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Keywords
<<Converter circuits, Power conditioning, Modelling>>
Abstract
This paper deals with two solutions for singlephase serial AC voltage controllers with bipolar PWM
chopper. In these converters, either the bipolar PWM AC matrix chopper (MC) based on fullbridge
topology or the bipolar PWM AC matrixreactance chopper (MRC) based on Cuk B2 topology and
auxiliary transformer is applied. The MRC, in distinction to MC, has a magnitude of voltage
transformation function greater than one. The peak detection method in the control circuit of both
controller solutions is applied for fast control of the load voltage changes. The steady state theoretical
analysis based on averaged models and transient state analysis based on smallsignal averaged models of
the presented controllers are employed. Furthermore, simulation and experimental test results are provided
to confirm and verify the theoretical approach. On the basis of these investigations a comparative study of
the results showing performance of both controller solutions is presented.
Introduction
In cases of AC supply voltage changes, both downward and upward, there is a risk of damage to devices,
which are sensitive to changes in voltage, for example: computer equipment, lighting equipment, etc.
These kinds of devices need supply sources, which have a stabilized voltage. Serial voltage controllers are
commonly used to supply such sensitive equipment [1]  [6].
Serial voltage controllers with unipolar matrix chopper, serial transformer for adding the compensating
voltage and input transformer with tap changer are proposed in [3] to stepup and stepdown AC voltage
stabilization. The weight and volume of this controller are large has because of an input transformer with
thyristor tap switches, which is a significant inconvenience of this solution. In order to solve this problem
several other solutions of serial AC voltage controllers are proposed. In works [2], [4] and [6] solutions
with bipolar PWM AC matrix chopper (MC) are proposed. In these circuits fullbridge topology of the
MC with four bidirectional switches is used. The bipolar AC voltage transformations achieved by MC
enables bipolar compensate voltage shaping without input transformer with secondary coil tap switching.
A significant inconvenience of such solutions is relatively greater switching loses in MC. Therefore in [4]
a solution for the MC with soft switching of transistors in MC is proposed, however it demands the use of
two additional transistors. A more universal solution, because of the possibility to input power factor
improvement, is presented in [5]. The AC/DC/AC with threearm converter topology with bulk capacitor
is used in this solution. However, such a circuit solution is a relatively expensive circuit because of
indirect AC/AC converter topology.
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In an effort to achieve a lower cost solution of AC voltage controller, a new topology with PWM AC
matrixreactance chopper (MRC) is proposed in [7]. The MRC with Cuk B2 topology is applied, which
has the possibility to bipolar buckboost AC voltage transformation [8] [12]. There are only two bi 
directional switches in this topology, which is a favourable feature of the proposed solution. Furthermore
the peak detection method in the control circuit of both controller solutions is applied for fast control of the
load voltage changes [1], [13].
Steady state theoretical analysis based on averaged models and transient state analysis based on small
signal averaged models of the presented controllers are employed. Furthermore, simulation and
experimental test results of the 3 kVA laboratory model are provided to confirm and verify the theoretical
approach. On the basis of these investigations a comparative study of the results showing performance of
both controller solutions is presented.
I~e F l _T T
Fig. 1: Singlephase serial AC voltage controllers, a), b) using bipolar matrix chopper with fullbridge
_~~~~~t
topology, c), d) using bipolar matrixreactance chopper with Cuk B2 topology
The idealized voltage transmittances of the MC and MRC can be described respectively as [7] [14]:
According to (1) and referring to Fig. 1, the idealized voltage transmittances of analysed controllers can be
described as:
The characteristics of the magnitude of voltage transmittances (2) as functions of pulse duty factor D are
shown in the Fig. 2. As it is visible from the Fig. 2a, the voltage controller with the MC has the possibility
to buckboost load voltage transformation in the range of nominal input voltage +i/lp for changing D from
0 to 1. Whereas in the voltage controller with MRC load voltage can be grater than nominal input voltage
±1lp (Fig. 2b). This is the essential difference between analysed controller solutions.
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a) 1H [V/V] b)
Voltage controller
1 ......
ii/p
0 M#
t D []
0 \ 0.5 1 0.5 %
1 Mc
MRC 4
4
Fig. 2: Idealized characteristics of voltage transmittance magnitudes of a) for presented controller using
bipolar MC, b) for presented controller using bipolar MRC
The schemes for the control circuits of the voltage controllers are shown in the Fig. lb and Id. Both
versions are similar, moreover only the number of PWM outputs is different depending on the number of
transistors in the main circuit. A detailed description of the control circuit, which is shown in the Fig. Ib, is
also presented in [7].
From (3) one can easily obtain the substitute circuit realization shown in the Fig 3 [7], [15].
a) iI A r
Fig. 3: Averaged circuit models of analysed voltage controllers, a) using bipolar matrix chopper with full
bridge topology, b) using bipolar matrixreactance chopper with Cuk B2 topology
A  chain matrix of the chopper input filter, Ac  chain matrix of the chopper basic structure, ATR
chain matrix of the auxiliary transformer, AF;  chain matrix of the chopper output filter and A  chain
matrix of the complete AC voltage controller
The fourterminal steady state description for the basic properties of the presented controller can be
derived by means of wellknown expressions, which are collected in mentioned works [7] and [15].
Assuming that all variables have two components: a running constant component (the averaged value in
the switching period Ts), which is marked by upper case letter and a perturbation one marked by lower
case letter, which is covered by sign "Al:
us U1+u s is5is+i 9 =IL+lL
X+x and d =D+d . (6)
On the basis of an averaged state space method the small signal state space equation is expressed as
follows [15], [16]:
d
(X + x) 2A(D) + B(Dp, + [(Ai A2)X +(B1 B2)US ]d, (7)
where: A1 = A(D = 1), A2 = A(D = O), B1 = B(D = 1) and B2 = B(D = O). Referring to (7), complete
averaged circuit models (canonical averaged models) of the presented controllers can be constructed and
are shown in the Fig. 4. In these circuit models additional controlled voltage and current sources occur,
which are expressed by (8) and (9) for a controller with MC or MRC respectively.
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j, IU d=d
j2 (U d)  2 (I _ )2R US, and e IU,d)
e, iU,d )= (1~D Usddane2
cl ~e~Ud U) Ud1Usd, (9)
1D) /p((DD)
9
pwD)Re
where: P = p/(2D i1).
b) is =Is +is
Fig. 4: Complete averaged circuit models (canonical models) of analysed voltage controllers,
a) using bipolar MC, b) using bipolar MRC
Laplace transform and solution in complex form of (7) is described by (10) and (11):
Ax(s) = A(D)i(s)+ B(D)ti(s)+ [(A1 A2)X + (B1 B2)J]Ud(s),
  (10)
x(s) = (sI A(D)) 1t(D)(s) + [(A1 A2)X + (BI B2)U]d(s)}= Gi" (s)ss(s) + G,(s)d(s),
   (1 1)
where:
i. (s)^ (S) and G, (s)=
GUs(s= ~ =x() x ( ) (12)
moreover transmittances (12) are interpreted as:
UL
(s) = UL(.S) (13)
A detailed description of these transmittances are inserted in the appendix in tables, tab. A I and tab. A II.
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characteristics obtained for averaged models of the presented controllers, which are shown in the figures
Fig. 3 and Fig. 4.
In the figures Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 both steady state exemplary simulation and experimental time waveforms
of the voltages and currents and steady state magnitude and phase of the voltage transmittances are shown
to depict some differences in the operation of the voltage controllers.
a) e") 'US, "L
1.1aU)ina
1. 1 us"", US, UL UL (D = 0.25)
/L D= .0
1.5 Usm,,,,, UL (D = 0.75)
US. =
)max[ UL (D 0.50)
0.89 Us",ax , 0.86 Usmax
__
UL (D = 0.75)
t
US
!,,SAA,
b ) t13MS}>g UL f) i
lL
''
~s
D 00.25 D 0.25
c)~fr
iv
N
h) 1'1
M
7
S
j W .'
D = 0.5 D0.5
d) igi s h)
. X'\4
IL X.
ZL7=~
,iv
F] I .
D= 0.75 D 0.75
Fig. 5: Exemplary voltage and current time waveforms, a) and e) simulation load voltage time waveforms
of the voltage controller using MC or MRC respectively, b), c), d) and f), g), h) experimental voltage and
current time waveforms of the voltage controller using MC or MRC respectively
As is visible from Fig. 5a and Fig.5e of the same circuit parameters of both voltage controller solutions the
range of the load voltage change for solution using MRC is greater than for the solution using MC. The
values of the load voltage changes are described in the discussed figures. The magnitude and phase
transmittance characteristics obtained both during the theoretical analysis and simulation investigations
demonstrate good coincidence with what is shown in the Fig. 6. Generally, the experimental results
obtained for both solutions of the voltage controller confirm the theoretical and simulation ones for
changes of the pulse duty ratio D in full range for the solution with MC (Fig.6a) and in the range between
O to 0.7 for the solution with MRC. In the last solution, the experimental results, obtained for D greater
then 0.7, are visibly different from the theoretical and simulation ones (Fig. 6c). In this case the voltage
transmittance is significantly lower. This is caused by the decreasing of the circuit quality factor which is
connected with an influence of the parasitic circuit parameters.
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2 Simulation
0.5
0,5p
p =230/48 I p=10
21/4
arg( H ) [radi
n/2
arg( H )
[radi
n4 D
1l/4 ~~~~D
n/2 21l/2
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
c)
4
iflu I [V/V] p= 230/48 p=10
 Calculation 
Simulation
12
I
Experiment _ :
0
71/2
Il
arg( H
) [radl p = 230/48 \ .\
P=10
iT/4
0
7/4 D
71/2
0.25 0.5 0.75 1
Fig. 6: Magnitude and phase of the controller voltage transmittances for different transformer TR voltage
transformation ratios p, a) for voltage controller using MC, b) for voltage controller using MRC with load
matching condition, c) for voltage controller using MRC at value RL= const (Tab. A III)
As is visible from Fig. 6c, in the controller with MRC at constant load resistance, the value of the load
output voltage can be more then two times greater than supply voltage for p = 230 V/48 V. This means
that the nominal load voltage can be obtained even for 50% stepdown of the supply voltage. It is the
essential distinction in comparison with solutions based on bipolar matrix choppers. Exemplary time
waveforms of the voltages for 15% and 10% stepdown and stepup changes of the supply voltage
obtained during experimental investigations are shown in the Fig. 7.
1500 stepdown c) g}Wt;tS UC 15%X stepdown
.fiE QUL,(pe=A)
ergri
ul
1 U3
ak)
UL(peA) l
111 1_ 1 i ff S
Nt 1
\
I '5 \
vA
3 g 31 A
Fig. 7: Exemplary experimental time waveforms of the voltages for a 15% stepdown and 10% stepup in
the supply voltage, a) and b) for voltage controller using MC, c) and d) for voltage controller using MRC
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In Fig. 8 there are exemplary voltage time waveforms obtained during simulation investigations of the
dynamic behaviour of presented controllers. As is visible from Fig. 8, for both topologies, the load voltage
time response is less than one period of supply voltage in step down/up changes in supply voltage and in
step changes of the control signal.
a4) Us [V], d? 1100 [] =~ us00 b) Topology Calc. Sim.
uL [V] with MC _
200 r
500 Wltn lVlmI
  t   
0/
l to t [MS] Zoom
400 \
'TOO 120 140 160 180
500 500 tm ~~~~~~~t
[imSI180 300 Io 14[is]
100 120 140 160 120 130 140
180
E'
100 120
o__
140 160
t [ImIs]180 550L
120
to
130
t[ms]
140
Fig. 8: Exemplary voltages and pulse duty factor time waveforms, a) and c) at 25% supply voltage step
down for D = 0.5, b) and d) with pulse duty factor step change from 0.5 to 0.25 for topology with MC or
from 0.5 to 0.75 for topology with MRC for Us= 230 V
The comparative results of the analysed controller with MC or MRC are shown in Tab. I. There is
confirmation in Tab. I that the results obtained for the voltage controller with MRC, both in steady state
and in transient state, are not worse than for one with MC. Whereas it should be noted that in a circuit with
MRC, only two bipolar and bidirectional switches (4 transistors) are used. Furthermore, as mentioned
earlier, the voltage controller with MRC has a more enhanced possibility of load voltage stabilization with
a greater variation in the supply voltage.
Table I: Comparative study of the presented voltage controllers
Feature Topology with MC Topology with MRC
Number of transistors 8 4
Number of reactive elements (without aux. TR) 3 5
Calculation: 83
Supply voltage variation at setting load voltage as Simulation: 83 126 126 Calculation: 51 150
Simulation: 57 126
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A COMPARISON OF BASIC PROPERTIES OF SINGLEPHASE SERIAL AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS USING BIPOLAR PWM CHOPPER JANKOWSKI Maciej
Conclusions
In this paper a comparative study of basic properties of the singlephase serial AC voltage controller using
bipolar MC or MRC with Cuk B2 topology has been presented. It should be noted that the controller using
MRC consists of half the number of transistors than in case of the voltage controller using MC. Furthermore,
the voltage controller with MRC has an enhanced possibility of load voltage stabilization with a greater
variation in the supply voltage. In this solution, the nominal load voltage can be obtained even for 50% step
down of the supply voltage. The dynamic proprieties for both solutions are similar; moreover the voltage
controller using MRC is more sensitive to the load change in mismatching conditions. Further research is
focused both on the experimental investigations and development of the presented solution for the purpose
of decreasing commutation loses and obtaining robust faster response to stepdown/up changes in supply
voltage across a wide range of load changes.
Appendix
Table A I: Small signal transfer functions of analyzed AC voltage controller with MC.
Definition Formula
1?L (S) s~~~~~1 2 + P1
G (s)= aL(s) L2 2 F, L FICFI LF2Cf2
a5(s) det(sI  A(D))
Go ( (s())
sL 1 4 LF(C) 2
dpLLF2CF2 2(P )  pLFCILFCF2
22 PpRLCCFCLF2CFL2 F F2 2 C C
det(sI  A(D))
d
51 J±LF2CF2)+(LFlCF2 +2
3 + P2 (LFI CF1 L F2 ±LFl +
p ~
3(1 RDCRLLFCLCCcL
~ Fl C CF2CF2 PFl CC F2CF2
CpLfCFLcL
det(slI A(D))
s6 ± RC 5 ± p 2((D2CC + (I D)2 CFJL~FlLF 2CF2 + (LFICF2 + LF2CF2)LCCC )± (D2cF, + (i D Cc)LFjLcCC2 s4
RLF2 p 2LFjC LcCL 2C2
+P2((D ±(i D)2CFlLFl+±LCCC)LF2 ±(D2cF,
2c +(i DD2CC)LFlLc s3 +
det(slIA(D)) +P2RLL 1C 1LCCLF2C2
+ p2 (D2LFlCC I Df (LFICQi ± LF2CF2) Lc CC+D ±+(  22LF 2 2+
p 2LF1CFlLcCCLF2 Cf2
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A COMPARISON OF BASIC PROPERTIES OF SINGLEPHASE SERIAL AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS USING BIPOLAR PWM CHOPPER JANKOWSKI Maciej
References
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[11]. Z. Fedyczak, I. Y. Korotyeyev. Bipolar PWM AC line matrixreactance choppers  the steady state basic
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[12]. Korotyeyev I. Y., Fedyczak Z. Steadystate modelling of basic unipolar PWM AC line matrixreactance
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[13]. D. M. Lee, T. G. Habetler, R. G. Harley, J. Rostron, T. Keister. A voltage sag supported utilizing a PWM
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[14]. E. Lefeuvre, T. Meynard, P. Viarouge. Robust TwoLevel and Multilevel PWM AC Choppers. Proc of 9th
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