Unitd I{ingdom' with som 400 plyrs, nd thre are anothI 100 or so .Wst plyrs within th British army in Gmny. Sponsoship has n of grat



in ngland now

baking until h an play fast hukkas.

unsoundnss or prolms of tmprament. Som nglish rahorss hav bgun playrg fast polo in jst one sason' but thy hv usully hd sason or two in tainig and are physially mature. h lat John Board, a glet prt on polo, said that thI ar thre .ames of polo _ Indin, nglish and Amian. }I ought th Indian gam the most attladr,e, tlr nglish th most diffiult and the .\mian infinitly est! H attributd the ft that ngland 1ast won the liesthstr Cup as long ago as I92I to th fat tht the ^\mrians hav adoptd th forward posiion, ride a oupl of hols shortr, kp rvll forward on their ft and seldom gt 1ft bhind. In addition thir alnd for-rd position nables thm to hit mor autly and gt normous lngth on th ail. H one saw Raymond Gust hit a all o a dtizz| day, aginst a light brz, .rvh would hve travelld at least 155 m .l70ds) had it not struk a pony. Th Indian is natural horsman and a trmidable opponnt, partiularly as he is usually suprbly mountd on first-lss pnis. Ths are th stok of nglish and .\gntin Thoroughbrds, imported by nglish, as wll as som top-lss Ausalian stok. There is lso a theory

oid high wastg rat aused by

.orked on th stnis bfor starting thir spializd training, but thiI tlainrs still like to give thm further two yars, to



that th nativ att an see a all'

rhr ikt or polo,

full metre soonr

not' s mny beliiv, purly pursuits for

f, f ouo gams onstitute .l.Yl. oldst of ouestrian skills and


th young. Th Book of Jo tlls of

mountd ostrih hassl iousting was populr ntrtainment during the .Nliddle Ags, and polo has its origins way bk in history. As rly as 600 AD the Chines pratised form of polo with a light ball, rly nstors. odern polo is lso similar to

while th Himalayn peopl of Iunza laimd th sport originated with thir

Aras nd Persins, who usd headless
gam that was vry popular with th

for offiers, as well s to improv their

horsemnship and to keep fit.

During th 1860s, th British in Asia adopted polo and othr mounted games in an ffort to relive the tdium of arm life
.gymkhana' gmes,

had bome a major soure of entertinmnt in the Unitd Kingdom. Fashionale London soiety spnt summr aftrnoons t smart lus with gymkhana games fatur. The evnts wer grat fun for all onrnd, omptitors and spetators alik, although th ssne of a sussful day was always organization and disipline.

horsalc. By th 1880s and 1890s, mountd gams, and in partiular polo,

Indian derivation meaning .a fild day on

These xeriss beam known s a word of Anglo-

In the Unitd States of Amria, a favourite (if rather gruesome) mounted

live hikn to a stake, thn, galloping at full spd, th ridr would len from his hors in n attempt to pluk 1h fluttering
bird from th ground. It ws no man fat, for the Indians sldom rod with a saddl. Th onl aid employd to sta with th horse ws stIip of hid plaitd into th gam of Rd Indian ibs was to tther a

animl's mane through whih the ridr ould sur grip. So, through the ages, mountd gams
normously inrasd intrest in hors riding as a sport and hobby,loal hors shows and gmkhanas ar numerous during the sulnmr monttts, wi mountd games a most impdrtant fatur.

trin world and today, as a rsult of the

hav plyd n impotant part in lre ques-

In |957, .R.tI. Prin Philip instigatd th Pony Club ounted Gams

tlr movement. Aftr rea and zone finals,

Championship in Britain for membrs of

th Championship finl is ompetd for

1st y during th year of omptition, all ompetitors' ponies must b at lst foul yrs old and undr L4.2h.h. to ompet in th Prin Philip Cup. Thre ar 18 to 20 ara metings, from whih 36 tams ar pikd to go forward to th zone finals. Thn there ar a furth si zon finals to slt the six tms to fight it out at th Iorse of th Yar Show. Th organizet has th finl say in hoosing six gams from a total of 15 prviously selted, his ritria bing to ensur th are taxing nough to mak for an xiting ompetition etween th ridrs' and variabl enough to intrst th audin. One of th most suessful squds to hv omptd in the -N{ounted Gams Championship are from th Sathlane and Distrit ranh of the Pony Club in Sotland. They won th Cup two years running in 1972 and I97. Th brnh thn split, th nw branh ing known as

hos shows, th general publi wre introdued to th finer arts of suh rs as th sak rae and the egg-and-spoon! Limitd to riders undr th ag of 15 on

ponis wr idal for gymkhana gams.

nativ red soitis whos handy, agil

Th vent also gav younger mmers of the Pony Club something to strive for, as any inexpensiv, ross-bred, grass-fd pon an' wi prati and patin,
bome vry bit as good as its utiful and oftn very xpnsive ettr-bred

ountpart. Nowadays howvr, thse mounted gams _ in keeping with othr hors sports - hv moved into the intrnationl lagu and a good, proven pony with xprin n dmand an extremel high

and th will to win oasionally overshadows the simpl good fun lement. Th ft rmains, howvr, that this is on ra whr it dos not matter what h brding is - ll an matur neds is a good mount'

times t the xpns of thir good name,

Tams also get .professiont'


prinipll a pursuit of the nglish-

humour and a knowledg of the game. The gams as w know thm tody, ar
spaking nations _ British servimen and

good sportsmanship,

a good sns


annully t th Hors of the Yar Show in London during otoer. As a result Qf th British Broadasting Corporation's prvious deision in L949 to tlvis maior

many of the pevious winning tam memrs, won gain in 1974. Th inauguration of this vnt in the l950s provided a grat boost to th British

I(irkintilloh and Campsi nd, with

their fmi1is no doubt having had a er-

tain amount of influn. Th British Pony Clu is affiliatd to lubs in mor than 20 othr ountris woldwid, inluding Botswana, thiopia' Japan' Saudi

lvl0UND GAMs

.{abia and'Zarnia, although this dos not :nn to say that thy ar all familiar with lr skills of appl duking and Gtna Grn raing I In the Unitd Stats, Cnada and Australia' games on horsebak suh as

ass' th loa1 audines rspondd mag-

time at the Paris llors Show. In both

wo different approhes to mounted

nifintly, thing on vry quikl to hring a hosn tam hom, howling

thv ar genrall prformd b hors and

plained latr in th stion) have long bn popular and ar losl onntd to -tr work of th owboy; onsequently'

Jrg tm member lying on a sht of hid down th arena) and barrl raing

Llr owhid ra (whn hos and ridr

thir disma whn a idr droppd an gg) or was just pipped at th post an opposing tam. Al1 in 1l, th visits proved a grat

most sussful intrnational ompti

teenth nd final gam.

In L976, gymkhana tams from Canada and th Unitd Stats visitd Britain for a
tion. It was trmndously exiting' with
vrything in th balan until th ighvrgrn-favourit' th bnding ra, whn Grat Britain just hld thi 1ad-by on point only - to emIg winnrs ovr th Canadian visitors.

equestrian games, both devised to test the pony's ability and rider's skill as well as to providefun. /elt: EngIish gymkhans are fair|y forma|, as this nat|y tUrned out ompetitor shows' above'' In North Ameria games an b strenUous - in the ow hide re' teams are pulled along on hides ar brd for thi quik rfls and agiliry nessary in attl and shep hrding, ar atull ideal mounts for th gmkhana

idr in westeln saddl and drss. or angliized gams ar a rlatively nw


ars that th North Amrians hav takn part in Intrnational Comptition. In urope the story is quit diffrnt. If :h gams wr a pastim of the oung in .Jr onfins of th paddok or bak yrd, until ompaativly rntl thy wr :ain1 not onsidrd suitabl entrtainmnt fol th masss. Thn in |974' tl;le four lading tams ompting in th

innovation though, and it is only in th last

This was


Prin Philip Cup at Th Hors of th Y Show vlld to Amstrdam to

As prviously mentioned' most hors shows inlud mountd gms vnts and many gymkhanas onsist of nothing ls with opn lasss in whih adult omptitors an dmonstrat thiI xpItis. Britain undoubtdl ows muh of hr intrest and slless in gymkhana gams to

1975, th top four branhes on again 3kd thir bags for a display abroad' this

jmonsffation to show what mountd gams ar all about. Th following eat,

.ompt gainst eah othr on mor in a

hr small nativ pony brds whih ar genrll nippy. In th Unitd Stats and Australia, it is a diffrent story. In oth ths plas, horss ar mor gnerally riddn b oth hildrn and adults. Howvel th utting and quatr horss' whih

No mattr how agil a hors is' trining and obdin must be taught and pratised bforhand. Th animal should b taught to nk rin (mov awa from th prssur ofth rin on the opposit sid of th nk), stop instantl at th slightst touh, b riddn one-handd and go forward on ommnd of th lgs and sat (nithr whips nor SPuIs ar prmittd undr British ruls). It must also b abl to rlied upon to stand quit still whn skd _ no matter wht the prssur of

Anothr important point for good gams hors or pony is tht it b rady and willing to mov awy from its tm-mts. ny is the tim on sS omptitors trying in vain to prsuad thir mounts




tin is the Bnding R. This is a ra of between four and six ontstants, h of whom must ride through a line of pols,

bnding btwen ah, befor rturning long the sam ourse. Nlusial hairs is Unitd Stats, in whih ridrs go round the ring, then whn th musi stops' has-

grdy-likd gymkhana gam



Th Appl Ducking R is lways a favourite with sptators. Ir, omptitors re towrds bukt of water, in whih an apple is floating. Thy have to dismount and pik th apple out of th
nd raing k to the finishing line. In th Polo Ra, the ridrs quipped with a polo stik nd ball, rae down to a post' hitting th ball as thy go. Then thy hav to turn around th post and ra bak to the finish' still hitting th bll. Th first bll ovr th

tn to th nearst hir or al of hay, dismount) and sit on it. Thr is always on less .sat' than rider. The .satlss' ridr is liminated aftr eh round, until onl one prson _ th winnr - rmains.

watr with thi tth, bfor rmounting

lav a lin ofothr horses) even to gt ovr

ti ons of th typ usd by polie and

n b easily sn b hors and ridr and lso austom th horse to right olours. Collet togethr a few suh inidntls as

within veryone's rh, All that is nedd ar som pols, old motor tyrs, brrels or oil drums, bukets nd prhps som plas-

ombintions r not destined for suss! Basi failities nssary for training gymkhana hors or pony are simpl and

the starting lin. You an b sur suh

BreI raing in Canad; it is a|so a popuIar sport in the U.S. and Australia.

highwa maintnan srvies. A11 will benfit from good ot of pint so thy

a hpp note, han to try just on mor nd nd up badl. Anothr important point is for th hors to proprly balnd at all times, always lding with the ort lg' othrwise time may b lost nd

finish on

nd bord if it is asked to do th sam movmnts tim and again. It is always bttr to run through gam twie and


ntr to b fast and easy; ending and lading the pon should b pratised; and ridrs should b ble to opn gats and mount quikly (idally to vault on) and to dismount, also at sped; to rry ojts whil in th sddl; to rid prfetly balto hink

for trnsitions into hlt, walk, ot and

Th shooling of th hors or pony is mostly ommonsns nd ase of pratie mks perft. Wath an gymkhana vnts t th loal hors show or riding shool and you will see that it is nssary

saks, staks and flags and you an egin.

minimum of fuss. A rider must larn

move through ostls with



understand th pony, nvr ask too muh nd always reward it whn it dos well. At most hors shows or gymkhnas, mountd gams ar stagd in hats, th winner of ah ht, or those plaed first and sond' ompeting in a final. As diffent ountris fvour a numbr of diffrnt gams, rules tend to vry. Gnrally, howver, riders will b liminatd if thy: (i) riv outsid hlp from anyon othr than stwds or hoseholdrs (ii) break a post or mrkr or knok it to the gound (iii) fall off and not r-mount in th sam
(iv) fall off and lose th pon (v) fail to dismount to pik up any drop-

fll inurred. Finlly' learn


Tam res usull onsist ofthe idrs raing btwn given points' hnding over a bton to th nxt team mmr as thy arriv. An amusing variation is the Banan Rlay Rae, in whih a banana is usd instad of baton. Spd is ofthe ssne, but so is utious handling, for the team is ratd on time and the ondition of the bnana! If it reaks during th ra th riving ridr hs to dismount' rtriev l1 th pis whih h thn has to pass on to th next person. At th end of the ra'

finishing line hralds th winnr.

h bokn stion onstituts twoseond pnalty, and ah lost setion

fiv-sond penaly.

mounted games also happens to be n llnt inodution to hunting nd in Malta, is the only form of hunting pratisd. This is, of ourse, the mok hunt, the ky to whih lis in good planning
som islnd ountries, suh as Cpus nd

Finall, one of th most



efoehnd nd th atmosphr rated b th .hunt stff on th dy.

lik jumping, or for ombined training if

mountd gams. vents should b hosen in the light of suh fators as whethr th pony is btte at raing in saight lin or

ingl. An xitd, muddld ridermks for an xited, muddld pony. Taining nd ability ar as important for mounted gms as they are for othr equstrian sports. A ridr dos not ntr for a show-jumping evnt if the hors does not

ned without rins, stirrups or sddle, and larly and lmly, nd at ord-

other omptitors (vii) do not ross th finishing lin or pass th wrong sid of a post or marke

(vi) ride dangrously or intrfr with any

pd artils onnetd with th r

Th prinipal players ar the Fox, Iuntsman and Field str who

ing th rquird tsts. so it is with

eithr h or his hors ar not up to omplet-

at making rapid manouvrs nd tuIns _ ithr way thr is a walth of hoi. As always whn dling with horss and ponis the preparation and training of nyth atio t ah pae bfor advaning to

thing new should not be hurrid. Strt slowly with strang eriss, prfedng

a faster gait. And naer over-ptatis. A hors or pony will quikly ome stle

altrd or adptd to suit lo1 onditions. Iowvr, it is worthwhil mentioning a fw of the more popular or unusul raes. In th Barrel R, thre brrls ar set to form a iangular ouse whih th ompetitors must omplt at antr' doing a 360-dgr turn t ah barl bfor rossing th finishing line. ah ontstant rides sepaately and is timd _ the fastst ing th winnr. This ra is partiularly popul in th United Stats and Australia wher it is often inludd in rodos. One of th most populr gymkhana vents in Bri-

impossil task to giv n ount of all th mountd or gymkhana gams on reod, partiularly s many hv bn

It would b mammoth and lmost

withot orrting their mistake

forhnd survey the ountry ov whih they intend to hunt, plan th jumps, with w round ah obstl so tht no.on is ovr-fad, and did on where the .kill' is to b. Th Fox lays th trail of wood shavings or sawdust whih is huntd by the }Iounds, Iuntsmn and lD7hippers-in who are followd y the fild. Chks should lastfor up to tn minuts to giv an stragglers tim to join the rst of th fild. At th nd of the tril, th Fox is .aught'.

opposite A

se|etion of events popu| at gymkhanas he|d in the U' /eft: he sk rae equires an obedient pony whih wi|| readi|y fo||ow its rider. top right: pp|e bobbing orduking is usuaIIy he|d atthe end of the day, s the riders get Very we|. middle: |VlusiaI ooIes, vrint of musiI hirs. bottom /e//: Bending between poles is a good test of shooIing' bottom ht: Potto nd spoon rae _ an understandab|e adapiation of the egg and spoon vesion.

ngotiat roks, gullis, and brush. A form of polo was playd in the ast from ver arly tims nd was adopted by urop and lter by Ameria. The Ti!tn lra;ne \rlas pul; th Prsins ca1|edi|c'hngar, ,a malled, and in the rign of I(ing

th training, and th o-opration of the hors so that he atd as one unit with his rider, mn dominting mntally and ditating th strtgies, but mking us of th physiall stronger partnr, th hors, y using its exeptionl mmory. No man an

mountd man had spial need to pratis his skill. Sport ws not only a nssity ut rreation as wll, alit in preprtion fol wars in whih unxpted situations oftn rose. Longus ofspifi xrises in on pla rsultd in ordom of hors and man, so that ovr th nturis varity of ontsts wer dvisd to provid xitment and maintain fitnss and skill. For the horsemn, skill-at-arms rquird

prparation for the othe dmands of life. For arly man, th dmands wr mainly to hunt for food and to mak war, and th

El o nimls and hmans play in .l.l ordr to xrise mind nd bod in

horses wer waiting in th prsin of the nmy) thy must b rad t all tims to take up arms. Iorss hobbled in th lins would get ft and soft and no1 nimbl

Chosros II it was playd y womn. Nurl-Din who fought th Crusadrs, laimd it was mor than a pastim. If mn and

horses required for war, but has long bn a favourit gam for avalry offirs, and thrftr for ivilians. Polo-ross is also

odint. odrn polo is not playd on

nough for lose ombat. Polo was vn plyd by rtifiial light, and this and othr ball gams wr llnt prati to kp horse and man fit and the hors hndy and

otin obdine from an nimal far

stronger than himslf unlss its training


hs bn patint and kind, for rul mthods ould bakfu with disastrous

to a .goal'. It is often plad ovr rough ground, whr hardy nd ativ ponies

severl hours, with horses and ridels at full strth as the ridrs try to wrst from ah othr, th arase of a goat and arry it off

From list times mountd games of .ath-as-ath an' wr played. Th ongolian bz-kiri, for xampl, lsts for

lhas, although it is moe of a mok hunt of one rider b othrs ross opn ountr and obstals. Th most fmous ontests were the tournamnts and jousts, populr in th das of hivalry. At first, riders ngagd in
Mounted games MongoIian stIe, with a goat rase as the ob,jetive for the horsemen in this gme of baz-kiri'

were also awrdd to thos who aught or arrid th glatst numbr. Other traditional gms atethign,.kiss th girl'nd .grb th had in the ast; Irland had its .wild goos hase', forrunner of th step-

who sored mosi diret hits, but points

Japan to Turk wer used fo ahery and jvlin thowing from th saddl, nd for tam ontsts, whn ontestants wre armd with woodn javlins. Teams took turns to rid btwn th opposing anks who rplid with a volle, and points wre givn. The individual winnr was th one

popular and is a devlopmnt of tskhenburti, a national gam in the USSR. The maidans and raeourss from

The mediev| tourne, whee the knight and

his mount showed their skill at jousting, was a re|tive|y Iight-hearted preIiminary to the rigours and possibIe dissters to b met on the battlef ield.

lan at full gllop). The quintin was piering or hding n ffigy at top
spd. Aftr this ame duels with th lan,

wrstling, oI tilting t the ring' (thading a ring suspndd on a gallows through a

banishd th virgin and the matrorf, but latr th lists or anas, wl dorated and .rownd with the prsene of hast and high born auty from whos hnds the hivlry didd tht only th lane should e used, either blunted or with rown of small points at th head. Lws govrning th tourney (medieval tournamnt) were odifid by Goffri d Preuill at th nd of the lvnth entury' and th knights of ngland, Germany and Frane organizd thmslvs into jousting assoiations. only knights who ould prov four nstors of equstrian rnk a.lthough th sovrign ould onfr right. Courts of marshls, heralds nd barrir down th entle to prevnt ollision. I(nights and thir squirs ntrd to a flourish of trumpts, th knight taking his pla on th lft ofth brrir. The objet was to unhors his opponnt, to what Shaksper had alld .the grating shok of wrathful iron' s mtal-nasd hors and ridr hargd at .full tilt'. Th hors was huld on t its hunhs at the nd of th harg b forful us of brutl bit. Knights had to be hoistd into a saddl whr thy wre wdgd btwn high supports. Crown and Churh both tried to supprss tourneys baus of the loss of
aritrators wr in ontrol. Th lists wr oval with risd ses for sptators and a ould e ntrd in th indx and ompte,



jeu de tbl rond or jousting, as .nkd sptals that

onqueror reivd the piz'. Frenh


favours of ladis hve t all times don wonders for hosmen'. From th tourny and thes sports ame th arousel whih m very popular in svntenth ntury Vinna. A ballet on horss was pformd at th Imperial Pla tn L667, for tlre Hpsburg family

who were all aomplishd horsmn. tDhn th gleat Spanish Riding Shool was ompletd its min purpos was to train ridrs, and th fmous Lipizzaner horses for skill-at.arms and for wr but

mn prformanes took plae thr suh as quadrills aompnied y n orhstra, nd .kind of dn' prformed by two partis of 12 aompanid y thir pags.

rN .r.-1.

Thr was also a-ontst for bhading th efg of a Turk at full gallop, nd othrs whr a dummy was pired with lan nd sword. In th tim of th mprss Mari Thrse, a arousl was hld in whih ladies took part, dressd as
lgndary Amzons' On quadill Was on

(These pags wr permitted to insutd in th Shool.)


Some mounted games, still known as ski||-at-rms, were devised to improve the

aura of the rider in batt|e: ti|ting at a smalI ring heIped to perfet the aim and required onsiderabIe ontro|.

bam his pupils. Anothr suh ridr ws Jams Fillis who bame hif Instrutor to th Imperial Cavalry Shool in Lningrad.

instrutols studied his mthods and

mprss won a prize for skill with hr lane, and pis of jwllry wer offred as prizes for skill with th sword and dagtht a Sultan of Constantinopl rqustd h should b allowd to s th prformaneS.

horsak and anothr in arriages. Th

g. So famous wr ths ompetitions

rvight of armou nd lods of dust, as rvll as ha'"ry lows, tht we ar told.he fell irto idioy for the rst of his lif'. After Henry II was killd whn a ln shiverd on his uirass, or brast plate, liftd his visor and pird his y, knights no longer fought in earnest as a show. Thr wer ombats with lan, sword' pistol, ma, dart, pike nd battleax, so that sptators saw .an exat pitur of wa1 but no on rvas hut. ah duk or prin who ld a Squdron ofknights had to exhibit a dvi pintd on a anvas urtain and .an invention mobil' suh as an allgorial hriot. Assilant and tnant rok three lans nd prformed with various differnt kinds

must evr b givn to the hors. Philip III held a gat tournamnt to elbrate th knighting of his youngest brothI Robt, who eam so stifled b the hat, th

D Pluvinel, Riding Nlaster to Louis III, dvisd mountd games to ouPy

and nttin the Court' nd on on osion th King won prize of a gold wath. Comptitions in whih riders nded no
armou and rod hndy, light horss whih the new Italin sstm (asd on th

intndd to provid training in th rt of

gw up around the roal outs from th Renaissan priod onwards, w

Th Riding Shools of uop, whih

th previous ntuly) rquird wr hld at the Royal stals, nd d Pluvinel offiers of the Cadre Noir in fu|I dress ehoing the miIitry origins of the shool. The ear|y European Shoo|s were origina||y to provid training in mounted warfre.

Shool of Napls initiatd by Grison in

mountd warfar. Th iniat movmnts of the hors, prformed without any visil aids from its idr, wre dsigned to

prplx th nmy infantry, who by now wre quippd with firarms. Thy also tught th ridr to manouvr and trn his mount using only on hnd and th prssur of his legs, so that he ould us his wapons to th best advantag. Th lassi-

al training pillas, invention of


kwrds and rgaining his sat whilst at the sam tim riding his fir std in daring lps and ounds. Th mpero Basil startd lif as a slav oy whose qustlian irus triks gained him rognition and thn powr. qus-

nd thir sujts, and thos who perfomed thm wer th .pop hros of our rirn. Whn Totol fad Wstrn fors undr Nases In 552 h gaind tim for einformnts y asting his ln in th ai, athing it With on hand and shifting it to th other and thn thowing himslf

of wapons. Fats of horsmanship imprssd ruls

trian ats in the irus, indeed may b palt-ntertainmnt and prt-bravado, ut they ar nver far from th supb horsmanship rquird to exl with arms. In ttre nintenth ntury, Bauhr trained his horses to prform in suh a way that

many uropean militar ledrs and



ravins. For avalry oprting in th age of wre a matter of life and dath. othr sports to exris thes skills wr pig stiking (an tnsion ofsparing lions and wild oar whih lld for ourge as wll s skill)' hunting foxs, dr and hars nd th paprhas. Iorss did not always bnfit as muh as it was blivd, prtiularly whn they wr in the hands of inxpert riders' ut the omptitiv lment in hot blood aross ountry provided t last ivilian sour of abl men if needd.

modrn wapons' suh

skill and


hriot was th signifiant wapon of war.

.Nlusial drivs by rtillry tams are remindrs of anint times whn th

dangerous than war itslf and suh ontsts t th early olynpiads wer made deliberately more hazardous th introdution of all solts of distrations, designed to frightn the horses. Al1 equstrian gmes and ontsts, howver, wer

Chariot raes wre

in ft

often mor

ompetition' nd also to dmonstrt in puli the might of mountd mn. one intrsting tst in mass dfn,
inludd in Pony Club Gams, is pushall, whih ntails two tams ttmpting to push a hug ball ovr thir opponnts' gol lin. Combind wight is ndd to push

dsignd to keep skil1 and intrst aliv by


in Russi but


Pluvinl, wer usd to tah th irs abov

traind in th apriole, th levade nd th oubtt. As wll as the art of lassial drssag, th offirs of th Cadre Noir lso inluded ross-ountry work and jumping in their urriulum. Th Spanish

N.C.o.s for th .saut/ horss who wer

wr trained to e ompletel obdint whther thy wr in body or alon, within th mang or in th opn. Th Frnh Cavalr shool, the famous Cdre Noir, transfrrd from Pris to th small town of Saumur, nd employd

th ground, as thy still ar today at the Spanish Riding Shool. Thes .airs' wr ssential for avl leaders, and horss

Tent pegging, orthe use ofthe Iane at speed, is sti|| pratised by both miIitary and po|ie riders in Britain. lt figues in thee-part ompetition, involving the use of pisto|, sword nd Iane, in whih points are given forthe skiII with whih thev re used.

rquird to stop

it' and n unroken lin of

hildrn nd for th srvis ar othr tsts of th ll-ound ompetitor in us of arms,

Tethlon and Pntthlon ontsts' for

it on it starts to


riding and swimming.

and thir skill, and to appriat obdint

In Britain,s Royal Tournamnt' held annually in London, th British avlrymn is put to sevre tst y a omptition

Cavlirs, from noon to 3 p.m., was a tim whn any ridr ould us th shool. As lnd beme enlosed, it am neessary for horss to jump. Th Duk of Nwastl (|592-L676)' dsribed s .th bst riding master and the worst avlry leadr of th ntir svntnth nturf , insistd tht horses must perform oth in th mnge and in the opn. As a result, on of his pupils, Prine Rupert_th dashing, ut somwhat inpt ommandr of the .Wr Royalist avalry in th Civil - on saped his pursurs by putting his hors

shools allowd sptators at various tims, and to wath morning xerise when the Arhdukes were riding was a fvourit pastim. Th Hor of the

and training of young nolmn and their horses for shool riding and omat'. Both

riding exlusivly, nd tablet her had an insription ending .for th instrution

Riding Shool alon prsrvd lssial

whih would stand when held by th squir, nd vn if demnted with pain from arows, might be restrained from rating havo. Th nw wrfar with firarms rquired th manoeuvrble,
havy armour.

nither sid had won' more harges wer made until th horss tird. At that point rokn sprs wI tfuown away and thos still lft fought with haking swords and mas. Suh wrfar dmanded hors austomd to trumpts nd shouts; on

and suppl horses. In atual bttl, if

ln, ovr a ours whih has man sharp turns, h starts holding his sword t th

involving th us of sword, pistol and

supple, lighter horse apabl of sped, and thrfore unhamprd by th wight of

immediatl has to pir a dis nd thn jump nothr fene. Inreasd momentum is neded to piere th dis whih is on a spring. H thn swings to a line of targts, hving left his sword in th dis, to tst his marksmnship with a revolver. The flrst target is a balloon to th right of and bov a fn; th nxt blok of wood on th ground, nd th third a alloon on the lft
of a fen'

slop, nters ovr a jump


Nw demands wr made y obstals and roads, so, in th nintnth and rly twntith enturis, the Military Vrsatility Test was dvisd from whih ame th vnt. Th drssage phas hd 36 movmnts in nin stions, entry into th rna bing t a.gllop (in ft probal allter). Th sond day onsistd of fiv s22krn (I mils) of roads and traks, 8 km (5 miles) ross-ountry over 35 obstles, nd 2km (1 mil) on th flat. Thos who survivd - usully abot half who hd

tions riddn without pausl omprising

wapon to th finishing lin. Points ar given for performing all stgs orretly t-Ims r inludd in th trining of mounted poli. -N{usial rids and drives all for supme judgmnt and timing to void aidnt, and although th tnk, armourd r and th aroplan, as wll s nulear power, hv md th horse redundnt in walfar, t}re ppetution of thes military skills is still an inntiv to sood horsemanship.
and also for .sryl'. The sme tests of skill-

A1l three trophies hv to arrid on th

tentpeg whih has bn drivn into th ground lving a fw inhes protruding.

must tk two rings suspndd from a gallows, thn lowering the la to .tk' a

point uppermost, and still at the gallop

lane, whih has bn plad in th ground

Turning on mor

h sizs



at a hdg and learing

nemies ould not follow.

it so

that his

knights of

Th Tilting Yard had allowed

th former ag to test thir horss

dithes at th bottom of banks on step slos. nd fens st on eihr sid of

fenes inludd jumping into girth-dp watr with muddy bottom, strms and

event on th third day. Cross-ountry


in a



'T.'" vnt that to most popl is synJ. onymous with Wstm sports is that

of th rodo. The roots of rodo li in the wok and lisur ativitis of nintnth. ntury owbos in th Amrian West. In

deads prding th Civil Wa of 1860_65, grat numbrs of Amrians went to the south-wstern rgion of tlre Unitd Stats to work on ranhes. Latr, suh postwar indusialization as railroading, opend lnds wst of th ississippi Rivr and hug ranhs wr arvd out from Txas to ontan.
sping from wintr pastures, so tht alves ould brnded, nd altrd into sters. Then th hrd had to b tndd until th autumn ail drivs to th railroad dpots. h owboy rquired a sing of horss for this work, and no on ould afford th tim fo th nitis and refinments of training. Grn horss would b ropd, sddls thrown on thir baks, owbos would limb aoard, nd th edution proess went on until th nimals _ or th ridrs'

Rnh lif was demanding and hard. Hrds of attl had to b brought h

ons _ wr rokn. On of the fw rspits from this existn am at th nd of annual traildrivs, whn evryod got togthr in th

tions soon turnd to prowess with lariat or hos, and proof of allgd exprtise wold soon dmandd. Th town] s main strt

sloons and gamling halls. Convrsa-

o stokyard ame th sn of thes impromptu riding and roping ontsts'

quikly ught on. Calld .rodo' (from

th outome. Comptitions of this sort

rith part or all of the a1s wags t on

p mony for a ster-roping otest, and fiv ears latr, whn a Dnv, Colorado odo hargd admission to spetators' rodoing bame a fully fldged businss. Two of th fiv .lassi' or standard vnts stagd t odos tody hav thei oigirrs in atual ranh work. Calf-oping

the Spnish word for .round-up'), a mol .!oming and formal vnt ws stagd in anothr in I(ansas during th 1870s. In 1883 th town of Pos in Txs offrd

on' and it demnds dexterity with lsso as wll as well-aind hors. The id is to ope, thn tie a alf, as if to prA alfis givn sveral sonds' had strt down th arena, bfor hos and rider gallop in headlong pusuit. hn the owboy tosss his lasso ovr th nimal's had, and almost i on motion, he surs the othr nd of th rope around
pe it for brnding.

C|f roping in Western rodeos is basi test of owbov,s skiII.

his sddl horn, throws himslf from th saddle and runs towrds th alf. Th
hors has en trained to stp bak to kp th rop tt. Th alf is thus restraind, and bomes fair gam for the pprohing owoy, who flips it onto its side and tis thre of its four lgs togthr with a short lngth of rop (alld a piggin stIing)

AII the

whih h hs ben holding in his teth. Time is th diding fator' although a owboy will automatially disqualifid

from th omptition if th alf slips out of the ti within five seonds. The other evnt is saddl bron riding whih voks mmoris of th method usd owbos to.realt thi mounts for

today, att|e have to be herded over enormous areages, ad horses mUst stilI be broken in fom the Wi|d state to beome usefu|, wi|Iing partners. he events in rodeos are aII based, though some Ioosely, on work tditiona||y done on tt|e rnhes in North Ameria or Aust|i. above left: Bron riding imitates the diffiuIties of breking in wiId horses and

various soets of rodeos stm fom the dys of the rnh owboy, though the eVnts now hve n imoortane of thei own. ven

shows the owboy,s skiII on n unbroken horse. above'. Using only one hand, the

intrepid owboy attempts to cling on whiIe n angry bulI twists and turns in his effots to be rid of his ride_this is one of the |assi rodeo even|s' below: The end of the ride fo bron busteras he hitsthe dustofthe arena.opposite top : Call roping is an important feature of work on the range. below left: In this ontest the rider has to throw the stee to the ground by the taiI before reahing a speified part of the arena. below right: rh oronto Winter Fir ombines pgeanty with trditiona| owbo spots and a disp|ay by the fmous Canadian
Mou nties.

riding. The saddle in this instne is

attahd to th horse's haltr.

a hor whil the rin is mrly a Iope


modifid stok sddle, smallr nd without

th order of going ar sltd by lottry. Bfor th rid gins, the owboy lowrs himself into th strting hute and onto th bak of th hors h has drwn. l07hn h hs seurl wrappd th lop around on hnd, h signls for th gat to b opned, t whih point th hors buks wildly out into the ring. Th rider is rquired to pla his spurs on th hors's shouldrs t th start and to us them on th first jump out of the hut. Th atual ride, whih must last ten seonds, alls for xtraordinary balan and timing to ahiev maximm

A buking tightened around th animas flank to nourage its ation. Horses and


Two judgs ah award from zro to 25 points for th rid/s prformane and th sam rang of points for the hors's, whih explins the rason
ognized produr.

Soring fo bon riding follows a I-

wh owboys hope to drw diffiult

mounts. Th aggregt is th ride/s sor

for tht round. Disqulifition results fom a idr hanging hands on th lin'

touhing th hors with his fre hand, or

ing thrown befor th tn-sond bttzzet sounds. The tfue rmining .lassi' vnts tht

rnrs braggig, long suh lines as .m

so tough I an ride a bron arebak, stay aboard a brhma bull, or wrstle a stI to

form part of every rodo arose out of.!(st-

th ground. Narurally nough, from this, sprang the ontsts of barbak ron riding, bull riding, and ster wrstling, whih is also known as bull-dogging. Although barak ron riding rtainly rquires brut strength, th ridr an us only on hnd to hold th gip, whih is atthd to a strp around th hos's girth. Ruls and soring ae similr to saddl ron ompetition, xept tht ight,

th girth grip, nd again they must try to last until th eight-sond buzzr sounds. Ster wrestling or ull-dogging, bgins whn a str is rleasd from a pn and md to run th lngth of th rna. The owbo gallops aft it, with anothr ridr (alled ahazer) raing on th other side to kp th animal running straight. Whn th owboy drws levl with th stee1s head, he flings himslf from th saddl'

not tn' sonds is th time limit. Bll iding is partiularly prilous, sine a ull

will has and gor an unseated owo.

Riders ar permitted to s both hands on

and grs the animl's horns as h plants his boots in the dirt to get fim grip. His rms tightly wrappd in a dadlok on th animal, th owbo thn wrsds steer








,i '--i

1 ,



t,' '; ii

,i '''' . ;+., i r-.' ':

]]]:: gallop in a loveleaf pattrn. Th .....t tim of all ontstns wins. ] :rgr rodos ftur othr vnts,

_.'] its sid. Th deiding fto in this 1s tlm. ::r1 raing is an vnt for owgirls. l--.: 1arge oil drums ar plad to folm a - l=.lgular ousr around whih hos and

: -::i

whil his ParuleI rops th animal's hind legs. Colouful and wild affais are th

On of thm lassos

alf round the hd

: .::ution is for utting horss, traind :..arat a str from hrd, thn .- ']irpose alf or to plvnt athe animal itself

..: j th flve stadard ons. One popular

fou or six horses pull Connstoga wagons around a trk at a madap sped. A rodo is also a great display of pagean-

huk wgon aes, whih are reminisent of something olt of Ben /z. Tms of

try, from th opning grand ntr of all partiipants to th Iowning of a rodo quen and hr ourt ofttndants. xhibi-

=.:: roprng whih involvs two owoys.

'::l turning to th group. AnothI is

tions put on fo general amusmnt and s part of th day's ploedings may inlude

trik riding, fan roping, or a musial

quisit for profssional rodeo owboys. h .suiide iruit', as the toul is wrl

tainmnt, although thy atually fulfil a vital purposJ ar th lowns. The divrt th bulls and wild brons from falln ridrs. or thn a fw owboys ow thiI livs to the quik rflxs and ourag of rodo 1owns. qull essntial to th ontstants, ar th mountd pik-up mn, who hlp ron and bullridrs dismount at th onlusion of thir rounds. Ddiation, as wll as ailityJ is a prer-

rid. On group of rodeo mploes whos funtion ma ppar to be primaril nter-


known, goes o all ear and involves avlling aound vry grat distns.

Unlik most othr athltes, rodo ridrs

pay their own wa throughout, and that inludes ntry fs' room and board, and stabling fs for thir horss. As may b imagind, injuris ar ommonpla, yt still vryon will striv for the .pot of gold at th nd of this rainbow. It ontins prize money' whih will help raliz a profit for th sason, but mor important it mans the gain of th titl of All-Around Chmpion. Based on the mount of priz mony won ovr th yar, the Championship also opns th door to dditional inom from sponsoring lothing mnufatuers, fre ber, and ohr produts whih r somhow questrian-relatd. Among th bst known All-Around Champions are Casey Tibbs, Jim Shoulders, nd Larry ahn. In 1974' Tom Frguson st th all-time mony mark of $120,000. A yar latr he tied with Lo Camarillo for th titl, ah having won exatly $90'240' Thre ar mor than 1,000 rodos held nnully in th Unitd Stts and Cnada. The .big lgus' inlud th Chynn Frontir Days in !0?'yoming, Pndlton Round Up in Orgo Dnvr Stok Show in Colorado, nd the oklahoma City AllAmian Finals. Small itis and towns hv thi own fixturs, many of whih ae sponsord by ivi or haitable organizations. on a younger, but rtinl not small, sal, univrsity nd high shool
traditionI Indian ostume'

ngag in stdnts throughout th th sport as Prt of introllegit, varsity, and lub athltis. Lss dangerous and perhaps sptular than rodos, but qually as enjoyble in .Wstrnthir way ar th four stions of at horse shows around styl riding found stok hors lasss' ail horse lasss nd plasure hors lasss. Ridrs war th aditional and olourful gear of brodbrimmd hts, high-hled boots, and haps or \Dstern pnts. In som instans,


nedd for ranh work. ah ntry gos tfuough th !0stn equivalnt of drssag test, whih ompriss figues-of-eight at th iog and lop, tuns on th forhand and haunhs, and halts. Partiular qual-

itis of stok horss ar good mannrs'

th Unitd Stats. These four stions ompis stok sat quitation lasss,

rin slikr is worn or surd to

nd disobediens ar deemed faults. Trail horses ar sked to ngotiat obstals whih might b found on a ossountry ride. A ourse st up aound th

whilst rmining ompletly und th ride/s onrol. Hsitations' antiipations,

handinss' rspons to light rin ontat, and th bility to work at resonabl sped

saddl. Iorss are shown in stok saddls and bridls, with urb bits and split rins. Th thniqu of \0strn riding rquirs that ridrs hold th eins in only on hnd, and sit with their legs hnging straight nd slightl forward to th stirups. They must not post to th iog trot.


rna would probaly inlud

forded), and bals of straw though whih the hors is made to bk. Performn

(whih has to b opned, passed through, and hn losed), logs, a dith' a bridg, an )anse of water (simulating a stram to be


ontstants in stok sat equitation lsses ar judgd on thir riding skills, lthough the prformane of their horss ontributes immasuably to th final sors. Riders and thi mounts ar skd to wal jog, and lope (th Wstn trm for antr) in both dirtions, and the horses should b in pfet balan at all tims, working off their haunhes. Som lasss involv a varity of tests' suh s figuresof-eight at th jog and/or lop' riding with. out stifrups' flying hangs of lad at th
lop, 360o turns, and the imprssiv sliding

nd mannrs ar th ritria for judging. Plasure hors lasss pla gret mphasis on suitabiliry nd manners to a good.Wstern hk. Horss r shown at

as wll as quipmnt may be tkn into

loose rin. In som lasss, onformation, oun.

th walk, jog, and lop on a reasonbly

In ddition, rtin breds' suh as Apploosas, Arbians, ogans, Palominos' Pintos, and Qurtr Iorss, ar

A rodeo queen on parade, dressed


Th stok hors setion demonstrtes the kind of qualitis and tehniqus

ligible to b shown in Wstern stions of their divisions. Dude ranhing or pak tripping has long bn an intgral part of \D?'strn riding. Iowevr, as it really ompriss more of vational ativity than sport, it is inluded in .Holidys with Horss'.


fat'. It sms th mat from his old frind did not stik in Burke's throat as on might have imgind. As th olony bam mor sttld and mail and oah routs wr stablishd, th bandit or bushranger made his apparan. often xllnt hosmen from Ireland, these esapd onvits or.asy-living

although the popularity of this littl animl has eahd th it and man ae

dation stok b newly formd donkey

finding good homes or being usd as foun-

men' wre farlss iders. Th pri on their hads made thm prtiular about

well-bloodd horses in ft, whih onnormous Australi. Vittr unflagging enrgy and unfailing loylty, they hlpd mp out th vast ras of id dsts, grassy plains and ruggd outains, and ould wll b dsribed as piones in thir own right. Although not infigenous to th ountry thy sttled happil ad rmin today in univrsl high

thir mounts and they stole only th best _

f.f oss hav made n l.,l. onibution to lif in

tinu to prov their worth tody as stokhorss. In a ountry with an vr-xpnding bf and wool industy, horses play a major part. otor bikes, uks, even light iraft and hovrraft hav faild to prov as ffiint in th managment of stok. Now

broke by the stokrnen as Part ofthe station routin. Th hoses a mustred and brought to th statiorf s yards, from whre mars with foals t foot ae eturned to the paddoks, yalings r branded and also retund' whil thos rquired for braking r tind. Today most stokmn us th

day. Today th proprty's animls ar

Yeas ago pofessional horsbkrs avelld from station to station breaking in mobs of horss, t th rt of dozns a

yrlig fillis. Unfortunatly, on landing, ll but th stllion and one mae spd lx y of thir onvit goom, and fled io th usnd. ]Vlore horss wr imported over th nt tn yars from the hooughbrds and Arbs from India and Psi, and although these fust impots s're not first lass brding stok, thy ogssivl impoved with ah sus-

rived with th Fist Flt. Landing at th Cp of Good Hop to tk on supplis, he ok aboard a stallion, the mas and two

hoss to Australia


Phillip bought the first in 1788 whn h

lion), born, work and di on th same sttion. Thy run oftn vitually wild in large paddoks, so at th ovrsas visitor travlling in th outbak, may, on sing a larg mo, assum thy ar .brumbis' or wil unownd horss. This is sldom th as and loser insption would show t}r
proprty's brnd mark.

largr poprtis rry sveral hundrd head of hoss whih ar bd (usually from th proprqy's Thoroughbrd stl-

horse is diven by himslf into smll yrd and aught with loop ofrope or grnhid

.Jefflt' mthod of braking whih relies on gaining tlre hors's onfidn and in narly all ss this mthod sueds. Th

arrid on th nd of long pol. on seured aound th nk, h is gntly nouragd to move loser to the breakr. Then h is tied up, handld, and the ridl ad sddl put on him. This part of his baking usually takes aout three hous, after whih he is turnd loos in the yrd to

Th wild brumbis a still to be found in the dst or mountain ras, howvr,

sam sour, along wi som nglish

sive gnration. B 1798' thre wre 117 horss in the new olony, 73 of *rm mares. The fust srious step to improv th stok am with th importation of the nglish brd

Gzis snt shaing their gsslnds, so wild hoss in th Titory ar lassifid as vermin and shot, or fnd off fom watr' so th prish. The same fat awaits ttr wild donkys who om the grassy plains i mobs of a hundrd o so,
Austra|ian stokmen at work rounding up att|e o one of the Vast ranhes in the Austra|ian outbk. The horse is stiI| n essentiaI pat ofthe everyday Iife ofAustraIian farms and is enowned for its stamina.


in th Northrn


ation lalyquis a good dal ofpatien. Th stok saddl hs a high pomml and kn pads and is fastened by anvas girths

ohrs ar rquird to walk around witlr th rid nk-rining thm as thy approah th onrs of th yad. Thy ae thn tkn to lagr yard and wlkd around that for somtim longer. Th whole opr-

will mountd. Som ar ld aound the yards from liabl brking hors;

gt th .fe]] of the saddl. Caught again h

Ausrlin \0lr ws foundd. Standing treen 15 and 16h.h. h was of .dns on' and apabl of arrying up to 108 kg (l7 stone) all day. Th \tralr provd himslf to a ouragous mount and is on rord as hving out-lastd and out-pad ml in th dsrt ampaigns. Duing th First \Dorldl0ar, Ausalian horss, by now famous fo ttrir ouag rnd stmina' wr xportd to India nd
urope. In fat, mo than L2I,324 wentto
wr. But th nd of th war nd ttr dline

th aly imports, that th

horse Rokingham. By th aly 1820s lhr were 5,000 horss, although Rokghm annot b redited wi*r siring Il of thm! During th 1899_1902 Boer Wr, 16'375 horss wr gathed from all ov Austalia to mount th egiments. It was from th mid brding lins of

that r ld to rings or bukld in th onvntional mann. Th stokman rids in a loos, ompltly .fluid mannr. His hands are fatherlight on th long ins, his lgs hang almost straight nd slightly
forward in long stirups.

Now h is vitually xtint and no longr roded in th stud books. If th arl ploers wr gratful for this toughly bred olonil hors, whih proved himslf indispnsabl to thm, th fat is not
rh ontinnt and hlfwa ak again on is hq15g Billy bfor starvation md him

of he ava saw th nd of th


Robt lHa Burke, travelld ross

shoot it. Th diaris rord ttrat th; .flsh s healthv and tndr. without a tra of


After a priod of work - maybe mny months _ th horss are turned out' or
always th .ogue' that dosn't tak kindl to working with or for man. Ie is th sort

.splled and a nw lot brought in for work. In vry mob of horss thr is narly

.unridbles' that were talkd about ound bush fus in drovrs' amps ears go, nd mn who had sudd in riding thm bame lgnds, held in high steem. Th hallng to prove themslvs as horsmn ws grat mong th drovrs and ets wr .;agrd as to whthr, and for how long, a man ould rid a partiular outlw

will buk with real dtrmination until th day he dis. Ths were e

This was the arly beginning of - a ral Ausalian sporting vent tht rris big prizes and tts the
toughest ridrs in th ountry. Th sport is

now organizd and ontrolled b th Australian Rough Ridrs Assoition.

Saddl brono riding

foundtion events ofth spolt, and on that requirs skill, balan, timing and experin. As in th similar vnt in Amrian

is on of


fr of all equipmnt, the horse and his own body. Staying on is not th only judging riteria though. Two judges, on ithr sid, note how wll h rids th buks, how wid th sweep of his spurs and with what styl the hors buks.
thn usual to prvent it bing bukd ovr th hors's had. A hadollr with a rop from the ntral d is the onl means the

ither end. As th horse uks and plungs in this .hut', mounting n b hzard in itself! On mountd, th ridr tks th rop of th headollar in on hnd and positions his legs forward onto th hors's shouldr points. Th gat is opend and h lvs th huts for his tn-sond ride, throughout whih h must leav on hnd

rodeos th ontstnt literally limbs abord th hors whih is onfind btwn high wooden rails with a gte at

from his horse and grab it by the horns, unbalan it and bring it to th ground. Th whol pross usully only taks bnlteen 2z_LI sonds, nd is ridden at a speed of 50-65 km (30-40 mph). Th horses used for rodeo work are sometimes supplid b loal farmrs who have uridble stok, or thy may be the proprty of one person who travls th rodeo iruit with thm. The horses that appr rgulrl hv quite reputation
and are often promoted as .killrs'.

witing for an opportun momnt to lp

prottion soitis hav for som years n trying to hav all rodeos stoppd on
th grounds of ruelry to horss and attle,


drafting is a thrilling sptator sport. Cmp-drfting is not rstrited onl to adults. Pony Clu members learn th rudimnts during novlty ras stagd at thir rallis though suh ompetitions as bnding in nd out of oil ums at a gallop. Of ours som ountry mmbrs gt first hand prin t thir hom frms, but th Pon Club in Austrlia has givn all young ridrs an opportunit to lrn this and othr thniqus. In th past horsmanship skills wer hndd down from ong gnration to th alws ponies to ride and dults to larn from, ut nw gnertions growing up in itis nd suburbs had prnts, who thmslvs hd no knowldg of horses. To thm th Pony Clb hs bn a oon'

nxt. For ountry hildrn thr w

but suh is their popularity, that ll

attempts hav so far bn unsussful.

Th standd saddle for these vnts has two giths, on positioned furthr bak

amp-drfting vnts whih ar oftn

stagd t rodos, major shows and as om-

No suh mov hs been mad against

ridr has to guide his mount _ if indeed thre is any guiding to don!

has led to som spialized rding of

hng hnds for undr four figurs. Th ideal hos stands about 1 5 h.h. (ny larger and the find it diffiult to exeute the aut turns nssary) and is up to arrying a fairly 1rg man while pushing a beast round t th sam tim. H has to b fast, and for this rson many good drafters hav Thoroughred blood in them,

petitiv attrations in their own right. This stokman's sport rries high prizs and

plaser at rodeos. In this instn th hors is unhaltrd and wears only suringle to

Brbak riding

is another


horss. Good drafting horss sldom

th 1950s, th Pony Club in Ausalia follows the same instrutional lines as its parent body in ngland. Rgulr working rallies make up a mjor part of th mtings whih ar stagd t 1ol show
grounds, rae ourss or individual s proprties. Al1branhs _from th tiny ountry ranh with a mmrship of mayb 50 to

th surburan rallies wher sometims mor than 200 hildrn attend. Formd in

nd th intrst it hs fostrd is vidnt at

whih is attahed a leathr loop for th

lasting this time for ight sonds and judgd on th omptito1s styl and th
ridr to hold. Again it is on-handd rid,

th larger inner-suurban ons




hors's ability to shift him. Anothr evnt whih has been handed down from the everyd work of th stokman is alf roping and hr, a lv fst horse that an antiipat his ridt's neds is invaluabl. A rop is attahd to th sddl hon nd on a given signal the ridr sets ot aft a lf whih is rlsd from the huts. I ropes th lfaound its nek, nd exatly at the moment th rop touhs th bast's nek, th hors
skids to a halt on its haunhes, thus pulling th rop taut. Th omptitor ties the alf's lgs as quikly as possil and rmounts.

although rnt yars hav sn Quartr

fals movs mde long th rout, th fastr e ourse is omplted, and th highr ttr sor. A good horse never takes his ey

Camp-drfting taks pl in naturl bush surroundings, and th rider slets a bast from the mob or amp, and drives it to another spot known as th yards. In ompetition mp-drafting' a ourse is marked out y pgs or oil drums, and th number of ttl in th herd kpt small. The fewe

Hors lines inodued with suess.

Austrlian hildren lukier thn many

othrs. Informl barbue mls und the shade ofgum trs and sing-songs or horsy quizzes and ompetitions around the amp fir at night add to th fun. ah State runs its own affairs, but is

th limate and opn spas

Camps ar un during the holidas and


govrnd y th Austalian Pony Club

ster wrstling too. A ster is let loos from th huts nd th ridr gllops longside

Th fastst time wins. Peftly trained horss ar used for

beoms unnessary. H

frightning angles to prvnt it from turn-

off the hosn bst and ny guiding will lan into the east with his shoulder at the most

ing. xuted at great spds,


alendr_ the Pony Club hampionships. In rent years th Inter-Pifi xhang Shm has bn in operation. vry two ears, mmbrs visit a .host' ountry and, as guests aIe supplid with mounts and quipmnt, and takn on vrious tours. Counies prtiipting in th

CouniI. Intr-Stat omptitions ar stags of th biggst vnt in the annual



Highly trained horss are essentiaI fo suessful steer Wrest|ing, as the horse must glIop |ongside the steer UntiI the rider hooses his moment to Ieap, grbbing the ste by the horns in his attempt to bring it to :.e grouno. Below The Grand Parade at the Sydney Roya| aster Show mrks the beginning ofthe Australian show season Battom right rhe indomitable AUstr|in Th-Day vent ider, Bi|| Royroft, who ;ompted in the MontreaI oIympis at the age of 61 nd heloed to win th team bronze eda|. He was aIso a membe of th tem at Rome in 1960, when they won the gold.

mountd poli banhs ar grat rowd plasrs. Th jumping vents are kenly ontstd fo it is from the .Royals' that future Ol1npi riders will b pikd. At

Th hak' huntr and othe riddn lasses attat so mny ntris that judgs nv ride _ it would tak too long. The reed lsses with th havy hors brds, Arabs, British nativ bleds, palominos, harnss nd Austrlian ponis tk hours to judg and the numbr of ntris gos up vry

Sydney's Royal aster show, a rgulr Thre-Day vnt is staged, whih is losly wthd by the olmpi seltors.

For thos omptitors following th iruit of shows, ster and the Sydny Royal mrks th bginning of th sason. Th Brisbane (Quensland) xhibition follows in August with elbourne, Adlaid and

Perth in Sptembr and Tasmania in otobr. The enormous distans b-

twn eah State apitol mak showing an expnsive hob, ut, th prstige attahd to winning a Royal hampionship maks many omptitors trvl th iuit. Obviousl hak that hs won fiv or si Stat hampionships in on sason is a vry

valuable animl.

shange Shem are Ameria, Canad, \. Zeland and Ausalia. It hs ben


test and enthusiasm is ertainly very idnt at hors shows hld around th

sid that, per apita, Australia has th most thusiasti mmbrs in th world and th

dlared during its running, to give workrs and shool hildren a han to attnd. It is intersting to not' that unlike man atually spnt at th show, instad of on th beah, or at hom. It dmonstrates how

Nlost Stats hold their Royal Show in suh high rgd that a publi holiday is

Australian publi holidys, show day is

intsted ity dwellers ar in all things from and of th ountry.

vry town, howver small, holds an nnual show and som of th lrgr town-

Austrlian showring, nd on ontestd by riders from all Stats, is th Garryown event stagd t th elourn show. This riding vnt is for lady ridrs ovr 18 ars of age and the winn reives th Pr. prual Garryown Trophy. Th up was named after a top hak who died in a fu mor than 38 yas ago. The hors's mistrss, Violet urll did too' ying to sav him from th flams. Th winnr of th vnt also rives a sash (sashs ar used instead of rostts in Ausalia) with a portrait of rs. .vlurrll on a rooh.
tam. In 1956 whn the Gams were hld in elbourn' th flt morlly obliged to ntr' vn though th qusian vnts were in Stokholm. Thir fust thre-day event tam onsistd of rn Barker, Brt Jaobs, John \Dinhstr, Bian Crago nd Wyatt Thomson and they finishd a vry rditable fourth. Th Stokholm dvntur fired th Austalian's nthusiasm and theneforth' thre-da vents am rgular vnts in th ouny. In Rom, four yers latr, th tam rall triumphd, with the finl phas nd jumping lar round vn though h had a brokn ollar on. As wll as winning th tam gold, Lui Nlorgan won th individual gold. Ausalia was well and ul on th equstrian mp.
roft' s son Barry was inludd, while .Dad' was on again in th tfue day evnt tam.

On of th highst awrds in


Nine olympi Gams passed for Austrli omptd wi an qustrian

Bill Royroft making his heroi effort in

Th 1964 Tokyo gams saw Australia,s first show jumping team and Bill Roy-

sps may stag more th on. Novlty as, jumping and riding vnts and displvs y the loal brnh of th Pony Club r usually fturd at these .famil
ttirs', but it is at ah State's Royl Show ht th ountry really oms to th ity. sideshows and stalls, ountry lif is well exhibitd. Th latst in agriull quipmnt is on view; sheep shearing



atmospher, bustling with

h da.

ompetitions, buttr making dmonstraions and wood hopping ras r hld; hile attl, sheep, poultry, pigs, agd irds, ats, dogs, goats nd vn fashions r judgd, sold, viwed and (in the ase of ur) tastd, during the show. Grand pades of the winning animals ar hld Ioss min on of th favourite hiits amongst all th omptition. Th

pmannt stabls

dmirs and th vning iumping omptitions, or displas oftnt pgging by th

ar rowdd with





.Meio saw anor Royroft ntr th anks of olympi horsmn, whn Wayn ioined th tam. Clarke was to follow years lter, and all the time

that his ody was flown bk to Australia, dissted and divided. His hart is now in boune and his sklton in Nw Zea7and_ th ountry whr h was brd. Th fist re to run in Austrlia was in 1810 at Sdne and th sport soon proved popular. Th first lbourn Cup-

Bill rod for his

th pital, Canbrra, his skin

in el-

idrs and th ailiry of thir horss. In th oss-ountry phas, both ar in thir limpovemnt in the dressag whih is now intgral prt of all major shows. It has dvlopd quikl from bginnrs' lsses to Pix St Gorge stndards. If it ws Bill Royroft who put Australia on th intrntional vnting map' that ig rd glloper, Phr Lap an lim the ounJs raing fam. Although h has en ded for mor than 40 years, the nation emmbrs him with great afftion,
I-ap did aftr a raing areer of only three as in whih h amassd mor stak mony than ny othr Australian horse fo him, winning 37 tims from 51 ss. Suh was th affetion of his fans

partiular vtran Royroft, dmonstrate the great talent of Ausalian and

The peformans the Auslians,

yar too) a ord only rpatd twi (at th tim of going to print) - by Rin Lovr in L96819, and Think Big in 197415. Thosnds of gr raing enthusiasts,

nam, the Bull. H won it the following


mnt and ent years has sen muh

probably Ausalia's most famous r _ was stagd at Flmington, nr ]Vlelourne in 1861. It ws won by Arhe, a big hors
who gallopd along with his tongu lolling

out' his long strid earning him th nikAustr|ians in sport. top |eft: Kevin Baon, a member of the Australian show jumping tea m in ation at the MontreaI o|ympis. top right: Po|orosse is a unique|y Austra|in spot whih has deveIoped sine the introdution of re| poIo. below left: A pnorami view of MeIbou rne,s fmous F|emington Raeourse, showing the Lawns nd the various traks. In Austra|ia many raes are he|d ove dirt traks rather than turt. inseti One of the renowned two-time winners of the Melbourne Cuo. Rain Lover' below righf : Another horse whih hs won the Me|bourne Cup twie, the formidabIe hink Big.

hightnd mayb, y his mystrious d in th Unitd Stats in |932. Phat

Flemington eah yer for this popular r whih is traditionlly held on th first Tusd in Novmbr. llowver, suh is th ntion's interst in th sport of raing, that even th small bush tak (whih lso srvs as an istrip) an attrat a mighry rowd. any fals starts may b md and the horses lost from view in th dust, but th njoymnt amongst th heat and th flies is as ral s th plsur for those on th wll kpt lawns of Randwik raors in Sydny or that in Flmington. A fw ys ftr th introdution ofraing, fox hunting took on a popularity. nglishmn, bord with hasing kangaroo and dingo, impotd a fw foxs to bightn up their sport. In Tasmania naturl, although the hunts do not last long. The lagst hunting fratrniry now is in Adlaid' South Australia, whih has 11

from all parts of the ountry, flok


indigenous, quarry is still hunted,

Hunt Clubs. The Adlaid Hunt Clu


highst stak in th ountry for a }Iunt Th oldst hunt in Australia' The lbourn Hunt Clu, mets on Saturdays and onl hunts the fox. It gathers a rlatively small fild, usully of about 60. Th

Cup is run in Jul eah yar for $1,700, th

ing thse months, th aim is to kill the fox,

bushy-tailed predator hs multiplid. Hr and fox r huntd nothr old stab-

sason is from lVlay to Sptmbr, nd durth

for from thos few arly imports,

gam rally went head. In 1925 th Austalasin Gold Cup was introdud

whih as hunts usually last no more than the to four hours, and ar ovI stfategiall plad jumps. As in Great Britin, thr r fw dmonstrations vry yar to have foxhunting bnnd. The inodution of polo am not long aftr ring and hunting, but it ws sin th end of th Fist World War that th

lishd lu while som use drag, in

adapted to polo, th gam is muh played in the ounty rs nd Quensland has produed a numbr oftop lss players. A1l maths ae well attendd by sptators during th sson. Polo ross is lso populr nd is playd by Pony Club and Riding Clu mmrs'

Bause station-Id ponis ar adily

and was omptd for twn th differt AustIalian Stats nd Nw Zea7and.

part of thir heritage

thir way to work will stop nd pat th poli horse on point duty; th gambler will tlk affetiontly of.his hors', ven though h might los; and shool hildren are sdll hld spllbound b the skill and darig of .Clany' and th .an From Snowy Rivt', who hasd th .olt from old Regrt'. To Australians, the hors is

nation and thre xists dep lov and rspet for th niml. Offi works on

Ausalia's links with the hors r as song toda as thy wre at th birth of th

and still ar) th yardstiks y whih it was ssssd. In addition, by produing thir produts in th show ring' to win ovr thos of their fllow-brdrs whn judgd by pts, th wr abl to ommand the top markt

lads a hors, or runs him out in hand. Thr a icks in vry trad, and thy ompris vry profssioal showman's stok-in.trd, but ther is lss opportunity for artifi in the lasses in whih th where thy ar riddn. Thn n aggrtd thowing of th to in th trotJ or a flashy display at th gallop, n b sed to disguis, or to divrt the attntion from, suh failings s fult tion or som othr shortoming. he im of the showman is to produ a hors that will .fill th ee', as th saying gos, and no hos wins man hampion-

pri for their young stok. Altrnativly

exhibits ar ld in.hand th




of the im spis nd red staed som 200 als go. It spang from th

prov ntural dsie ofbrdrs ofhorss ti othrs, that thy hd used thir skiil and kn..trldg to produ an animl that ws bigg, btter made for th job in life to whih it was to be put, and pssssd of

qulitis and lassial onformation than thse produd b othr brders. Its movement' qulity, s}.rnmtrial poportions and gnrl bauty of out1ine wer,

rore stlength, stamina, workmanlik

alws bn onvivial mting plas fr thos of similr intrests and enthusiasms, bound togeth _ lbeit in frindl ivalry _ the sam onrn fo good husbndry and the imrovmnt of th red towads th ideal: th perft horse. Although this individul has prbaly yt to foald, just as th prft human bing has et to b bon, thr is ndless fasination in pursuing qust to ahiv it. Probably th purst form of showing is t of showing the oung hors in-hand. Showmanship, whih is a onsidrle art must always pla its part in showing an nima1 to its st advantag' nd ral altist is able to disguis filings of mov. mnt' or evn lamnss, b th way h

othr redrs would attrtd to snd to ttrir stllions. Sho'rvs hv

ships without th ultimate blssing of

hard-to-defin quality knwn aS prsnc. This is th quality whih estows upon its fortunat possssol th ility to ommand

th tention of whovr beholds it _

qualiry whih not only says, ut dmnds: ..Look at m I'm th gratst!'' A hors my b bttr mad and btter movr thn othrsJ ut if h laks presn he will gt
dnid th bnfit

no furthr in th rvorld than th man who is


H s|-i0W |NG

Th hunter lasss ar the most importnt of all th lasses in the show ring, for
hos to breed nd thrfor wield wid influn upon brdrs and buyes alik. Th oungstok lasss, for brood mars and for foals, yrlings' two-yf-olds and thre.yar.olds ar largly patronized popl who bred horses for a hobb, or by

thy st th stndard of th bst sort of

th sid bing just as impotant as mov. mnt from th ak o the front) until thy ar alled in th judg or his stward to

I, I



fmrs who bred thm as a lurtiv sidlin, to thir srious farm work. Th riddn lasss) on th other hand, although try too ontin man popl who show horss for the sher fun of it' r also th happv hunting ground fo th professional showmn who produ horss for othr popl _ and in so doing, nsur tht th stndards of trining, riding' prodution and prsntation ar mintaind t a onsistntly high levl. h basi produ f th ld hnter lasses nvr vais. Th oungstrs are ld into th ring irl around th judg at r.valk (asionally at trot for a shot spell' valuabl innovation borrowd from \7e1sh nv lasses _ movmnt frm

is th usual rquest' ut if h is duious

run ot in hand; .\wlk awa, and tot bal{

th line srutinizing eah animal, efor pulling ah otrt in turn to ispt it again s its ladr .stnds it up (i..' mks it stand fou-sqae). Thn the judge ss it

ordr of mrit. Th judg thn walks down


in a

straight lin,



tht this is onl one man's opinion, nd thr is lways another day. A fourth atgoy of ehibitor gos and attaks th judg, ut this person is vry rar, and indd gts inrasingl mor re as he hs his errtiS rfusd by othr shows for

his reputation will quikly gt around.

dorit shov/.

Ther is an old and tru show-ring saing, to th efft tht: .If you an't tak dfat,

out som small point - dos il swing a leg, or throw a foot} _ h will ask it to go agin to onfim or alla his arlir suspi. ions.

Th riddn hunter lass may hv ithr one or two judgs, who ar alld upon in nglnd and Irland (though not in th

prson' lthough thr an ver only b on winnrl Thos lss fortunat will tll thmselvs and rtain slted friends that th judg is a fool; tll thmslvs and on or two others, in stritst onfidn,
tht the judg is knve; or tll themslves

horss il around him on mor fre alling in his winnr and then th lowrplad horss' In almost vry lass, h will nly hav suedd in plasing on

In th last analsis, lr has th lin of

ring, whrupon h sam systm of l. ling the horses into a lin prevails. If thr ar two judgs th thn strt riding' vry oftn' from opposit nds; if th is only on h starts t th top and woks his way down. It is dsirabl for
vry hrs to b riddn, evn if thos at the bottom of th lin stnd no han whatsoever of ing pld' Aftr all, th xhibitors hve all paid th sam ntry fe' in'hnd and the ridden pny. Pony stIlins t on thei suitbiIity for breeding good ntive ponies and hildren.s riding ponies. lset: Showing n begin at a very early age, espeiaIl in Ieading ein 1sses whre the pony is judged on its suitb[[it for a hild.

Unitd Stts or anada) to id the horss. This they do having sn thm walk, trot' antr and gallop round th

wo aspets of the show ring: showing

the Ascot stallion show, where they are judged



most have gon to th sam tloubl ad xpns to produe thir horss and bring thm to the show, and it is disouraging, to say th last, to dismissd with a urt

nod. ven if tim dos not prmit the judgs to rid vry horse' (and judgs ar all too oftn not givn suffiint tim to do
by a stward who is himslf being

their job' bing onstantly hurrid along

from highr up' vry often baus of th dmnds of the tlvision popl, impatint for th show-jumping to bgin on tim!) th bttr judgs ar putilious
tunat to stand at th vry nd ofth lin. A pat of the hors's nk, and an admiring: .I t h's a supr hntrl' gos vr long


with th pool man or woman who is unfor-

about having a final look and a hry word


rubish'. Th biggr shows will put on lasss not onl for th onvntional thr wight divisions - lightwight, middlweight and halrywight _ ut also for four-yar-o1ds,
ours, by ldy iudge who is profiint in th art of riding side-saddl). Lady judgs ar among th most long-suffring of all, for thy oftn hav to limb up into sidsaddles of xtrm disomfort whih am out of som dank atti and r almost prhistori in dsign! Happily' many of suh oldr sid-saddls hav bn sold broad as antiqus to hng on th walls of th hom novis. smal1 huntrs. and ladis huntrs to b riddn sid-sddl (nd judgd' of

wy towards mollifying an xhibitor who is about to b snt out of th ing with .th

World. Suffiint main in us, howvr, to ast a loud ovI th most stout hartd of lady iudgs. Th winning side-sddle horse does not qulify for th ovrall show hampionship' and nor do the four-yar-old oI the small huntr, bt th first and sond in th wight lasses met agin to ompt for the wrd of th hampionship and rsrv _ th final olade in th life of the show \orking hunters hav to iump a small, ompalatively natural ouls of som six show jumps bfor being judgd for onformation. Jumping pforman ounts for som 40 pr nt of th whol assssWeight-arring obs with show quality al, alas, a vanishing brd as the small demand for thm mks them unonomi to brd. Th hak lasss ar quite wll filled and th big shows stag lsss for novis' and for ladies' haks to ridden
ment. huntr.

of som tyoon in th Nw

sid-saddl, in addition to th usua1 1asses divided by hight (not xding 15h.h. and not eding 15.3h.h.). A hak is an lgant, wll-traind animal. In das gon ' thy wIe a ommon

Judging for three ver different lasses at horse show. top: After giving a ridden

dispIay and |so being ridden by the.judge, a lady's hack is then 'stood up'for the judge to assss its onfomation middle: A riding pony mare and foa l ome forward for judging in hand - the mare will not be ridden in this class. bottom: A beautifulArab is here being shown under saddle.



nd gntlmn for n hour or so on a sunny

sight in Hyd Park whn idden by ladis

moning - partly, no doubt, to arat th admiring ttention of some membr of the

lrgly onfined to th show ring. A rally good hak, of true .ha typ, is lighter built and moe graful than a hunter, with beutiful had and outlook. It is inded a thing of bau nd, lik it, a joy fo as long as it lasts. Few modrn hks howvr sm to b shoold with that lightnss in
ttr hampions of 30 yars ago.

fssional, largly aus thr is muh

Th ntiv pony lasss ar far lss pro-

lss mony at stak, nd the atmosphe is

ah yar. It is the xption, ratlrer than th ul, for horse to be shown ther mor

opposit sx. Nowadays thy ar vry

generlly fa mor frindly. This is ptiularly notibl among th eedrs of whom hav a dp lov for thir prot6g. Bing snsibl, down-to-rth folk, who

than on, for ifh is any good h is usually

Connemara and \Dlsh ponies, both of

sold. The onl rson a hors ma appar thr for two years is that he is somon's favourit nd is not for sl.

hnd whih, with its fe and flowing movment' was so very haatristi of

The British show pon, a minit Thooughbred, is a rmakable phnome. non whih is found nowhr lse in th wold and is grtly admird in othr ountris although sldom ovtd, pt phaps in th Unitd Stats. A fair
umbr of British show ponies hv en portd to Amri, but on th Continent th buyrs sem to fl, with som jusrifiation, that thse ponis ar altogethr too light, too finly-brd nd too preious to be suitabl for the avrag hild, who will hv a gret dal mor fun iding moved from foundation stok.

know ponis, thy r also vry ken on th perfomane sid. Th hardy, sur-footed ponis, rad on th l0lsh hills for gnetions and usd as shpherding ponis by th hill farmrs, produe offspring that ar abl to do any job tht is rquird of them, from hunting and jumping to Pony Clu vnts and driving ompetitions. thmslvs, for thir bred is a bred part whih hs littl appal for th foxhunter or for those who equie a hors to ntr in the-da vnts or show-jumping omp-

wathing thes horss, th rop of th urrnt season' as thy asde into th ring on the fist two days at Ballsbridg _ lighthavyweights. Th last ar th rihst nd rarst' and eally what th Irish half-brd breeding industry is all bot. ah year thy appa to improve in quality, but is this really so or is it simply th invitbl

Thr is n ndlss fasintion in

wights, middlweights, and finally

Th Arab nthusiasts are a law unto

titions. ost people rgrd th Arab

ntiv pony, or one only


today ar largly th hunting ground of the

vn in ngland, th showing lasses

minly in the light of an outross of blood, and many onsider that it should idll b found quit a long way bak in the pdigre. But th tue Arb lovr onsiders his rd to be a .parl bond pi'. As n xampl, I hav frind who, having aquird an Arab stallion som yrs ago' sold it to somon in th United Stats, and was abl to build a swimming pool and

sirs ar used xlusivly on th Irish Draught ma? And will Ireland vntually om to th nglish irnpss, when almost vry hors is pratially lnbred, baus of th prviling shortag of
havyweight foundation stok? Prsonall, I doubt it, beaus evn the Irish Hors Board sems to reliz that it is imptiv to return Io t}:.e sttus quo b mans of th Irish Draught mare, the sup-

grading-up pross' whn Thoroughbrd

pofssional hildren on professionallyprodud ponis, and few Pants want thir hildrn to gt involvd in this sort of at-ra. I was at l0indsor show on day ing to himslf: .Ther are fi.oe popl riding tlris pony!' _ and so thr we! Thr ws th hild herself, him, th pony's ownwhn I heard

lay out an tensive sfuubbry on th pro-

rm sht-anhor of th Irish half-brd brding industy' Irlnd is uniqu in th world in having this ln-limbd rd on whih to draw and it has ben th foundtion stok of mny famous show-jumprs. n, inded sadly most, of th Iish Draught foundation mrs wr snt to

Blgium and atn during th

pofessional produr mus-

er' and th hild s mother and

immdiatly following th Sond l07or1d !ar. nough mars and stllions howevr wer lft to provid nuleus, whih hopfully is bing hrishd nd nurtured, to ensul a foundation stone. Crossed on or


poor unfortunat joky every tim she m past. Small wondr tht hild now hats showing and far prfrs working

grndmothr, all lling out instrutions to th

pony lasses and Pony Club hnter trials nd on day vnts _ nthin' in ft, whih avoids swanning around th show ring looking prtty on a prtty pon whih is not apl of doing anything els' nd oftn has to b riddn-in by an adult for an hour or two at th show efor it is saf for vind, that I th ponies of the future, nd ths lasss' whr the ponis quired to jump, ar filld to apaity. They kp both hild and pony in happy frame of mind nd in thir omparativly ntral stat. Th in-hand riding pon lasss ar on h whol a grat deal mor sporting' than
hild to ide. It is th woking ponies' I am quit on-

Thoroughbrd stallions, it will assur th rtention of a brd suffiintly unique tht th Italian dalrs will ontinu to maintain stud farms, or at least dpots, in Irlnd to supply at last thir intrnational teams with Olympi-mdal winning horss, whil other ntions turn to the old-bloodd riding hors of Grmny. Britain hs no suh foundtion stok to put to Thoroughbrd stallions in th hop

twie, or vn mor oftn


of breding a vibl ompetition horse.

Th arthors breeds _ Clydsdal, Shir

and Suffol - hav all bn id and found wanting. Th Clvland B' with its long barrl, an throw up th odd frak ofbredA sene at the Dub|in Horse Show, one of the greatest disp|ays of hosf|esh in the wor|d, and a spetauIar oasion.

ing, suh as Willim Bark1s North Flight, who was resrv for the 1964 British olympi show jumping tam in

e ridden show pon lasss, with th pofssional studs wll blnd y privat edrs who kep th odd mar or two as a hobb. Yt prhaps thr is still too muh mony in t}rse lasss, dspite th

Prid of pla at th lssi shows, howeve nd at all th major agriultural metings suh as th Royl, the Bath and Wst,

onomi situation, for their own good. The dealrs re lways on the look-out for a top thre-year-old to sll on to som

Ptrborough and the Great Yorkshi, and of ourse at th annual show of th Royl Dulin Soiety hld hAugust, at Bllsridge' is givn to th hunts mntiond arlier. Perhaps Dublin is th most intesting of all, for whras th nglish shows tnd' towards th nd of th showing sason' to b simply a differnt prmutation of th same horss, mting t show after show, all th Dublin horss are nw

Tokyo, but by and large this is not th most suessful foundtion stok for the toplass international omptition hors. Sin th nd of th Sond \yy'orld l07ar' no fewr thn tn Olympi hampions (i'. th winnr of a team or individual gold medal) hav een brd in Irland from

Irish Draught foundation stok, while

dep-poktd parent and th whole thing stts again, with th pony bing sent on to profssional to produ for the show ring. Hug pris ar involvd and lrge sums of mony hang hands.

tain artin

ln's Ahrlow, Colonl Frnk l0ldorf s I(ilbarry, Td arsh's Vild Vntur, H.M. Th Qun's Counyman III, CapSunbam (a doubl gold medallist

sven hav ben brd in ngland. Irelnd has to he redit Colonl Hrry Llwl-

\07hitly's Th Poaher, ajor DerkAllhusn's Lohinvar, Itly' s




Tokyo), I(ing and Roal Lov, and Graziano ninllis Ambassador. nglands home-brd hampions are \Dilf lyrfs Foxhuntr, Mary
Whit's Nizefla, Colonl Harry LlewelGordon-\Datson]s

Cornishman V, Jne Bullen's Our Nobby,

powerful Grman horses are th bst prformrs ovr really ig artifiial fenes in th world. But it also provs that for going aross ounty' with safty, at spd, jumping whtvr fate or the ouse dsignr let to put in the way, thIe is nothing to Nor is it oinidn that ngland and Irland are the on1y ountris whr show lasss for hunters exist s they do, without the neessity to bring fns into the ing to find the winner. Conformation is exml important to an hors. Howvr good a performr, however brav his heart, he will nevr last unless he hs th sound onstitution and th orrt onformation to stand up to the strains nd strsses of work in holding going. For 200 yars nd mor' foxhunting has imposd ths strains and strsses, and out of it all has om a tough brd of hos, s wll s numer of human bings who underontinuation of he huntr-typ horse. Lukily the is absolutely no sign that huntr showing is on th dlin. It will alwas e prt, and an important on, of th Irish sn us Irish horses ar narly all fo sal, and a horse who has won in th show ring must invitly ommand a highr pri than one whih has not. But
on th prrogative of th show-jumpers' hs now bn etnded to the huntrs too, thanks initially, to th support of th

fortuitous oinidn - the rsult of a happy hane. The ft tht only \ilest Grmany hs 13 hmpions' all in th field of show-jumping, plovs tht the

Drk Allhusn's Lauriston and Captain Nlark Phillips's Grt ovation. This onentration of suss in on small ornr of the glob is not simpl a

Bridgt Park1s Cornish Gold, aio

touh th Irish huntr, although th nglish rd on runs him very los.

living. Th fortunt fw to whom this

dos not pply ar denied the opporrunity of leaning in quit th sam shool. Thi many diffrnt horss as thir prdessors

Pize-giving for beutifu|| tUrned out ponies at the Roa| Windsor Horse Show. and partiularly to bing invitd to judg

xpriene annot extend to riding as

elive it, that horss ar no longr

the relm of th tfuee-day vnt is a natural reruiting ground for young judgs, and so r th ranks of young asters of Foxhounds, who ae vry wll pld to know what is rquird of horse. one often hars it said' although I do not

wre luky enough to enjoy, and thir knowldg is invitaly more limited. But

stand onformation' fortunatly for th

in ngland, too, showing is njoying vasdy inrsd support. Sponsorship,

bn given rdne by th ft that in th old das, unsound horss just disappard from the publi e, and vast numrs wer simply put down, or ls fll upon hd tims. Now, thanks to h vr-inasing stors ofvtrinry knowldge and xpin, palliative masures and thniqus r ing improved vry yr. Thus many horses whih would on hav en regadd as fuonially unsound an now b rstord to sound working. All this must b to th ultimat good of th horse, whih is surely the most imporgovrning odis onnetd with showing both huntrs and hks hav drd that rtain ategoris of opertion rndr th subjet inligil fo the show ring. Th rights nd wrongs of th matter ar endlssl dtabl, and I do not Propos to enter into tlrm hee, sv onl to rgrt tht this does somtims lad to horses hving their show arrs ut short to vry little purpos.

waknsses ar bing brd into nglish and Irish horss. Th myth ould hav

sound as on thy wr, and that inhrent


sold to an nglish bur. It is also flt that an nglish judge is mor likly to be ompltly imprtial, as he probably dos not know th horses or many of th exhibitos. It was th lat Nt Galwa-Greer, th wizatd of Dunoyn, a world-famous and delightful horse dealer who won ten suprme hampionships at Dulin in th fust hit upon th brillint notion of bringing nglish ridrs ovr to rid his horss t Ballsridge. Thr was ostnsibly a vry good rason for this; th nglish showmn r a grat del mor periened in showing a hors thn thir Irish ounterprts,
to yars followig th SondWorld War who

nglishmn to judge at thir major shows, suh as Dublin' Cork and Clonml. This is partl aus an nglish judg should have a good ide what sort ofhorse would win in nglnd, and thrfor will selt th typ of hos that ould pobal b

in Irlnd. Th Irish hav always askd

dtail they r al to show a hors offto fa bttr advntag. But thre ws also mor

and with thi mtiulous attention

raliz the valu of showing. Thr ould be said to b a dline in th ranks of the pofessional nagsmn who aboundd in th show ring tween th wars, but ther ar still young mn oming on to follow in the footsteps of th Hrr Bonnrs of is world. Thr is of ous vast numbr of amaturs who hav all th kennss and enthusiasm for aquiring and riding a good hors in th show ring, ven if thy do not rh quit th sme

British nd Irish Steam Pakt Company, and latr to th l0ratrford Crystl Company _ both Irish ompnis, not slow to

tant onsidrtion, vn though vrious

rognizd b th nglish judgs' nd the horss that thy rod would t last b sur to gt a sond look. Although som of th othr exhibitos wr known to rsnt th prsne of th nglish ridrs (beliving thy gav Nat Grer an unfair advantage), the authoritis
rognizd tht it gav addd intrest to th proedings and rised th standrd of th gen Irish hoses.

sutl bnfit' nd this ws tht th nglish ridrs would b known to, and

Although fashions hang in th show ring, as everywhe lse the huntr lasses ar ultra-onsevative; ny innovation is

hights of pertiz of mn whos livs ar spent seking out, shooling and produing th hmpions. Judging, too, is going through an intrregnum, nd for muh th sam rson.

rightl rgardd with suspiion and frownd upon y mor onsrvativ

at Wedon a thing of the past, young men aI fored to look bond th horse to mak

and th Army quittion Shool

th avalry regimnts mhaniz

xhiitors. Suh prtis as ringing hors into th show ring with ountless tiny plaits up his nk, surd rur ands, rthr thn with th aditional on
in front and svn up th rst, natly sewn in pla, is to be dploed. There is onsidabl pestige atthd to ing skd to judg at a lading show,

standard of horsmnship of th vrious huntr judges. The ritrion is tht vry horse should go wll for a judg, nd so rtain idiosynrasies ar ovrlookd s long as this prinipl requirmnt is mt. Prhaps th worst failing in a judg is ad hands, whih must upset any hors unlss h happens to hve a wors mouth. On a judg aquires the rputation fo bing 'mutton-fisted he will not remain long in ignoran of his failing! Th will be sevral horses produd for him to rid with

Thr is onsidrbl vriety in


-tt st-tuw HtNU

their urb hins wrapped

lathr, lst h hng on to their hads. Thr is also th ohr sid of th oin, whn xhibitors produ horses in th ring whih ar quit insuffiintly prpad and aind and xpt poor, unsuspting ludgs to ride thm, somtims t grt prsonal risk. A rtain wll known jor Gneral, whn fad with one of thes animals _ and woman's horse, to oot, notorious for ing allowed to do whatver it wishes _ brought it saight bak to its ownr and dlind to ride it an mor, thundering: .adm, I hv not ome 200 miles to nag othr popl's horss!' Th judg who ass his disions on shows is eithr unsur of himslf, nd thus pfrs to Play it safe y tking th lin of



good as it used to b, h fls that ttr standard of prodution has sufferd vn mor. It is impossile, he is sure, to spend too long in riding and making before the

than th front row is today. Apart from th fat that the stmp of hors is often not so

infused with Thoroughrd lood, Harry Bonnr hs sid that years ago th bak row of a huntr lass was mor imprssiv

horse nd pony looks for good limbs,

w11-s1opd shoulder going

oliquly bk into th bod' dpth in the girth and the loin, a ni front with genrous outlook'

atual nagging bgins. ost

th form whih hs prvaild at othef

who hav bn winning t arlir shows, vn if they hav nvr atully judgd thm efor. Lukily, thr r man ludgs whose integity is so well knwn, nd whos reputations so wll stabshd, that thy ar abov ritiism. It must rmmerd that judging is ound to b prsonal matter of opinion, nd fw popl think bsolutly alik bout a hors. A ig, havy man is likly to lan towards th big' wight-rrying type of hors that he wold hoose to ride himslf. Th slim, lightwight judg on th oth hnd prefrs a Thoroughbrd typ. Dublin s gren horss' too' are grat levllrs, for riding gren Irish hoss is a pulir art, espiall whe they have
done most of thir work in a snaffl and ar

nd ar onstantly on th iruit, an hadly emain in ignoran of th horss

omes known for what h is, nd of ours h is all at sea at th first shows of the sason' bfore th form book has n.writtn'. It is on of th worst brahs of tiqutte for any judg to sn with a atalogu in his hnds until he has finished his work in th ing. Of ourse, judges who are in dmand,


lst rsistan, or hs vry littl know-

Th form judge soon

ra today. Bad hoks, weak hind lgs nd long annon bons were not so prvlnt in the

wrongly regarded as a short-ut to suss. Dlining standards ar also manifstd by th spetal ofhorss _partiularly oung horses - ing fored byond thir ntural pas. .Thy larn to ut their ornrs and om ring-rafty quikl nough, withaut atually showing them th way.' Looking at photographs of som of th grat huntr hampions of th past, with their abundane of bon and thir great dpth, on must oned that suh spi-

ontrivans whih ar somtims

indulg in far too muh of th latt, plus an inordinate relian on tak nd similr


bhind the Iron Curtain have many of ths faults, whih leads on to suppos
that beding is not s sltiv as it might

and song quartrs and seond thighs _ in this ordr. Conversely, bd limbs, shortg of bone, ad walks, straight shouldrs, a shell, shallow body, and wak hind lgs ar an anathma to all. an of the horss whih ar brd

b on th Stat Studs, or ls that the

prioritis ar differnt in palts of the world whre foxhunting is not endemi. It may also b that whatvr the rd, if all th


is pld upon prformane, rath tlrn at last half of it ing on onformation, ther must invitably b

mns r boming inrasingly

as thr always

Thus th show ring is of vry ral valu to any bed of hors or pony' and while ther re still popl who are bout a

shows t whih brdrs and ownrs an

othrs. A hampion obviously ommnds a highr pri than th run-of-th-mi11


e, thr

will e

old days, prhaps bus th stallions of th time w biggr and strongr, with mo on nd mor substn.

xhiit their stok in omptition with

a hunting man and a ahors trainer, working togther. This is an unusul alliane, as th hnting man rquires qualitis in a horse that will nal it to stay all day, while th ring man _ prtiulrly th flat ae trainer _ looks for th type of hors that will stay for no mor than 1.5km (1 mil) oI so at top spd. Yet sangly nough, thy usually sem to s to ey. The rlly knowldgable judg of vry

National Stallion Show of th Hunte1s Improvmnt and National Light Hors Breding Soity t Nwmarkt eah ar fo the award of th Soiqy's premiums, a judged y

Th stallions that are shown at


horse or pony, and grat sums of money li btwen th sussful show hors nd his full brothr who has nver provd himslf in th show ring. In disussing th show ring it is invitabl tht muh mphasis will be plad on th wll-stablished Bitish and Irish pattrn whih has providd the standard for

ountris, partiularl

shows held

in other

Southern Afria. Indd, oth ths ountris frequntly invit British judgs to
offiit at thir major shows nd th lasss hld approximat, with loal varitions, very losly to thos hld in Britain. Amria, driving its adition from the

in Australia



ut newly introdud to a doubl bridl. In an g whn ver hunter is so muh

Ameican ridden show |asses ater for three distint riding styles s welI s the mny different breeds.

instans, taks partiula aount of style.


same sour' has' howver dvlopd its own lasss and establishd a sstm of judging tht inlines strongly towards pr-

in th ring and, in


mor or lss ssurd of a deent rid. It may men limiting your hoi of rsorts, spiall in th ditrrann, or vn going

of rsrh bforhand, so that you

you simpl want sun and sand with a littl riding' then the asual haking organizd by th 1oal stabls at your hosn rsort may e suffiint. Th ssen is to do a bit

nds an often divrt disastr, howvr. If

holidays r bing offrd


Inrsingly, howvr' atual hors-riding


ovr the

to promot _ sh as th British Isles, whr th range of riding ativitis is

enormous. others, lik Ital, will happil find ou a sasid nag but tnd to hv thir

Som ountris s riding as an ativity

for nothing dos surpass th joy

romanti ofarfr antIs along th sashor, or sauntring through new and supb snry, whr th sun shines ontinually from a lar' lu sky. ertainl this is th wa it an , ut b warnd _ reality dos not always math suh high xpttions. Iorss kpt at holiday riding ntrs ar oftn list-

f]f orrv riding is a J' notion. It holds out hops

of periening the sights of a forign ountr from th bak of a well-ard for and
pal hors.

slighdy inland, but it is wll worthwhil,

bst horses at th riding lus. Almost will opn on popl ar awar ou hav
anywhre, howvr, good man5r doors

playing tell-tal signs of saddl sors. Tak, too, is somtims sadl ngltd'
and somtims downright dangrous. A thoughtful approah to your holid

lss, thir mouths hard nd thir baks dis-

kinds of holiday riding _ b it trkking, trailriding (whih varis in dfinition fom ontry to ountr), or simpl fw hours hking. Often you will hav to mak your own riding arrngmnts on arrival, but if givn notie, som vel firms, spially those spializing in a set ara, will rat a spial qusuian pakag dal. Thus' you an still nfit from harter flights' spil inlusiv fars availabl to trvl ompanies, blok bookings ofhotls nd so on.

This pr-plnning rquisite applis


gnuin interst in hors riding nd not just a passing holiday intrst. Language barrirs quikl brak down, tooJ as a mual lov of hoss forms an invitabl Thr ar two othr vital fators' whih must e onsidd _ your riding exprien and th wathr. Nothing is wors

weknd riding in more quabl onditions. Altrnativly, as a mor xperind and profiient ridr' yorr my b xptd to fll in lin with the Da of th sl

than bing aught in ithr trme ht or old fter some ight hours, or mab lss, in th saddl whn ou are usd to


with horss in|ude pon


q,Uiet riding to those with 'tike to explore the derstrom one of the many


speial yle apes! arangemnts for those wit ability. Th stndard of riding holidays and Rmmbr, though, that ekking, by horssusdinthBritishIslsisgenerally dfinition, really means wlking. Any- high. You an ride virtually anywhe, thing faster ould moe radily lassd oding to loal privat property rstridas, so find a entr whih mks as haking.

his n oftn hppn on trekking holi- leggings, but this is no tim fo flapping

of the

long with its wild ponis nd dr, provides a good holiday stting' as lso dos th South Downs Va in Susse.
ben in !ls and th Pony Trekking So-

NwForstinth Souttrof ngland,

On of the iggstbooms intrkkinghas

advnd fom of trkking, distintion is littl blurrd whih ony you r loated. Th \Dlsh Tourist Board sum it up as bing fo thos .ble to rid at sustaind speds for long distans ovr tough ounty'. Cloths must also b aefully seletd,

Trail riding may b


involvd and tough Hignd ponis ar vlidly usd. any nrs ar pprovd y th Sottish Sports Counil and a list of thse, along with othrs, ar availal fom th Sottish Tourist Board. Dropping south into nglnd, ther is oo. Paning though th wavs on a horse, in a bikini or pair of shorts might fin iding in Northumbria, Cumbia and sem prtty on a postr' but is sarl Yorkshire, with muh admirable snr. Patial if you r going any furthr than Ths rgions ae genrlly unommert}re bah _ and diddly unomfortabl ializd, so stabls hav to e sought out. aft an hour or so. Convrsly, in old Th rwrd tnds to b smallr groups' wather, do make sure ou are warm. Sh pobaly ompisd of mor xpiend

n landisadmirblysuitdbottrtotrilriding although th - or post trkking _ as rll as simpl trekdepnding in king. ither way th is little road work

tions nd th ditats of th trrain. Sot-

th latt bing beginnrs.

pproved entrs. Som ofth biggr ons, suh as Rhayadr and Tegron, an e a bit ovrwhlming with th sheer number of ponis and ridrs, a high prntage of

iety of Wals has produed ook on

som Sottish ntres, too' so deid on

This applies


Shools ar usful publiations to onsult fo instrtional holidys. Also invalubl,

Th British Hors Soity handook, or tht of th Assoiation of British Riding


one that suits your aility and tmpere-

is the list of trkking and riding holiday

undr grments as long johns, inlgant, hlp to kp down th

Irland has always bn synonmous with th hors, nd the sope for holida .Wst Country, riding is onsidrabl. In th Rpubli In the wrmr nglish lose to Shannon, Cork, th is unlimitd riding ountry among itms you might othrwis lin. ni rvit rrlq rrirfirswatrs and lightwight windhatrs th high tors of Dvon, or th.wild moors an b boon, as an plsti ots and f Cornwll. The mor gntle ountrysid

ntrs approvd by the Ponis of Britain.

whil bulky ned. oil wool




Right Anintrodutiontotheponyforagroup
of hildre on n adventure holidv in the BIak Mountains of Wales. he hildren,s somewhat uorthodox headgear proteots

to swith from on area to anothr. ontis Wiklow nd Wxford in th ast and Connemara in th west offr pitursque

of astl. Th Dordogn rgion


many opportunitis to iding nthusiasts


possibilitis for man riding holidas' whil County Cork offrs hors-drawn aravns, oftn based on trditional

hunts, s wll s trkking nd riding around Rostrvo in th mountains of

.Nlourne in County Down. Sa, forst and mountain viws form th attration. Basially British, but with a strong

Romany lins. In Northern Irland thre ar numrous

hld in th Poursauds state in th Ardnns nd the Gunkl Stabls, Grnj

Spial holidays for oung popl ar

he native white hoses of the Camargue, stiII used b the gardiens to herd th |oaI buIls, now aIso take exp|oring hoIidaymkers though this marshy part of southern France.

Frenh influn, th Chnnl Islands offr novl xprine for th holida

rider. Jers, kn1y ware of family holiday needs, has good riding at St oun's By. Nighbouing Gurnsey, an island with a glut of good ountrysid, has four stbls, on nar St Peter Port providing some good haks and plasant riding on UAnrss Common los to th bah. Frane vies songly with Grat Britain in th rang of qustrian holidays offered, as an be sen a glan t th hndbook

plaed on drssg, and instrutional holidays ar numerous. Th tamps Riding Soity, for instan, in th I1 de Fran, 55 km (34 mils) south-wst of Paris, has both Portugus nd Lip:zarrer horses for amtur dressg ridrs. For those keen on driving, th questrin Cntre at ValnEay

Corsia, the Fnh island in th of th Assoiation Ntional pour 1 ditrranan has som imprssive Tourism qus at ]]quitation de mountain and oastal snry and is quit Loisirs (A.N.T..). mphasis is oftn and virtually unommrilized. Som of
th st riding is in t}re mquis bushland nd th main ntr is t Venao.

inlud five indoo nd five outdoor rings, two ross-ountry oulss and stabls for two hundred horses.

Assier in the Lot Vll whr rides ar also givn in a stge-oh. Th Club Mditrrn6 rns th equstrian villag of Pompdour nar Limogs. Failitis

pin forsts and pasrurs. Far mor asual is riding in th Rh6n dlta ara known as the Camargu, famd for its whit horss. Th min ntr is at Me janes, ut you an find plas to hire horses along th oad to Saint-aris-de-l-Mer. But do mak sur you hoos arfull aus some hirs offr you littl mor than a hn to sit on a hors's bak. Hos-drawn aravans are avai1abl at

aln in Alsa - a land ofvineyards, storks,

sand duns, pItiulally at I(nokk-leZottle.

makes up for wht it laks in size with a vrity of snry. It is wll ndowd with numrous bridle paths whih have bn put to good us by th fst growing and

Th Grand Duhy of Luxmbourg

vigorous Luxmbourg Fdration of qusian Sports who run a wk-long rid for the experind overing 32 to
40 kms (2 to 25 miles) a day. he fat that thr re 16 riding shools in Wst Brlin alone, indiats th intrst

shown in th sport tfuoughout Wst Grmany. !hil gnral holida pris an b high, haking is still easonably prid.
whther ou rid in a town or in th rurl rgions whih range from th vast Lunburg Hth in the north to th


standard, too,

is gnrall


Bvarian villages in th south. Rsorts with riding establishmnts in the lattr


on' two or four in hand. Brittan hs long en popular and suitble for famil holids, spiall amprs and aravanners. Thr are a number of riding ntres' inluding on halfwy btwn Rnns nd Saint rtrlalo, at L Bourbnsais (Il t Vilin) in the shadow

in the South Loir hs tn rriags for

Belgium, with its olltion of oastal duns, fetile plains nd forstd hillsids is ger to promot riding. llippotour' a non-profit making organization, inlude svn-day riding tours in the Ardenns (a rgion also ideal for boating, limbing, fishing and pot-holing), whil another
Braant provine, the apitl of whih is Brussels. You slep ovrnight, inidentally, in hlofts! The Blgian oast featlres riding in th pin forsts bhind th vast
fiv-day tour tks in th histoi and artisti sites in th woodlnds and parks of th

The Blak Forst, offers man riding holidays, notably in th svententh ntury Soss !eitnurg abov th Nkar

Baruth, Brhtsgadn nd -N{ittnwald.



Vall. A havy onntation on equestrian tivities an b found in the Rhinland whih touristiall ovrs suh wllknown ntres as Ahn' Hidlbrg' I(oblnz, Konigswinter nd Rudshim.

Pon shools ar populr, with a large one at Havixbek nr unster. In th sam are, atr0arndorf, is th famous Dutsh Ritshul whr th top Grman ridrs trin, and pries for riding r orrspondingly high.


Alpine rs of Ausi and Switzrland

fo ther is muh

Unfotntely holiday pries



hld fom lat Jun to arl August in th

hv soared dramtially, whih is pity'

Hllingdal mountains inland from Oslo. divided by

opprtunitis. Possibl solutions r to

sty in privat rooms' rnt a halt or mak us of the good amping failitis or youth

in th wa of riding

hostls. The speial holiday tikets, too,


giv healthy disount on all foms of

ommon with oth provins, thr ar ks lasting sveal days. Ampflwng in

Villag, nd Bugnland, with its Hunfor riding.
gin influen, is strongl reommndd

stblishments ar listd in this ra and,

opial madows. Thirty-four riding

shm r availabl from Ausian stt ourist offis or from th Vienn Tourist Bard, nd many travl firms hav spial torrrs to the shool. Snry thoughout Ausi varies onsideabl, with Lowr Austria, for xmpl, having both high mountains and sub-

ing Shool. Details of a .book

hre are said to b around 150 Austrian ors whre you an hir horses, but bad wtlrr and ising osts r ontinually t.oing som smallr stablishmnts out of usiness, so hk first or selet wllknown ntr. Th most famous of all ust vinna, whr you an lso s th Lipizznrs in ation at the spanish Ridahad'

spru nd pine forsts. For th lest known ofth Sandinavian ountris' Finland has a fine sltion of riding ntrs. In th apitl, Hlsinki, there is exllnt riding in the woodd outskits s thr is furthr ast at th old town of riknas nr Porvoo. On of the bst lkland settings is th Hotl Aulanko, the stbls of whih offer a 4O-minut rid round the hug Karlbrg stt. othr

Thr is lso riding at Lillhammer, a rivr and suroundd y

and gumboots ar the order of th day nd stamin is mor important thn style. Inlusiv pony trkking tours are avail-

1 at Gldingaholt farm' two hours bus from Rykjvik' nd thr is riding, too, at Lak Laugarvatn, Gullfoss, Gsir

and Thingvllir. A word of warning


though _ ut down spending as muh as possibl in llnd; th inflation rat is

good nrs with riding available r Lahti, with th essila stbls neary' dministrativ pital

Tampr nd also in Finnish Lapland' th

Lpp Austria is known as th Iorsemart' s

Rovanimi. Sweden has around 90 riding ntrs' .West ut with wise mphsis on th Coast whi north of Gothnburg, is roky and intrsprsd with woods, ovs nd fishing villags. Along th more sandy bhes of th south, riding is faturd at oth Varbrg and Falknrg. No hors hs bn imported into Ilnd for ovr 800 ars, so th tough' litde Ilandi pony is ssentially th same as that rlid upon by th Viking hords for thi sapads. A partiulr advntag of this breed is th ability to us fiv distint gaits _ inluding pa and tolt' or running
wlk. Vith th long distans to ovrd in a ountry onsisting largly of oks, stons' dsrts and sand wasts' this is a

of whih


ompared with.Wstern pies, although it must b rrngd in advan. lswhr in astrn urop, Iestritions hav een inrsingly rlaxd, although riding is oftn rgarded as a ulturl rathr thn a vational pursuit. on ounEy with a high perentage of horss is

prmission first from Intourist, the stat tourist body, but visitors n b shown round th ntre and riding is vry heap

th vast indoor shool at th .Nlosow qusin Cntr. You will hav to sk

Th USSR offers grt satisfation in riding mor unusualds suh s Trsky, Donsky or Ang1o-I(arrdin, spilly in

Hungry with six- to eight-da tous at Hortobagy, Lak Balaton, th Dnub Bnd and Trans-Danuia. It is also possibl to have hosebak holidays t stud
frms nd lubs, but arangemnts must b md well in advan. A similr situation


in Poland, and th stt tourist ognization runs visits to stud farms at

mjo sorts offer riding though, and at Dvos there is ear round haking, s wll
ides. Fshional St oitz has a entr t.o dssg nd jumping nd stges skiiorig, o hors-raing aross th i with a

littl-known provin

qusian ativities in Swizrlnd ae ot all ntrd on riding alon; ou an spnd ight das in a hors-drwn aravan i the Jura or join a mule sfari in th

of Valais.


ma'o asst. On riding holids jens,


Lakeside riding for hoIidmkers in Po|and. he stte tourist organisation runs vious types of ho|iday on horsebk as welI s visits to stud farms.

s instrutionl ourss and moonlight

ski in tow. In Cntral Switzerland, Lk Luerne is oe gard to th young, with riding stls i Lurn and othrs at Brunnen and Yinu. The region of Brn and th Br-

ns Obrlnd, Intrlakn, has mkd rails s wll as an indoor shool offering I(andrsteg and Grindlwald :rre wo other popular rsorts with riding
eail1. nd high standard

hs a uniqu affinity with

Skgen, the furthst point north on th Judnd Pninsula. Among th Danish

"ild Wst amp for hiln nr Billund. .1 stge oah also uns from the institut -ith ovrnight stops at village inns. Chil r wlom too, t Iimarkn, on f th many Danish farmhouses usd as holidy homs, na Rabjg, lose to

outdoor tivitis suh as iding. On of the main tres in Dnmark is in Jutlnd whr th irling institut at veil uns a so-called

hinly populatd, with dives senery ofliving, Sndinavia

lnd, wih Copenhagn on its strn ost' whil in Slagelse horse-drawn lndus ar avilabl for hi. \_orway hs imprssiv snry with its fiords nd mountains, and iding tours a

islnds, th ideal hoie is probbly Sa-

H0L|DAYS W| 0Rss

Bulgarian Blak S oast, and lso at th

nw esort of Alna. Yugoslavi is the lotion for the Lipie Stud Farm near Triest, whih is the true

Poznn region. If you want somewher snnier' iding is advetized at Slunhev Bryg on the

plas suh as Lak, near \0arsw, and Twno, Posadowo and Sirakow in the

di Billa' in the Andio state, Cndelo. ire. There is a magnifintly deorted Futher riding is offerd in th Abruzzo.^. indoor shool at Vilamoura although the National Pak, in the ontefreddi rsidenhorses hav waed and wand in rputetial pk near Florne and at the offiially tion ov th yars, The bst idea is to
aked horsbak holiday ent at soleshino di anzano, a town in the Udin in the Po Valley. attitd to riding _ that either it is provided for the average tourist or it is enj oyd by th

atostrad is th hors riding n .Citta

Others are situatd at Quarteia and Tav-

irthplae of the beutiful Lipizzanet red of white horses. Th best wy to

grounds and ride there as well, Various trvel fums fatur iding holidays' or
appreiat the history, whih gos bek to 1580' is to sty t th Iotel aestoso in th

Spai like Italy, suffers from a split

ltrnatively stay a a oastal sort, suh as Poe where ther is iding anyway. .The horses were Poor' half-staved easts, givn to stmbling . . . ' Sdly suh

th Billa region, off the ilan/Turin

ditranean, ut good riding is available. The Horse Clu of Rapallo, for instane, on the Itelian astern Rivira, is superbly quipped with both an indoo shool and two outdoor pratie rings. In th Rome are, riding is vilale at Le Pa|azze Country Club, Spoleto, whr you an limb to the Tolfa ountains' and at Sarofano. Towards the Swiss orde in

may e found

applid to som of th holiday haks whih in the sunspots of the

authenti omments as these en


well-traind Andaluin horses

Ponies of Britain,

lishments in the major resorts - although many stles run y hotls a often no more than a olltion of hlf dozn or so somewhat tired nags. It sems sensible generally to hed inlend - to Alondra, for instane. uh more rugged' ut advnturous' ae the 15-dy epditions using

welthy or th nobility. The ar, of ourse' exeptions with som good estb-

Gr there is riding at Thssaloniki. In th United States end North Amria the Hollyvood imge of the owoy and his faithful horse is as strong now, if not

the package deal esorts of Glda, Cavouri nd Lagonissi, In Nothern

judge for yorself; the whole oastlin is quikly overed by a, providd you look out for th numros donkeys and arts! Riding in Gee is sially resitd o two riding lubs in the Athns area nr

nglish ompany and approvd

in th Siera Nvada ountins, orgnized by an


ielly Albrta wher the limat and senery ar idylli fo thos wishing to rliv

in the Canadian Rokis, and mor

to the travl tade.

stronger, than befoe, thanks in part at least esp-

This is partiulrl true

ing iding, have bn subjeted to sddn hangs. rowever it is safe to say that th Algarve, with its rolling Atlnti beahes, despit the growth in villas, is tru riding ouny. eny small outfits ere nglish run, suh as that at the Qinta do Lago.

!ith Portugafs somewhat unsettled, politial limate, toulist failities, inlud-

Uniqu to Albrt is th Stoney Indian !ildrnss Cntre whee you not only go
Riding ho|idays in Noth Ame rica. below:Trai| riding high up in the mountains, one of the

the pione dys from th bak of a pony.

best Ways to see the ountryside, even when the snow is still lying. opposite top: Pack tripping is offered by dude ranches. opposite bottom: a dude camp, where rides rough it as owboys one did.







ides, with four-in-hnd, fall in line with

i Canada, more spilly British Columbi, and also in rtain prts of the L-nitd Stats. In th Yllowston \ional Park, Wyoming, stgoah
h trditionl trail iding ativities. It is similar with othr Old West stats suh as

hors-riding but larn Indian was, inluding how to surviv on brries, plnts and roo. Both the Jasper and Banff national prks provid bsorbing rides, som lasting six days or mor. Although ther is no tul equestian body, th main trail ids e orgnizd through th Trail Ridrs of Cnadin Rokies ased in Calgary, h sn of th famous stmpde. The is simil sort of iding lswher

Canada, giving vaations the opportunity to beome s muh a part of the old \07est s the Twentieth nrury allows.

tDyoming hold rodeos whih are popular

any stats, suh as Oklahom and This

Ptil jokes. Whn an inrasing

ulneous dud anhs and guest-houss, olnmon in ft to vast trats of Ameri, spially wst of th ississippi. Th word .dude' ws originally applied o strn visitors whos ultivatd mnnes and unfmiliarity with loal ustoms md thm the butts of snid rmarks nd ume of thm, howvr, sought to spnd :hi holidays on ranhs, ownes rtd

tde round-up.

Dkot whr you an join an auhenti

In Colorado thr

Iai]iris nd tivitis for pying gusts. .!7'estrn-style hre re now thousands of sots throughout th United Stats and

wekly rodo in whih rnh employs _ and daring gusts _ omPte agaist peopl from nerby rsorts and loal owboys and owgirls. any dud ranhes off pak trips as part of thir pogamm' but pak tripping n lso b done as a vaation by itself. A wekend or wklong exursion on horsebk is a delightful wy to se unspoild parts of th ountry and to live th way frontirsmn did years go. Happily fo today's holiday-makr, pak ippig dos not quire living off th land. Trvlls stay t mp sits, abins, or farm houses long th way. eals are servd at thes plas or thy ar prepad long the il y .wranglrs', who also look aftr the hoses. In addition to riding, thre might b stops fo hunting, fishing, o photogaphy, visits to sni and histoi sits, o for a dy o two's rspit at a resot.

and square dans, and thr may b

Days ar spnt on ross-ounty expeditions to savour th area's snry,.helping, anh hands tnd hrds of atde, or polishing tk in th barn while listning to th staff tll tals of the .good old das'. vning events onsist of brbeus, hayides,

Almost all ativitis ivolv iding.

whn the hors, revd as

iding ounty' partiularly in autumn. The are also nglish style riding nrs situtd thoughout th Unitd States with instrution available t thm. Summer iding amps ar popula for youngstrs, and all major itis hav iding aadmis serving urban parks. There is riding for instan, in New Yorlts famous Centl Park nd in lDashington D.C.'s Rok Ck Park. Australi eperind a lull in riding,

Nw nglnd states offer ll that is bst in

applies also to th Tnnsse \i7alking Iors lbrations. Tous and riding a availabl in th fmous Blgrss region of Kenruk, and inded hors farm tours xtnd fom Florid to th Pidmont region of north and ental Virgini. Th

spetator sport for those on holiday.

areas bing th Blu ]V1ountains ehind Sdney. Othr ntrs re in th Lamington National Park' and th mountainous pats of th Gold Coast. 73 kms (48 mils) out of Alie Spings, th hat of th Rd Cnt of th Gat outbak, th Ross Riv rsot offrs riding _ plus a han to beom a boomerng throwr. Shep stations too oftn tak paying gusts' allowing touh of gious living with th iding ativitis.
lrgst farming ountries, and holidays in a pastoral stting ar inrasingly popular. any farms offer othr opportunitis suh

th old time ushwkrs. Tail riding hs intnsifid, with one of the most ttrativ

emphasis on styl, thn the loping gait of

mal, gav wa to mhanation. As evrywhr, interst in riding s spot soon grw, nd now thr is gater

woking ni-

Nw Zalnd is on of th worlds

as fishing, tnnis and sailing s wll as


ond thoughts, kp it to yourself!

as attrativ riding. Som might vn spring som Worthwhil supriss' If so shar your sret with othrs. or, on se165

through nothr nglish onen. In Jmaia ty riding t th Good Hope estat o at the Upton Countr Clu, Oho Rios, in alaysia - th ountry lub on Langkawi island offrs iding among its ottrr sports nd a Himalan pony tek is oprted by leading travl onrn. No doubt other ountris hav qully

nglish army offres un mountain trks in tiny Andorra, and Argntin ranhhous holidays with horss ar avilabl

das at, th sula ustr at sn igul d Allnd in &lio, two x-

in som other pla of you hoi nd not b ruld out. Dnt horss n be found in North Afria; thr is trkking in th Upper Galil, Isael, and most towns and resots offr riding in South Afi. A Nw Yorke runs, and arranges holi-

ovd full by this survy, holidy iding

14 tams for both expIind and amatur ridrs. Camping ips a arrngd for up to a wek or mor. Although vst aras hav not ben

lookd: th trkking nt at Elanmr Springs in the South Island hav


Trail riding is not


has lost this ability and an mov its limbs onl ithr forwards or bkwards. This provids it with the optimum mthod of propulsion. Th for is povidd b th highly dvelopd musls ttahd to th

bons of th forearm, thigh and body, th sufs bon having ben boadnd to mt this inrasd ommitmnt.

t hors's body is a fin exampl of natur's bility to relat strrur to funtion, eprssed lswhe in th shrp arnassial tth of th dog austomd to

hors's sklton hs bom adptd in th ours of som 40 million years, from th

W know from fossil rords how




fox-lik rtur Eohippus' or Dwn Elorse, to Equus bllus, th modrn

hors. From thse reords we an follow, not only th elongation and simplifition of the extrmitis of th limbs' but also suh hangs as the lengthening of th nk nd skull, assoiatd with th altrtion from browsing hbits (i ting soft' gass at ground levl).

taring at flsh and using its .it' for

dfne, or in th fins of a fish dvlopd


for th purpose of propulsion through Th hors's ody is adaptd for

spd and siz. other animls are as fast s

th hors, ut not as ig, and it is this omination that givs th lu to muh of

hors's bod suture. It aounts fo th highl spializd limbs in whih th numb of ons has en rdud to a

suulent ftuits bove ground levl) to gtazing habits (i ropping hard, fibrous

loss of musl elow the .knd nd .ho has aompanid th rdution in the numr of ons, for it is ths musls, togthr with th xtra bons, that provide th human or animl aility to grsp and manipulat with th extrmity of its lims. Through the ours of evolution, th hors

minimum' so that th horse stands on th tips of four fingrs and tos, ompard with sixtn in th dog and ight in ttl. The

from stok having th mmmalian pro-

Iorse but th hors prsumably evolved

The first fossil rord is of th Dwn

totype appndages offiv fingrs and tos' whih human bings hve rtind. The

artifiil or man-inspird influns n hange it. It is tru tht by sltion it is possibl to brd a miniture Shtland pony or an normous Thoroughred or drught hors, but ths ar still just dif-

volutionary hangs hlp in undrstanding the horse oftoday, but it hs also to b aptd that th strutur ofth body ofth horse is unaltrabl, in the sens tht within th rltivly minor fmily diffrns, hors is a horse; and no amount of

lowr molars an grind the hard, fibrous ontnt of its dit. The horse's body is struturd to mt the needs of the quin spis; nd purposs imposd by mn ar only inidntl. This must be rognizd so as to undrstand the st mthods of aring for the hors, in order to gain maximum advantg fom its prowss while intrfring minimally with its natural funtions.

rsrhd. Th tth mirror the hange in feeding habits; th modrn hors has front tth for ropping grass nd bak tth with flat surfas so that the upper and

th skull nd tth hav bn wll

xtrmitis and those whih took plae in




of th


fernt brds

The modern horse qus caballus has evo|ved from the now extint fom ohippus whih is first reorded from the Eoene period about 40 mi||ion years ago. The oat o|our nd pattern of the tiny ohippus are onjetura| s it is known onlv from fossil bones.

longing to th spies Equus cbllus. They all possess 64 hromosoms (i inherited material in the ell nuli). Near rltivs suh as the zbra, Przewalski,s hors and wild ss have differnt numbrs
of hromosoms, ut are nontheless

of th domesti


tifiable in their body strutur as blonging to th ouidae.


point of hi




lUgulr grove nek sttouldr

ont of shouldef


girth line elbow fore arm



hind annon fore nnon

wall of hoof neel




h hors, in ommon with othr mammalin speis' is md up of four basi rsues known as musl, nrv' onntiv nd pithlium, h with its own spe-

il hrateristis whih ontribut to th funtion of th whol bodv.

pithelial Tissue

liing of th outside of th body (th skin), nd th innr tubs and hollow organs sh as th gut, bile dut, bladdr and utrus. The glands whih produ hormons and oth substans ar fomd of
epithlial tissu.

pithlial tissu inluds th ovring and

onntiv tissu, while mor simpl foms inlud tndons, ligaments and

buts spial funtions suh as th bony suturs (the skelton) whih support nd giv form to the ody and its softr suts. Blood is a vry spil form of shets of fibrous matrial whih bind or Pott vrious organs or musls.

Connetive Tissue Connetiv tissu is that whih ontri-

ohiptus ------+

|v|esohippus ----.> MerYchippus




uslar Tissue .usulr tissu is tht whih has th poprty of movment (onation and

bove As the

r'ok prformd b th bod, as in gallopirg or, in standing, by resisting th pull of

othr typs of

elxation) and is thus rsponsible for th

gvity. Body funtions ar also prformd musl' suh s that in th

horse evo|ved from a crypti forest browser to a onspiuous plains-dwelling grazer, and the need for speed to esape predators inresed, the body size enIarged and the numbe of toes ws edued. The hnge of diet from easi| hewed soft fUits to toUgh grass

whih neded grinding resU|ted in the development of hard enamel ridges on the teeth (drawings not to scalel. Below The

ske|eton is mde uo of some 2] 0 bones to form supporting framework; a knowIedge of the eltionshios and funtions of the bones is

alwavs useful.

at|s (]st orui|


rost heek teeth

7th (|st) crui| vertebr sapulr ti|ge mndibIe 18th (last) thori vertebra 6th

Iumbr vortobr


1st oygsI


distem (br)

sternum 'l8th (last) rib humorus


iphoid rti|age cost|




rp| oones

fore spIit bone

Wrist but |Wys a||ed the knee)


(one of the tas| boes forming point of hok)

ind spIit boe hind nnon

fore anno




(mettrs| 3)




HE B0DY 0t H H0Rs



bieps ahii

rdia| rpaI




|teraI digitaI


lateral rp|

arp| bones


deep d g t


nno bone

ann U|r


digitaI f|eors

|etUs fibrosUs

rdi| chek ligament KNE HLD BWARDS e. sRlG) BY

long pastern bone


short pste bone

offin bone

LRrus FlBRosljs

rpa| hek Iigament



suspensory ligment ad sesmoiden extensIon

lining of th gut whih produes the pris-

talti movmnt propelling food ftom on nd of the alimentary trat (gut) to th othr. The heart too onsists mostly of musl doing th work of a pump. Nrous tissu hs th apacity to trnsmit messages over long distanes, and forms the brain, spinal ord and nerv pahways whih ontrol most of the body funtions.

Nervos Tiss

Th Sklton and usls

pproimatly 210 individual bons (luding thos of the tail). Th sklton givs support for th musles, prottion for ttre intrnal orgns, nd possesses th neessary mobility of its prts fo the hors to mov at various spds or li down or Vrying dgres of moiliry are providd by diffring typs of ioints; fo xampl, that twn th femur and tibia, forming
those twn two vertbr in th akone llow restrited movement onlv. Th gtaze.

bons forming all joints ar appd with artilage, whih is softr thn bon nd an mak good th ffts of war nd tear at th srfa. Th joint is ompltd b a apsul whih produs synovia (joint oil) to lubrite th joint surfas, nd it is strngthend by ligamnts, i fibrous bands onneting th bons on ither side of th joint. Th way in whih a joint an mov is ontrolld by th shap of th j oint surfae nd th position of th ligamnts and ottrer supporting strutrs whih pss ovr it.

The hose's skleton is omposed of

Th ftlok for xampl an b fld .knd furttrer than it an b xtnded; th n only b flxed whreas th stifle joint an b movd, to som xtent, in sevral

Three aspets of the horse,s |eft fore|eg seen from the |eft side. /: he skeleton is made up of 20 bones; there are no o|Ir bones linking the shoulder blades in the horse.2: he deep mus|es; the bones below the knee re moved by tendons aising from mus|es muh higher up the |eg. 3: A spei| system of musles, tendons and Iigaments forms the stay apprtus whih prevents the leg from buk|ing and enab|es the horse to reIaX and even doze in the stnding position; a similar sstem exists in the hindIeg.
for th tth and their roots; and *re orbits

housing th eys whih are plaed wll

diretions. Th sklton hs svral amples of partilar requirmnts or funtion. The road flat sufae of the sapula or shouldr lad nd th transvse prosss of th lumar vrtrae, provid ample spe for th ttahmnt of the powrful musls rquird to move for and hind lims. Th spial faturs of the skull ar the relatively longatd fe providing spa
natur's way of adapting strutu to meet

aove ground level when th hors is gazing. Thes provid it with a greatr ar of

vision to look out for impnding dangr. The prts of th skelton whih hv partiular pratial importan for hors

th .stifle', gives grat mobility' whil

ownrs r: (i) the splint bons, on ithr side of th annon bons, whih re rmnnts of th digits lost during volution. These
ons ar ound to the nnon bone by ligamnts. It is a fratur of th shaft of

this bone, or inflammation of the liga-


bon, that auses the painful nlrgemnts known as .splints'. [ii) othe small bons whih re somtims troublesom' th ssmoids. Thes ar two smll bones forming th

ment whih binds

it to th


Most musles hv tndons of varying lengths and not all a as long as those whih run blow th kne o hok ioints. Ligamnts, too) vary in length. ost are

wen parts t suffe frition.

sid to join the ommon digital extensor tendon, through whih thy r insrtd
into th front of th sond phalangeal and pdl bones. Thre is a similar arangmnt in the hind limb.

naviulr on elow th pdal bon.

bak of th ftlok joint, and


The Foot

ain. A hors's foot onsists of n outr ly of horn (hoof) inside whih is onind th pedal and naviular bons, part of ttr sond phalanx and th dp digital flxo tndo th nd ofwhih is ttahd to th pdal bon. Th foot also ontins th digital pad, latral artilages, oronopdal joint' blood vessls and nrvs. substan omposd largely of krtin whih is sretd by th oronary orium. Th hoof grows t a rat of approximatl 0.5m (0.2in) pr month and it rives nouishmnt from th snsitiv lamina lef-lik struturs whih lin the pedal bon and whih bind the hoof to th bon as thy intrlok with ompaabl laves from th insnsitiv lamin of th hoof. Th foot as whol asorbs onussion and by its ontinuous growh it is abl to plae th surfa as this is lost y vryda wr nd tr..
sol, bars and frog. Th hoof is an inrt

th wr and tear of arrying on qurt of h hors's weight in tion ovr ny tr-

Th hors's foot is ompltly surroundd a substan simila to human's fingI il to protet it against having to sustain

lativly short' sh s those alread mntioned whih strngthn joints. The hk and suspensory ligaments of th foelimb dsrv speial mntion. Th hk ligamnt is attahd to t}r ligment at th bak of kne joint and, at its low nd, it joins the deep digital flexor tendon in th rgion of th ak of th annon bon. It forms pat of th stay appaatus whih prvents ovr xtension of th to. Th suspensory ligamnt is also onrnd in this ation and is attahd bove, to th bk of th annon on and lowr row of kn (arpl) bons' and elow to th ssamoid ones ehind the fetlok ioint. From hr it snds two rahes around the front of the first phalangeal (pastrn) bon on h

Digestive Systm
The horse's digstiv systm onsists of thos organs onrned with digestion, or
th turning of omplx food materil suh

as hay, grass and or, into simple substaes suh as arohydrat, potin (amino aids), fatry aids, t, whih an b usd by the body for nergy, stoage or
body uilding prosses' Th organs onsist of the alimentary trat whih is the tb xtending from th mouth to the anus alimntary anal, and th assory ogans suh s th teth, tongu' salivary glands, livr and panras.
digit| f|exor tendon sesamoide ligment digitol xtensor tendon

and known also as th gut, intstines or

Th outr layer onsists of the walls,


at on end nd to tlrir esptiv tndons

Th musles tht enble the hos to move onsist of musle masss tthd to bon
bulb of heol

at th other. Fo xampl, the suprfiial digital flxor of th forelimb is atthd to th humrus bon nd th posteior aspt of the rdius on. At its lowr nd it foms tr tendon whih runs behind th kne

the lowr nd of the first and uppr nd of ttre seond phalnx. Its ation is to flx th to and knee nd to extnd th elow i oint.

nd ftlok ioints to beom insetd on

shath as it runs bhind the kne and th ftlok joints. Th thin fibrous shet t]rat

The tendon is enasd in a synovil

l I'o9". l- offroo " |ater| groov | apex _]

ntra| 9oove

omposes this podues tndon oil o synovia whih has similar lubriting
nlos tendons whrever th is likl to b frition betwen th tndon nd bon,


to joint oil. Similar shes

ground border
of w||

o othr struturs.

struture expt that it dos not surround a tndon, but ats mor lik a ushion bt-

bursa is similar

insensitive |mine

he struture of the foot. fop: a setion down the mid-line. middle: The sole surfae of an unshod hoof ' bottom right.. The hoof dethd from the foot shows the insensitive |aminae on the inside fae of the wall and heels. bottom /eft: a magnified ross setion of the insensitive/sensitive |aminar juntion; the sensitive Iamine hve Iitt|e room to expand if injured or inf|med nd an thus be a soure of extreme oin to the horse.


oesopngUs diphragm

sm|l mlon


Iarge oIon

mouth r the highly prhnsile lips for gathring food whih work in onjuntion with the shrp front teeth Whn ropping the food to th bak teth. Ths have
grass, nd the lil tongu whih onvys

The spial harateristis of

h horse's

oprning of s|

vity into phrynx

tabl-lik sufas rossd by ridgs that form an idal grinding surfa twen the upper and low jaws. follows: in ah lft and right, upper and

An adult hors has 40 teeth arrnged


lower jaw thr ar thre inisors, one

The mouth and teeth re spei||y adpted for grazing. far left:The |ge mobi|e lips an enfo|d bu nhes of g rss whih are torn free by the hise|-Iike inisor teeth. /eft: the skuII viewed from be|oW; the soft p|ate -n extension of the mouth Iining _overs prt of the nasa|avity opening;the IoWer jW is narrower thn the upperjw nd moves sideways as we|| s up and down to grind the tough food between the heek teeth (molars). above i the moIar surfe is fIat and formed of sharp enamel ridges; opposing teeth move aross eh other with a shearing action. right'. the milk teeth a e rep|d by the time the hose is f ive years
o|d; here a permanent inisor is erupting through the gu m to repIae the miIk tooth in


frot| siuss



suprior mi||ary sius


erior mxi||arv sinUs

s|vity (oPe to phryn)

buc| cvity


.t {. g'


Left above The |imentary trat, showing its disposition in the abdomen (here in the me), nd the sequene of its parts' he sma|| size of the stomach restrits the amount Which n be ingested and the intke must be sma|| but f reouent. The stomah and most of the sma|| intestie e hief|y in the Ieft side nd annot be seen in the mi drawig

mnent teth by the time it is five yars old.

and si hk teth (three prmols and thre molars). A young horse has tmporary teeth, whih are replad by th per-

nin (present only in olts nd geldings),

the soft palate bhind. Th soft palte

hard palat in front, whih ontinus into

The roof of th mouth is formd y the

ual salivary glands open into th mouth.

from th prodd mndiula and subling.

Duts whih disharge digstive juies

forms part of the pharynx whr th ir passages and digestiv trat ross one
another. As a hors swllows, the food rosses th

bethes in.

The respiatory system' A |age vo|ume in the head is ocupied by hambers which do not seem to have a respiratory function but do onnet With the nasI avity nd ae fiIIed with ir' The drawings on the Ieft show the opening of the larynx into the pharynx; the nerve to the voa| ord on either side (usua||y the |eft) may beome damaged due to overstething or injury, resu|tig in the ondition known s roaring or whist|ing' used by vibtion of the para|zed voal ord When the horse

o osophagus, from where it is onved to th stomh nd thn to th small intestins, lrg olon, smll olon and retum.

pharynx and entes the gullt

fold of th pritonum is known as th


amnts) of th peritonum,

A spial


feml, the ovaries nd th uterus; and in both mal nd fmal, th urinary organs, omprising th kidny, urtrs and blad-

desrid as a larg th sides of whih r th diaphragm in front, th musls blow th spin forming th top, and th musls of the.bellf , the ottom. Th bak prt ofth .bot' is losd by th plvi outlt through whih the tllm' urinary nd rprodutiv trat rah th outsid. Th bdominal avity also ontins, in th

the abdominal avity. This an .bo/,

The alimentary trat' from the stomah to the retum' togethr with the Panras and liver (glands whih ontribut mor digestive juis and bile) are ontind in

The anatomial puliaritis of th hors's digstiv sstm omprd with

othr mammals are: (i) that th greatest volum of th trat is in th hid nd, nml th aum, and olon, whr th majo pross of

(iii) the bsen of a gll btaddr (probably assoitd with th nd for a ontinual suppl of bil in an animal whih is a oninuous fdr)

frmentation (ii) h relativly small stomah

digsting fibr ours by batrial

The Respiratory System

Th rspiratory sstem onsists of th air passags of th hed (nosils to pharynx), th pharynx, lrynx, trha or windpip, ronhi and lungs. Th lungs ar the two organs in whih oxygn and arbon dioxide are xhangd twen the blood and

peritoneum nd all the organs ar suspended b refltions (msntries nd lig-

Th bdominal avity is lined by the


H B0DY 0t HE 0RsE

oft to body d head

puImonary try to lungs

puImonary rtery

pu|mory veins

pulmonary verns from lungs

Ieft trium

va from body

Ventri|e right ventrile

rrght atnum

known s th thorx, the walls (ribs and diaphragm) of whih an pand or on-

air. The are situatd in the hest avity

trat' thus allowing the lungs to nlarg or ompress. The movmnts of he hst altrnatly drw in and expl ir into nd out of the lungs. Th antomil faturs of th quine rspiratory systm whih r of partiular intrest to hosemen ar: (i) th air sinuss of th had and th guttural pouhs, whih ar larg blind sas onneting with th us-

he hert is situated between the Iungs in the thori avity. It is effetiveIy a doubIe musuIar pump; the ight side reeives deoxygenated blood through the vena avae from the body and pumps it to the Iungs; the moe musuIr Ieft side reeives blood from the lungs (where the blood is oxygented) and pumps it oUt thoUgh the aorta to begin its Iong iruIation through the body.

nods bome nlargd' as in strangles or othr infetious onditions.

Th Uro.Gnital Systm

(ii) th lar1rx, on sid of whih may

may b th sit of irrfetion or bleding.

tahian tubs of th ar and whih

is easil .raisd b

the had and nk bk to th hart. It

obstrution to th inflorv of air, thus resulting in whistling or roaring. (iii) th minut ndings of the airwas in tubes, known as bronhiols' whih onnt with th air sas (lvoli) in the lung. It is ths struturs whih ar involvd in the ondition of
.brokn wind.

bom pralyzd and ause an

administering intravnous fluid thrap. (ii) Th aort is th min rtery leaving the hart, and it arries blood to all parts postrior to th hst. It runs
along th roofofth hst and abdomutes a branh to th intstines, alld

prssure in the lowr part of th nek and ma b used thrfor for ollting blood sampls

or in th ours of

inal avity, nd in the lattr it distri-

Th hors' in ommon with othr mammals, has two kidnes, whos funtion is to filtr th lood and form rine. This passs to the bladdr through th ureters nd from thr, th urine psss to th outsid though ttr uthra. Th urethra has ommon xit from the body with th sxul trat, namly the vagina in th mr and th penis in the stallion. Th gnital organs of the mre onsist of two ovaries and oviduts or fallopian tus, the utrus' ervix, vgina and vlva. Th ovaries a rsponsile for produing the fmale sx l1, i th gg or ovum. A fill is born with many thousands of ggs in hr ovaris and no mor form during her

The Heart and Vasular

onsists of four hambrs with four sts of valvs. Rahorss, s might be exptd' have hearts whih ar rather larger than
th averag; that oflips wighd out 6'5 kg (14lbs).

parsit Stronglus zlulgris. This is one of the uss of oli.

bloked as

this branh whih may


th anterior mesntri artry. It is

bom rsult ofth tivity ofth

lifetim. Iowevr during tims of sxual ativity oestrus fluid follils devlop round on or mor eggs and rupture to shed th egg into the fallopian tube. This is known as ovulation. Th lining of the fol.

As in othr mammals, th hors's heart

Lymphati System
Th lymph systm onsists of a seris of

lil bleds nd .ellow-ody' is formd. The follile, whil it is dvloping, podues th hormon oestrogn, and the
.llow-bodt', th hormone progestron. If th ovary of a sexuall matur fllly is ut in half it will ontain follils and .yellow bodies' in varying stags of dvelopmnt.
(top) and the stallion (bottom). In the mare

ody, bfor rturning to th hart in veins. Fw popl nd to know the hors's vas-

Blood is pumped b th heart into artries whih xtend to ll parts of the

ular sstm in dtail, but the following

a relatively olourless fluid known s lymph, from th xtremitis and other

minut hannls and vnules whih arr

artris and vins ar worthy of not: (i) The jugulr vin that lis on eith side of th nek, rris the blood from

parts of the body, bak towards th hart whr the disharg it into th blood stream. Along ths hannls ar speil glnds or lmph nods whih flltr bateria and other mattr from the lymph stram' thus purifuing it. The lymph systm is not notiabl xpt in suh disass as lmphangitis, or whn the lymph

Right The

urogenit| system of the mre

the vgina, body of the UterUs and bIadder are shown here in setion through the mid-Iine' The uterus and ovries ae susoended from the roof of the abdominal avity on two fo|ds of its Iining (peritoneum) lIed the broad Iigaments (not depited here).



A stallion's sxual organs onsist of two in whih the sprmatozo aI produd; ollting duts (inluding th

pididymis) whih onnt

IthIa aftr trvelling in th sprmati ord with arteries and vins; th assory glands omprising th prostate) vesiulr



Th PNS ompriss th nrv trunks that leav th brain and otttrs, whih mrg from th spinal ord, togethr with thos

blonging to th spial symptheti nervous sstm. Th frures of th quin nrvous sys-

sminls nd bulbo-urthral' and the pnis. The penis is housed in th prpu or .sheath', and th tstes in th srotum.

Th Nervous Systm
CNS onsists Th nervous system is omposd of th ntral nrvous sstm (Ns) nd th priphral nrvous sstem (PNS). The
of th rain and soinal ord.

th spinl ord tfuough the rvil gion whih makes this prt suseptile to injury and to suh nervous onditions s .wobbl/ disas; and th routes taken by th nerves running to th xtrmitis of th for and hind limbs. A knowledg of th lattr an usd in the diagnosis of lamnss. sin thv an .lokd at varios

tm ar th relativly hig dvloped rbllum, that part responsile for the ontrol of movmnt; th long ours of

brin and spinal ord lprsnt exhang nd its susttions, and

b) motor' arring messages from th

around thm' so s to dsnsitiz th ars thy supply. Th nrvous sstem is somthing lik a telphon xhange, in tht it dpnds on th input and output of mssags, to and from th ntre. In using this analogy, th
th th

points b injting a 1ol anastheti

nerve trunks ar of two sorts, a) sensory' that is arrying mssags to the CNS and
to th musls and othr endpoints whr


thy produ ativity or movmnt. Th snsory nrves depnd on ndings whih re snsitiv to pain, prssure' hat, old, t, and whih, whn stimulted, onvy thes imprssions to th rin whr the r intrpretd by rflx o voluntar ation. The spial snsory endings ar through th nose, ys and ears.
those of smll, sight nd hring, mdiated


Th endorine systm onsists of a numr of glands whih srete hormons. A hormon is a substane produd y gland and ansportd in blood

The ndorin (Hormonal) Systm

or lymph strams' to xrt an ation

oI ause n fft on anothI part o parts. For

situatd blow th brain, podus a hormone known as follil-stimulting hor-

ampl, th pituitary gland, whih is

Insulin is produd y ells in the panreati gland and is rsponsibl for rgulting th lvl of sugar in th blood. Cortison is seretd by th aenal ortx and has widsprd effets on many mtboli funtions of the ody. Th ndorin glnds (and th hormones they produ) ar as follows: (a) antrio pituitary _ follil stimulat. mon (LH), polatin, growth, thyroid stimulating hormon
SALL]oN kidneys

mon (FSH) th ation of whih is to stimulat follils to dvlop in th ovary.

ing hormon (Fs), lutinizing hor()

rssin () thyroid _ throxin

posterior piruitar _ oytoin, vasop-

(d) panras _ insulin () adrnl oltx _ ortison

(g) ovar (h) tstes

(fl drnal mdulla - adrnlin

(i) utrus - prostaglandin

_ oestrogen, progstone


Th Skin
Th ski is omposd of thre layrs' an outr llular o pithlial lar whih is apabl of replaing itslf as war and tar rode th outer sufe; a sub-pithlial lyer whih nouishes th out layr and in whih pain ndings nd othr snsitiv strturs ar found; and th su-drmal layer whih is ontinuous with the subpithlil layer and binds th skin to th undrlying on or musl. Th hair follils our in th sub-drml layr. The

skin ontins swat glands nd othr glands whih srt an oil substane
known as sum.


A ooN failing among animal11, louer' is the tndny to iegrd th

dog, possibly th earlist of th animals domstiated by man, is the trme animal spies in human terms of intellig. ne, motivation nd similar mattrs. Th

eampl of .humanization' bing rgardd y a lrg numbe of ownrs in th same light as a human hild and endowd by them with humn intelligne and imagi-

unlikely vntulity of th latter ing plaed in th same sitution. Th horse may not suffr .humaniztion' to quit th same degree but wiout doubt he is populrly, and quite wrongly, thought to be an animal of high intlligne. The prformanes of whih h is apabl ar all too oftn onsideed s manifestations of that quality rather than as produts of a training systm based on rpetition, whih results in variety of onditiond eflxes. uh of the gument may dpnd upon he interprtation of th word .intelligen', but what is rtainly byond doubt is that animal intllign nnot quatd with the human quality. In ft, th brain of the hors is vry smll in rlation to his size, smallr indeed - although the point is hardly relevant than that of th turtle. In gnral terms nd at tlr risk of ovr-simplifiation, it an b said that th hors is a eatur of instint, not of rason, whih is human attibut' sin its mntaliry is based upon instints When trying to understand a horse don't fall into the trap of interpeting its behviour i human terms. It wouId be anthropomorphi, and wrong, to guess that beause this horse Iooks to be Iaughing it is showing mUsement.

flse prmis - th reations of th quay being relatd to thos of the human in th

nation whih it annot possibly possess. Many of the arguments advned by antihunting ftions ar basd on a similarly

th Thoroughbred nd th Arabian. In all ass, howver, th feeding of th hors xerts an important influne. A high protein diet will have th ffet of making him more pron to beoming exitd and mo likly to indulg in defiane of his train1 s attntion has to b paid to th horse's diet, th onsumption of heating, or nergizing, foods being balnd by a orrsponding exris.

will be a notbly less exitabl subjt than th highly-bred .warm-blood' typifid y

developed in th wild stat as a mans of survival against th natural hazrds ofth environmnt and the activities of predatory arnivors, formost of whih has ben mn himself. Th horse is an hebivorous nimal and his defnsive mhnisms _ that is th physial ability to mov swiftly away from the rat of attak and the possssion of higy.dvlopd senses - ar in th min dirted towards flight as a mans of prsrvtion. Any study of th horse personality, relevant to th animl]s training' must tk ths fators into aount, whilst disounting the fat that in th domesti stt th origial stimuli have long been absnt. Th xistn of a flight-orintted dfen eplains the higy-sung nd itable natur of the horse, lthough th dgre ofitability nd nrvousnss displayd narurall vries aordig to the individul. In most ases th onon, .old-blood horse, slower in his reations,
Under|ying many aspets of the behviour of the horse re two basi hrateristis on whih its suviv| in the wiId depends - a powerful herd instint nd the abi|ity to run quik|y from troub|e. aboe: A|erted by potenti| dger, these hoseS are ready to run; any apprehension quik|y spreds through the herd. below right.. he herd instint; there is sfety in numbers, and the tendeny for one horse to fo|Iow another keeps the group togethe' above right.' Racing is just one of the ativities whih takes advntage of the hed instint; even Ioose horses wil| stay with the fie|d beause it represents, if only temporarily, their herd.

or ridet's wishs. For this eason muh

penditur of nrgy through physial

and whih involves, also' an aptan of disiplin nd a degre of submission. Th herd instint is ontinually present in the horse, who will always sek to return frequently kept singl out of nssity, but it is notiabl that suh horss, laking th surity whih mmbership of a group provids, will often dvelop peuliar and

hors's deply-rootd hrd instint in whih th provision of surity is impliit

The prime onsideations of th hose trainr, apart from th natural tndny in his pupil to be nrvous and xitabl as a result of th instintive, self-psrvtiv, flight retion' will b onrnd with th

to or to rmin with ompanions of his own kind. In a domsti state, horses are

troop, a riding shool or a ring stabl. It is not impossible to keep a hors on its own but, lik an only hild' it will b mor inlind to pos poblms. Th hild an make frinds with othrs of his own age t shool and is abl to invite them to his own home o to go and play with thm at thirs. No suh possibilitis ar open to th horse. A dog is quite ontent with human ompanionship and it would b possibl for hors to be similarly onditiond _ but only if his owner was abl to shar his stabl or devot most of th day to romping in th

somtimes nuroti trits of bhavior whih do not our whr a numbr of horses live together, suh s in a militry

flight. It is ploitd whn th young horse is inodud to the hunting fild. In ordr to remain with or rturn to th herd th youngstr will frquently jump fens whih would not hav bn ountnand in old blood. In this last instan th lement of exitment sd y the prsne of other animals galloping and jumping is also, of ourse' a ontributory fator. rl iumping lessons similrly tak advantg of the instint. A young hors will usually jump fn going towards his ompanskd to iump in th opposit diretion.

the as of th .onlf hors, th rtion may wll b antuated to an unaptabl lvl. It is possibl for the herd instint to be exploited in a varity of ways, th most obvious being in th sport of raing whih, in a sns, is a simulation of th herd in

ions whn h might vry wll refus if

fild with him, proeedings whih

byond th apaity of th most dditd of horse-ownrs. The ompany of othr


horss, simulting th hrd ondition, auss xitment in most hoses but in

wise ous-buildr bgins his ours with on or two omparativly asy fens, siting the big, diffiult ons in suh position that the hos jumps towards the olleting

On th other hand th natral instint an be subdued by aining, as is shown whn hors lvs th ollting ring _ nd thus his tmporary herd _ to jump th fns in a show-jumping arna on his own. But vn in this instn, ourses r frquently plannd to tak acount of the .grvitationl pull' of th ollting ing. A




horses to traffi th wise horsman will' thrfor, hoos a quit route awa from th stabl, rturning to it by a busir one whn the horse's attention is disted from th vhils by th thought of home
and food. If a horse is to b a lm and threfore rptiv individual' surity is an ssn-

Like the herd aspt, th stabl an used to advantag. vry horsman knows how a hors prks up and quikns the stride when turnd for hom after morning,s exeris. His mind is thn oupid with thoughts of food and in that stat he is less likely to tk noti ofrod hazards or other obstals whih might have worrid him on the wa out. In inoduing young

plaing suh .ntir' haratristis

mars fom th group, protting thm in just the sam way s a stallion - vn disas

marking out a territory y droppings and urination. Fortuntly horss appr to pt the dominan of man in substit. two-legged lader, on whom thir wellbeing depends. Nonthelss, thy will, as th would hav don in th herd ondition' tst the authority of the ladr. Resistans mad by th hose in trining r prim xampls of this testing and quit natural. -N,l'et with quiet fumnss thy ar usually asily nough overom' but if the
tion for the hrd leadr nd proprl handled will om to rpos a grt trust in thir

The stabIe eerts a profound inf|uene on the horse, to whom it represents seurity and a soure of food.

tial ftor in his lif. Loss of seurity, as an happn when a hors is sold on to nw home, n produe a variety of rations. Uneasy and unsur of his new surhorse may mak diffrulties about leaving his nw stable, or, on h has ben prsuaded to mak a mov, my nap prsistntl in his fforts to rrurn home. A rnt inidnt highlights th ffts that an e aused y a loss of surity. A

for rsons already givn, to kp horses in ompany with their own kind. For th domsti hors th ntr of his seurity is

horse finds in bing a membr of a herd. This is a fator not lways suffiintly appreiated but it is a very rlvant one. In th domsti stat it is not possibl to simulat the wild hrd ondition' nor indd is it nssry, ut it is advisbl,

instint is the snse of seurit whih th

Very losly onntd with the herd


a formerl


his stabl ad immdiat surroundings

It is not rally so muh diffrnt in th human ondition whr surity is found

nd, idally, th presen of anothr hors.

in th hom. Th influn of th stal is a vry strong one, largl eus of its assoiation with food, on of the horse's mjor proupations. Baus ofits influn it would b unwis, for instan, to sit a trining area in los proximity to th hors's box. Sh an arrangement would
ensure a lk of onntrtion on the work in hand, as the hors would more onrnd with rtrning to his stabl nd th

horse ws bought from a town nvironmnt and movd by his nw ownr to th ountry. In th town the stabl-ard nd xris ring wr surrondd by high-rise uildings and, on on sid, a rilw station. Whn the horse was riddn out' th route to th narst park ws on a min road in built-up re with a heav ffi dnsity. Frquntly, th xris was arried out on suh roads without going to the park. Th hors had grown to aept this nvionmnt and th traffi nd th noise held no fars for him. Iis new hom was dp in th ountry.

dn towards shying at smingly insignifint objets, whil smells and sudden noises will give ris to similr rations. A sh may, indd, go so far as a buk or two, whih is just another dfensive rtion. Shying, if it an nevr entirly radiated' an e redued to a minimum b ounon-sens treatmnt _ tht is s long as it is not the result of dftiv esight. If th horse an daw onfiden from his rid/s fum sat and nouraging voie, or if h an b prsuaded to smell or touh the offnding artile, his fear will be remov and if ths pratis ar arried out onders. On the othr hand punishmnt given for suh naturl lapss only onfirms th far in th hors's mind and mks him vn more nrvous. Apting th prmis of th hors as a non-aggessive animal, it is reasonable to assum a grtr snsitivity to pin and lower pain tolran than animals of an

ommon manifesttion of

horse is on allowed to sued in rsistan, h will quikly enough tak advantg of the situatio thraftr attmpting to rvrs th roles ofleadr and followr. Thos other prolems, of nervousnss and xitment, are forevr with the hors trainr. Th higy-sung nature of th hors riss from th flight instint nd a

it is the


tinuall th inidn of shing will


would ontirrually ver towards it.

of food. In onsqun,

Although sta||ions my oasiona||y fight, horses re basiaI|y non-aggressive nd are probab|y reIative|y intoIerant of pin.

skis, road fields and litt1-used ountry lnes. It was all too muh for th town-boy who developd fairly violnt form of eqline gorphobi.Pllout for n hour or two in a paddok with n o1 stady hors h gallopd about wildly' injurd himslf and then, dripping with swat and wildd, jumpd th gat and eturnd to his stable (a port of tmporary surit in the
hdgs instead of tall buildings, he shied violently at vry rustling lf, whilst th
fer. Riddn out on lns enompassd by

pla of tranquillity with wid, opn


storm) stnding outside, shivring with

down. His nw owner' b th xris of muh patient undrstanding, finally won his trust and solvd the prolem, but it took nearly two months to do so. Th mntion of trust leads to anothr ftor rising dirtly from th herd ondition. In th wild state th hrd was onolld and led by dominant stllion who xrtd disipline over the mmbers of th herd and upon whos sagaity thir safty
dpndd. In th domsti stat th need for leadership still remins. Iorss t gass vry soon establish pking ordr and geldings will frequendy ut out on or two

rod that he lost his footing and ame

approah of a biyl rdued him to a point ofnar-hsteria. on on oasion h rated so violently to a twig lying on th

humn to ontol and ti so larg and powful an nimal. As n xampl, a tp with long whip on th hors's flank will whn a singl lg is applid, th quarters wi1l b shiftd in th sam mannr. The reation to th bit' howvr, when it is
aus him to move his quarters way; ltr,


opposite nature) like the dog. Stallions, of ours, fight ah othr to stblish their asndany, ut vry fw horses, whther stallions or not, will attak man. Instintivly th horse fles from pin or the threat of it. Inded, without this innt

it would b diffiult for



Iorsemn, quit inorretly, talk ofhorss .fighting, the it. In fat, thy do just th opposit. As sul thy ar running wa from th disomfot imposed and th hr-

in momnts of exitmnt is somewht diffrnt, if just as logial.

der th rider pulls, th mor urgnt

oms th nd to sp from the pin. ovrt resistan' apart from th earl .tstingi of the ldt's authority whih, as xplaind, is esily enough eliminatd, is ar in hoss unlss thy bome onfusd or xit or when the fa of greate


0t HE HOsE

osioalln a hos ma seem to at otrry to s ntur, prriully t fd tis' whn h ma show signs of aggss y lyg ak s rs and ven kik-

disomfo assrrms th asndny.

kiging the food has no itest i it, h vs s h would if lging fd ouide in mny w.i othrs- Ther he ''ould qrssing anxit
fun aoh hos to kp it awa from h food orl. Mo ofte th hors is
d impatin kiksie food boh of gt impotn rrl 5169 of eitmnt to him.

Y tmd .revsiorr'. Not omprhading that th huma

out bhind. It possibl tht th hos s momen is suffing from what


EiitY s

sns of taste as i muh th sm n4

b snses of th hors, chi dlopd ir aord i th basi istiIs, r intgl to t 1rrsoalit zrl 1glgy to th bhviourl pattn.
i ll snst tfog""
to a deg"

nr to

ghr on objets dirtl to the frot, but fudo llow vry'onsidabl latl visi. Fuhmo" whn th hd is raisd ion to th re md possibl. Th Gquipmt ut is not partiulrl hlpful n jumping_ xris thatIIry seem rirly naturl to th hum ut t-

d fu

h spis. T ys" st mor or lss on sid


bu thos



h do no


gnrtr, fous

d}.round vion is part of th prottiv

jup virtu lid unlss th idr ellos dqut frdom to the hd ad

}F.d rth lik a soud-or The ers" h}h re qrtionll5r mobil, n b
ldIling in th hos is ut, si th

1to s afri taboutdtn of l!}.5 m (l5 ds)- r.2 m (4ft) from h f, fu lower prt of th head mks th simulEous us of two )rs impossibl nd Issirats tilting of h whol had for rrE y lon to se the fen. It is quit 1sibl, thfor" fo hos to b ford

r\r unn11l to th hos- Given ffint frdom of th h both s

onIy by understnding howtheworking of the horse,s mind dittes its ations d ifluenes its responses n the traier hieve suh peaks of performane s this.

m. Ctainl' hors s the abfitto prive istanl suh fatos s ;midit

rrir it pssihl for
a velos ra1ro to b hivd that m nrl ap1oah

or hsitatio i th hu' as wll s onfid and ourg. vith skilld

sun prtiull to th tons my.d th hum voi. h sns of

old hosmt's pati d hing th hnds with n romti ffir. Vitout dout th hors sil prgpd ss in

Gttd -d ditd at w.ill towds Ind4 hos is vrsponsiv


i5 equll5r urc nd here ws


ivs rh sm of f vn off th rEfY(rs hum nd rts aordingl. similly th smell of hlood d dh ikl pikd up ad thf f lrmfous is of hoss dplig rrm gi-

p nd r ahl to assss th mood f r idr' eoming to som rxtt th Eior of th mn or women who sit on

rirh hoof d h will frquntl when srnlling ob|e touh it wih th nosI.stln r is srrffiint vidn to slIIIr he exte of sixth niml qs. Ilorss re rtily snsitiv to


ouh would sm to ave some sigifr*n lso. florss will gei ssuran
touhig ob!ts laid o h ground


whn in th vi,inity of battoir.

rpating th rcrient t.hrfter. Brrt \e hors :rnot udstd dld prrhmnt or rwrd. If h hit fiv miuts jftr. r|isobdine, it impossil for irn to relt the punmt to

tlpath. I tainingmuhus is md of th podigiouslrtntiv mmo5r ofth hos. I ft is is a two<d sword i hnds of th rainer" sine th hos rmmbrs o good nd bd ins, pr.srving forvr i the mmo bk th trai/s istaks s wll as his orrt tionsTh hors notal to ontlatd ppings spratd priod of tim, ut h dos hv th powr to assoit use nd fft rrot so sptd. If som'hing is don wll nd h imditl rwd h tion assoitd i his rnind w^it plsurl lien whih h rrirmers whelld o tofpt tion t latr dt. f&vsl, should h kik and reiv immr|iat rtiution for his sio he assoites th tion of kiking with n unplasnt nd possil 1ifirl xpin d is likl to dsist from

tn ohs" but mn1r quit apabl of oduig prform.ns 1 this lveln so long s th trinr is s''frfiinl patit

ability hat is out of th odinr. Css of irus hoss rraind to ount o to prfom vaious movmts without h trinr smig to giv aJr sot of ormnd r ass in poit Th isn of ours, nothing out of the ordir o in an'ss mstial aout suh prfoms; h r mrl5r, th produts of skilfi,rl taiing. It is u tht not all horss r suitl subj for this rg 9f y9'o69 ing lss reptiv

I studis of th hos istes ar oft quotd implinc prptio and

and skilled. The hors is ut b th usul s5[ of r1rtitio nd rwrd d gradu it is possible to rdu t sgth of th omrnd util th hors

ours i th taiing of th idig hos. In th rl5r sags th idr d to xggr1g his ai i ordr to ve his mssg lrl to th hors. As th training pr gIsss h ids bom less notibl until i th shoold hors th5r' m molr.t to no moe tn flg of th

will ob brl prptil movIlr on th prt of h trinr. T sm thing

ful at unirrst tamt tht h

i nd



onl5r bom rst-

fingr on the ri. I aiing horss muh mphs is vr po1rl giv to th phsial dvlopmn involving th build-up d of th musls. Th mentl dvlopmnt , howver, iust as im1rota th smll min with all i limitations, is dvlopd i tms of th limitd
priods of onratio of w'hih it is bl in iust th sm gradual w5r as th

lf musl or minut tensioing of a



horses: (i) fd in small quantities and oftn (ii) do not work had immediatly aftr a full mal (iii) provid plnty of watr Ths ar founded on th prinipl of following as losely as possibl, th feding habits of th hors in its ntural state, whih, obviously, will be those most suited to its digstiv system.
(i) Feed in smll quantities and often The horse is a hrbivor or grazing animal, nd when out at pastur' grazes mor or less all the tim. Apart from osional slops th digstiv appartus will b hav. ing small quantitis of foodpassd through to it from th stomah fairly ontinuousl. It is this kind of lisurly fdirrg to

r thr asi rules J |. governing th orrt feding of

whn a hos has just tn a onntrat fd, its stomah nd bowls ar tully bigger thn befor. This means they ae taking up mor room' distnding the blly not only outwards and sidways, ut lso forwards on to the diaphagm, whih in turn prsss on th lungs. Any pessu on th lungs mens that th annot xpand and ontrt proprly, and thrfor hd work when the lly is still distended will as disss and lbourd brathing. A

aftr a full meal Th phsil rason for this rul is tht


Do not work hrd immdiatly

for digstion, the ttr.

after its fd; but the longr it an e given

(iii) Always provid plenty of lean

quit orret, ut it dos not man that this is th only tim horss should e llowed

Th old saying .watr for feding, is

hour befoe it is askd to do ny sious

hors should hv its onntrat fd on

drink bfor ptting a feed in th manger. It dos not harm a hors to tak n oasionl sip from th buket whil feding,

to drink. If watr is alwas vailable, horse will nevr dink too muh, although nturally it is snsibl, when oming in from work, to give it th opportunity to

work suh as galloping, jumping, shooling' et. The oprativ words of this rul r.hrd work _ it will not harm a horse to be takn out for a quiet hak half-n-hour
Grass, the natural food of all horses and ponies in the wi|d stte, wiII need to be suppIemented, espeiaIly during the winte, bearing in mind his tpe. his state of hea|th and what work he does.

suh as a rae, or a ross.ountry oIs, a horse down, ut if a hors is nvr kpt short of wtr, it will seldom develop th kind of thirst that fores it to dink too muh. A hot, tid horse will naturally want to drink a lot, and shold b llowd to do so, but giv it a hay-nt to pull at, and rst,

Too muh wtr bfor very hrd work,

nor will it hrm to lt it hv short dinks t strems or rivrs whn out on long rid.

will slow

stomah not dsignd for oping with big mls spad at long intrvals. It has, howvr, pious owls whih aommodat its food during th pross of slow digstion. \Vhn a hors ts, as soon as its stomah is aot two-thirds full (whih is whn it is working st), th food bgins to pass through into th bowls, and thrafter ontinrrs to do so at the sam rt it is bing taken in at the mouth. orss that ar in work, as wll as thir bulk food - hay or grss - ned rgular, paltbl short' or .onentratd feds. If thse ar too lrg, thy will distend th

whih the hors's digestion is adaptd. Unlike arnivores, th horse has small

stomah, upst the ntral baln of digestion and vnally use aute indigstion, or oli. Coli is not only vry painful, but an also b dangerous if not
delt with knowldgealy.

If on of th mn brnds of ues re being fd, rathr mor n b givn: up to 2.7kg (61s), eaus th ubs hav a high fibr ontnt nd ar genrally eatn mor slowly. Thrfor when horss ned to b givn extra onnates' thy should e givn as an xtfa fed' not by nlarging th stalishd rgulr ons. Hay and glass r .bulld foods, and are alwas atn slowl, so they do not overload th stomah. Th onl exption to this is when horss are first turnd out on to lush spring grass, when the may at too muh, too quikly.

Between l.3 nd 1.8ke (3 and 4lbs) of onentrates, suh as oats, mixd with a smll amount of brn or hft is as muh as th hors n digst properl in on fed.

foe giving a shot fd. In ordinry wath, wtel is sldom too old, but in frosty watttr, it is as wll to k th hill off it befor offing it to hoss oming in hot from work. Standing h full ukts in a wrm tak room will

do this satisfatorily.

floses re fstidious drinks. Thy do ot rlish water whih hs borne onmintd by dirt; stl water; or watr from bukts that hav eome slimy. he also prfr, and it is bttr for thm, gnuinely frsh water to th hlorinatd p pvalnt in towns nd ities. Rainwter olltd in watr butts or tanks, om down-pips, is muh appriatd. of th the fding ruls' .fed in small quatities and oftn' nds to e onsidd in mor dtail.

How uh to Fd
h at ration to give
a partiular hors ding partiular work an only b lrnt om xprin. As a guid, howvr, it

n tkn that th totl amount of food n to the domstiated hors p day

should approximte
it -ee at liberty.

mount it would gt thougin24 hours

in wight to


Horses t grass must have aess to p|enty of fresh Water, although bths do not mke ideal ontainers. Every nimal diffes in the amount of food it needs, so eah horse requires individuI feeding. Caeful mesuring of onentrtes, Iike these nUts, is neessar to avoid over- or under-feeding.

Tkig hors of 15 h.h. as an xampl, .ht wight would b 11.5 kg (26lbs). For .rg o smallr animals, add or sutrat l kg (2 lbs) for evry 5 m (2 in) ofhight. A rs t pasture would at this total wight gss alone, but wit}r th working hose il must e dividd btwn bulk, ad onats' or nrgy produing foods. Con-


Fts, starhs, and sugrs: ngy and hat produing Slts: a ditary nssity Wter: onaind in all foods, vn .dry', vrying from thos t}rought of as

in roots

10 pr nt

in most grains to 90 pr ent

ntrts a fd oding to th work spted. Th diffrn in wight must

mde up in ulk _ hay, or, if prtly out at gss, hay and grass.
5.5 kg (12 lbs) of onntrtes, it will nd 6.5 kg (14 lbs) ofulk. Ifdoinglightrwok

If 15 h.h. hors in full work is geing

trats givn in the last fd, and th biggest hay-net at night. A hors dos not slep for si to ight onsutiv hours s w do, but rsts and fds intrmittntly. If it runs out of hay too rly in th night' it will proba-

foods, but partiularly in hay Vitmins: essntial to horss Th onntt food poviding th best ditarf balan fo h horse is ots.

Fibrous or woody substns: giv bulk nd hlp digestion; found in all

nd tlrfor gtting lss onntats, phaps 3.5kg (8 ls)' it will nd 8.5kg l8ls) of ha. If doing no work, so onts hve bn ut down, or right out,

h b givn lmost ad lib.


vis suh s wind-suking or ri-biting. Unlss hos is grossly ovrft, it dos no Jrm to fill th last hay-nt xtr full.

ly start eating its bed, and may also, though bodom, aquir fw stal


oats ontin 11 th nssary ditary lements in suh blan that hors an onsum a larg quantity without upstting its digstion. ots should e fd

Bus horses ar individuals, variios from th stit wight-for-hight

\hat to Fed
So s to mintain th nrgy and physial wll-eing nssary for a hors to arry out th work xptd of it, its dit should suppl a oret blan of: Protein: ssntial to the body's ned. A dit without protin would us wastag nd death.

horss nd to dit, whil thos in poor sondition need as muh ulk as thy will

will sometims

be nssary: ovrfat

r It is, howver, a sound working


ruised rathr thn whol, nd th amount fd must alwas depend on th wok don or asked for - th enrgy to e xpnded, and rplad. !ith the riding hose, th amount should lso la to tmpramnt, and th apailitis of its idr, as oats an hav an alarmingl xhilarting fft on

to Fd

som horses. For this rson hildn s ponies should fd no oats' or fd thm vry judiiously.

loses tht ar stabld and working nd fds at7_7.30 am, mid-day, .30pmnd :: th vning. On times hav bn slished, thy should b onsistntly lhrd to so fr as is possil, partiularly

tds. Thr will obviously be days whn a horse is woking though its usual feding

fo th earl morning and the vning

Although univsall not so gnally usd as it might b, barly falls vry littl short in nutritional valu and ditary balane, to oats. It atually ontains a slightl highr proportion of fats and sths and nitrognous elmnts, but little lss slts


im, (s .anagment of the Stld Iosd for mking nssary hangs) ut h; re rearures of habit and will soon ln whn to xpt thir fds. he quantity of h fed, oth of on-

Eate and ulk, should inrase towards :irc d of th dy, with th most onn-

muh on brl as on oats. It should b fd bruisd, or .flaked when used as a stapl fd; but it n also fed boiled, whn whol kernls should usd. Barley is an xellnt fed for young stok, outwintrd hoss, nd horss neding to pui on ondition.

.hot up' so nd fibre. }Iorses do not tnd to


however st to mi litde rn wittr tlre ubs, as n id to digstion. Cus a onsidrably dehydatd and swll whn wt' so horss fed on them ulill drink mo. Beus us ll have fily high fi ontnt' horss tnd to et thm mor slowly thn grains, and so slightly less hy

sme; they r easily hndld; fds nd no mixing, nd it should not b nssrv to feed vitmi or rninrl dditives. It is

produt is gurnteed to b lwas th

is nedd.

ponies doing light wok or genel haking, to high potin ubs for raehorss nd bloodstok, and spially nutritious
ons for ood mrs and youngstrs.

gds; fom ordinry ubs for horses and

ny ubes r vill in differnt

A1l horss enjoy arots, whih should b given slid, mixd with fd. Swds and tunips should e fd whol; in th mngr' o thrown out into th fild. Cutup ppls or ppl plings, lso mk an apptizig addition to a fed. Very tired horss n b given grul on fust oming in to tlr stabl. It is mad by put-

Carrots, swedes and turnips


a is muh lss fibrous grain thn ots, or rly, and is somwhat lking in
of starhs, fats and sugars. If fd with
ble, and is usful ddd to feds to nourage shy fdrs. othr grains' o with ues, it mkes good .heating, food for wintr. It is lso pa|atasalts; but it does ontain a high poportion


A mre isfed onentrtes in arefu||y p|ed potab|e manger. Cre must be taken to avoid

Wsting epensive food nd ensure tht eh horse reeives its proper ration.

ukt, pouring on boiling watr nd stirring well. It is fd whn ool, and should ttrin nough for a hors to drink easily.

ting a doubl hndful of oatrnel into

As what is geneally in suh demand for humn onsumption, ttre only fom in whih it is fd to horses nowadys is s


paring horss for show, and .putting a loom' on their ots. It is fd by boiling th sds, nd thn simmring until jlly-lik sustan is formed, whih is bst don in th slow ovn of ooker, overnight. This linsed jell' nixed with
brn and erl, mks n xellnt fd fo a hors tlrat nds fattning, but has to b fd daily fo out a fortnight foe its

Linsed ontains lage proportion of fatforming lements and is muh used in pr-


Thr four min kinds of hay: timoth, love. mid nd madow.

ors nd wood, but it is vry nutitious. Old horses howver may find softr hays


Th stalks of timoth h r fairly

asier to hw. Clover hy

Brn is a by-podut ofwheat aftr th flou has een tkn out by milling. It has littl nutritiv value of its own, s sientifi milling rmovs most of th nuitious part, i.. flour, lthough good bran still ontins vitamins B and . Brn is nvrhlss a useful dietary additiv; it maks th hors


when well-made, but if not, n be havy' and quikly go mouldy. &lixd hay is tht taken offspeilly seededpastur, nd ontins mny mixed gasss and lovrs. It is ttre most usual ha, and if wll-mad, is
]Vtedow hay is hay takn from



nefits will eom apparnt. If rttrer a lot of wtr is usd, ther wi.ll b some ovr when th jelly hs formd; this is lso vry nutritious nd n b usd to mak a bran mash.

probably th bst for horss of all ags.

pstrs ontain herbs and flowers not normally found in new lys; ut it n be lss good, iftken ftom rough lnd or wtr
hay; if takn from good upland pastur it

pastues. It an very good, as mny old


th droppings beom too loos, brn fd dry will help to ring thm ak to normal.
It is lso muh used as a mash and as suh,

eat moe slowly nd hew poprly; it inrss bulk, nd it hlps regulate th bowels. Fed damp, it is a mild laxative; if

Thse must soaked efoe feding as tlry bsorb lot of watr. They r good

Sugr eet pulp nuts

mdows liabl to flood. It is usually light nd soft than timothy or mixd

fd as a .hang', or mixed with usul rations' but not as a stapl diet on thir

should smll prtiularly swt. &louldy or musty hay should nvr fd. A bale of good hay should fall aprt

is palatal and sy to digest, and xllnt for hoses oming in tired aftr a hrd day's work. olsss (lk ele) addd
to brn mash mak it xtr palatabl, well as being good for th digestion.

Thee ar mny brands of horse nd pny ubs availble on th markt tody. The bst r vry good nd omprise a om-

florse ues

whn th stling is ut (swaths of hy will stay togethe i .slis'), nd it should not mit loud of dust, nor show drk, moist pths, nor smll musty.

Proportion of flesh produing lmnts; but they should b fed in small quantitis, as thy ar ver .hating,. Baus ofthis,

Both r vry nutritious, ontaining

Peas and beans


pound of all th ingedients nssary for a blnd dit. Thy inlude vitamins and minrals, many of whih ar nowads

Oat straw ot straw, as wll as hy, n e used

thy should only b givn to horss in-very hard work, or outwintering in svere on-

nalsis (whih should printd on th outsid of th ub bags) is satisftory' and horss r fd aording to th manufaturrs' insEutions, the ae many advantaes in fdins u dit. Th

lking in grains nd hay grown on land tht is artifiially frtilized. If th ontent

to onntrat fds to nsure propr mastiation and to add ulk. In itslf, it is quite

.hff or.hop', whih is exllnt to add ,

apptizing to horses, whih is on of th disadvantges of using it for bedding. It is irnportant to rmmer that any basi hng in hors's dit, suh s hanging fom grains to ue feeding, or vi-vrsa. must b don


of th

d H.

Q \)

r horss. spnd th gratr proportion of thir livs in stabls.


peruall in a stat of semi-onfinment. To kep stabld horses in good hart, as wll s good halth, therfor, it is not quite enough just to know how, whn and with lvhat to fd thm. If thy ar to adjust

rvhih veryon onrnd with the managmnt of stabld horses should keep onstntl in mind. Iorses a by natur fte-roaming' grgarious nimls and it is basiall unnatural for thm to liv per-

This obvious fat is nverthelss

stisfatorily to an rtifiial, mn-imposed nvironmnt, the must do so mentally s rvll as physiall and whtvr opinion rr, hav of th hors's intlligne, it annot b dnid tht h hs mind as wll as a ody. From this it follows tht what h nds from his humn mastr is not only phsil ar, but also a good dal of undstanding of th haratr needs of

lloses, lik ourselves' an suff from bordom, and this is partiulrly u of st1d horss' ut off from th fr ompanionship of th hrd. Also lik ourslvs, horss ar individuls; som r highly-stlung' som ar plaid; som are

horss in genral.

moe' or less, intllignt. Unlik oulslves, howvr, all horses ar by natur

stales a moe libl to olds and ronhial troubls. Ad h nds light, for it is not good for th yes of an1' dir:nl outdoo animl to too long in unnatl darknss] tht is daknss othI than tht of night. In th past, stabls wee oftn as laboratl built as th houses of the horss' ownrs. Thy would have intritly laid rik flooring sloping gentl to a entr drain grating; tils round th mangrs; oftn, dortiv ironwork above thm; a warm tak room at on nd of th stabl blok; a fd room at th other' and a loft aove with a trap door though whih th hay ould b droppd. Nowadays, unlss on has bn fortunate nough to inhit suh a horse-pl, stabls mostl onsist of on or two, or a sris' of woodn loos boxs sitd onvnintly to th owne/s or th groom's hous. In som ounies' th ustom is to build individual oxs insid a

lmplements hang tidily on the wall in this wll.appoited stbIe yard AIIthe hoss n eadiIy see what is going on, an important fator in peventing boedom.

hors's saliva mixs with th watr,

onstant drinking during whih

of wood.

Bukts must b kept lan. !ith

slid wooden doors and partitios with,

slim will form on th insid of th bkets if thy ar not regularly srubbed out. Idally th bottom of th manger should


nevous and suspiious of anthing nw or srange, of sudden movmnts' and of loud harsh voies. In th wild, thir rtion to f and suspiion is flight, but stabld

not b lss than 60m (2ft) from th ground, although th atul height will dpnd on the animals. Small ponis will

hoss tht are made nrvous by rough grooms shouting at thm, ullying thm, or hitting them with pithfork handles to move thm ovr, have no sap. Instead
fored into th ation of trying to

dfd thmslvs, whih,

hndl is not speedily rplad, will rsult


th ough

in thm beoming permanntly nervous' frightened, and diffiult to handl. A1l

horss, but prhaps stbld ons in partiu1r, should hndld with what an bst b summarizd as firm kindlinss.

ig arn or shd; th boxs running on ithr sid of a entr passagewy whih has a door, usuall, t ithr end. In old limats, this method has man dvan-

larly not b abl to rah into mangrs set high for big horss. Som people like to hav mangers at ground levl, to ompl with th thor that a hors normally eats with its had down. Thre is nothing against this, xpt that the mangs ar liable to gt dirty as dding and droppings gt pushd into thm. Th asist typ to kep lan ar rmovabl os' set into ornr holdrs. Thy n b simpl taken out and washd aftr eah fd. It is impor-

Th Stabl
Th stabled hors nds spae, air, and light. A loos box or stal should b big
Lie down, ro11 and gt up again without dange of sting himslf (getting so lose to wall that he annot o11 himslf fr). 3.5 m 3.5m(L2ft x 12ft) is idal; 3.5 m 3m (12ft x 10ft) is suffiint, 3 m x 3 m (lOft x 10ft) is nough for a pony. Anything iggr is unnssar (expt for
foling ox), but nie onus for th hors. A hors neds air; thos kpt in stuffy nough for him to mov around it freely; to

tgs and it ould surly b adopted mor gnrally' for there must be man xisting big arns whih lnd thmselvs to this sort of onvrsion. !hthr a loose-box is fre-standing or within a stabl building or brn, it will nd a manger fo onentat fds, ha-ak, or a ring to whih to attah a hay-nt, and a ti ring (whih ould e th sam on as usd for th hay-nt), fo tying the hors whn grooming. Watr an b bowls, whih horss soon lIn the trik of working, or in ukts. Ifukts ar usd they should e a halry typ that ar not easy to tip ovr, and should b plad in a ornr' hld in position with a ross-pie

tnt to kp mangIs len _ just as we do not lik ating offdiry dishes, a hors finds his meal mor apptizing if it is not thrown

into a mangr wher lottd bits of stal

food ar stiking to the sids and ottom. It is also bttr for him to at fom a lan

beom nwholsom. If a hos dos not at th whol of a fd, it should b takn out of th mangr for th nxt on. The easist hay-raks both for th hors

mngr: stal food an ferment and

supplied tfuough automati drinkig

and th handler ar urving triangular ones Set in a orner. The base of th rk should b about 120m (4ft) from th ground' so thr is no dangr ofth hos gtting aught undr it s he gts up. If raks ar plad too high, howevr, any dust or loos sds in th ha tnd to fall into the hors's ys as h ets. Ha-t

H sALD H0s

vidul boxs n b in on piee. Frstanding boxs should hav doos in two halves, th bottom half having two olts, on the outsid' t th top and bottom. For
arrying somthing, it is a help if th bottom olt slips easi1 and n b opened with th foot. Th top half of th door should be kept hookd bak, and onl losd on th rar oasions whn thre my e a hurriane, or a |izzatd' or slet driving diretl into th ox. This is not only eaus horss nd th frsh ir; just s important, thy nd to 1 to look out' to se thei nighours and to wath whads going on in th ard. l0hat are alld stbl vis _ ri-biting, windsuking nd waving - ar nuroti in origin, and gnrally start baus a hors has nothing to do, or to look t nd is bord.
the groom or handler, who is narly alwas

draw-sing of th net either tfudd ak through itself, pulled tight and thn slipknotted, or thradd through one of th loops of the nt. This is to prvnt the net dopping too low as the hy is atn) at whih point th hors ould get his foot aught in it. Boxs in stal buildings or barns will be ventilatd by the windows and doors of th building, so that th doors to the indihe stb|ed horse must be muked out thoroughly at |east one a day and the bed kept net and clen.

and ti rings should b boltd through wall attn, at about the height of a man's shouldr fom th ground. Ifth r higher, short popl will find it diffiult to ah up to thm with a havy hay.nt. Ia-nets should alwas b tid with a slip-knot, the

horss n be divided s given blow. The exat tims of ah division an varid to suit individul stabls, ut one stablishd, thy should e mintained.

hors is doing. Th managmnt routin for stabld

be adjustd aording to th wolk th

oviousl oasions when tims hav to

arly morning (not latr than 7.30

Gio first fed, a small hay-nt and frsh watr. Ti up hors, and muk out, brushing floor lan, banking up retairrd bdding, and leaving entr of floor to air. Rleas th horse whn this is ompltd. It is best to remove the water ukt whil muking out' to kp it ln, and then rpla bfor rlasing th hors.


th night and day ed.

lDhet straw

9 o'lok

prikly wns ar usuall missing, nd it

is th bst bdding, but it is often th most diffiult to gt and th most expensive. Oat saw an e too palatal, and many horses will eat it. Barl straw tnds to b prikly and so irritates hors's skin, although if it is ombind straw, th maks good edding.

Ti up hors, and rmove any doppings from the floo. Give first grooming; if th
k and brushing the front, thn throwtrs.

hors is ruggd, this is alld .quartring,, and is don by throwing the rug

ing it forwards, and rushing th qur-

Boxs should hv wirdows, part of whih an opn, although this is not

nessary if th boxs r made with oof vntilation. Th windows should hav rs or ntting on th insid' so that they nnot e brokn by th hors or by arlessly handled tools when muking out th stbl. Light swiths should b sitatd ithr outside th box, or onled and inst so that only a fing an

Solitar onflnmnt will produe nuross in both man and beast, partiularly in suh naturall gregarious animals as horses.

A straw bd must be dp. It is fls onom to lay thin bd, s it absors muh lss moisture' nd muh mor has to b rmoved. That aprt, the point of a dep night bed is to nourg th hors to li down. If th bd is too ttrin, parts of his body my b rsting on th ar flooring, whih n soon led to appd hoks and lows. orove, h ma find it diffiult to get up if th floor has bom slippry and has not suffiint ovr on whih to get a grip. Straw should b tossd well as it is

Pik out th ft. If th horse is to b xerisd straight away, tk off rugs after quartring, put on sddl, throw ug bak over th saddl, befor taking down ha-nt nd r-fllling it ready for r-use. Then put on bridl, tk offrug, nd tak hors out for exeis. Th rug should be shaken out, and lft airing, inside out, over a rak in th tak room.

on rtrrrn from ris

put down' nd ankd up round the sides of th ox and at the insid of the door. The day bd is mad by sweeping and airing th floor and rplaing wht len straw is lft

Wtr the hors. Rmov saddl and bridl, tie up hors and give small hay-nt. Groom thorougy; this should take at last thr-quartrs of an hour. Thorough grooming is alwys bst don aftr xris, unlss the horse hs

fter muking out. Frsh straw is thn ddd in th vening for th deep, bankd up, night bed.
Sawdust makes

door' whr

rah in and operat thm; horses lrn quit quikJ.y how to work swithes! Th flooring of oxs should not b too smooth. Speial .stbl riks' r idal but xpnsiv, and roughned onret is quite satisfatory. The floor should slop slightl towrds the front of th box, prferaly towards th orner aw from the

thr is a lo1 swmill, a hep on as

omfortale bed, and


paths nd droppings should b liftd and

wll. It nds to laid thikly.


om vry hot, whn a swat rug shottld be put on until he is oo1; thn h an be groomd. Aftr grooming, put on day-rug, st day-bd, give fresh watr and rlease orse. Gill sond feed at bout 12.30. Tidy the ard, if thr hs ben no on to do this alrdv.

rmoved frquently, and th whol d rkd ovr daily. It an b ombind with

Afternoon Riding Shool horss will oftn hv to

work gain in the aftrnoon. If th morningi s exrise, or work, has bn delaed

draining gully. Covrd drains insid

smllhol an lead out into

oxs ar diffiult to kep lean. On fr-standing boxs' the roof should have an ovehang; that is, it should slope out at lst 1 m (3 ft) beyond th ftont of th bo so that in rainy wth horss an

swdust should form th bottom layr of th bd. Pat moss an also be usd as bedding, but again it ust b laid thikl' wt nd soild pathes rmovd frquently, and the bd raked ovr daily. With both sawdust


in whih as the

so ttrat thr hs bn no tim for

thorough grooming

ing. Iorss not working in th afternoon

on return, this should done for th sond out(i) tet to li down and rst. This is impotant for young horss, nd thos whih hv had a onentratd morning of shooling work.

look out and grooms an go from ox to

box without getting wt.

important to kep a hors's ft pikd out nd lan, as oth will hat and soften th ft, if they ar llowed to bom loggd.

and pat moss bdding,

it is partiulry

an b:

It is not good for a hors to stand for any lngth of time on a onrt o briks. A
straw bddins there is a diffen btween


preise tims any individual

stabled horse nds bdding in th lox both y night and by dy, although with

be adhred to thrafter, so fr s possible. This is partiulrly important with the fust and tlre last feed. Duins th dav thr will

horse-ownr or stabl manager dides upon as bing th most suitable for th fding of his hors or hoss, thy should

(ii) led out for a short tim, in fin watttr, in their headollars, to have a pik of grass. (iii) if possile, in fin weather in spring

and summr, turnd out for a short time in onvint paddok. All stld horss with the xption of raholss in trining (whose mnagemnt is highly speilizd) bnfit from a period of fredom.


{o pm

i-up hors, un-tk and pik out ft. Gi small ha-nt and frsh water. Put
o night rug. La d for the night, hvn bdding mad wet during the da. Gir. third feed, rls hors. Cln tk. Tidy tak room, and yard.

(o on rturn from work)

ing emoved droppings and takn out

man aftr rushing, or bfor plaiting nd also for laying th tail bfore andging or plaiting. Th hoof pik s us is ovious and very important. Hoof oil hlps to pr-

vent brittlenss spially in lightolourd hooves. Th stable rubber is

foldd into

vGf,ig (not arlir than 7 pm) Gie

R.fill wtr buket. Remove droppings.

full nt of hay, and the fourth
f d.

.\hn hors ownrs lik to go round ir sls last thing at night. Until you h don his, it is hard to raliz how stisffng it n to hear soft whikers

undings, and their handlers, will sty sg down in human ompany. .\pt from th plasurabl aspet a lat isit to th stbls an hlp to vrt a rur of possil mishaps. A hors may ,Y ught its foot in a hy-nt, or tippd gr irs wter bukt so it would remain .isry all through th night. A rug may not irr ben put on proply and have slippd dl out of position (remmb to hk r h morning with whoevI Put it on); or' t.rrutely mor rarly, a hors may be *wing signs of intrnal disomfort idi6aing oli. If this is lft till morning it .ill hardr to allviat as wll as having rrsd hors a night's pain. Veteiry .rgrons ar sd to bing alld at night ml if yo in any doubt, tlphon yr:s. Desribe what sm to you to be }re

gdng ou and to s horses lying down rlad thy do not immdiatly jump , hing your footstps. onl horss i omplt onfiden in thir sur-

final polish but it an b usd also to dry th hors's rs if h oms in wt and old. Th small spongs ar for the yes and nostrils, nd fo th dok. A rubr urry omb an b hlpful whn a horse is asting his oat and, used with irular movmnt, it will mov a lot of loos hair. The mssaging fft is also ap,priatd b hors. The swet srpr has a
he bodv bush both |eans the oat and promotel iru|tion; the urry omb is used to lean the brush ever few strokes'
squeege tion and is usd to remov exess swt or watr from th oat.

pad and usd to give th hors

fringe efft on th man and braking th flow of the tail. Th body brushis the main gras rmovr, and should b usd with firm prssur (whih dos not mn banging it down on th oat). Th grase is rmovd from the ush onstantly by sraping it with th urry om. This is th urry omb's sole purpose. Th wtr

til as it breaks th hais, produing

Grooming, prtiularly of th bod with th body bush, should b don without glovs, so that th snsitive tips of th fingrs an b usd to fl for an lumps or sraths or irrgularitis in the skin.

brush is usd dampnd, fo laying th

The basi grooming kit: 1. dandy bush 2. body brush . Wter bush 4. urry omb 5. mane omb 6. hoof oik 7. hoof oi| d brush 8. stab|e rubber9. sponge 10. rubbeurryomb .l,l sWat sraoer

pors, nd may produ a ondiion known s mud fver. Fel fo mud lso on th insid of th pastrns' btwn the oront

th legs, thy will ventull log the

They should fl oo1, almost old, and th tndons should be fum. If you fl littl noduls of mud or dirt work hse out gently with th fingrs, and thn us th rush afterwards. If mud or dirt are lft on

Alwys run your hnds down th lgs.

round the nek. Car should b takn not

W'hn grooming th had' th hadoll shculd b undone and ukld

nd th ftlok joint.

rse's smptoms and th vt may 1 l 1l you what to do on th tlephon. If he wi.ll om to yor help right away.

Gooming' Clipping and Rugs

rougy vry day. not simply to mk m look smart) ut to kep their oats

Sld horss should


in spring and autumn; th an sth h othr whn thy fl lik it, d if thy hav ith plas undr thir s or btwn thir thighs, th an find handy shrubs or bushs to ub against. Grooming dos not onstitute a gntle going ovr with brush. On th ontrry, it stnuous xerise for groom, who n in old wathr, should gt quite hot the pross. Grooming kit onsists of a dandy brush, od brusl1 watr brus\ urry omb, mn omb, hoof pik, hoof oil and brush, sle ubbr, small spongs' a rubbr ury omb nd a swat srapr. Th dandy brush is used onl for rmovig sufa mud nd dirt, and never on th hos's more snsitive pats suh as th ude blly, btw th thighs, and th t.e. No should it b used on th man or

groom hmslvs, an do a lot fo thir and skins. Thy an ro11 if thy fl irch. or ar sweaty; they n rub thm-lr.s ginst tres to help thm shed thir

End thir skins in halthy ondition. florss at libety, although they annot



Prope are of the stab|ed horse requires a good deal of attention and an take Up a |ot of time' above.. The first job in ny grooming routine is to pik out the feet to remove ny dirt and foreign obiets. right.' rhe proess of |ipping the ot shouId be attempted on|y by n experiened person, s it is high|y skiIIed wok. hree types of |ip are below: a trae |ip, usefuI for a horse o poy tht Wi|| be turned out part of the time during the winter; right topi bIanket |ip, whih keeps the bk area Warm; right bottom: hunter |ip, with saddIe path nd Ieg hir Ieft on for protetion against soreness nd sthes.


to bump ttr horsds fae with 1he bak of th ush' or get it into his ys. ys and

ostils nd the dok should b sponged with tpid watr. lVlars' udders should b kept lan, and with gldings, th shth

should b washd piodilly. Not

grease nd di' th animal an eventually find it diffiult, ven painful, to stl.

if th sheath boms too loggd with

everyone relizes this to b a nessity, but

day, duing th fust grooming and on rturn from wok. Hoof oil should b bushd oI not simply to give a smat apparan ut eas it is good fo th
hoof. It should be applid right up to the oront' whih is wh growth of th hoof starts. A .wisp' of straw an be mad for sa

Fet should be pikd out at last twi

ping, a Partiularly ngti form of gooming whih hlps to uild up th musl spially on the nk nd quartrs' as wll as toning up the skin. Th
stbl rubbr mad into a firm pad n b usd to hiv the same esult. Iorses hnge, or .st', thir oats twi a ya at oughly six month intrvqls, in spring nd utumn. The summer oat is muh lss dns, and finer, than th winte oat. Fw horses xpt rehorses and thos bing ppard for showing nd rugging in summ, although otton day sht put on ftr grooming will hlp keep the oat slk and lan, and is patiularly advantagous whn travelling. A horse should lso hav a swat rug put on if it is brought in very hot aftr work or if it has to stand bout whil it is hot aft any kind of long id or omptition. Swat rgs rr

mad of otton and ar similr to mn's string vsts. .!D7int is a differnt mtt. Iorss in work will nd to b lippd, s in thir

havir wintr oats, they ar likely to swt unduly vry time thy go out, nd
onsequntly will los ondition. Ther ar thr prinipal tps of lip known as a full lip, a hunter lip, and ta lip. In a full lip, the oat is rmovd from the nti body. In a hunte lip, th hir is lft on lgs as far up as th lbows and th thighs, nd on th saddl path. Th

prvnt a sor o saldd ak resulting from a long day's riding. In a ta lip, th hair is rmoved from th blly, betwn the thighs nd the forearms, oss tlr hst nd up th undesid of tlre nk. It is usd mostly on hoss or ponis that are kpt out, athr hai

thory is that th hair left on th legs offs prottion against ol injury ftom thorns or other hazards that might ause slight ters and saths, nd wt, muddy onditions that ould lead to mud fvr and rakd hels. Th sddl path an help

Iorses that hav had a full, or a huntr, lip will nd rugging l1 th tim. As the first lipping is usually don in Otober, thy will probably initilly ned ont

blankt lip.

than those hat are stabled. Somtimes the is further lippd off th nek nd had, leaving a lankt shape ofhair ovr bak and quartrs. This is known as

forms of rug ar vailale. These are mor xpensiv to buy, but hav many advntags. Thy r muh lightr than th old typ, but just as warm. Th sam rug an

eral patent variations of th traditional

singl rugs, that is a wool-lind jut night rug, and a woolln day rug. Nowadys sv-

During the winter |ipped horses need jute night rug, and also a warm woollen under-blnket in old wether. hey are seured with webbing or Iether suringle or

tendons and to protet th lg from thorns or prikl undrgrow in rough ountry.

They ar put on with otton wool

although it is bttr to hve two, as night rugs invaribly gt dity. Iowvr th new rugs are both asy to wash and quik to dry, so dirty night rug an b washed in th moning, nd b dry b the vning. As th weathe gts older, the horse will ned eta walmth, whih is providd b putting on on' somtims vn two' soft woollen blankets undr th top rug. Thes must e larg, s about a quarter of th blankt should om right ovr th
foldd bak ovr th top rug nd ught in plae undr th ro1lr. On hors hs

worn during th night and


horse will ned a sond lip before wintr is out, and som horss vn nd a thftd. The last lip should be don by the nd of January.

Tail andages should be in daily us for
ing to lay nd smrtn th lin of th til. Two othr types ofbandages ar nssary - stable bandags nd xeris bandags. Stable bandages ar md offlnnl, nd are fairly wid. Thy usd to provid warmth if a hors is hilld o has old; to dry off the legs if h omes in wt and
stald horses, and ae put on aftr groom-

nek when it is put on, so that it an b

strtd waring a rug, or rugs, he must ontinu to do so until th weathr gts warmer in spring. If h is waring undr
blankts, ths n b disardd in sussion until finally it is wam nough to dis-

ard th top rug as wll. If th days ar onsiderably wrmr thn th nights, as often happns in wintr, the hos my not
whr ommonsense must usd. Som

nd his under blankts in dytim _ this is

Zea|and rug, whih is mad of wtrproofed anvas) and lind with wool.

horss, lik som pople, fl th old mor than othrs. During the winter if a stabld hors is ld out for walk, or turnd out for a short tim, h should war Nw

whih ar lso md in watrproof versions n usd. All rugs in us should b

not so fully as befor. Nvrthlss, the
aird and shaken out dily. Aftr lipping, th oat will ontinu to grow' although

Alternativly on of ttr new patentd rugs

quikr to put on and, un.lss andaging is skilfully don, proaly mor rliabl. Stabl bandags should run from th kn down to' and ove th ftlok joint, at whih point th bndag should b olled upwards agin, to finish just elow th kn. Bandags should nvr b put on too tightly; it should possible to inset a fingr etween th bandag nd the lg, both top and bottom. Th taps should not tid tighte than th bandage itslf and thy should b tid o th outside of th lg, in a bow, with the ends tukd in. xeris bandags ar mad of stokintt or rp, nd ar usd to support the

put on over dry otton wool or gmg. Thr r nowadys many patnt lg prottos vailabl for travlling that ar

mudd so tlrat th mud an rushd off latr; on top of otton wool or gamgtissu soakd in old watr as old watr bandags, nd for trvlling when th a

thes on so that thy will stay in plae during work. It is oftn bettr for xampl, if horse is going to b asked to go fst aross ountry, prhps in heavy going' and it is felt he needs tra support' to se spil tendon oots. Young hoss should wear exeris bandgs or boots during lunging, nd arl shooling, whn they an awkwad with thir lgs. This will prvnt nnessry bumps and bruiss. xris bandags are also usful for putting on ovr a poulti, or a linimnt whih is eliving a sprained tndon. Agin, thy should nvr b put on too tightly, or th bandaging will dfat its own nds stopping th iultion. Aftr taking off
risk rub with th hands. Bandags should b kept lan, whih mns washing them after us, drying thm, and putting them away r-rolled. Th should b rolld with th swn part of th taps inwrds, so lrt whn th bandag is put on th lg, the taps wille on th outsid of th bandge.

or gamge underneath, a small part of whih should pfot'rd abov nd blow the bandag itself. It takes a lot of prti to put

any bandag, ttr lg shold b given

It is not a good id to indulge in a lot of amatur dotoring with horses, but asi nssitis should kept in every stbl. DISINFAN: The horse has vry snsitiv skin, nd only th mildest disinftants should b used to lan out or bath

any ut or injury. Dettol, or similar, is aptale provided it is usd havily dilutd. If thr is non to hand when it is wantd, salt nd wate is an ffiint

mgny disinftant.



tAtsLtu t-tust


dmsti disinftant should usd

s. Tak ou pik, nd us aording e manuftur1s instrutions for th rclif of spins and strains. rl-ISPI PowDR: Vry important, as mll g15 and saths, on lan, hal ifthy a kpt dry and protetd by

LL\1\,{N: Thr are many xellnt Eds on h makt, som stronger than

th stl ln and swet smelling'


wih antisepti powdr. Us th ] onndd b your vtrinary



hld. It lso enourages th hair to grow BIn. RtoLIN PoULTI: This has man uss: gon hot, as a poulti undr a ndag, it ;J'ir.s spins and strins; put on a ut or' - prtiularly puntur wound whih is Irot sy to lan, it will draw ot dit and is whih will be sen as pus or dissnloetion whn th pad with th kaolin is moed. Bing a ntural substan nd ot drug, kaolin n nvr do any harm, l ft oftn does a gteal deal of good. LDN Y oINN: Iorss my get ils of dust t. in thir ys; hav

?i-sd ointmnt will hlp to prvnt e' tsue forming o a wound has


Any good,


worms, and it is only by regular worming tht a dangrous infsttion n be prevntd. For a horse in hlthy ondition, dosing evey three months should kp him rltivly worm-fr. very yar, nw drugs ar disoved and put on th mIkt, all reputd to b mor lal to th woms, and lss harmful to th hos. Th bst solution to this ver-present poblm is to ask th vtrinary surgon whih h onsidrs most suitbl nd thn, if possibl, gt him to mak up a number of individul doss whih an b kpt in the stal and givn whn neessary. New horses oming into a stal should b wormd on arrival.

is not that this is in itslf diffiult, but it must known just wher to put th ndl, and how to us the syinge skilfully and quikly.

A last word.
It hs eome so stablished a ustom to kp stabld horss in loos boxs that it is

forgottn how mny thousands of horss, in th ral hy-dy of th horse, wer sta-

bled prfetly omptntly, and omfort-

providd it is wide enough for th horse to

sibility to kp a staled hos in a stall,

ably, in stlls. It is rtainly not an impos-

li down in omfort. Stalls should e bedtowrds th bk and sids. The halt rop, aftr going tfuough th ti-ring,

dd dply, th stIaw bnkd up wll

should pssd through a solid wooden blok, whih should b at floor lvl whn th horse's head is in its norml position. This blok kps th rop taut and pr-

vents th hors's lgs gtting ntngld in it whn lying down, or gtting up.

thd with a very weak solution of Dol nd water, nd som eye ointrnnt s.guzed into th ornr to help giv rlief. oUG LUARY: This should b su did y th vetrinry surgeon, but it is a Smtims a ough an be simply th rslt ofeating ha too quikl, but it nv hurts to giv the hors some ltuary oLI DRN: In most ases of oli' all trt th most experind popl would rclphone their vt. It is quit likl, howr, tht unlss h an ome at one, h ill suggst giving a denh, so it is useful kp it ginst suh n mrgny. so sArs: Ths r good for horss ht my hav ben on too heating a dit; trrt all will nfit from a small handful in trir wekl brn mash. \lrT AND wATR: This is ooling, frshing and helps to hrdn the skin. Spoged over a hos's bk, nd bhind nd undr th elbows where the girth lis, i. will hlp prvnt galls and sors. r'oRlvr DosING DRUGs: Iorss should b omgd rgularly. All horss harbour

rrur eyes ausd by a old, or srath an q ginst a sharp obiet. Th y should

thine to hv





saight wa.

Bandages and boots re fo veterinary use nd to give the horse support, protetion and Wrmth. /eft: he eIastitil bndage Wi|| keep the taiI neat and tidy and protetthe upper part when travelling. lt should not be left on overnight. bove: WooIIen Ieg bandages warm and protet the legs' and are used when tave||ing or after a |ong day,s hunting, to heIp the horse dry off; they may also be used to keep a veteinay dressing in p|ae on an injured leg. Although usually of wool, they are avaiIabIe in other mteri|s as we||. right.' Brushing boots re padded to prevent injury shouId the horse strike itself' or ,bush', whiIe at work or eerise.

from th edges ofwounds or uts tht need drssig. In addition to 11 thes itms it is a good ida to kp some pies of linen as drssings, or poulti pads, togthr with som wounds _ a larg pak of otton wool, svral paks of gamg tissu and on or two ordinary repe bandages. Th prined

should b kpt for utting away th hir


sharp but blunt-nded pai

th top, so the horses an s on another without eing ble to ome too mliiously prsonal. '!tratel bukts should

Divisions etwen stalls should e high enough to stop hoss nipping at eah othr ovr th top; in ft bars are best, t

plad on th sid away from th ha rak or net, so thy ar not onstantly filling up with dust nd bits of hay. Prtiular r must e tkn to pik out th hind ft of

long strips of linn for undr-andaging

often th ustom' whn th horses ar

stalled horses, as obviously all th dung t the ak. If th hind fet r not kpt lean, thy will bome hot and loggd, and h hors ma dvlop thrush. \Dhee horses ar stabld in stalls, it is


only thos who reall know what thy ar doing should ttmpt to giv injtions. It

mi syringe and a supply of nedles; ut

stbl manage

will also kep a hypodr-

taked up, to turn them round and stnd thm faing outwards attahed to .pillar rins'. Ths ar short lethr straps o hains attahd to ah sid pillar and lipped on to th bridl.

rid, for horss tlrat live mostly out-ofeullint as thos hat r prmnenly

doors wok off muh of thir suplus enrgy on thir own and re sldom so
There ar ertilr ruls of mnagmnt fo hoss kept aording to this sstm. It is not quite good nough to lav thm out and unattendd for days, and thn sudliving out should b brought in ah moning, givn f quikly rushd ovr,
dnly ath thm for a rid. Idelly' horss stbled.

.gss-kpd dos not f J. altogthr utly dsrib th ondition of horss and ponis that liv

r tm

tmprat'r nvr dops to frzing point, the snow nevr flls and th grass is always

Unless th lirnate is so idylli tht ttr

mostly out-of-doos instead of in stals.

fo wo\ trnd out again. In summ, they will ned no futhr attntion until next moning. In winter, most hofss' the tim, although most' ept Nlounxpt

bumps or lameness, and thn, if not neded

gnrlly hkd

for uts,


vy higy br n liv ut

Atl fie|ds should be aefull ispeted nd lered of poisoous piants' suh as this yellow-f|owered rgwot whih is highly toi to hoses.

tims of er ven tlr toughest of Nlountain and .Nloorland ponies nd food x to tht whih thy find for tlrmslves, even when tlret'e not working. A hos that has to work must hav mor tlran plain gss dit if h is to have ngy nd keep his ondition. V'hn horses ae kpt out' nd quired to work, thr should b som kind of shd' shltr or stbl into whih tre an brought for feeding, gooming, nd ting up. For working horses, th systm of livig out nd ing brought in bfor riding is est trmed th .Combined Sstm'. It is an ellnt one; tlr horse is living omparativel natural life, keping fit and healhy without tlre absolute nssity of daily iddn exrise' and nds lss ae and ttention. It will also giv an asier
Good quality gzing. Do not ssume that horses wilI know the hrmful plnts.

not only grn but lusious, t rtin

tins nd N1oorlnds, rill nd to wr rug. If they are to b work howev, ids st to vrs th srrmr pla; tht is to bring thm in at night, and t thm out during ll o whatv p of tlre day thy ar not ing usd. This systm wks wll for all horss otlrer than thos in training, hunt nd show horss and pnis, and tlros usd for ompetitiv vnts. Ids lso etinly th esist for most owner-ridrs. Ther e of ous tims wh horss an lft out ntiel5 w.iut th benfit

Filds, Fns and Gats

flss living out do bst
plnt of spa, ad

if .lr have varity ofteri" d herfore" ofherag. In mn pats of th ounty how.evr, ly smll s :!r

drn ar Wy at shool; hoss ad ponis used hiflfor summr, or holida' riding' whih an out-wint. ,\ll will still ned a tin mount f and ttention. T'hy fned and gte wittr

of stables _ huntrs turnd out for tlr lrge fild. It n beoms priully srrmmr; hildrf s pnies whn th hil- i-mpnt to onsIr the qutrity of th

vailabl; sometims o1 on ot very

a onstat sou of watf' and suitble mnitis for when y nd x fding _ nssitis i fat, ommon to ll hoss living out,

should in suitale filds, poprly

grzing no owing tlr 1'o".g5 16 ga1 ll of it" ]l tlre time. tloses wstful grazrs, trampling down a lot of pefl good feedirg gfasss in thi srh for th tstiest. pastur is to divid it ilto tr }I-ts' so that two parts an e rstd ril olr is tn. In spg, on air e shut off f ut ofhvi th horss a b tulrd out i

Th most ononial vray of onseving

wht}rr woking o no.

h quality of pastur an only b asssb an xpIt; t}re grnst and most .ush looking grass is not always the bst. n th st pastur, however, will not .<p its qualiy indfinitely and to kp it ::l hat it will ned priodi applitions ..i tLi-lizer, lim, or slag. xatly what it rds nd in what proportion is detrrlnd b soil analysis; rpresentativs of

:i orrple of wks or so aftr th hay is -;kn. In smll filds it is wis to rmov -. doppings regularl, or thy will vn:]l foul up so muh of th grazing that .r]' that is platbl remains. In largr lds this is often impratial, but thse n harrowed oasionall.



,i filds, should b ftilized' limd or =^ggd in annual suession, not 1l at rl' and horss should not graz a fr_.izd fild for at lst thr wks. It possible thr should b som natural

ollegs of Agriultur will gnrll prthis srvi fr. Filds, or divisions


A poy in a New Zealand Ug she|ters _m the winter oId, and wi|| probabl mke -s of the fild she|ter in summer as We|| to :,.oid the heat ad buzzing insets.

bove his

the ground, and has fsh wate piped in. Below rhe best type of fening fo |l equines is so|id posts and riIs The field on the Ieft is being rested on rottion to provide fresh
pastu re.

two fields. has rounded edges, stands well off

we||-designd trough, seving

tiking, ttrey ignore th fne!

A1l main and boundary fens should stong and sf. The bst and most epnsive, is post and ails. Hedges, whre thy ar ustomy, and are kpt in good order,

hav th addd advantg of poviding univsal; to b satisfatory,

shltr. Wie fning is poably

shltr in th fild - hdgs, blt of trs, sn walls, or mayb som banks or hol.ors to tak the edge off the wind. Failing .-hes' fild shltr should b providd. It should b th-sidd, set with its ak to fr pevai'ling wind and with a wide opnirg so that horss an get in nd out easily. he should e a long rak for ha against .,tr bak wall; and in winter, it's n ouIagment for hoss to us it if staw rs laid on th ground insid. uking-out rovd and mor strw added when
nded. strm.

is not


just the


brk th i on running watr fo themslves. In troughs, it will have to be boken for thm s it frezs mor solidly. Troughs must e kpt lan, and positiond lar of tres, and away from gatways wher the ground will probal bom muddid in wt weathr. A fild an divided with lti fning, whih is asy to put up and mov, and horss, aftr one smll shok, will not go n it again. Som ponis, howev, have

poperly rtd, wittr good posts' pfebly osotd, with th wis strung as

it must


tightly as possibl betwn thm. Thre

stands ae nough fo hoses, ept fo

foals nd small ponis who ould push through th wid spaes betwn ah. Th ottom wi should be 30m (lft)

from the gound; if lowr, horss an ath

thir ft in it. On no aount should

bn known to work out th onntion

he idl fild watr suppl is running

tween th tiking of th ttry; and tlr shok from th fn, and if they ha no

ottom sfrnd. The only possibl pmissil us fo abd wir is if hoses are onfumd fne-leans, when on strand an be run long th inside of th fne

rbd wir b used fo eitlr tlre top or ttre

1ss for th watr is

A stgnant pool is wors than usunappetizing, and the


ough, with no sharp dgs, sevs wll. It n b supplid by watr pipd to th fild, nd oprtd on a ball-ok systm' or it sill have to b filld manuall from bukts o a hos. Troughs should hve a plugqd hol in th bottom so they an be mp id and land out nd ttrey should b st r ry fuml on briks, or onrt bloks, so

red flis and mosquitos. he th is no running wter, a long, solid ut not too dp, galvanizd iron


.it the bs of the tlough is 15_30m


ins) from th ground. In wintr' hoss will lways mnag to

Ht GRAss.KP H0s

about 15m (6ins) blow the top srand. This disourags leaning. Fns should be hekd regularly, nd kpt in onstant
good repair.
and have propr fastnings, idally a patnt hook, th hingd tongu of whihpevnts it bing lifted by horses. Itis a wast of tim and a trial to th tmp to hav to struggl wi*r bits of twisted wire or knottd sting. In urbn distrits, padloks ar dvised.

guids as to whn to strt feding hay, nd how muh to fed' baus if thre is any

Worming is important for ll horss; but partiularly for ttros living out s thir

Gts should swing sily on hings,

just standing about, probly nar th gat, you an tak it that th grazing is poor and thy need hay. If thy eat up very wisp within hlf-an-hou of its being put out' it was not nough. If thy lave som, and wandr off to graz agin, it's n more

good gazing aound, thy prfr it. In autumn, if they ar spnding a lot of tim

dung ontinully r-infts the pastur. If,

than they nd. By mid-wintr thy will

Fild Feding
somewhat aording to th distit nd th latitud, horss living out will nd no food othr than grss, although thy will ppriat a salt or minral lik. ting th ak of tres and hewing fens r not

probbly gt though from 7,9kg

(16_20 lbs) pr day pr hose. k par-

.ribby' and hs a rough, staring oat' it should b givn aother dos. Fields on whih horss graze nfit ftom eing grazd oasionally by atde, whih will not only eat up the oughr grasses the

in spite of rgular thr-monthly wormings, an animal has a pot-blly, is a bit

During spring and summr'


habits the horse indulgs in simply to annoy its ownr; they usually man it is short of minrals, whih an supplied by the lik.

wt and wind or frosty wattrer. Flakd maiz is a good wint addition to a hors's onntrat ration, ut it should be mixd with brn, and ubs or oats or bley; on its own it is plasantly warming, but somewhat laking in fir. Boiled brley, well mixd with bran and

tiularly sur thy hav nough in old,

horses rejt, but onsume th worm larvae, to whih th are impervious.

Daily Car
Iorss and ponies living out and notworking should still e visitd evry day, fustl, to hk they are all present. If mny r kpt in a ig pasture, thy will proably

fd warm

it bomes nessary to fd hay, it should b put into th rak in th fild shltr. Altrnativly it an be given in hayrrts' or in rks simila to thos usd fo fding attl. It is wastful to fd it on th ground s it prptuall gts trodden

winter monings, and bran and molsses mshs ar good for th digstions whn ther is little o no green food about.

is an xllnt fd for old

form into groups' and ma gaz quit long distans apart. If on is missing' hk to down in

s it is not aught in a fn, or lying onr, in whih se is it sik, or

ally t togethr quit peafully along

and dungd on, boms soddn mess in wt wathr, and blows awa in wind. Th asist way to fed onntates out of doors is in a long, solid woodn trough. If givn in th shltr, horses tend to fight and bully on nothr, but thy will genr-

jumped out, pushd its way through th fning o rokn a gate. Chek tht all horss are sond nd look ovr eah for uts' sraths or lumps. Grooming is not

just rsting? Altrnativly it my hav

either sid of a fairly long tIough. Fding from bukets is wastful _ of fd' whih will be spilld and toddn on, and of bukets, whih will b tippd ovr and kikd. Bukts st in holders re vailabl, guarantd impossibl to tip ovr. For
just two hoss fd togther, thse are satisftory; if mor, th may lead (as bukt fding oftn do to in-fighting btween

nessary) but it will be appreiated if vigs or urrs aught in mans nd tails ar removd. In lat wintr and eal spring, manes' th oots of tails and any feathr on the lgs should e losely inspted for lie whih an ttk an hors. A hav daily dusting with a propietary louse powdr vry day for a wk should eliminte thm. Iorss and ponies not rquird for work an hav thir shos removd, although it with brittle, shelly fet. Th farrier should inspet feet vry eight wks, to trim nd shap as nssary. Chk th ft during th daily visit; hoofs that ar splitting or oming mis.shapn, ned attention.
may b bttr to lav font shos on thos

of a post nd rail fene ar xellent, but not suitale for hooking on to wir fnes.

th grdy, quik atrs, and th less grdy who nevrthlss will defnd thi fed. Portabl mangrs, whih n b hookd on to th top ar of a gt, or th rail
It's not possibl to spify exatly how muh fding, either of onntrates or of

Th Grass-kept
\$orking Iors
he f Iy fringe, a speia ||y-designed browb nd, effetivel wards off iritting fIies in summer, but for some highly-strung horses the fringe itse|f my prove to be as muh of an annoane as the fIies.

hay, any individul hors kept out will nd during a winter. It will depend on th
wathr (the older it is the mor onentrates ndd to rat body warmth) and

Th st time to bring in

on the siz nd typ of horse. ountin

and ooland ponis re proveially .good dors', and will nd relativly lss

than non-nativ typs of the same sizs. Th g of the hos is also lvant:

young horss, undr fiv, and elderly ons, ovr 15, will nd rather mor than th matr and middl-agd group. So is th mount of land whih is bing grzd: fou

svr wathr, a morning nd vning fed is bttr' Prgnant mars must be fed wll if out-wintring' and to ensur they gt all th vitmins nd minrals nsWeand foals should lways be rought in at night during th first wintr of thi livs (two an shar a loose box), givn a fed whn thy om in n'd anotlrr in th morning, and plnty of hay ovrnight. It is diffiult in later yeas to ompnsat for undr-nourishment at this tim so mak sur that foals gt all thy nd.
sry, it is safest to fd laned std ubs.

In mild, opn wintr wathr' one onntrat fed a day is enough, with hy, to kp horss in good ondition. In vry

a working horse that lives out is arl in th morning, so it an have a fed while own or groom has his rakfast. From thn on, the routine is very similar to that of th stabled hors. It will nd a bo with bdding, quivalent to th day-bd of stabld horses, from whih droppings must rmov and hants tkn out and rfilld. It will ned groom-

Spring and smmer

ing, although not so thoroughly s its sta-

bls ounterpart, as too muh gras (whih givs naturl prottion from

animals in n tnsive, well-shltred pastur with varid hrage, ma eat no mor during wintr than two in a small, exposd paddok. Roughl, howvr, l tonn (1 ton) of ha an b estimated pr nimal per winter. If wintr starts art' it may ned mor: onversely, if the limate is mild, less. Iorses themslvs are good

inlment weathr) should not b removd from th ot. If it is to b riddn it an b takd up t on; if not wntd until later it an b untid aftr grooming and left. On rturn from work' or at about 12.30, it will b tim for a seond feed and a smll haynet. If the horse has been ridden, it should hav its ft piked out' lightl brushed over the saddl pth, and dried off' if it hs sweatd, ither by putting on


ing. As in winter this will b bout 4.30,

horse is going to hav an engti wkend, h an have oats on Friday venings, and ovr th wkend, dreasing th

vning, and a final fed, the ontents of whih will dpnd on what is eptd of him nxt day. For privat ownrs who m hve littl tim to rid during th wek in winter, ues ar bttr thn oats. If th

th horse will ned a big hynt later in th

amount on Sundy and going bk to

us during th wk. \0hnvr a hos is only doing very light work, its oat ation should ut down; if off work through lamnss or injury, oats should b ut out altogth; but th ulk (hay) inrasd to kp the baln of wight. Iorss that are going to work hrd in winte, vn if only on tain days' will nd to b lippd. Ifthey ar living partly out-of-doos, a tra lip will b nough;

but this will man that whn thy

[ Iug or rubbing wittr a sw wisp. rqird for work in th afternoon, th fri r b lft in pa until som tn m6 for the rid starts. Thn it t sg lkd up' nd doppings should hmod from th box bfor going out. Th rcdu dsribd abov should folTx'r A rid, nd a third fd givn. Thr s ,d to giv a haynt now, as whn
is fiished, ttre hos an b tuned box will thn b land, haynt Flilrd nd hung up, water bukt rfllld,

Most horses need hy and xtr feed in the winter. Haynets must be tied high enough to prevent the horse,s feet getting entngIed, but not so high tht seeds fa|l in his eyes.
advantages. If gal blows up in the night, thds no nd to wory aus th hose is out without a ug and no ned to go out to the fild with h and a fd. The outine for wintr should be to give a fd and hynt, and muk out' bfo brkfast. Aftr bkfst' gIoom nd prpare for riding as in summr, followd by

tund out, thy must war Nw Zealnd, or a modn light-wight watrproof rug. Th majority of horss turnd out during the day in wintr ar tter ruggd vn if not lipped. \D7hethr thy also hav to b ruggd at night will depnd on th weath' th osiness of thir boxes and the thiknss ofthir oats' Some horss grow


ffi rd tidid and tak land.


Tlr mout of onentrate fd blin rhis way needs will depnd,



th sond fed and sond small haynt at

gow somewhat longr hir than in summr. IJnlss th wather is xptionall old, few horss that spnd part of thir days outsid in wintr will vr nd mor at night than a single wool-lind jut rug. Th important thing to rmember aout rugging is that on ruggd th hors must
to whethr or not h is old; old rs mn a old hors. If a hors oms in old and wt in wintr' from work or from th fild, dryig th ears with a stale rubber will hlp to rstor warmth, as will putting a laye of lan stay ruggd

very dns, wintr oats; othrs simply

@.i pbilities of his idr, or riders. t riniple of dividing it will b th


he is doing, his tmprament,

as vr,


es for stled horses; the total wight fo'r. ing divided into thr portions imsd of four. The last potion is still th

middy. rVhn th horse has finishd its sond fd it is turnd out. If it is to e riddn in th aftrnoon and not the moning, it should be turned out aftr brekfast,
brought in about 12.30 fo th seond fd, goomd nd prpared for riding. If not required for riding at all, th hors an turnd out afte eakfst with a haynt in th fild and ought in efor dark, to a good fed, a haynet, and groom-

till spring. A hors's ears ar guides

igtof bout 5.5 kg (l2 lbs) of food oth gss ould b the avrg for the fors rud out at night. oning and

Isst In sping and summer total

tt l.5_2kg (3-4lbs) ah. o dss grhen a horse is not nedd to rk th aftrnoons, it an eithr b lft
fuft i until ft th thid fd, whn mnllg on n be given. This fed will

ye need onl thrfor ontin

A New Ze|nd rug, waterproof and warm|y

staw along the bk and putting a rug (insid out) on top. Sow is no hardship to horss when it hs falln nd is risp, and th day if fin and sunny. What th find hadest to
ndur ar old wt winds, and diving rain or slet; this kind of wthr an take ondition off thm quikly, unlss they hav plnty of food and plnty of shltr.

ffit Ifth grss is vry good and th hors rs inlid to arry a lot of flsl it is bettr

i rst, or turnd out ftr the sond

kept t grass during the winter. The rug must be arefu||v fitted.

Iined, mkes it possib|e to |ip a horse whih is

Ag for th nxt day. For the pivat ownr who annot ide . d, aftr th moning fd th hors $ould b rushd ovr to rmov dust nd dirt. eDd his fet pikd out' befor bing rIurnd to th fild. Th bo an thn b st rd fo th nxt day. \0ith pratie, is onl tk about half-an-hour, proldd th field is near the house.

g ould

so fattning as an aftrnoon's graz-

b, but

will nsur plnty of


.lrt from hving to muk out ttr box,

Iitl a time and touble is involvd in kping horse in t night, and it has many

A DIsINIoN should b md .f1. b.t*..n th words .saddl/ and

nss is usd to dsrib th aoutrmnts of th driving horse. To onfus furthr th

quipmnt of th riding horse, whilst hr-

oftn misusd. Saddler rfrs

.harnss'' th lttr,

in partiular, bing



uninitiated, horsmn will frequntly refer to both as.tal{ (i.. takle). In general trms, saddlry is onernd with th sddl and bridl and thir ompanying auxiliaris, suh as girths, lathrs and martingales. It an etnd to ovr l1 items md of lther; vn if some of thos itms' .g. muzzls, hdollrs t., are appliabl to oth riding and harness horss. Bandags, rugs andlankts, however, are groupd under th omposit trm .horse lothing'. Th arly hors poples managd thei horss with th minimum of equipmnt, onntrating, naturally nough, on methods of ontrol. Initially, onol of th hors ma hav bn ahivd b form of nosband enompssing th lowr jaws and fittd bov th nostrils. Illustrations of Syrian horsmn of th fourtnth entury show this rudimntary form of bridl quit larly. Thre is, howvr, vidn of a more sophistiated ridl, involving th us ofa it, usd at an arlir dt. On the tom of Horenhab of gypt (datd ira 1600 ) a horseman is depitd on an obviousl spiritd horse riddn in a snaffle bridle of surprisingly modern dsign. As th us of mountd horsmn
ined with hnd-feeding (i.e. with orn' an ngizing fdstuff) podued horss of more quality and spirit, so a greatr emphasis was plad on th mans of ontrol through th agny of th bridl. B th time the Assyrians hd mrgd s a mjor hors peopl, a bitting arlangmnt had en dvised tht gav to the ridr a very eptabl degr of onol over his mount. Two hundred yars latr, whn th Prsians ofth sixth ntury had suprsded th Assyrians as th lding nation of horsemn, th bridl had beom an baus of a notabl hang to a havir type of hors. Thes horss would hav rtainly bn orn-fd and they a dpitd in vrious sulpturs in a hevily olltd postI with th had ovr-bnt, a arriage that

howvr xptions to the obsssiv intrst in ontrol. Th Numidian avalry

sms to hv ben st with knobs or spiks (tik th Spanish rt si71 lsed tody), and with th addition of a strap fstnd blow th bit that is vry similar to our modrn drop nosband. Th wer for

whih mrhd with annibl,

SaddIery or ,tak, on saIe at n aution. he saddle and brid| ar the basi piees of equipment needed for n ordinry riding horse and ther are many different tpes; whih ones to use depnds not on| on the type of horse but also its stage in training, the use to whih it is being put and the abiIity of the

instn, mnagd thi small ponis

without sort to a bridl of an sort' string their mounts with a swith applied to th appropriat sid of th had. History

dos not rval how th halt ws fftd. Nonethless, in gneral trms' the trend towardS stIongI bits, pale of exerting a

inrsed and seltiv brding, om-

ing th horsemn to position and rstrain his horse mor effetivly, ontinud. From th sith ntury onwads, its bam inrasingly svr' with both Greeks and Persians using mouthpies
that inorpoatd sharp rolls and spiks.

grtr mhnial fore, and thus allow-

balan persistd wll into th Rnaissne priod whih markd th bginnings of the .lassial rt'. Th arly astrs, like Fdrio Grison in Napls and his pupil Pignatlli' did, howevr, strss th importn of prsrving th lightnss of th mouth' ahiving thir obit b th us' one more' of th spiked noseband.

onsqun. Th us of the it to pla the hors in

that was to dvlop to monstrous proportions in th ntulies tht followd. Th urb bit of the armourd knights of

Somwhre around 300 th Celts of Gaul produd th urb bit, an instrumnt

vn so from study of thir ooks (Grison's Gli ordii di Clllcre was publishd in 1550) it is 1r that littl
emphasis was plad on the suppling of th hos and th dvelopmnt of his postur y a pogrssion of xriss' whilst grat stor ontinud to b st on braking the animl's rsistane by foreful mans.

th iddl Ags, whih xistd in only slightl altered form well into the ightenth ntuly and evn late, ws made

During this priod th prototyp of th modrn doubl bridl mrged with the

vn more forful instrumnt, largl

would etinl giv mor ontrol to th ridr. Th its usd to ffet this imposd
alane w th fmiliar phalli-heekd a nosand whih

wight was to b pld ovr th hindqutrs nd th forhnd lightend in

nessary th sher siz and strngth of the havy horses that wer ndd to arr a full armoured man and his wapons' as well as th weight of their own protetiv armour. To ontrol suh an animl, and mor partiularl to put him in a stat of balan whih would failitt th manouvrs rquired in battl, or latr at th joust nd tournamnt' a mehanial for of some power was nedd if th nimal's

mtal .ks' fittd to th ntre of the

addition to th ur bit of a thin bridoon, th .flying trenh', whih was opratd by a sond rin. Reognition of th ft that flexion at the poll has to b aompanied b a orrsponding rlaxation of the lowr jaw, was mrked th oasional us of

mouthpie to nourag th hors to play with the it and at saliva in the mouth. Th Grk gnral nophon had, in fat, usd th sam dvi on a snffl it some 1800 rs previously nd th modrn sight-ar .mouthing, bit usd in th

dvis. So muh so in fat' that th mod-

ern horsman is rstritd, ssntially' in his hoi to on of five si groups or familis of bits, of whih, if his hors has bn orrtly shooled, he will only rarely nd to mploy more than two. Ths fiv groups ompris: the snffl,, in its various forms; the double ridle' i.e. urb it and ridoon (th lattr is' in fat, a light version of th ordinary snaffl but

hangs its nme, for no vy good reson, whn usd with a urb it)i t}:.e Pelhm' a hybrid deived from the urb bit and ttmpting to podu th sm rslt as th doul bridl with th us of a single mouthpie; the gg snffl, a gadgt orrowd from th hrnss hose, nd' finall,

f oung horses, and similrly


;m thr sd by th

kes, vaies only slightly in


it. howver, with its hkl5 slia s long as 37m (15in) held hief wapon in th horsuntil, at the bginning of ]fu s*..nth ntur, th latr lssial ls'=* .iik Pluvinl and Nwastl,
m:r*.J th individual stud of horss m| 3lgg ptint nd gntler methods

-Illl-].1h .-r:b

hckmore,whih rlis solely on prssur xrtd on th nose for its efft. Of thes fne snaffle is th mildst form of itting' the most simpl nd th most ouron. It is md in a varity of wights, ranging ftom th penil thin to th muh moi. aptble thik mouthpi, .sofd. 'Th prinidsrid by th Irish as pal division within th group howver, is betwn those with a jointed mouthpie .halfand thos mad without a joint in a a mullen mouth, moon' shape known s th lattr ing th mildst of th two. The ation of th snaffl depends upon th position ofth horse's had nd, thrfore, upon th stage of uainig tht hs bn rahed. In th oung, ltivly unshoold hors, rrying his wight on the forhnd with orrspondingly low

ttre bitless bridl, freqlntly termd

had arriag, ttr ation is upwrds

againSt th ornrs ofthe lips. In the ase. oi th. ho''. in a mor dvnd state of training mor wight is

quaItrs' th forhand is

q :s .*]ral.r as

:L[d i thir ining. il :Jto-ing ntuy th art of lssi:,i iiq hd bom estlished, ugh th tahings of th FranEois d la Gurinir'

th .Fathr of Classial E:.... nd rvhilst th ur bit on]JrA: s prdorrinant influne, it :r, :r- b rgrdd s an instrmnt of
i.x-fr:s il!

end and th had raisd t the nose is hld a littl in dvn of th vrtial. The snffl thn ats aross th lowr jw, lying ovr th tongu and plaing mor pressur on th bals of th mouth (i.. th ara of gum btwn th inisors and th hek tth). The snffl n bom a strong mans of ontrol by variations bing made
bove right he hakamoe - a bit|ess bridIe in whih the reins at, vi the heekpiees, on a bnd over the nose, insted of a metaI br in the mouth. Right hethree bsi bit ptterns used for the riding horse. bottom: The snaff Ie; this one has a jointed mouthpiee. fop: The doubIe brid|e onsisting of thin snaff Ie, or bridoon, and a urb (Weymouth) bit'middle:The PeIha m _n attemptto ombine both tions of the double bridle in one bit by providing an extra ring in Iine with the mouthpiee for a bridoon rein; the pot in the entre ofthe mouthpiee mkes it more omfortabIe over the tongUe thn the usuaI stight-barred version. Double bridles and Pelhams are both won with a f|at-|inked u b chin. This is fitted in the hin g oov underthe horse,s Iowe jaw' and is attahed to hooks on the top ri ngs of the bit heekpieces. lt is sometimes kept in pIae by |eather Iip strap whih is passed through the spre entre Iink on the hi n nd attahed to th smalI dees on the heekpiees.

i]d bits. ut th obsssion with ;rs.:ing f the hd and th ontrol tr fr rs rough th it ontinud to f,i.ry -i minds of horsmen right up to [], oi. 1.. despit th inrasing

xr -hl pirt on, the tndeny was

nd e fust prt :rih-. produd a hug variry of imr .-. h sr-r laimd (at lest
m fu!'


t.o hn.. a :rrID ntur1.

nd olum of th xhortation


.* ignious vtors) s
iiul J.l

N-mJ mi :G

eqr'ine ills. Iou've, t}l



ns of

m lmifss "illion. togthr sith n !m*sg hmowledg of qustin fur. l. su1d i th pst 30 o 40 simptjfid ng of bitg ii



This an, for instane, b twisted, or serratd, so as to giv a

to th mouthpie.

attmpting to ross thm. It hlps, also, to maintain orlt position of th had by xerting a downwards and bakwards pressur on th nos, trnsmitted to it though the ation of th rein. Th rsult of a orretly positiond had, allowing th idt' s hands to b highr than th mouth, is to giv grtr dgre of ontrol. A rtain, if slight, rstrition of th brathing, is involved in the use ofth drop nosband - a violent upward movment of th head being ountrd y a momntary inras of pressure upon th nasal passges. Th use of mrtingals is also onrned with th maintnane of an aptar th standing martingale attahed to avsson nosband (nvr to a drop), thus rstriting any upwrd movement of th head, and th .running' type hiving the sam rsult through prssur on the
abl head position. Th two prinipal types

it prvnts vasions of th bit's ations ausd y th hors opning th jaws or

some 7 m (3 in) abov the nosils nd th rear strap fastning blow th bit, fulflls a numbr of puposs. B losing th mouth

mouthpie or round its irumfrne. The ation of th bit an lso b altered and/or assistd by th us of auxiliris suh as drop nosebands or martingals. A drop nosbnd, the ospie rsting

shrpr pessu on the mouth, or it an b ned with rollers, set horizontally within th


running mating|e in ation' he running rings exert a downward ation on the

bit when the horse ra ises its hed too high, but

arefuIfitting is required to ensure esonb|e freedom of movemnt.


ub in is hld in a similar mnner. The .gagi ridl, on the othr hand, is littl mor than an xtnsion of th snaffle,

antuating th upward, head-raising,

ation of th lattr by its peuliar onstrution. In the gag, th bit rings ar mad with

two aligned ntral holes in th ring through whih hkpi of roundd

a ring on th bottom of th ltt. This arangemnt nabls th bit to mov upwads in th hors's mouth xerting vry onsidrabl prssur on th onrs of th lips. In fat, of ours, the ation

lather is passed, th rin bing attahd to

produs ontrditory Pssurs' on

upwards on the mouth and on downwrds on the poll. Nonthlss th gag is hld to be usful aid in ontrolling an imPetllous hors and prhps, more partiularly, fo one that apProhs his fns athr fastr thn is onsidrd dsirabl, whilst holding his had firmly btwn his kns.

th nos alon. This typ is often alld a.hkamor', ttt nam driving from th Spanish jquia - noseand, usd b th dorndor (ainer) in prparing the hose for th .spad' bit ( ub bit with a solid

Th last of the bidle groups is that whih gives ontol though pressur on

high port rsting on th tongu

suffiintly log to t against th roof of th mouth) whih was usd by th trinr or .rin/ of th advand hors, the rrendador. This bitlss bidle is part of a sophistiatd mthod of shooling originating in th Iberian Pninsula and passing from ther, by mans of th sixtnth entury onquistdors' to th


Amrias. Th

-s ifuratd srap, eah nd of whih rfrmri .ith ing though whih th rin


h running martingl


rlm i omparison with th snaffl. It :i most soptristited of th bitting 'mgmts nd within the provine of il r} duated rider nd tlr dutd fors. pmitting th formr to suggst a itning of he had with a far greater fim- h snffl, or bridoo ats to mist fr hd, whilst urb whn it ts'rrs n angle of about 45 degrs in " . uth, indus a lowring of th nos, ]mio of th lower jw and of th poll. outhpiee of th urb is most usurr[it. sraight ba md with entral fim .llgd th po. Th pupos of th t o ommodate th tongu, thus lig th eirg surfas of th rpi, on itir sid of *r port, to ,,"m ito diret ontat with the bas. If " - mouthpie ws mad without a port' bit would b moe upon th tongu fl.t th s nd would, therfo' be dd less effrint and dirt in its

mr fft a lowring of th had. doubl ridl, with its urb bit nd id)n] lis t tlr opposit nd of th

ss6d. Thus

is put on


The two most ommonIy used types of bidI. above left: he snaffle brid|e omplete with drop nosebnd, whih prevents the horse opening its moUth and evding the it. abovei The double bridle with the two bits and double reins, used min|y on show horses and ponies' nd for dressage.

ag. Th lngth of th hek boll tl:e mouthpie, whih inorpoats th .ye' to whih th hdpie of th bridle is ttahed, is, howve' of almost qul signifia. A long hek will aus a gratr downward prssur on the poll as .ey' moves forward in rspons to th appliation of the rin, ansmitting that plssue through the hekpie to th

hk th gratr bing the possibl lv-

mor gnral us in rent yars. any riders employing th Euopean systm of aining use' or mor frequently misuse, the bridle, mistakenly supposing it to b a .kinde/ form of ontol. In fat, in th wrong hands, th bridl is a ver sevr instrument. Th devlopmnt of th idl bgn arly in tlr history of mn's ssoiation with horss nd in omPaative trms it was not long befor a satisfatory form of harnss volvd. Prhaps suprisingly, th saddl and moe partiularly the stirrup, was a muh latr inodution. &tost of ttr pre-Chistin hose popls usd overings nd pads, some of th lttr bing quit laboat' on tlr bks of thir horss, although enophon (430_355 ), possibly buse h was a Spartan, drid th prati mintaining that th bar lgs
of a man wrapped round the sweating ot

r0festen iding, ut it has lso ahived a

it rmains intgral in

h sity or otlrwise

tl h moutlrpie, th longr

u1ron th length

of th rb

of th hk


resntd by the snaffle nd the doubl bidl (th two basi bridls used in th ort shooling of the hos). Vith on mouthpie, usually of the hlf-moon typ, and hk whih inoporats an additional ring for th fixing of a bridoon rin, it ttmpts to rprodue th ffts of tlre lttr. In prati, th snaffl ation of th bit will prdominte when th bridoon rein opposit sult will obtind whn he position of tlr rins is revrsd and th

The Plhm bridl is somthirrg of a ompromis btwn tlr xtrms rep-

The limitations of valry operating without th surity ffordd by saddl and stiups would sn to be obvious. Pimaril, of ours, it pohibited th
valry soldier from losing with
foundation, the .trd, was in us and it took almost anothr 100 yes efore th avalry harg against bodies of infntry.. Charles Chnvix Trenh, autlror of History of Horsemanship and a ontribu.tor

of his hors gave mor surity.

nmy' but it was not until e fourth ntury that a saddl onstutd on a wood


is hld outsid th little finger and

stirrup was invnted and mad possile th


A disp|ay of oId |assi| sddls at Haras du Pin in Fne, inluding examp|es with high pomme|s and ant|es to en|ose the rider and mke him diffiu|t to dis|odge bov An examp|e ottheselle role, a |ess extreme form of enclosing saddle still used by the Spanish Riding Shoo| in Vienn.



surprising that horsemn took 1500 yrs to think up something so simple.

On is relutntly drivn to th diststful bright st of pople'.

to this book' has this omment to mak: .It

onlusion that w are not rally a vr

It is probabl that it was th Sarmatians, a popl latr absorbd by th Goths, who

at th lassial shools of Saumur and

Shool, and thos saddles urrently in rrs in Portugal and Spain ar its dirt dsndants and littl differnt from th saddls of th lat Rnaissan priod. Th only major alteration is in the posi

ously ovr his horse's rump. That sddl xists in reognabl form tody as th !(estrn saddl. Tt,e sll rol, still used

Vienna, th hom of th Spnish Riding

usd a tr nd produd a saddl built high at th pomml and ntl to nlose

th idr. Crdit for th stirrup gos to th Huns of Attila nd a Chins offir writ-

ing ln 477 A onfirms its use y ths ongolian horsmn. Th same ryp of nlosing sddl servd th mdivl knight' whose long stirrups were hung wll forward so as to
allow th ridr to ra himslf against th antle. This position prvnted his bing thrown forward and nabld him to with-

stand the impat of the harg aginst infntry without dparting unrmoni-

drssage saddle, although onsideraly more stramlind in apparan' has its origins in these saddls. Like that of th amoured knight, th drssag saddl is idally suitd to its pupose, fulfilling th ride1s rquirements in this partiula and spialized branh of equitation. Drssag involves movmnts dmnding stat of olltion, the hose moving

plaed furthr to th rar than in th saddl of mounted knight. In turn, th moden

tioning of the stirrup ars, whih


nessary for the ride1s ody weight to b positioned s nrly as possibl over th ntr ofblan ofthe horse. In th hors at rest' this an takn to e at th juntion of an imaginry vertial lin, drawn from som 15 m (6 in) bhind th withrs to the ground, and horizontal on drawn from th point of th shouldr to th rear. In movmnt the hors's entre of balan shifts forward, its position ing govrnd by th ttitud of th had and nek whih at as th alaning agnt of th ody strthes out its had nd nk, th point movs forward. At th opposit xtrem. when the hors is in a state of olletion,

prt of th wight bing arrid over atively engaged qualtrs. In odr to rmin in-balan with th horse it is

witir the hed held high nd the grat


In th galloping hors,


th lvated had arriage and lowrd roup aus th ntr of baln to mov


horse, it is usuall regarded as synonmous with normal funtion, that is th ability to pform th purpos for whih th health hors is sound horse; onvrsly, an unsound horse is on in whih usfulnss hs ben diminishd, eihr tmporarily or prmanntly, by som diseas or

/1 ooo hlth is somthing whih \r m',y pople ak t,or granted. In rh

animal is kpt. In ommon terms'

unhlthy ondition. Th interrelationship of soundnss and disas sums up th horseman's approah to th suiet; and it is a pratial pproah. Iowvr, thr ar rtain aspts tht li outsid this partiular onpt. For mple, a hors ma hav a disase, suh as mild inftion or a ondition ofbon, suh as a.splint', t b al to arry out a usful funtion. At this point' thr hs to e a mor strit dflnition of disas, albit prtial. Disase is an ondition whr body strutur is abnormally altrd. This altertion has a us (etiology), a ourse of developmnt and rovry (pathognesis), a likly outom (prognosis) and
or ontrol. Thse ritri an b applied to all onditions, from whn they an

mans of tratmnt

broken down into finer divisions of know-

bove Modern equine veterinay

ledge suh as, is th aus inftiv, o dos th ondition hv an underlying

(prdisposing) aus? It is nssary to lssify disas both for

th purpose of dsription and so as to

develop btter undrstanding of th sub-

pratie is we|l-equipped to hand|e suh problems as manoeuvering an anaesthetised horse on the oprating tab|e. Below amo|s of mirobial infetions. left: n ngIeberry on the inside of the thigh - a semi-malignant tumor, aused by

a virus, whih requires speiaI treatmnt for suessfuI erdiation. middle: Spasm of the thid ey|id when the side of th fa is lightly tapped with the finger is a symptom of ttnus ||ockiaw|' right: Craked heel _ an infetion of the skin in the hollow of the oastern.

find: inftiv diseases, parasiti diseass, disses and onditions of bone, disass of th alimntry trat' disass of th livr, disss of the gnital organs' infrtilit, disss of pregnan, disass of th newborn foal, disass of th ldr foal and yaling. disass of th urinary systm, disases of th nrvous sstem, disases of th adio-vasular systm, disess of th rspiratory trat, disss of th y and disass of th skin.

jt. Th following is a broad lassifiation of thos diseses whih non onrnd with the welfr of horss old xpet to

Inftiv Disases
Inftiv disass ar thos usd b miro-organisms (germs or miros).
Thre e thre main gloups of miros _ virus, atria and fungus. ah group is

subdividd into familis, gnra and speis, just as mammals ar lassified

aoding to thir partiular haratris-

tis. Thus within the group of batri

thr ar Strptooi' Stphloocci and


bsiella, oding to hatristis tt s mirobes displa under miroultural, biohmial, srologial '!tpi' t 6g1 mas of xmination whih t to distinguish vn th most losl dld forms from one noer. ltiros n liv on th surfae of the 3;n on tlr muous membanes lining

Tale r - BARIAL DIsAss



Chif Smproms Smll oils and/or wping sors in skin

Lamnss; poll vil nd fistulous withers


tp|llooccus urus


Brucell bortus Leofflrll mlli

ious body avities suh s th rh. vgina, et. Thy an also invad " . ..sus and liv within the various body

Nsal atarrh; fvr;


odmtous swllings;

tdnd using damag. This proprty is

[IIss' and the s with whih th ondiirm spreds through th horse population.

such as the bons, livr or kids. Not all mirobs ar harmful and grm ist within th body in state of ul nefit, suh as the batri in th .[n d um whih digest th elhil ard fib in hors's fd. Btwn s tht do aus diseas, and the host ts xists quit a ompliatd reltionsh h type of mirob hs a mor or ]Iu vlopd apaity for invading th


Fvr; jaundi; anamia

Leptospir pon1on lostridium ttni

S lmo rrc l l tp hi mur S

Slmonellosis* Slepy foal diseas*

Painful spasms
Dirrhoa, usually bloodstaind; suddn dth
\Deakness and fver

lmorrcll ntritidis


nwborn fol


Actinobcillus quuli
Strptooccus qui

to s viuln and is rognized in l Ei' th svrity of th illnss it

xmPl, th batrium Streptococcus whih uses th disas Strangls, is rsstd with fvrish ondition whih ryrcads pidly through the inmats of std E srbl. on th othr hand its los rlativ Sttptococcus pogns is more oftn

Fv; nsal disharg; bssss in glands, mainly of had and nk

* Common disass


\0asting; stiffness of th

Mcobctriurn tuberulosis



** Lss ornon diseass

Table 2 _ DIsAss AUSD BY vIRUss


Chief Sllptoms
Cough; fevr Cough; nasal atarrh;
somtims fev


rsitd with lolizd onditions, suh as infetion of th uterus, whih e putrie a givn tim to n individual. \rirlen an b variabl aording to

pidmi ough
Sporadi or stl ough Pneumoni


fovr, it is somtims rsponsible for fol rlirhoea and during epidmis of this mdition, its virulne ma inras as it pess suessively hrough on as aftr rth, sulting in a orrsponding rns in the sverity of th epidemi. on of the hif ftors hr is th lak of

srn th batrlum known as E. coli is iquitous and is found in lrge quantitis rn gut nd fs of horses. It also livs th soil and rarely auss problms.


environmentl irumstas. For

Adnovius Adnovirus

Fvr; difflult or abnomal bthing (spiall in foals) Pnemonia and enteritis Sma]l disrt ornifii
growths usually aound


Afrian hors

Ppova virus



Prolifrating growths with tndeny to

ulrat and bled
mare and pnis of stallion

Papova vius

xanthema) anamia

Spots (oital

Small ulrs on l'lva of

quid hrpsvirus Unlassifid

quin infetious


Fever; anamia; swllings on lgs and dependnt





lsions on skin pling

off to vel ulr
Ieaves, ough

S ovrd irular

Microb Fungus: (Mirosporum)


Brokn wind

Abortion Gutturl pouh

Thikned planta
llaemorhag down nos Fvr; anaemia; jaundi

Various spis
of fungus


(Pioplasmosis, Babsiosis)

Biliay fver

of Piroplsm)

Protozoa (spis


E AL 0t E H0Rs

th same immunity against bterial inf-

rsistne of a fol. whih dos not hav


tions s has usually bn developd b

nutralize the invading mirob. The antiody must of ours b speifi to th mirobe, or it will hav little or no effet in prventing it from beoming stablishd in th body tissus. For example thr ar two strains of influnza virus whih are popularly lld th iami and Pragu strains. Th hors my b immun to th Pragu

Immunity is another fator in th relationship twen mirob and host. An individual gathers immunity y th apaity of spil lls in th body to produ prottiv substanes (antibodis) whih

strain, baus it has xperind this inftion bfor and is apale, thrfor, of produing Pragu-sain antibodies, ut the same individul may suseptil to

3rd stage infetive |ruae

no previous epriene of it. Th sam

diffrn would exist if the individual had bn vinatd with on' but not th othr straln.

the iami strain bause th body has had

whih an individul may devlop immunity. In this as th immunity is artifiial, but th priniple of naturally devloping immunity is similar. Protin, in the form of
the whole or prt of th mirobe, nters the

Vins illusate anothr way in

bove rhe Iife y|e of Stronglus vulgais.


as foreign. Th protin is known

bod nd is rognized by th host tissus

prodution of antibody. The immunit vris with th mirobe and th vain' whih is solid and lasting in som ass and weak or limitd in oths. In the as

antign and is apal of stimulting th


of influnz o ttanus (lokjaw), oostr doss ar rquired following vintion,

Infetive Iarva (third stage on|) are eaten the horse and in the gut the burrow into bIood vesseIs nd migrate to the main afteriaI root where they deve|op futhe. Adults return to the intestine and lay eggs whih are pssedout to repeat the y|e. Right Mggots of the bot f|y in the stomah' ggs, Iaid on the hairs by the aduIt f|ies, are |iked off by the horse and hath in the stomah. he maggots attah to the stomah wII and Iage infestations may rupture it.

body suseptible. For xmpl a mar that taks air into th genital trt baus of

sin immunity gradually drss. Quite apart fom immunity, individuals vary in their rsponse to infetion bause of prdisposing ftors, whih make th


Disese SmDtoms


Diarrhoa; loss of ondition; oli; namia Diarrhoea in foals; oli; ronho-pnumorria Rubbing til Non
Gastritis ; prforation of th stomh; retl haemorrhag

Prsit Stronglus lLulgris Stronglus ednttus Stronglus quinus

faulty perinal onformation, auses the utrus to beom mor pon to btril infetion.

Asariasis Oxyuriasis

Prsris quorum Ouris qui


The ommon equin disases aused y mirobs ar shown in Tbls I, 2 and .

Parasiti Diseass
Prsits r organisms whih live at the xpns of another, but whih do not nessaril harm it, nor do they usually
from mirobs, although som parsits do produe sevre effets, whih may hav fatal onsequnes. An xmpl is the redwom, Stronglus ,zlulgris andS. dnI}:e

prfolit inlis

Bot maggot

Gstrophilus intst-

use dath. Thy ar thrfore distint

Table 5 _ TOPARASITI DIsAss oF TI{





larval phase spnt in the lood vssels in th former as and in the peritoneum in

life yl of whih inludes

Irritation; rubbing; loss of hir Irritation; arry disas loss of hair; thiknd skin
suh as enphalomylitis Sbs; intnse irritation;

Boaicol equi
Ixodida and Argasida spies

Parasites may spend prt of thir dvelopmnt in a fr-living stat' that is,

the lttr.

Saropts and

unassoiated with the host. Their parasiti existene may spnt inside (endoprsits), or on th surfa (toparasits) of th body. Th main ndo- and etopara-

ar mang Autumn ithing

Hd shking; stamping; rubbing Pimpls and sas on legs

horiopts equi

siti disss of th hors ar shown in

(harvest mites)

Trombiul utumnlis


Disass and Conditions of Bon

3; cisas' s suh, is rare in the hors, *: :s onfied mainly to disordrs of g:--h rn horss up to the ag of about two .--=--s ll. In oldr horss. it ma our in :ss t nutrirional imalan. From th .l.:-=-:nn's viwpoint, ths ar ondir.::<s

oter surfa and ndostum on its inner surfae. These two memranes mould th shap ofthe on y uilding and braking

nourishd by blood vssels nd is omposd mainly of alium and phosphous laid down in a systm of anls or spaes

down th bony substne whih is

;:n:d th ftlok and abov th kns or i fols and yarlings ausd by =,mtion of th growth plate


of nlargmnts (sometims


1.\s s .ig head' in whih th bons of

:?hisiris)' o rognizale in older

\[s onditions affeting bon in !L].-s. apat ftom nutritionl distur-^-:s. n b trad to truma or

= d bom softnd and distortd.

a] .n it be regardd in isoltion from its ::-=inship with ioints or from its atth=r.i lo ligamnts and musle (s Th
-:d1 of th Hors). Bone is lind b a fin

-r=_.zino tht bon is not a stti Strutur'

undstanding is ahievd


by r-

srroundd by one ells. In prati, w eome aware of bony disordrs in th form of lumps whih may painful or painlss, smll o lrg, and may or ma not aus lmnss. Thse r known as .splints', high and low ingbon, osslts, bon spvin' so or bukd shins' pdal ostitis or' as th vtrinarian would sa' exostoss, i.. ony outgrowths. Colletivly, thy ar th rsult of inflammation ofth priostum and th raising up of the fin mmbrane from th surfae of th bon. The ration usually sprads to nighbouring tissus ausing a fibrous swlling whih prds th laying down
of nw on beneath th priostal lining. This ration is sn at its most typial in

reation devlops, whih n b sn displaing th skin outwards over the sit of ration. After a tim nw bon is laid down and th splint beomes allousd, gradually diminishing in siz ovr quit a long period of time. .Splints' my also be asd b fratur
devloped in the firous ration betwn the svrd nds of the shaft. Th allus

of h slndr shft of th on, whih rsults in a allus, that is nw bon

fixs nd r-units th fatrd part, as also ours whn lagr ones are fratued, providing th nds of th bon ar

immobilizd. So and bukd shins ar oftn th rsult of stress fratus of th annon bone. Resembling nothing mol thn raks in hina, thy ar difflult to dmonstrate on -ray. Nonthelss thy

voke a ration of th periostum nd a painful nlargmnt at th sit of fratre. The Iower parts of the Iegs, where the bon is |ose to the skin, re the regions where exostoses ommon|y our. hese show s bulges through the skin. Areas likely to be affeted on the foreIeq ae shown below.

_-=n known as priostum on its

amnt binding th splint to th annon bon mav om fftd and a fibrous

th dvlopment of .splints'. IIer th lig-

high ring boe

low ring bone

pdaI ostitis



Th priosteum may bom damagd whn ligamnts or joint apsules are torn
t th point whr thy insIt into the outr

ssmoiditis r xampls. In ths ases th ration taks muh th sam ourse, typifid by heat, pain nd swelling. Arthritis mns inflammation of a joint and the smptoms ar swlling, hat and pain when the joint is movd. Joints ar omposd of svrl struturs, on or more of whih may b damagd, thus giving the symptoms of a spraind joint, ut

lining of the on. osslets


requiring vterinary investigtion

dtermine th xat natr of th ondition. For xampl swolln, pinful fetlok joint may b aused b a sprain of th joint apsul' a suppolting ligmnt, or of th artiular surfs of th ioint. Th surfae of the ons forming a ioint is lind y artilag, whih is softr than
bone and is al to rpla th lls that ar


bone beneath, whih ma rspond y produing new bone in an ffort to rpair th damag. llowevr, this new bone is usuall too fragil or too profus to ahiev funtional rpair of th joint. The onsqun is sn as bony outgrowths from

i.. rthritis. The swlling of rthritis is ausd b an inreas in snovial fluid (joint oil) whih mks the apsul bulge. A soft swlling is produd nd this an flt at ertin points around the joint. Th arthliti ara o th joinds sufa ma be likened to an ulr. It an hal or ome progrssivly deeper until it rahes th

dmags th surfae, suh as inftion or trauma. sts up an inflammatory ration'

Iost through war. An poss whih

the ioint sufa from whih small pis bom detahed. Thse pis li fr in

th joint avit and ar

dsried as joint mi.


Above left An x.ray of the hok, showing a joint mouse Iying in the ,ioint avity Above


thos most ommonly afftd ar th

Any on in th od ma b fratured, ut

pastn) pedal, sesamoid, arpal, annon and pelvi bons. Fraturs may b simpl or ompound and the broken piees widl separated or omminutd _ that is prouding rough th skin. Tratmnt of frtures onsists of immobilizing th part y andag or plstr support or y intrnal


between the tars| bones right A horse with a broken leg is usuaIIy put doWn beause the hnes of its being sound after the frature has healed re smaII but tretment mav be worth while in the se of stud stalIions nd brood mares' This horse has frtured annon bone; the Ieg has been enased in p|ster and a wooden support is inorporated Be|ow sp|it pastern, whih may be ausd by jumping, n be treted by srewing the piees together' left: n x-ray of a split pstern viewed from behind. right: The same Ieg, viewed from the side, afte treatment.

THE HEALH Ul- |Ht |-|Ut{st

Disases of the Alimntary

nountrd in this atgoy in stud or staal horss. In this ontt, it implies pin tring from a disturbane in th alimn-

is the ondition


most frquently

tt. Th pain auss the hors to w ain symptoms suh as sweating, tr ground, looking round t th iks, olling or lying on the $ound (flat .ut. on th iskt or on th ak), rfusing .. t and passing dungs of bnormal quntity (usually drasd) or quality -rd, muous-ovred, soft, smlly or

umr of differing typs of oli, aord.rg to th symptoms and bsed on th :sults of exminations of abdominal *nds (boorygmi) resulting from pris:Jsis, lood, rtal temprtu; palpation t he dominal ontnts pr rectum and s.ination of peritoneal fluid obtaind through the .belly'

h vetrinrian distiguishes

:nusles ma also aid diagnosis. h hif types of oli re: i. Simpl stoppag (impation) ausd y partiall-digestd food umulting in th lumn of th gut. Thr are rtin sits whr this is most likly to our' namely in th plvi flxur of th larg olon, in th aum and whr th last part of the small intsrin (ilum) ntrs aum. Th quantity of food involvd dpends on h sit of obstution. In th ileum it is small, but in th olon or aum, lage quantitis may aumlat. ii. Tympany, ausd by gas,ous distntion of the gut whih may b a rsult of fmntion or ovr-prodution of

needl Puntu

onfind to a small part of th gut, but

h gut. Tympany may involv nomous quntitis of gs or b

gs bateria not nomll prsnt


i ith as the wall of th gut is

strethd, ausing pain.

iii' Spasmodi oli implies an

tivity of th gut wall, and this irriti1ity rsults in painful spasms whih

dons of gas. ir.' Tfuombo-artriti oli follows th loking of small o larg ranh of the artis whih supply blood to the 'all of the gut' Thes artries travl in th msntries y whih the gut is suspnded in th abdominal avity. The most ommon sits afftd re h small intstin and th aum' and the most frequnt aus of thrombus is damag ausd to lood vssls parasit S. oulgris,

re antuated b loal mula-

similar to gangrn.
other (adhsions).

Inflammation (pritonitis) of the outer lining of the gut auses aute pain and may rsult in two loops of bowl boming dhrnt to on

bv the laval forms of th rdworm

obstion bause pristalsis (th movment of th gut whih propls the

Damage of this natur auss an aut

Abdomin| pain, arising from a variety of auses, is temed oli. top: PoIonged ro||ing is typial symptom. bottom.. Part of the sma|| intestine, exposed duing an opeation, showing the blood vesseIs whih an beome bIoked due to damage by redworm; deprived of its blood supply the gut
beomes inf|amed and oIi pain esu|ts.

jpnds prtl on th area of wall whih dprivd ofblood, whih in turn dpends

Th sveity of this last form of oli

..n h siz of th artry in whih th lot lo.lgs. Iowver, th squen ofhappniss is muh th sme in all ass, namly


depivd ara boms inflamd and -ffn' if an ltrnativ blood supply annot .

paralysis of onsidrable lengths of bowel. Th sverity and duration of oli dpnd on th xtnt of the dmag. In some ses it may resolve, ut in othrs it ma lead to profound disturbans in fluid and slt

food along th alimntry trat) does not ross th afftd prt oI produs a rflx

intstines ome .tied nngld through tars in

in a knot

with simi-lar onsquns to ass of


dvlopd from nighbouring blood ssls, th affted palt .dis in a stat

ontnt of th blood nd ulminat in a stat of shok and heart failur. Twistd gut (volvulus) is anothe xmple of an aute obstrution. Portions of th

arterial blokag b thromus. A ruprurd gut may b the squl to any typ of oli, but is most frqunt following ympany, dmge from thrombus oI th ativity of parasits. The stomh may uptur ause of tympany, but the aum and olon ae mor pron to th onsquns


fvours th hypothesis that it is aused by a

ourring in an army amp in Sotlnd at th turn of the entry. urrnt opinion

damgs the nervs of th smpathti systm suppling th gut' ausing paralsis of

ben stablishd, dspit intnsiv rsarh sine it was first rportd s

of parasiti damge. Thre re spifi onditions in whih oli is th prdominant sign, suh as grass sikness. Th aus of this disase has not

toxin in th grass or othr fed, whih

th limntary trat.


Colitis is th nam givn to svr and usually fatal ondition in whih th wall of the 1rg olon bomes thikend and hamorrhgi. his ondition is thought to b used a toxin produed by batria in the hind gut. Dath oms about b shok and gross disturans in th eleolyte and fluid balan of th
Tlatmnt of oli dpends on the diagnosis, but it is largly symptomati. Simpl


Diagnosis of uterine infetions may requie a biopsy speimen. he vet inserts his arm into the retum to Dress the uteine

waII into the jws of the biopsy foreps. sma|| piee of tissue is removd and

prepared fo mirosopi examintion.

alimntary ostrution. Abdominal

by administring suitable drugs, fluid and ltrolyt may be transfused into the lood stram to ounter unfvourabl balan that rsults from mor svr forms of surgery is usd to orret twists and othe

and salt solutions administred stomah tub. Pain is ontrolled

impations ar ffatd with oil lubrints

anatomil obstrutions whih annot b relievd b mdial thrapy.


animal usully has n anxious xprssion and ma stand with its head over its wat supply, prhaps swilling water through its mouth' but not swallowing. Th ondition is ausd b a dry bolus offood or an ojt suh s a pi of wood beoming lodgd in th gullet or osophagus. Tratment with tranquilizing typ dugs is usually

This ondition is nountrd in horses of all ags, inluding foals. The most dramati smptom is th sudden profuse disharg, down oth nostrils' of saliv, ol. ourd grn or brown aording to th natur of the dit at th tim. The fftd



CoitaI eanthema in the mare. his is a virus infetion whih affets both mae and stalIion and is contrated durino



Mastitis is a bateriaI infetion of the Udde. Treatment invo|ves intoduing antibioti through the teat ana|.

Uterine infetions may be teted With ntibiotis administered through atheter whih emains in oosition throughout the illness to simplify eh treatment.

Disass of th Livr
funtions. It filtrs blood arrying th produts of digestion from the gut and therey

mor of the live1s funtions, threy ausing symptoms of disease. Jaundi, fo xampl, may our eus of hmolyti

Th liver has an normous numr of

diss in whih xess red lood l1 pigmnt is rlsed into th lood stram baus of batrial or vil inftion, or

plays a stratgi pat in assimilating th protin, arohydrat and fats ofth dit; it d-toxiats, or works on toxi substans of food (or of drugs administrd y mouth or injtion), hanging thm from hrmful to innouous ompounds. It forms part of th dfn mhnism of th body; hlps to rgulte th protein lvel in th bloodstlm; produs bile whih is a mans of playing a vital part in th digestiv prosss of th gut; it ats s store for sugar in the fom of glyogn; and it is sou of

thus flooding the livr whih normlly

th pigmnt rtrns to the bloodstream, lbeit in an ltered form, and satrts th tissues and mmrans, turning visibl parts yllow. Th livr itslf may b damaged inftion o poisons and onsquently bome unal to deal with nomal quantities of pigment reahing it in th bloodstream. This lso auses jaunto wasting and nrvous disordrs, as th livr fails in its digstive and detoiating powrs. quin inftious anemi nd ragwort or mtal poisoning a xamples.
xrets thse pigments in th bil. Instead

hamol1ti jaundie of the nwborn foal),


of iso-immun diseas



Inflammation of th livr



trting unwantd pigments as well s

Disass of th Gnital Organs

th ovaies, fllopin tubs, uterus, rvix, vgina, vulva and mammary glands. Primry disease of ths organs is ompara-

nzyms whih entr into innumeral metaboli sstms forming th basis f lif. Damage of any kind (from inftion,

die, but in addition it ma interfer with numer of liver funtions whih my lad

Th gnitl organs of th mr ompris

The are

toxins, poisons t) may impair on or

tivly rare, but sondary onditions ar

ommon. Tumours

of th ovary



rrine inftions with Klbsill or Pradomonos spis' and oitl

l othr atri usuall follows prdispsing fators suh as poo onfomation d and prinum whih allows ir ID Irte the gnitl trat. Nl'stitis, i.. inflammation of th mamr. glnds may our, but without th tifiil mi1king to whih ows ar suigtd, it is quit rr. Barrn mars sem D s frquntly afftd s mars with a fl t foot or those whih hav rently wand. iden mars' yearlings :n<l, vn, foals may b affted. In most Gass on half of th uddr omes swoll.n d painful with symptoms of disomf, or

mnhm (spots) ar xampls of the fust grorrp. Uterin inftion willo S tr p to o c ci

months of arh to Jun inlusiv. Som mars may, for physiologial reasons, fail to oniv very yar or during the rit-

Non-infetiv resons for abotion are lss wll undrstood. Thy inlud possibl
dtaild knowldge on th suj t provids

ftont of the glnd or in an upwards di btwn th hind legs. Cass may td with antibiotis administerd b i-musular o intra-mammary routes.

in svre ass, hind limb lamss. oedmatous swellings dvlop in

thir failur n sought in managrial rathr than pathologil reasons. Thr is, of ous, no lar dividing lin btwn .infrtiliqy' nd th rasons for this t1pe of pathologial infertility whih may ause a mar to b mor diffiult to .get in foal', prhaps for rasons of mild inftion of th uterus' or bause of bing mtd wittr a stallion, whos quality of smn is not suffiientl high to ensure onption. Sterilit implis ttr omplet inbility to onive and this may b usd by hromosoml abnormalitis, senility, induratd onditions of the uterus, blokag of th fallopian tubs or tumours of the Infetility in th stallion ma b tmporary (perhaps following injury) or prmanent. symptoms inlude low libido (e.g. rdud ility to hiv rtion, mounting, intromission or jaultion) or lowforms). Similarly to th m, tlre stallion ma b infrtil in tain iumstns, suh as if ovrwoked o mismnagd in othr ways, yt fertil if usd undr optiml onditions. .l\4ost stllions should apa1 of ahiving ovr 70 p nt of oneptions in a group of 40 ms, at a rt of aout 2.5 servis p ma, p std sason. Lss podutiv rats may b xperind to vry 1v1, until th individual is inapabl of ahiving onption in ny mrs prsntd to him, nd is thrfor dfind s steril. Howvr, fo pratial pulposes, stallions that annot ahiv rats of mor ta, 2 per nt frtility ar rgardd as ompletly infrtile.

mars ar not iologially infrtil and

rrily sltd brding sason. Suh

gnti' immunologi, hormonl or irulatory disturbans, but an absene of

us only with a thoretial approah to diagnosis. Thus a proportion of a