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A COMPARISON OF BASIC PROPERTIES OF SINGLE-PHASE SERIAL AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS USING BIPOLAR PWM CHOPPER JANKOWSKI Maciej

A comparison of basic properties of single-phase serial AC voltage controllers


using bipolar PWM chopper

Zbigniew Fedyczak, Maciej Jankowski, Pawel Szczesniak


UNIVERSITY OF ZIELONA GORA, INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
Ul. Podgo6ma 50, 65-246 Zielona Gora, Poland
Tel. +48 68 328 25 38, fax. +48 68 324 72 93, fax. +48 68 325 46 15
E-mail: Z.Fedycza e.uz.z M.Jan ,

URL:

Keywords
<<Converter circuits, Power conditioning, Modelling>>

Abstract
This paper deals with two solutions for single-phase serial AC voltage controllers with bipolar PWM
chopper. In these converters, either the bipolar PWM AC matrix chopper (MC) based on full-bridge
topology or the bipolar PWM AC matrix-reactance chopper (MRC) based on Cuk B2 topology and
auxiliary transformer is applied. The MRC, in distinction to MC, has a magnitude of voltage
transformation function greater than one. The peak detection method in the control circuit of both
controller solutions is applied for fast control of the load voltage changes. The steady state theoretical
analysis based on averaged models and transient state analysis based on small-signal averaged models of
the presented controllers are employed. Furthermore, simulation and experimental test results are provided
to confirm and verify the theoretical approach. On the basis of these investigations a comparative study of
the results showing performance of both controller solutions is presented.

Introduction
In cases of AC supply voltage changes, both downward and upward, there is a risk of damage to devices,
which are sensitive to changes in voltage, for example: computer equipment, lighting equipment, etc.
These kinds of devices need supply sources, which have a stabilized voltage. Serial voltage controllers are
commonly used to supply such sensitive equipment [1] - [6].
Serial voltage controllers with unipolar matrix chopper, serial transformer for adding the compensating
voltage and input transformer with tap changer are proposed in [3] to step-up and step-down AC voltage
stabilization. The weight and volume of this controller are large has because of an input transformer with
thyristor tap switches, which is a significant inconvenience of this solution. In order to solve this problem
several other solutions of serial AC voltage controllers are proposed. In works [2], [4] and [6] solutions
with bipolar PWM AC matrix chopper (MC) are proposed. In these circuits full-bridge topology of the
MC with four bi-directional switches is used. The bipolar AC voltage transformations achieved by MC
enables bipolar compensate voltage shaping without input transformer with secondary coil tap switching.
A significant inconvenience of such solutions is relatively greater switching loses in MC. Therefore in [4]
a solution for the MC with soft switching of transistors in MC is proposed, however it demands the use of
two additional transistors. A more universal solution, because of the possibility to input power factor
improvement, is presented in [5]. The AC/DC/AC with three-arm converter topology with bulk capacitor
is used in this solution. However, such a circuit solution is a relatively expensive circuit because of
indirect AC/AC converter topology.

EPE 2115 Oresden


2005 - Dresden
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ISBN: 90-75815-08-5
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A COMPARISON OF BASIC PROPERTIES OF SINGLE-PHASE SERIAL AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS USING BIPOLAR PWM CHOPPER JANKOWSKI Maciej

In an effort to achieve a lower cost solution of AC voltage controller, a new topology with PWM AC
matrix-reactance chopper (MRC) is proposed in [7]. The MRC with Cuk B2 topology is applied, which
has the possibility to bipolar buck-boost AC voltage transformation [8] [12]. There are only two bi- -

directional switches in this topology, which is a favourable feature of the proposed solution. Furthermore
the peak detection method in the control circuit of both controller solutions is applied for fast control of the
load voltage changes [1], [13].
Steady state theoretical analysis based on averaged models and transient state analysis based on small-
signal averaged models of the presented controllers are employed. Furthermore, simulation and
experimental test results of the 3 kVA laboratory model are provided to confirm and verify the theoretical
approach. On the basis of these investigations a comparative study of the results showing performance of
both controller solutions is presented.

Description of presented controllers


Schemes for the considered solutions are shown in the Fig. 1. In these schemes the bipolar MC with full-
bridge topology (Fig. la) or the bipolar MRC with Cuk B2 topology (Fig. Ic) and auxiliary transformer TR
to compensating voltage uc shaping are used. The topologies and operations of the MC and MRC are
similarly to well-known DC/DC converters with full-bridge and Cuk B2 topology respectively, and are
described in detail in works [14], [15] and [7], which is also presented in this EPE conference.
) is C iC

I~e F l _T T

b) error Uc T7T3T1T uL d) error T1 T3 u

Fig. 1: Single-phase serial AC voltage controllers, a), b) using bipolar matrix chopper with full-bridge
_~~~~~t
topology, c), d) using bipolar matrix-reactance chopper with Cuk B2 topology

The idealized voltage transmittances of the MC and MRC can be described respectively as [7] [14]:

=_2 MRC 2 =(1 2D)

According to (1) and referring to Fig. 1, the idealized voltage transmittances of analysed controllers can be
described as:

HT1 and =- ((-l )

The characteristics of the magnitude of voltage transmittances (2) as functions of pulse duty factor D are

shown in the Fig. 2. As it is visible from the Fig. 2a, the voltage controller with the MC has the possibility
to buck-boost load voltage transformation in the range of nominal input voltage +i/lp for changing D from
0 to 1. Whereas in the voltage controller with MRC load voltage can be grater than nominal input voltage
±1lp (Fig. 2b). This is the essential difference between analysed controller solutions.

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a) |1H [V/V] b)
Voltage controller
1 ......

i-i/p
0- M#
t D [-]
0 \ 0.5 1 0.5 %
-1 Mc
MRC 4
4

Fig. 2: Idealized characteristics of voltage transmittance magnitudes of a) for presented controller using
bipolar MC, b) for presented controller using bipolar MRC
The schemes for the control circuits of the voltage controllers are shown in the Fig. lb and Id. Both
versions are similar, moreover only the number of PWM outputs is different depending on the number of
transistors in the main circuit. A detailed description of the control circuit, which is shown in the Fig. Ib, is
also presented in [7].

Mathematical and circuit models of presented controllers


The steady-state averaged state-space equation of the presented controllers is described as [7], [9] -[12]:
x -
A(D)x- + B (D) u,, (3)
where: x =[i iC UL - vector of the averaged state variables for solution from Fig. la or
UI
X = [1i Ui iLC UCC ic UL ]T vector of the averaged state variables for solution from
Fig. Ic, A(D) averaged state matrix and B(D) - input matrix. For both solutions For these matrixes are
-

expressed by (4) and (5):


0 _ 1
0 0 1
LF1 LFl
1 (2D -1)
CF
0
PCFI
0 B(D)= B = 01 (4)
0 (2D - 1) 0 I
LF0
pLF2 LF2 O
1 I
0 0
CF2 RLCF2
O _1 0 o o 0 1
LFl LFI
1 0
D O (1-D) 0 0
CF1 CF1 PCF1 (5)
O D
o _(
I-D) O 0 B(D)= B =
LC LC 0
A(D)=
o o (1--D) FD 0 1
CC PCc LF2
O _(1-D) 0
14I 0
pLF2 p?LF2
0 1
o o 0
CF2 RLCF2
where: p - voltage transformation ratio and LF2 - total leakage inductance for the secondary winding of
the auxiliary transformer TR.

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From (3) one can easily obtain the substitute circuit realization shown in the Fig 3 [7], [15].
a) iI A r

Fig. 3: Averaged circuit models of analysed voltage controllers, a) using bipolar matrix chopper with full-
bridge topology, b) using bipolar matrix-reactance chopper with Cuk B2 topology
A - chain matrix of the chopper input filter, Ac - chain matrix of the chopper basic structure, ATR

chain matrix of the auxiliary transformer, AF; - chain matrix of the chopper output filter and A - chain
matrix of the complete AC voltage controller
The four-terminal steady state description for the basic properties of the presented controller can be
derived by means of well-known expressions, which are collected in mentioned works [7] and [15].
Assuming that all variables have two components: a running constant component (the averaged value in
the switching period Ts), which is marked by upper case letter and a perturbation one marked by lower
case letter, which is covered by sign "Al:
us U1+u s is5is+i 9 =IL+lL
X+x and d =D+d . (6)
On the basis of an averaged state space method the small signal state space equation is expressed as
follows [15], [16]:
d
(X + x) 2A(D) + B(Dp, + [(Ai A2)X +(B1 B2)US ]d, (7)
where: A1 = A(D = 1), A2 = A(D = O), B1 = B(D = 1) and B2 = B(D = O). Referring to (7), complete
averaged circuit models (canonical averaged models) of the presented controllers can be constructed and
are shown in the Fig. 4. In these circuit models additional controlled voltage and current sources occur,
which are expressed by (8) and (9) for a controller with MC or MRC respectively.

j(Us,d)= pPR Usd and e(u ,a)= 2Usd, (8)


L P

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j, IU d=d
j2 (U d) - 2 (I _ )2R US, and e IU,d)
e, iU,d )= (1~D Usddane2
cl ~e~Ud U) Ud1Usd, (9)
1D) /p((D-D)
9
pw-D)Re
where: P = p/(2D -i1).

b) is =Is +is

Fig. 4: Complete averaged circuit models (canonical models) of analysed voltage controllers,
a) using bipolar MC, b) using bipolar MRC
Laplace transform and solution in complex form of (7) is described by (10) and (11):
Ax(s) = A(D)i(s)+ B(D)ti(s)+ [(A1 A2)X + (B1 B2)J]Ud(s),
- - (10)

x(s) = (sI A(D)) 1t(D)(s) + [(A1 A2)X + (BI B2)U]d(s)}= Gi" (s)ss(s) + G,(s)d(s),
- - - (1 1)
where:
i. (s)^ (S) and G, (s)=
GUs(s= ~ =-x() x ( ) (12)
moreover transmittances (12) are interpreted as:
UL
(s) = UL(.S) (13)

A detailed description of these transmittances are inserted in the appendix in tables, tab. A I and tab. A II.

Comparison of simulation and experimental test results


The switched model schemes used during simulation and experimental tests are shown in the Fig. 1. The
values of the relevant circuit parameters are collected in table A3 (appendix). The simulation and
experimental test results, for purpose of comparison, are collected together with some theoretical

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characteristics obtained for averaged models of the presented controllers, which are shown in the figures
Fig. 3 and Fig. 4.
In the figures Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 both steady state exemplary simulation and experimental time waveforms
of the voltages and currents and steady state magnitude and phase of the voltage transmittances are shown
to depict some differences in the operation of the voltage controllers.
a) e") 'US, "L

1.1aU)ina
1. 1 us"", US, UL UL (D = 0.25)
/L D= .0
1.5 Usm,,,,, UL (D = 0.75)
US. =
)max[- UL (D 0.50)
0.89 Us",ax , 0.86 Usmax
__

UL (D = 0.75)
t

US

!,,SAA,
b ) t-13MS}>g UL f) i

lL

''
~-s

D 0--0.25 D 0.25

c)~fr

iv

N
h) 1'1
M

7
S
j W .'

D = 0.5 D-0.5

d) igi s h)
. X'\4
IL X-.
ZL7=~
,iv
F-] I .

D= 0.75 D 0.75

Fig. 5: Exemplary voltage and current time waveforms, a) and e) simulation load voltage time waveforms
of the voltage controller using MC or MRC respectively, b), c), d) and f), g), h) experimental voltage and
current time waveforms of the voltage controller using MC or MRC respectively
As is visible from Fig. 5a and Fig.5e of the same circuit parameters of both voltage controller solutions the
range of the load voltage change for solution using MRC is greater than for the solution using MC. The
values of the load voltage changes are described in the discussed figures. The magnitude and phase
transmittance characteristics obtained both during the theoretical analysis and simulation investigations
demonstrate good coincidence with what is shown in the Fig. 6. Generally, the experimental results
obtained for both solutions of the voltage controller confirm the theoretical and simulation ones for
changes of the pulse duty ratio D in full range for the solution with MC (Fig.6a) and in the range between
O to 0.7 for the solution with MRC. In the last solution, the experimental results, obtained for D greater

then 0.7, are visibly different from the theoretical and simulation ones (Fig. 6c). In this case the voltage
transmittance is significantly lower. This is caused by the decreasing of the circuit quality factor which is
connected with an influence of the parasitic circuit parameters.

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a) IHu [V/VI p= i Calculation


b) 4ILU IIVNV p=2 p=i p-=
2 _/ ~~p= 2 Simulation
4\
1.5= Experiment
3 Calculation

2 Simulation
0.5
0,5p
p =230/48 -I p=10

21/4
arg( H ) [radi
n/2
arg( H )
[radi
-n4 D
-1l/4 ~~~~D
-n/2 21l/2
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1

c)
4
iflu I [V/V] p= 230/48 p=10
- Calculation -
Simulation

12
I
Experiment _ :
0

71/2
Il|
arg( H
) [radl p = 230/48 \ .\
P=10
iT/4
0

-7/4 D
-71/2
0.25 0.5 0.75 1

Fig. 6: Magnitude and phase of the controller voltage transmittances for different transformer TR voltage
transformation ratios p, a) for voltage controller using MC, b) for voltage controller using MRC with load
matching condition, c) for voltage controller using MRC at value RL= const (Tab. A III)
As is visible from Fig. 6c, in the controller with MRC at constant load resistance, the value of the load
output voltage can be more then two times greater than supply voltage for p = 230 V/48 V. This means
that the nominal load voltage can be obtained even for 50% step-down of the supply voltage. It is the
essential distinction in comparison with solutions based on bipolar matrix choppers. Exemplary time
waveforms of the voltages for 15% and 10% step-down and step-up changes of the supply voltage
obtained during experimental investigations are shown in the Fig. 7.
1500 step-down c) g}Wt;tS UC 15%X step-down

.fiE QUL,(pe=A)
ergri
ul
1 U3
ak)
UL(peA) l
111 1_ 1 i ff S

b) = Ss10% stcp up' d) UC oo step-up

Nt 1
\
I- '5 \

c~rror U' error


,~ (l
u,, o
-

vA
3 g 31 A

Fig. 7: Exemplary experimental time waveforms of the voltages for a 15% step-down and 10% step-up in
the supply voltage, a) and b) for voltage controller using MC, c) and d) for voltage controller using MRC

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A COMPARISON OF BASIC PROPERTIES OF SINGLE-PHASE SERIAL AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS USING JANIIWRKI PWMciej CHOPPER

In Fig. 8 there are exemplary voltage time waveforms obtained during simulation investigations of the
dynamic behaviour of presented controllers. As is visible from Fig. 8, for both topologies, the load voltage
time response is less than one period of supply voltage in step down/up changes in supply voltage and in
step changes of the control signal.
a4) Us [V], d? 1100 [-] =~ us00 b) Topology Calc. Sim.
uL [V] with MC _

200 r
500 Wltn lVlm-I
-- --- --t---- ---- - ----
0/
l to t [MS] Zoom
-400 \
'TOO 120 140 160 180
-500 -500 tm ~~~~~~~t
[imSI180 -300 Io 14[is]
100 120 140 160 120 130 140

180
E'
100 120
o__
140 160
t [ImIs]180 -550L
120
to
130
t[ms]

140

Fig. 8: Exemplary voltages and pulse duty factor time waveforms, a) and c) at 25% supply voltage step-
down for D = 0.5, b) and d) with pulse duty factor step change from 0.5 to 0.25 for topology with MC or
from 0.5 to 0.75 for topology with MRC for Us= 230 V
The comparative results of the analysed controller with MC or MRC are shown in Tab. I. There is
confirmation in Tab. I that the results obtained for the voltage controller with MRC, both in steady state
and in transient state, are not worse than for one with MC. Whereas it should be noted that in a circuit with
MRC, only two bipolar and bidirectional switches (4 transistors) are used. Furthermore, as mentioned
earlier, the voltage controller with MRC has a more enhanced possibility of load voltage stabilization with
a greater variation in the supply voltage.
Table I: Comparative study of the presented voltage controllers
Feature Topology with MC Topology with MRC
Number of transistors 8 4
Number of reactive elements (without aux. TR) 3 5
Calculation: 83
Supply voltage variation at setting load voltage as Simulation: 83 126 126 Calculation: 51 150
Simulation: 57 126

L a [/o] of US(nom)7rinal) Experiment: 84 134 Experiment: 76 135


Calculation: -3.4 -3.6 Calculation: -3.8 -25
Maximal load voltage phase shifting [0] Simulation: -3.3 -3.7 Simulation: -2.9 -27
Experiment: - Experiment: -2.5 -27
Step function response [s] One supply voltage period T
Load voltage over-voltage at transient state 14 14
as a [%] of US(nominal)

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Conclusions
In this paper a comparative study of basic properties of the single-phase serial AC voltage controller using
bipolar MC or MRC with Cuk B2 topology has been presented. It should be noted that the controller using
MRC consists of half the number of transistors than in case of the voltage controller using MC. Furthermore,
the voltage controller with MRC has an enhanced possibility of load voltage stabilization with a greater
variation in the supply voltage. In this solution, the nominal load voltage can be obtained even for 50% step-
down of the supply voltage. The dynamic proprieties for both solutions are similar; moreover the voltage
controller using MRC is more sensitive to the load change in mismatching conditions. Further research is
focused both on the experimental investigations and development of the presented solution for the purpose
of decreasing commutation loses and obtaining robust faster response to step-down/up changes in supply
voltage across a wide range of load changes.

Appendix
Table A I: Small signal transfer functions of analyzed AC voltage controller with MC.
Definition Formula
1?L (S) s~~~~~1 2 + P1-
G (s)= aL(s) L2 -2 F, L FICFI LF2Cf2
a5(s) det(sI - A(D))

Go ( (s())
sL 1 4 LF(C) -2
dpLLF2CF2 2(P- ) - pLFCILFCF2
22 PpRLCCFCLF2CFL2 F F2 2 C C
det(sI - A(D))
d
51 J±LF2CF2)+(LFlCF2 +2
3 + P2 (LFI CF1 L F2 ±LFl +

RL CF2 P LFICFILF2CF2 PRLLFICFILF2CF2 LFICFILF2CF


Table A II: Small signal transfer functions of analyzed AC voltage controller with MRC.
Definition
G ( ) fid(s) + LSSH1DLFF+LC 2 Formnula
a(s) P2 ((DC4+ p(D2 LFl Cc + (I D2LFICFI + - D)2 (i DX 2D)
GoL-S (S>L ? LF2C2 pLFICFLcCcLF2C2 pLF CFLcCLF2C2
det (sI A (Ds)) XFRL2LFFl2cF lLcl cclLFt2
cF2
1 p(+ DXDCFI (1 D)C) (1-2DXDCFlD)C2)3
4 (I +
p(1 D)LF2CF2 p 3(1 D)RLCFlCCLF2CF2

GILd (S) O(S>) p(1 C±(I1 D)LFlCFl+LcCcC


+DLFlC
LXJ + D)LF1lCF LcCcLF2CF2 52
a-
spP( - DF DXDLc (I 2D)LF) (1 2- DXDLc (I 2D)LF)
-

p ~
3(1 RDCRLLFCLCCcL
~ Fl C CF2CF2 PFl CC F2CF2
CpLfCFLcL
det(slI A(D))
s6 ± RC 5 ± p 2((D2CC + (I D)2 CFJL~FlLF 2CF2 + (LFICF2 + LF2CF2)LCCC )± (D2cF, + (i D Cc)LFjLcCC2 s4
RLF2 p 2LFjC LcCL 2C2
+P2((D ±(i D)2CFlLFl+±LCCC)LF2 ±(D2cF,
2c +(i DD2CC)LFlLc s3 +
det(slI-A(D)) +P2RLL 1C 1LCCLF2C2
+ p2 (D2LFlCC I- Df (LFICQi ± LF2CF2) Lc CC+D ±+( - 22LF 2 2+
p 2LF1CFlLcCCLF2 Cf2

+ p2(1 -DYLF2±+(D2Lc±+(I 2DYLF, ) + (i-Df


To2RLLF1CF1LCCCLF2CF2 LCFLcCcL2C2

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Table A III: Simulation and experimental tests circuit parameters


Value
Parameter Symbol MC MRC
Simulation Experiment Simulation Experiment
Supply voltage / frequency Us If 230 V / 50 Hz 230 V / 50Hz 115 V/ 50Hz
Filter inductances LFI, LF2 5.4 mH, 4.35 mH 10.8 mil, 4.35 mH
Filter capacitances CF1,CF2 6.2 ,uF, 6,uF 1.6 ,uF, 6,F
Inductance in the chopper Lc 1.6 RF
Capacitance in the chopper Cc 10.8 mH
Load resistance RL 23 Q 23 Q
Transformation ratio p 230/48 V/V 230/48 V/V
Switching frequency fs 5 kHz 5 kHz
Proportional factor kp 0.005 0.005
Integration time constant Ti 0.05 s 0.05 s

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[11]. Z. Fedyczak, I. Y. Korotyeyev. Bipolar PWM AC line matrix-reactance choppers - the steady state basic
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[13]. D. M. Lee, T. G. Habetler, R. G. Harley, J. Rostron, T. Keister. A voltage sag supported utilizing a PWM-
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[14]. E. Lefeuvre, T. Meynard, P. Viarouge. Robust Two-Level and Multilevel PWM AC Choppers. Proc of 9th
EPE'01, CD, DS.1-23, pp. 1-8. Gratz, Schwitzerland 2001.
[15]. Z. Fedyczak, M. Jankowski. Modelling And Analysis Of The Quadrature-Booster Phase Shifter With PWM
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2005. Gdafnsk-Zielona Gora, Poland, 2005 Zielona Gora (In progress).


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[16]. R. D. Middlebrock, S. Cuk. A general unified approach to modelling switching-converter power stages, Proc.
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EPE
EPE 2005 - Dresden
Oresden
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ISBN: 90-75815-08-5
P.10
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