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IEEE Std 1094-1991 IEEEstd1094-1991 - IEEE Recommended Practice IEEE Recommended Practice for the Electrical Design
IEEE Std 1094-1991
IEEEstd1094-1991
-
IEEE Recommended Practice
IEEE Recommended Practice
for the Electrical Design and
for the Electrical Design and
Operation of Windfarm
Operation of Windfarm
Generating Stations
Generating Stations
Circuits and Det'ices
Comm unications Technology
Computer
Electromagnetics and
Radiation
Energy and Power
Industrial Applications
--
Standards Coordinating Committee 23
Standards Coordinating Committee 23
Sponsored by the
Sponsored by the
IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee on
IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee on
Dispersed Storage and Generation
Dispersed Storage and Generation
Published Published by by the the Institute Institute of of Electrical Electrical and and Electronics Electronics Engineers, Engineers, Inc., Inc., 345 345 East East 47th 47th Street, Street, New New York, York, NY NY 1001Z 10017, USA. USA.
+ IEEE
Apri/30,1991
SHI3987
ApriI30.1991
SH13S37

IEEE Recommended Practice for the Electrical

IEEE Recommended Practice for the Electrical

Design and Operation of Windfarm Generating

Stations

Design and Operation of Windfarm Generating

Stations

1. Introduction

1. Introduction

1.1 Scope. This recommended practice con-

tains design information and procedures for

the interconnection of multiple wind turbines

(a windfarm generating station) with an

electric utility. This document addresses is-

sues relating to the interface and the electrical

system between the utility and the individual

wind turbines (an intraplant electrical sys-

1.1 Scope. This recommended practice con-

tains design information and procedures for

the interconnection of multiple wind turbines

(a windfarm generating station) with an

electric utility. This document addresses is-

sues relating to the interface and the electrical

system between the utility and the individual

wind turbines (an intraplant electrical sys-

tem).

for

tem). It also provides recommended practices

for monitoring systems, protection systems,

and safe operations for personnel and

It also provides recommended practices

monitoring systems, protection systems,

and safe operations for personnel and

equipment.

equipment.

1.2 Scope Limitations.This document does not

discuss protection of the windfarm-utility in-

terface, which is covered by IEEE Std 1001-1988

1.2 Scope Limitations. This document does not

discuss protection of the windfarm-utility in-

terface, which is covered by IEEE Std 1001-1988

[35]1, or protection of the utility system. It also

[351’, or protection of the utility system. It also

does not address the control or protection func-

tions of individual wind turbines. Informa-

tion on these functions is provided in AWEA

does not address the control or protection func-

tions of individual wind turbines. Informa-

tion on these functions is provided in AWEA

Standard 3.1-1988 [6]2 and IEEE Std 1021-1988

Standard 3.1-1988 [612and IEEE Std 1021-1988

[361. The unique aspects of wind-turbine gen-

erators using power electronics are not dis-

cussed in this document since they are not

currently in widespread use in windfarms.

However, this document does not preclude

their use.

[36].

The unique aspects of wind-turbine gen-

erators using power electronics are not dis-

cussed in this document since they are not

currently in widespread use in windfarms.

However, this document does not preclude

their use.

Significance and Use. This document is

intended to facilitate sound, economic en@-

1.3 1.3

Significance and Use. This document is

intended to facilitate sound, economic engi-

neering design and safe operations of a wind-

neering design and safe operations of a wind-

farm generating station. It should be utilized

farm generating station. It should be utilized

in conjunction with other standards, local

in conjunction with other standards, local

‘The numbers in brackets correspond to those of the

1The numbers in brackets correspond to those of the

references in 1.4.

references in 1.4.

2AWEA is the acronym for the American Wind Energy

2AWEA is the acronym for the American Wind Energy

Association.

Association.

7 7

utility requirements, and sound engineering

practices.

utility requirements, and sound engineering

practices.

1.4 References. This standard

conjunction with the following publications.

When the following standards are superseded

shall be used in

1.4 References. This standard shall be used in

conjunction with the following publications.

When the following standards are superseded

by an approved revision, the revision shall

by an approved revision, the revision shall

apply.

apply.

[1] ANSI C2-1990, National Electrical Safety

[ll ANSI C2-1990, National Electrical Safety

Code.3

Code.

3

[2] ANSI C84.1-1989, American National

[21 ANSI C84.1-1989, American National

Standard Electric Power Systems and Equip-

Standard Electric Power Systems and Equip-

ment Voltage Ratings (60 Hz).

ment Voltage Ratings (60 Hz).

[3] ANSI C93.1-1981, Requirements for Power

[31 ANSI C93.1-1981, Requirements for Power

Line Carrier Coupling Capacitors.

Line Carrier Coupling Capacitors.

[4] ANSI C93.2-1976, Requirements for Power

[41 ANSI C93.2-1976, Requirements for Power

Line

Line

Coupling

Coupling

Capacitor

Capacitor

Voltage

Voltage

transformer^.^

Transformers.

4

[5] ANSVNFPA 70-1990, National Electrical

[51 ANSVNFPA 70-1990, National Electrical

5

Code.5

Code.

[6] AWEA Standard 3.1-1988, Design Criteria

[61 AWEA Standard 3.1-1988, Design Criteria

Recommended Practices Wind Energy Con-

Recommended Practices Wind Energy Con-

6

version Systems.6

version Systems.

3ANSI

3ANSI

Dublications

publications

are

are

available

available

from

from

the

the

Sales

Sales

Department, American National Standards Institute, ,11

West 42nd Street, 13th Floor,

Department, American National Standards Institute, .11

New York, NY 10036, USA.

West 42nd Street, 13th Floor, New York, NY 10036, USA.

4ANSI C93.2-1976 has been withdrawn; however, copies

4ANSI C93.2-1976 has been withdrawn; however, copies

can be obtained from the Sales Department, American

can be obtained from the Sales Department, American

National Standards Institute,

National Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, 13th

11 West 42nd Street, 13th

Floor, New York, NY 10036, USA.

Floor, New York, NY 10036, USA.

%T”FA publications are available from Publications

Sales, National Fire Protection Association, Battery-

march Park, Quincy,

5NFPA

publications are available from Publications

Sales, National Fire Protection Association, Battery-

MA 02269, USA.

march Park, Quincy, MA 02269, USA.

6AWEA publications are available from the American

6AWEA publications

are available from the American

Wind Energy Association, Standards Program, 777 North

Capital Street NE, #805, Washington, D.C. 20002, USA.

Wind Energy Association, Standards

Capital Street NE,#805, Washington, D.C. 20002, USA.

Program, 777 North

The Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing

IEEE

IEEE

std 1094-1991

Std 1094-1991

IEEE

IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR 'I1IE ELECTRICAL DESIGN

RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR

THE ELECTRICALDESIGN

[7] AWEA Standard 5.1-1985, Wind Energy

[71 AWEA Standard 5.1-1985, Wind Energy

Conversion Systems Terminology.

Conversion Systems Terminology.

[8]

181 IEEE C37.1-1987, IEEE Standard Defini-

and Analysis of Systems

IEEE C37.1-1987, IEEE Standard Defini-

Specification, and Analysis of Systems

tion, Specification,

tion,

Used for Supervisory Control, Data Acquisi-

Used for Supervisory Control, Data Acquisi-

tion, and Automatic Control.'

tion,

and Automatic Control.

7

[93 IEEE C37.90-1989, IEEE Standard for Re-

lays and Relay Systems Associated With

[9] IEEE C37.90-1989, IEEE Standard for Re-

lays and Relay Systems Associated With

Electric Power Apparatus (ANSI).

Electric Power Apparatus (ANSI).

[lo1 IEEE C37.91-1985, IEEE Guide for Protec-

tive Relay Applications to Power Transform-

[10]

IEEE C37.91-1985, IEEE Guide for Protec-

tive Relay Applications to Power Transform-

ers (ANSI).

ers (ANSI).

[lll IEEE C37.95-1989, IEEE Guide for Protec-

tive Relaying of Utilities-Consumer Inter-

connections (ANSI).

[11]

IEEE C37.95-1989, IEEE Guide for Protec-

tive Relaying of Utilities-Consumer Inter-

connections (ANSI).

[12] IEEE C37.97-1979 (Reaff. 1984), IEEE

Protective .Relay Applications to

Guide for

Power System Buses (ANSI).

[12]

Guide

IEEE C37.97-1979 (Reaff.

for

Protective· Relay

1984), IEEE

Applications to

Power System Buses (ANSI).

IEEE C37.99-1990, IEEE Guide for Protec-

[131 IEEE C37.99-1990, IEEE Guide for Protec-

[13]

tion of Shunt Capacitor Banks.

tion of Shunt Capacitor Banks.

[14]

[141 IEEE C37.101-1985, IEEE Guide for Gen-

IEEE C37.101-1985, IEEE Guide for Gen-

erator Ground Protection (ANSI).

erator Ground Protection (ANSI).

[151 IEEE C37.102-1987, IEEE Guide for AC

[15]

IEEE C37.102-1987, IEEE Guide for AC

Generator Protection.

Generator Protection.

[l6] IEEE C37.010-1979(Re&.

[16] IEEE C37.010-1979 (Reaff. 1988), IEEE Ap-

1988), IEEE Ap-

plication Guide for AC High-Voltage Circuit

plication Guide for AC High-Voltage Circuit

Breakers Rated on

a Symmetrical Current

Basis

Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current

(ANSI).

Basis (ANSI).

[17] IEEE C37.012-1979(Red. 1988), IEEE Ap-

plication Guide for Capacitance Current

Switching for AC High-Voltage Circuit

Breakers Rated on

a Symmetrical Current

Basis (ANSI).

[17] IEEE C37.012-1979 (Reaff. 1988), IEEE Ap-

plication Guide for Capacitance Current

Switching for AC High-Voltage Circuit

Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current

Basis (ANSI).

[18] IEEE C57.12.00-1987, IEEE Standard Gen-

[181IEEE C57.12.00-1987, IEEE Standard Gen-

eral Requirements for Liquid-Immersed

eral Requirements for Liquid-Immersed

Distribution, Power and Regulating Trans-

Distribution, Power and Regulating Trans-

formers (ANSI).

formers (ANSI).

[19] IEEE C57.12.01-1989, IEEE Standard Gen-

[191 IEEE C57.12.01-1989, IEEE Standard Gen-

eral Requirements for Dry-Type Distribution

eral Requirements for Dry-Type Distribution

and Power Transformers Including Those

and Power Transformers Including Those

with Solid Cast and/or Resin-Encapsulated

with Solid Cast and/or Resin-Encapsulated

Windings.

Windings.

1986), IEEE

Standard Requirements for Instrument

Transformers (ANSI).

[203 IEEE C57.13-1978 (Reaff.

[20] IEEE C57.13-1978 (Reaff.

1986), IEEE

Standard Requirements for Instrument

Transformers (ANSI).

[21] IEEE C62.2-1987, IEEE Guide for the Appli-

[211IEEE C62.2-1987,IEEE Guide for the Appli-

cation

cation of Gapped Silicon-Carbide Surge Ar-

resters for Alternating Current Systems

of Gapped Silicon-Carbide Surge Ar-

resters for Alternating Current Systems

(ANSI).

(ANSI).

IEEE C62.41-1980, IEEE Guide for Surge

[221 IEEE C62.41-1980, IEEE Guide for Surge

[22]

Voltages in Low-Voltage AC Power Circuits

Voltages in Low-Voltage AC Power Circuits

(ANSI).

(ANSI).

[231 IEEE C62.45-1987, IEEE Guide on Surge

Testing for Equipment

[23]

IEEE C62.45-1987, IEEE Guide on Surge

Equipment

Connected

Connected

to

to

Low-

Low-

Testing for

Voltage AC Power Circuits (ANSI).

Voltage AC Power Circuits (ANSI).

IEEE C62.92-1989, IEEE Guide for the Ap-

[241 IEEE C62.92-1989, IEEE Guide for the Ap-

[24]

plication

plication of Neutral Grounding in Electrical

Utility Systems, Part II-Grounding

of Syn-

chronous Generator Systems (ANSI).

of Neutral Grounding in Electrical

Utility Systems, Part II-Grounding of Syn-

chronous Generator Systems (ANSI).

[25] IEEE Std 18-1980, IEEE Standard for Shunt

[251 IEEE Std

18-1980,IEEE Standard for Shunt

Power Capacitors (ANSI).

Power Capacitors (ANSI).

[261 IEEE Std 80-1986, IEEE Guide for Safety in

[26] IEEE Std 80-1986, IEEE Guide for Safety in

AC Substation Grounding (ANSI).

AC Substation Grounding (ANSI).

[27] IEEE Std 81-1983, IEEE Guide for Measur-

[271IEEE Std 81-1983, IEEE Guide for Measur-

ing Earth Resistivity, Ground Impedance,

ing Earth Resistivity, Ground Impedance,

and Earth

and Earth Surface Potentials of

Surface

Potentials of a

a Ground

Ground

System.

System.

[28] IEEE Std 100-1988, IEEE Dictionary of

[281 IEEE Std

100-1988, IEEE

Dictionary of

Electrical and Electronics Terms.

Electrical and Electronics Terms.

[29] IEEE Std 141-1986 (Red Book), IEEE Rec-

[291 IEEE Std 141-1986 (Red Book), IEEE Rec-

ommended Practice for Electric Power Distri-

ommended Practice for Electric Power Distri-

bution for Industrial Plants (ANSI).

bution for Industrial Plants (ANSI).

[301 IEEE Std 142-1982(Green Book), IEEE Rec-

[30] IEEE Std 142-1982 (Green Book), IEEE Rec-

ommended Practice for Grounding of Indus-

ommended Practice for Grounding of Indus-

trial and Commercial Power Systems (ANSI).

trial and Commercial Power Systems (ANSI).

~~

'IEEE publications are available from the Institute of

7IEEE publications are available from the Institute of

Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Service Center, 445

Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331,

Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Service Center, 445

Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331,

USA.

USA.

[31] IEEE Std 242-1986 (Buff Book), IEEE Rec-

[311 IEEE Std 242-1986 (Buff Book), IEEE Rec-

ommended Practice for Protection and Coor-

of Industrial and Commercial Power

dination

ommended Practice for Protection and Coor-

dination

of Industrial and Commercial Power

Systems (ANSI).

Systems (ANSI).

8 8

AND OPERATION OF WlNDFARM GENERATING STATIONS

AND OPERATION OF WINDFARM GENERATING STATIONS

IEm

IEEE

Std SM 1094-1991 1094-1991

[321 IEEE Std 367-1987, IEEE Recommended

Practice for Determining the Electric Power

Station Ground Potential Rise and Induced

[32] IEEE Std 367-1987, IEEE Recommended

Practice for Determining the Electric Power

Station Ground Potential Rise and Induced

Voltage from a Power Fault (ANSI).

Voltage from a Power Fault (ANSI).

[331 IEEE Std 399-1980 (Brown Book), IEEE

Recommended Practice for Industrial and

[33]

IEEE Std 399-1980 (Brown Book), IEEE

Recommended Practice for Industrial and

Commercial Power System Analysis (ANSI).

Commercial Power System Analysis (ANSI).

[441 Working Group on Fast Transfer of Mo-

tors, IAS-PSPC. “Source Transfer and Reclos-

ing Transients in Motors: A Preliminary

Working Group Report.”

and Commercial Power Systems Technical

and Commercial Power Systems Technical

Conference. pp.

[44] Working Group on Fast Transfer of Mo-

tors, IAS-PSPC. "Source Transfer and Reclos-

ing Transients in Motors: A Preliminary

IEEE 1982 Industrial

Working Group Report." IEEE 1982 Industrial

Conference.

pp. 43-50.

43-50.

1.5 Bibliography

1.5 Bibliography

1343 IEEE Std 493-1990 (Gold Book), IEEE Rec-

ommended Practice for the Design of Reliable

[34]

IEEE Std 493-1990 (Gold Book), IEEE Rec-

the Design of Reliable

ommended Practice for

Industrial and Commercial Power Systems.

Industrial and Commercial Power Systems.

[351 IEEE Std 1001-1988, IEEE Guide for Inter-

[35]

IEEE Std 1001-1988, IEEE Guide for Inter-

facing

cilities

facing Dispersed Storage and Generation

cilities with Electric Utility Systems (ANSI).

Dispersed Storage and Generation Fa-

with Electric Utility Systems (ANSI).

Fa-

[361 IEEE Std 1021-1988, IEEE Recommended

Practice for Utility Interconnection of Small

[36]

IEEE Std 1021-1988, IEEE Recommended

Practice for Utility Interconnection of Small

Wind Energy Conversion Systems (ANSI).

Wind Energy Conversion Systems (ANSI).

ASME PTC42-1988, Wind Turbines.8

ASME PTC42-1988, Wind Turbines.

s

UL 347-1985, The Standard for High-Voltage

Industrial Control Eq~ipment.~

UL 347-1985, The Standard for High-Voltage

Industrial Control Equipment.

9

UL 493-1988, The Standard for Thermoplastic

Insulated Underground Feeder and Branch

UL 493-1988, The Standard for Thermoplastic

Insulated Underground Feeder and Branch

Circuit Cables.

Circuit Cables.

UL

UL 508-1989,

508-1989, The Standard for Industrial

The

Standard for

Industrial

Control Equipment.

Control Equipment.

[37]

M.

“Capacitive Excitation for Induction Genera-

AlEE Transactions. vol. 54, May 1935,

tors.” AIEE Transactions. vol. 54, May 1935,

pp.540-545. pp. 540-545.

tors."

"Capacitive Excitation for

[371

Bassett,

Bassett,

E.

E.

D.

D.

and

and

Potter,

Potter,

F.

F.

M.

Induction Genera-

UL 810-1981, The Standard for Capacitors.

UL 810-1981, The Standard for Capacitors.

UL

UL 891-1984,

891-1984, The Standard for Dead-Front

The Standard for Dead-Front

Switchboards.

Switchboards.

Electrical Transmission and Distribution

[38] Electrical Transmission and Distribution

[381

Reference Book. East Pittsburgh, PA: West-

Reference Book.

East Pittsburgh, PA: West-

inghouse Electric Corp., 1950.

inghouse Electric Corp.,

1950.

[391 Feero, W. E. and Gish, W. B.

“Overvoltages Caused by DSG Operation:

Synchronous and Induction Generators.”

IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. vol. 1,

IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. vol. 1,

January January 1986, 1986, pp. pp. 258-264. 258-264.

Synchronous and Induction Generators."

"Overvoltages Caused by DSG Operation:

[39]

Feero, W. E. and Gish, W. B.

Gish, W. B., Feero, W. E., and Gruel, S.

“Ferroresonance and Loading Relationships

IEEE Transactions on

[40] Gish,

E401

W.

B., Feero, W. E., and Gruel, S.

"Ferroresonance and Loading Relationships

for DSG Installations.’’

Power Delivery. vol. 2, July 1987, pp. 953-959.

Power Delivery.

vol. 2, July 1987, pp. 953-959.

for DSG Installations." IEEE Transactions on

[411 “Intertie Protection of Consumer-Owned

Sources of Generation, 3 MVA or Less.” IEEE

Power Engineering Society Special Publica-

tion

[41]

"Intertie Protection of Consumer-Owned

Sources of Generation, 3 MYA or Less." IEEE

Power Engineering Society Special Publica-

88 TH0224-6-PWR.

tion 88 TH0224-6-PWR.

Smith, D., Swanson, S., and Borst, J.

“Overvoltages with Remotely-Switched Cable-

Fed Grounded Wye-Wye Transformers.”

IEEE Transactions. vol. PAS-94, 1975,

IEEE Transactions. vol. PAS-94, 1975,

pp. pp. 1843-1853. 1843-1853.

Fed Grounded Wye-Wye Transformers."

"Overvoltages with Remotely-Switched Cable-

[42]

[421

Smith, D., Swanson, S., and Borst, J.

[431

[43] Wagner,

Wagner, C. F. “Self-Excitation of Induc-

Transactions. vol. 58,

C. F. "Self-Excitation of Induc-

tion Motors.” AIEE

tion Motors." AlEE Transactions. vol. 58,

February 1938, pp. 47-51.

February 1938, pp. 47-51.

UL

Substations.

UL

1062-1983,

1062-1983,

Substations.

The

The

Standard

Standard

for

for

Unit

Unit

UL

Voltage Power Cables.

UL

1072-1986, The Standard for Medium-

1072-1986,

The

Standard for

Medium-

Voltage Power Cables.

1558-1988, The Standard for Metal

UL 1558-1988, The Standard for Metal

UL

Enclosed, Low-Voltage Power Circuit Breaker

Enclosed, Low-Voltage Power Circuit Breaker

Switchgear .

Switchgear.

UL 1561-1986, The Standard for Dry-Type

UL

1561-1986, The Standard for Dry-Type

General Purpose and Power Transformers.

General Purpose and Power Transformers.

1.6 Definitions. Terms other than those de-

1.6 Definitions. Terms other than those de-

fined below have standard definitions

listed in IEEE Std 100-1988 [281 or AWEA

Standard 5.1-1985 [7].

Standard

listed in IEEE Std 100-1988 [28] or AWEA

fined below have standard definitions as

as

5.1-1985 [71.

islanding. islanding. Operation Operation of of non-utility non-utility electric electric

generation equipment, with or without a por-

generation equipment, with

or without a por-

tion of an electric utility system, isolated from

tion

of an electric utility system, isolated from

the remainder of the utility system.

the remainder of the utility system.

BASMEpublications are available from the American

8ASME publications are available from the American

Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New

York, NY 10017,USA.

’UL publications are available from Underwriters

Laboratories, Inc., 333 Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL

60062-2096, 60062-2096,USA. USA.

Laboratories, Inc., 333 Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL

Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New

York, NY 10017, USA.

9UL

publications are available from Underwriters

9 9

The Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing

IEEE

IEEE

std 1094-1991

Std 1094-1991

RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR THE EUCTRICAL DESIGN

IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR THE ELECTRICAL DESIGN

IEEE

micrositing. Of, or related to,the characteris-

micrositing. Of, or related to, the characteris-

tics of a

tics of a particular wind-turbine site, as con-

trasted to those characteristics that prevail

particular wind-turbine site, as con-

trasted to those characteristics that prevail

over the entire windfarrn.

over the entire windfarm.

self-excitation. A condition in which an in-

duction generator, operating in an isolated

power system, derives its excitation from

shunt capacitors or the natural capacitance of

the power lines. Applies only to induction

self·excitation. A condition in which an in-

duction

generator,

operating in an

isolated

power system, derives its excitation from

shunt capacitors or the natural capacitance of

the power lines. Applies only to induction

machines.

machines.

2. 2. Intraplant Intrapbt Electrical Electricalsystem System

Collection System Design. An electrical

2.1 Collection System Design. An electrical

2.1

system must be provided to collect the genera-

system must be provided to collect the genera-

tor outputs and transmit the aggregate net

tor outputs and transmit the aggregate net

electrical output to the electric utility intercon-

electrical output to the electric utility intercon-

nection point, described in Section

nection

point,

described in Section 3. This

3. This

system is referred to as the "collection sys-

system

is referred to as the “collection sys-

tem.” The collection system is also the source

of start-up/auxiliary power

generator or site electrical load.

Fig 1 shows a

typical windfarm interconnection with collec-

tem."

The collection system is also the source

to each individual

of start-up/auxiliary power to each individual

generator or site electrical load. Fig 1 shows a

typical windfarrn interconnection with collec-

tion system.

Disconnecting means should be provided for

each collection system element in accordance

with the requirements in ANSINFPA 70-1990

[51 (the National Electrical Code). In addition,

tion system.

Disconnecting means should be provided for

each

collection system element in accordance

with the requirements in ANSIINFPA 70-1990

[5] (the

National Electrical Code). In addition,

overload and short-circuit protection should be

overload and short-circuit protection should be

provided to protect conductors and equipment

provided to protect conductors and equipment

by mitigating the consequences of electrical

by mitigating the consequences of electrical

faults and to minimize the disruption to the

faults and to minimize the disruption to the

remaining system.

remaining system.

Voltage Levels. The collection system

2.1.1 Voltage Levels. The collection system

2.1.1

usually consists of distinct low-voltage and

usually consists of distinct low-voltage and

medium-voltage systems. The low-voltage

medium-voltage systems. The low-voltage

system connects one or more individual wind

system connects one or more individual wind

generators

low-voltage/medium-voltage

low-voltage/medium-voltage

step-up transformers. The medium-voltage

system connects the step-up transformer out-

generators

to

to

step-up transformers. The medium-voltage

system connects the step-up transformer out-

puts to the utility interconnection substation,

puts to the utility interconnection substation,

which may further step up the voltage to

transmission voltage level.

which may further step up the voltage to a

a

transmission voltage level.

The voltage levels of the collection system

The voltage levels of the collection system

should be chosen by an economic analysis

should be chosen by an economic analysis to

to

minimize the total cost of equipment and

minimize the total cost of equipment and

losses over the expected lifetime of the facility.

losses over the expected lifetime of the facility.

Voltage levels should normally be chosen

Voltage levels should normally be chosen

from those listed as "preferred" in ANSI

from those listed as “preferred” in ANSI

C84.1- 1989 [21. Equipment with the preferred

ratings will generally cost less and be more

C84.1-1989 [2].

Equipment with the preferred

ratings will generally cost less and be more

readily available than nonstandard equip-

readily available than nonstandard equip-

a nonstandard voltage may be

justified, however, if that voltage is supplied by

ment. Use of a nonstandard voltage may be

justified, however, if that voltage is supplied by

ment. Use of

the interfacing utility.

the interfacing utility.

When carrying power, the actual voltage

When carrying power, the actual voltage

level of the collection system will deviate from

the nominal voltage (see 2.5.1). The changing

voltage may affect the efficiency

turbine generators. The transformer ratios

and generator voltage ratings should be cho-

sen to maximize the total energy production of

the windfarm for the expected wind regime.

Conversely, equipment ratings should not be

exceeded under any expected wind conditions.

Conductors. Underground cable is typ-

level of the collection system will deviate from

the nominal voltage (see 2.5.1). The changing

of the wind-

voltage may affect the efficiency of the wind-

turbine generators. The transformer ratios

and generator voltage ratings should be cho-

sen to maximize the total energy production of

the windfarm for the expected wind regime.

Conversely,

equipment ratings should not be

exceeded under any expected wind conditions.

2.1.2 2.1.2

Conductors. Underground cable is typ-

ically used for the low-voltage collection sys-

tem. Medium-voltage systems typically are

a

ically

tem.

used for the low-voltage collection sys-

Medium-voltage systems typically are a

combination of underground and overhead

combination of underground and overhead

conductors. When overhead conductors are

conductors. When overhead conductors are

used, special consideration should be given to

used, special consideration should be given to

safe working distances for cranes and other

equipment.

Underground cable systems can be either

direct-buried, installed in conduit, or in-

stalled

safe working

equipment.

distances for cranes and other

Underground cable systems can be either

direct-buried, installed in conduit, or in-

stalled

concentric-neutral cable

in

in

concrete-encased duct banks.

concrete-encased

duct banks.

A

A

concentric-neutral cable or dedicated-neutral

return cable should be installed with each col-

or dedicated-neutral

a fault return path

return cable should be installed with each col-

system feedflr cable. This neutral-re-

lector

lector system feeder cable. This neutral-re-

turn conductor(s) provides

and can assist in alleviating certain ferrores-

onance conditions (see

turn conductor(s) provides a fault return path

and can assist in alleviating certain ferrores-

onance conditions (see 2.6.2).

2.6.2).

PowerFlow and Equipment Loading

2.2 Power Flow and Equipment Loading

2.2

Power Flow.When the turbines are op-

erational, real power will flow from the gen-

erators to the utility when the electrical output

2.2.1 2.2.1

Power Flow. When the turbines are op-

erational, real power will flow from the gen-

erators to the utility when the electrical output

exceeds the turbine and site service loads.

exceeds the turbine and site service loads.

When turbines are not operating, or are in

When

turbines are not operating, or are in

start-up mode, utility power will be used for

start-up mode, utility power will be used for

electronics, motors, transformer losses, and

electronics, motors,

transformer losses, and

site support. Some types of turbines "motor" to

site support. Some types of turbines “motor” to

start, i.e., they draw power from the collection

system to accelerate the turbine to operating

start, i.e., they draw power from the collection

system to accelerate the turbine to operating

speed. This can cause an inrush of power from

speed. This can cause an inrush of power from

the utility or from other operating turbines.

Other types of wind turbines are driven

to op-

the utility or from other operating turbines.

Other types of wind turbines are driven to op-

erating speed by the wind. Reactive power flow

erating speed by the wind. Reactive power flow

will be determined by the type of generator

will be

determined by the type of generator

(synchronous or induction), any capacitors in

(synchronous or induction), any capacitors in

the system, and the excitation level of syn-

the system, and the excitation level of syn-

chronous generators. Generally, most wind

chronous generators. Generally, most wind

turbines use induction generators with a mod-

turbines use induction generators with

erate quantity of local capacitance. The var

demand of an induction generator changes

a mod-

erate quantity of local capacitance. The var

demand of an induction generator changes

with its power output, whereas the var supply of

with its power output, whereas the var supply of

10 10

AND OPERATION OF WINDFARM GENERATING STATIONS

AND OPERATION OF WINDFARM GENERATING STATIONS

IEEE

IEEE

std 1094-1991

Std 1094-1991

umTy UTILITY SYSTEM SYSTEM

STEP-UP SUBSTATION

SUBSTATION

HIGH-VOLTAGE SECTION

SECTION

SEE 3.3.8

SEE

HIGH-VOLTAGE

STEP-UP

3.3.8

FOR PROTECTION DETAILS

FOR PROTECTION DETAILS

STEP-UP SUBSTATION

STEP-UP

MEDIUM-VOLTAGE SECTION

MEDIUM-VOLTAGE

SEE 3.3.8

SEE

SECTION

SUBSTATION

3.3.8

FOR PROTECTION

FOR PROTECTION DETAILS

DETAILS

uwTy TRANSMISSION LINE

UTILITY TRANSMISSION LINE

T

I

/

HIGH-VOLTAGE BREAKER

HIGH-VOLTAGE

BREAKER

POWER- POWER-

FACTOR

FACTOR

CORRECTION

CORRECTION

P.F.C.

MAIN STEP-UP

MAIN STEP-UP

TRANSFORM ER

TRANSFORMER

BREAKER

MEDIUM-VOLTAGE

MEDIUM-VOLTAGE BREAKER

FEEDER BREAKERS

MED1UM-VOLTAGE MEDIUM-VOLTAGE

OVERHEAD COLLECTION

OVERHEAD COLLECTION

LINE

LINE

MEDIUM-VOLTAGE

MEDIUM-VOLTAGE

UNDERGROUND CABLE

UNDERGROUND CABLE

PADMOUNTED

PADMOUNTED

SWITCHGEAR/

SWITCHGEAR/

STEP-UP

STEP-UP

TRANSFORMER

TRANSFORMER

LOW-VOLTAGE

LOW-VOLTAGE

COLLECTION

COLLECTON

SYSTEM

SYSTEM

L. V.

L.V.

UNDERGROUND CABLE

UNDERGROUND CABLE

OTHER COLLECTION LINES

OTHER COLLECTION LINES

3-POLE GANG-OPERATED SWITCH

3-POLE GANG-OPERATED SWITCH

i

T

FUSES

FUSES

GANG

PER.

OPER.

M. V.

M.V.

U.G.

U.G.

CABLE

CABLE

OTHER PADMOUNT TRANSFORMERS

OTHER PADMOUNT TRANSFORMERS

PADMOUNT TRANSFORMER

PADMOUNT TRANSFORMER

-+-, L.V.

L. V.

I

)

)

MAIN L.V.

MAIN L. V. BREAKER

BREAKER

-,--

FROM

OTHER

OTHER

TURBINES -,--

TURBINES

_,--

FROM

FEEDER BREAKER

FEEDER BREAKER

-

-n

r

--LL--

-,--

LOW-VOLTAGE U.G. CABLE

LOW-VOLTAGE U.G. CABLE

WIND TURBINE

WIND TURBINE

CONTROL

CONTROL

:> )

61

~C

~

&]F$Rt:

POWER

FACTOR

CORRECTION

CORRECTION

6GENERATOR

GENERATOR

WIND TURBINE

WIND TURBINE

Fig 1

Typical Single-LineDiagram

Figl

Typical Single-Line Diagram

11 11

The Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing

IEEE

IEEE

std 1094-1991

Std 1094-1991

IEEE

IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR THE ELECTRICAL DESIGN

RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR THE ELECTRICAL DESIGN

capacitor is constant, assuming constant

voltage. Their combination may result in re-

a a

capacitor is constant, assuming constant

voltage. Their combination may result in re-

active power (var) flow from the utility

windfarm at high generator output levels and

flow from the windfarm

to the utility during

active power (var) flow from

the utility to the

to the

windfarm at high generator output levels and

flow from the windfarm to the utility during

periods of low power output. Capacitors are

often switched off and on with various

periods of low power output. Capacitors are

often switched off and on with various

schemes (see 2.5.4).

schemes (see 2.5.4).

Equipment Loading Considerations.

Several important factors should be consid-

ered in the specification of equipment loading

capability. First, the maximum simultaneous

output of all wind turbines should be estimated

2.2.2 2.2.2

Equipment Loading Considerations.

Several important factors should be consid-

ered in the specification of equipment loading

capability.

First, the maximum simultaneous

output of all wind turbines should be estimated

from

from the wind-turbine ratings

put, if higher) to provide a basis for determin-

the wind-turbine ratings (or actual out-

(or actual out-

put, if higher) to provide a basis for determin-

ing electrical equipment loading. Secondly,

ing electrical equipment loading. Secondly,

ambient temperatures and prevailing winds

should be taken into consideration for the

ambient temperatures and prevailing winds

should be taken into consideration for the

loading, placement, and orientation of equip-

ment. This may allow increased loading due

to wind cooling of transformers, generators,

and overhead conductors. Likewise, de-rating

to high ambient temperature and solar ra-

due

loading, placement, and orientation of equip-

ment. This may allow increased loading due

to wind cooling of transformers, generators,

and overhead conductors. Likewise, de-rating

due to high ambient temperature and solar ra-

diation may be required. Transformers

should be oriented to allow prevailing winds to

pass freely through the cooling radiators.

Cooling fans should be directed

to

diation may be required. Transformers

should be oriented to allow prevailing winds to

pass freely through the cooling radiators.

Cooling fans should be directed so as not to

so as not

compete

compete with prevailing wind patterns. Pro-

costs and loss economics should

with prevailing wind patterns. Pro-

ject capital

ject capital costs and loss economics should

also be considered in the loading and selection

of equipment. For recommended practices for

system design and analysis, see IEEE Std 141-

also be considered in the loading and selection

of

equipment.

For recommended practices for

system design and analysis, see IEEE Std 141-

1986 [29],

1986 [291, IEEE Std 399-1980 [331, and

IEEE Std 399-1980 [33], and

ANSUNFPA 70-1990

ANSIINFPA 70-1990 [5].

[51.

2.3 System Protection. The protection of the

2.3 System Protection. The protection of the

intraplant power collection system and the

intraplant power collection system and the

wind-turbine generator connection is similar

to those of utility and in-

in protection concepts

wind-turbine generator connection is similar

in

protection concepts to those of utility and in-

dustrial systems involving the same voltages.

dustrial systems involving the same voltages.

The IEEE color book series L29-31, 33-341, the

The IEEE color book series [29-31, 33-34], the

National Electrical Safety Code (ANSI C2-1990

National Electrical Safety Code (ANSI C2-1990

[1]), ANSIINFPA 70-1990 [5],

1111, ANSI/NFPA 70-1990

[51, and the IEEE

and the IEEE

Protection Guides [9-153 can be applied in most

cases. However, the windfarm application of

Protection Guides [9-15] can be applied in most

cases. However,

the windfarm application of

these documents does require some special

these documents does require some special

1 shows typical protection

for the windfarm collection lines and

consideration. Fig

consideration.

transformers.

Fig 1 shows typical protection

for the windfarm collection lines and

transformers.

2.3.1 2.3.1

Fault Current Flow. Sources of fault

Fault Current Flow. Sources of fault

current include both the utility system and the

current include both the utility system and the

wind-turbine generators themselves. In most

wind-turbine generators themselves. In most

cases, the utility network will supply the ma-

jority of the fault current. This is particularly

jority of the fault current. This is particularly

cases, the utility network will supply the ma-

true in the case of induction generators. Even

true in the case of induction generators. Even

when equipped with power-factor correction

capacitors, the fault contribution from induc-

tion generators will be moderate in magnitude

and short in duration. Fault current contribu-

when equipped with power-factor correction

capacitors,

the fault contribution from induc-

tion generators will be moderate in magnitude

and short in duration. Fault current contribu-

tion will be similar to motor contribution val-

tion will be similar to motor contribution val-

ues used in standard short-circuit

calculations. Most induction generators op-

erate ungrounded and, as a result, have no

zero-sequence contribution to the fault current.

Synchronous generators will normally be

ues used in standard short-circuit

calculations. Most induction generators op-

erate ungrounded and, as a result, have no

zero-sequence contribution to the fault current.

Synchronous generators will normally be

wye-connected and, if grounded, are capable

of supplying positive, negative, and zero-se-

wye-connected

and, if grounded, are capable

of supplying positive, negative, and zero-se-

currents. Like any other synchronous

quence currents. Like any other synchronous

quence

generator, they will be able

fault currents based on the particular charac-

teristics of the generator and the excitation

system. Recommended techniques for fault

current analysis will be found in IEEE Std

generator,

they will be able to maintain these

to maintain these

fault currents based on the particular charac-

teristics of the generator and the excitation

system. Recommended techniques for fault

current analysis will be found in IEEE Std

399-1980 [33].

399-1980[331.

2.3.2 2.3.2

Fault Interruption and Momentary

Fault Interruption and Momentary

Ratings. A system fault study should be per-

formed early in the project. All electrical

Ratings. A system fault study should be per-

formed

early in the project. All electrical

equipment should be rated to withstand and, if

to withstand and, if

equipment should be rated

required, interrupt calculated system fault

required, interrupt calculated system fault

currents. Applicable guides and standards are

currents. Applicable guides and standards are

IEEE C37.010-1979 (Reaff. 1988) [16], IEEE Std

IEEE C37.010-1979 (Re&. 1988) [l61, IEEE Std

141-1986[29],and IEEE Std 242-1986 [31].

141-1986 [29], and IEEE Std 242-1986 [31].

Protective Device Coordination.A

protective device coordination study should be

performed on the entire intraplant electrical

system, including the utility interface. Relay

settings should be coordinated with the local

2.3.3

2.3.3

Protective Device Coordination. A

study should be

protective device coordination

performed on

system,

the entire intraplant electrical

including the utility interface. Relay

settings should be coordinated with the local

utility for proper operation. Settings must be

utility for proper operation. Settings mcst be

to speci-

calculated and relays set and tested

fied values. Relays should be retested and

their calibration and tripping verified on a

to three-year schedule. The utility may

two-

have other requirements for relays at the in-

terconnection station.

Phase Sequence and Single Phasing.

calculated and relays set and tested to speci-

fied values.

Relays should be retested and

their calibration and tripping verified on a

two- to

three-year schedule. The utility may

have other requirements for relays at the in-

terconnection station.

2.3.4 2.3.4

Phase Sequence and Single Phasing.

Particular care should be taken to connect and

check the phase sequence at each wind turbine.

Particular care should be taken to connect and

check the phase sequence at each wind turbine.

Some wind turbines may sustain damage if

the phase sequence is incorrect.

For some ap-

Some

wind turbines may sustain damage if

the phase sequence is incorrect. For some ap-

plications a phase-sequence relay may be

plications a phase-sequence relay may be

advisable.

advisable.

Single phasing can result in damage to

Single phasing can

result in damage to

three-phase generators. Each wind turbine

should employ a protective device capable of

detecting loss of one phase. It may be neces-

to use a detection scheme that monitors

three-phase generators. Each wind turbine

should employ a protective device capable of

detecting loss

of one phase. It may be neces-

sary to use a detection scheme that monitors

sary

current or both voltage and current. Single-

current or both voltage and current. Single-

pole switching should be avoided

to minimize

pole switching should be avoided to minimize

12

AND AND OPERATION OPERATION OF OF WINDFARM WINDFARM GENERATING GENERATING STATIONS STATIONS

IEm

IEEE

std 1094-1991

St.d 1094-1991

the possibility of single-phase operation of a

the possibility of single-phase operation of a

three-phase system.

three-phase system.

Wind Turbine Shutdown. Shutdown is

223.5 Wind Turbine Shutdown. Shutdown is

2.8.5

typically required for maintenance, over-

typically required for maintenance, over-

speed, mechanical failure, and electrical fault

speed, mechanical failure,

and electrical fault

conditions. Wind turbines should be able to

conditions. Wind turbines should be able

to

shut down safely without utility power. It is

shut down safely without utility power. It is

also recommended that the site communica-

also recommended

that the site communica-

tion system not be required for safe shutdown.

tion system not be required for safe shutdown.

2.3.6 2.8.6

Reclosing Reclosing and and Torque Torque Transients. Transients. As As

result of very short duration power outages or

a result of very short duration power outages or

a

islanding, very high mechanical torque tran-

islanding, very high mechanical torque tran-

sients can be experienced by the rotating

sients can be experienced by the rotating

equipment. When an outage occurs and the

equipment. When an outage occurs and the

electrical interconnection is opened, the

electrical interconnection

is opened, the

rotating equipment accelerates and becomes

rotating equipment accelerates and becomes

out-of-phase with the utility system. Upon re-

out-of-phase with

the utility system. Upon re-

connection, the electrical transients can be

connection,

the electrical transients can be

very high, up to twice the locked rotor current,

to twice the locked rotor current,

very high, up

and the mechanical drive train torques can

and the mechanical drive train torques can

reach up to 20 times rated values. For more in-

reach up

to 20 times rated values. For more in-

formation, see [44]. This transient can be

formation, see

[441. This transient can be

caused by site collection-line reclosing or by

caused by site collection-line reclosing or by

high-speed reclosing on the utility system.

high-speed reclosing on the utility system.

and

2.4 Insulation, Grounding, and

2.4

Insulation,

Grounding,

Pmtection

Protection

Surge

Surge

Insulation Ratings. Standard insula-

2.4.1 Insulation Ratings. Standard insula-

2.4.1

tion guidelines may be applied in most cases

the Electrical Transmission and Distri-

Transmission and Distri-

bution

utility

tion guidelines

may be applied in most cases

Book

Book

[38]).

[381). Local

Local utility

(see the Electrical

(see

bution

Reference

Reference

practice may also be used as a guide. Special

practice may also be used as

a guide. Special

considerations may, however, need

considerations may, however,

need to be given

to be given

overhead lines, outdoor substations, and

to overhead lines, outdoor substations, and

to

metal-clad switchgear due to blowing dust,

metal-clad switchgear due

to blowing dust,

sand, salt spray, agricultural chemicals, and

sand, salt spray, agricultural chemicals, and

other contamination in some windfarm

other contamination in some windfarm

areas.

areas.

2.4.2

2.4.2

Grounding. Generally, effectively

Grounding. Generally, effectively

grounded collection systems are preferred for

grounded collection systems are preferred for

their simplicity and freedom from transient

their simplicity and freedom from transient

overvoltage and simultaneous fault problems.

overvoltage and simultaneous fault problems.

Effectively grounded systems are usually ob-

Effectively grounded systems are usually ob-

tained by a wye-connected, low-voltage wind-

tained by

a wye-connected, low-voltage wind-

ing on the interface station transformer. The

ing on the interface station transformer. The

high-voltage windings of that transformer

high-voltage windings of that transformer

may be wye or delta, depending upon the volt-

may be wye

or delta, depending upon the volt-

age level and utility requirements. Wye-wye

age level and utility requirements. Wye-wye

connected transformers may require

tertiary winding

connected

transformers may require a delta

a delta

to provide a path for zero-se-

tertiary winding to provide a path for zero-se-

and triplen harmonic current flow.

quence and triplen harmonic current flow.

quence

If the collection system is tied directly to

If the collection system is tied directly

to

utility lines without an intervening trans-

utility lines without an intervening trans-

former, the collection system grounding must

former, the collection system grounding must

be coordinated with the utility. The utility

be coordinated with the utility. The utility

should be consulted

as to the types of trans-

should be consulted as to the types of trans-

to be connected to such a

formers permitted

system. Recommended practice for grounding

formers permitted to be connected to such a

system. Recommended practice for

grounding

142-1982[301. For addi-

is given in IEEE Std

tional information on system neutral ground-

ing, refer to IEEE C62.92-1989[241.

Regardless of the method of system ground-

ing, it is recommended that the entire wind-

a continuous metallic

farm installation have

is given in IEEE Std 142-1982 [30]. For addi-

tional information on system

neutral ground-

ing, refer to IEEE C62.92-1989 [24].

Regardless of the method of system ground-

ing,

it is recommended that the entire wind-

farm installation have a continuous metallic

ground system connecting all equipment. See

2 for a typical arrangement. This should

Fig

ground system connecting all equipment. See

Fig 2 for a typical

include, but not

include,

arrangement. This should

be limited to, the substation,

but not be limited to, the substation,

transformers, towers, wind turbine, genera-

tors, and electronic equipment. This system

transformers, towers, wind turbine, genera-

tors, and electronic equipment. This system

will consist of ground conductors, rods, mats,

and connectors. This system will serve

will consist of ground conductors, rods, mats,

and connectors. This system will serve to

to

(1) Minimize shock hazards to personnel

Establish

Minimize shock hazards to personnel

a preferred path of return cur-

rent for fault currents

to prevent dam-

age to on-site electrical systems

a multigrounded neutral to as-

sist in ferroresonance suppression in

Provide

(2) Establish a preferred path of return cur-

rent for fault currents to prevent dam-

age to on-site electrical systems

(3)

Provide a

multigrounded neutral to as-

sist in ferroresonance suppression in

the site collection system

the site collection system

(4)

Improve reliability and consistency in

sensing faults and operation

rent relays

Improve protection from lightning

Improve

reliability and consistency in

of overcur-

sensing faults and operation of overcur-

rent relays

(5) Improve protection from lightning

Surge Protection. Surge protection for

lightning and, particularly, switching surges

2.4.3 Surge Protection. Surge protection for

lightning and, particularly, switching surges

2.4.3

should be part of the system. Guidelines for

should be part of the system. Guidelines for

surge protection of medium-voltage collection

surge protection of medium-voltage collection

systems can be found in IEEE C62.2-1987 [21].

systems

Information on typical surge environments

for low-voltage systems is provided in IEEE

C62.41-1980[22]and IEEE C62.45-1987[231.

can be found in IEEE C62.2-1987[211.

Information on typical surge environments

for low-voltage systems is provided in IEEE

C62.41-1980 [22] and IEEE C62.45-1987 [23].

2.5 25Voltage Voltage Control Contam1andReactive and Reactive Power PowerSupply Supply

2.5.1 Voltage Considerations. Careful man-

Considerations. Careful man-

2.5.1 Voltage

agement of the system voltage is very impor-

agement of the system voltage is very impor-

tant for several reasons.

tant for several reasons.

an effect on the

Changes in voltage have

slip, torque,and power output character-

(1) Changes in voltage have an effect on the

slip, torque,and power output character-

istics of an induction generator.

istics of an induction generator.

Induction generator installations may

reduce the line voltage when loaded be-

cause of their reactive power (var)

demand.

On-site electronic equipment may be

sensitive

(2) Induction generator installations may

reduce the line voltage when loaded be-

cause of their reactive power (var)

demand.

(3) On-site electronic equipment may be

sensitive to variations in voltage.

to variations in voltage.

13

The Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing

lEEE

IEEE

std 1094-1991

Std 1094-1991

IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR THE ELECTRICAL DESIGN

IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR THE ELECTRICAL DESIGN

I

·

·

I

·

I

UNDERGROUND

""'r(;4f/~-

'.

(

I

I:

I

I:

I

II

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:

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I

: I

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: :~C110N

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Willi

WIRE;

GROUND

I

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'-

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'-

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"l ~/

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(COMMUNICATION

g~~~D~~SHIElD

~fJ'

'~OUNDROD

3/"-' 10'(TYP)

<

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--- LOW-VOLTAGE LOWYOLTACE FEEDER FEEDER

TIE COMMON NEU"TRAl TO "TRANSFORMER Xo

AND GROUND GRID

~

GROUND ROD

3/"- x 10'(TYP)

COLLEC110N UNE

Willi

COM!.ION NEU"TRAl

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_----GROUND GROUND HlRE WIRE

HIGH-VOLTAGE

COMMUNICATION

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COMMUNICAllON CABLE

COMMUNICATION

ISOLATION

MlH SHIELD

Willi

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Fig2

Grounding Arrangement

Fig 2

GroundingArrangement

14 14

AND OPERATION OF WINDFARM GENERATING STATIONS

AND OPERATION OF WINDFARM GENERATING STATIONS

IEEE

IEEE

std 1094-1991

Std 1094-1991

(4) Power-factor correction capacitors tend

(4) Power-factor correction capacitors tend

to to raise raise the the voltage. voltage.

(5) Low voltage may increase collection

system loading and losses because of

higher current levels.

(5) Low

voltage may increase collection

system loading and losses because of

higher current levels.

Reactive Power Supply. Induction gen-

erators, like induction motors, demand reac-

tive power (var) when operating. If this

2.5.2 Reactive Power Supply. Induction gen-

2.5.2

erators, like induction motors, demand reac-

tive power (var) when operating. If this

demand is not supplied by a reactive power

demand is not supplied by a reactive power

source at the windfarm, the reactive power will

source at the windfarm, the reactive power will

be drawn from the utility. The utility and

be drawn from the utility. The utility and

to an agree-

windfarm operator must come

to who will supply the reactive power

needs of the windfarm. Technical and eco-

nomic factors, described in the succeeding

sections, need to be considered in reaching

windfarm operator must come to an agree-

ment as to who will supply the reactive power

ment as

needs of the windfarm. Technical and eco-

nomic

factors, described in the succeeding

sections, need to be considered in reaching

this agreement.

Synchronous generators or power condition-

ers may be designed

or adjusted to require no

reactive power

power. However, even with these types of

equipment, the transformers and lines of the

collection system will demand reactive power

while carrying the windfarm output.

The most common method of supplying re-

this agreement.

Synchronous generators or power condition-

ers may be designed or adjusted to require no

or even to produce reactive

reactive power or even to produce reactive

power. However, even with these types of

equipment, the transformers and lines of the

collection system will demand reactive power

while

carrying the windfarm output.

The most common method of supplying re-

active power is the use of shunt capacitors,

either singly or in banks

of multiple units.

Capacitors supply the reactive demand by

drawing a current that counteracts the out-of-

active power

is the use of shunt capacitors,

either singly or in banks of multiple units.

Capacitors supply the reactive demand by

drawing a current that counteracts the out-of-

phase component of current required by induc-

phase component of current required by induc-

tion motors or generators.

tion motors or generators.

Reactive power compensation applied in a

windfarm generating station has several ef-

fects, one or more of which may be the reason

for the application:

Reactive power

compensation applied in a

windfarm generating station has several ef-

fects, one or more of which

for the application:

may be the reason

(1) Increases voltage level

(1) Increases voltage level

(2)

(2) Improves voltage regulation if the ca-

Improves voltage regulation if the ca-

pacitors are properly switched

pacitors are properly switched

(3) Reduces electrical losses in the collec-

tion system due to a reduction in current

(3)

Reduces electrical losses in the collec-

tion system due to a reduction in current

(4) Decreases loading on utility generation

(4) Decreases loading on utility generation

and circuits

and circuits

(5) Reduces investment in windfarm fa-

cilities per kilowatt of load supplied

(5) Reduces investment

in

windfarm fa-

cilities per kilowatt of load supplied

2.5.3 Power-FactorCorrection Economics.

Since many electric utility companies include

low power-factor penalties or power-factor in-

2.5.3

Power-Factor Correction Economics.

Since many electric utility companies include

low power-factor penalties or power-factor in-

centives in their rate schedules, it may be eco-

nomical for windfarm generating stations

install equipment for power-factor improve-

centives

in their rate schedules, it may be eco-

windfarm generating stations to

to

nomical for

install equipment for power-factor improve-

ment.

men t.

An economic study should be made to

An economic study should be made to

determine the optimum amount of reactive

determine the optimum amount of reactive

or “var compensation.”

power compensation

The best point at which to connect capacitors to

the collection system of the windfarm depends

upon economic and technical considerations.

Relatively small capacitor units can be

connected at the individual wind turbines, or

the total capacitive requirement can be

power compensation or "var compensation."

The best point at which to connect capacitors to

the collection system of the windfarm depends

upon economic and technical considerations.

Relatively small capacitor units can be

connected

at the individual wind turbines, or

the total capacitive requirement can be

grouped at one or several points throughout the

grouped at one or several points throughout the

windfarm. Each windfarm must be individu-

windfarm. Each windfarm must be individu-

ally evaluated to determine the cost versus the

ally evaluated to determine the cost versus the

benefits of power-factor correction capacitors.

benefits

2.5.4

2.5.4

of power-factor correction capacitors.

Capacitors Applied to Induction Gen-

Capacitors Applied

to Induction Gen-

erators. In windfarm applications that

erators. In windfarm applications that

include induction generators, the use of ca-

pacitors warrants special consideration. The

include induction generators, the use of ca-

pacitors warrants special consideration. The

amount of capacitance connected must be lim-

amount of capacitance connected must be lim-

to values that do not cause excessive volt-

ited

ited to values that do not cause excessive volt-

age at the generator due to self-excitation when

age at the generator due

to self-excitation when

the generator/capacitor combination is dis-

the generator/capacitor combination is dis-

connected from the utility source. Capacitance

connected from

the utility source. Capacitance

exceeding this value should be switched by a

exceeding this value should be switched by a

suitable control algorithm. Failure

to observe

suitable control algorithm. Failure to observe

this precaution could lead to generator and

this precaution could lead to generator and

equipment damage.

equipment damage.

Frequently, shunt capacitors are connected

Frequently, shunt capacitors are connected

directly in parallel with induction generators

by means of a generator switching device.

directly in

parallel with induction generators

by means of a generator switching device.

Overvoltage may result, due to self-excitation,

Overvoltage

may result, due to self-excitation,

when the generator and capacitor combination

is islanded or disconnected from the utility

when

the generator and capacitor combination

is islanded or disconnected from the utility

source, since wind and inertia of the turbine

source, since wind and inertia of the turbine

will keep the turbine rotating and the genera-

tor operating.

will keep the turbine rotating and the genera-

tor operating.

When the generator can be rapidly de-ener-

When the generator can be rapidly de-ener-

gized and re-energized, the possibility of high

transient torques should be considered. Ca-

gized

and re-energized, the possibility of high

transient torques should be considered. Ca-

pacitors switched with the generator switching

pacitors switched with the generator switching

device prolong the duration of residual voltage

device prolong the duration of residual voltage

in the generator as it comes

to rest after shut-

in the generator as it comes to rest after shut-

down. The generator manufacturer should be

down. The generator manufacturer should be

consulted regarding the impact of utilizing

consulted regarding the impact of utilizing

capacitors in parallel with the generator.

Capacitor Capacitor Characteristics. Characteristics.Capacitor Capacitor

capacitors in parallel with the generator.

2.5.5 2.5.5

characteristics should be carefully checked for

characteristics should be carefully checked for

voltage and temperature ratings. Current-

limiting reactors may be required for groups

voltage and temperature ratings. Current-

limiting reactors may be required for groups

of switched capacitors to minimize transients

of switched capacitors to minimize transients

during switching. Most capacitors are manu-

factured with a tolerance of -O%, +15% of rated

capacitance and usually provide 5-10% more

during switching. Most capacitors are manu-

factured with a tolerance of -0%, +15% of rated

capacitance and usually provide 5-10% more

capacitance than specified. Refer to IEEE Std

capacitance than specified. Refer

to IEEE Std

18-1980[251.

18-1980 [25].

15

The Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing

IEEE mm

Std s&d1094-1991 1094-1991

IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR THE ELECTRICAL DESIGN

IEEE

RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR THE ELEXTRICAL DESIGN

2.5.6 2.5.6

Drainage of Stored Charge. When ca-

Drainage of Stored Charge. When ca-

pacitors are disconnected from the windfarm

pacitors are disconnected from the windfarm

collection system, they are typically in

charged state. Under this condition, consider-

collection system, they are typically in a

a

charged state. Under this condition, consider-

able energy is stored in the capacitors, and

able energy is stored in the capacitors, and

there is

there is a voltage present between the termi-

nals.

If the capacitors were left in this charged

a voltage present between the termi-

nals. If the capacitors were lefi in this charged

state, a person servicing the equipment might

state, a person servicing the equipment might

a dangerous shock or the equipment

might be damaged by an accidental short cir-

receive

receive a dangerous shock or the equipment

might be damaged by an accidental short cir-

cuit.

cuit. As a result, all capacitors should be pro-

As a result, all capacitors should be pro-

vided with a means of draining the stored

vided with

a means of draining the stored

charge. Typically, these means are provided

charge. Typically, these means are provided

by the capacitor manufacturer. However,

proper shorting and grounding techniques

should still be followed.

Capacitor Banks.

Shunt capacitor bank design requirements

by the capacitor manufacturer. However,

proper shorting and grounding techniques

should still be followed.

2.5.7

2.5.7 Protection of Shunt Capacitor Banks.

Protection of Shunt

Shunt capacitor bank design requirements

necessitate an increase in minimum bank

necessitate an increase in minimum bank

size with system voltage. As the system volt-

size with system voltage. As the system volt-

age increases, the capacitor bank investment

and thus the risk of costly damage increases.

Capacitors of larger kvar ratings reduce the

investment, but they may also reduce the

choice of different capacitor combinations.

age increases,

the capacitor bank investment

and thus the risk of costly damage increases.

Capacitors of larger kvar ratings reduce the

investment, but they may also reduce the

choice of different capacitor combinations.

Protection begins with the design of the capaci-

Protection begins with the design of the capaci-

tor bank.

tor bank.

Bank protection equipment must guard

Bank protection equipment must guard

against the following conditions:

against the following conditions:

excessive voltages and currents and the possi-

excessive voltages and currents and the possi-

ble associated failure of equipment such as

other capacitors, surge arresters, instrument

ble

associated failure of equipment such as

other capacitors, surge arresters, instrument

transformers, and fuses. These undesirable

transformers, and fuses. These undesirable

resonance effects are more likely to occur if

resonance effects are more likely

to occur if

the capacitor bank switching device has a long

the capacitor bank switching device has a long

arcing time and multiple restrike character-

arcing time and multiple restrike character-

istics. A switching device should be chosen

istics. A switching device should be chosen

that is rated for switching capacitors (see IEEE

that is rated for switching capacitors (see IEEE

C37.012-1979 {Heafl'. 1988} [17]).

C37.012-1979{Red. 1988) [171).

The capacitor bank, in combination with

The capacitor bank, in combination with

system inductances, may cause resonance

system inductances, may cause resonance

with harmonics produced elsewhere, such as at

with harmonics produced elsewhere, such as

at

remote loads. There is extensive and growing

remote loads. There is extensive and growing

use of thyristors in industry

to derive variable

use of thyristors in industry to derive variable

potentials from an ac source. Such phase-con-

potentials from an ac source. Such phase-con-

trolled

trolled thyristors generate harmonics, partic-

thyristors generate harmonics, partic-

ularly 3rd, 5th, 7th and 11th.

ularly 3rd, 5th, 7th and 11th.

Problems associated with resonance may

Problems associated with resonance may

usually be resolved by the application of the

usually be resolved by the application of the

proper capacitor switching device, the addition

proper capacitor switching device, the addition

of

of appropriately rated reactors

appropriately rated reactors (or reactors

(or reactors

and resistors in parallel) in series with

and resistors in parallel) in series with

the switched capacitor bank, or the relocation

the switched capacitor bank, or the relocation

or change in size of the switched capacitor

bank.

or change in size of the switched capacitor

bank.

Capacitor banks can also cause or aggravate

Capacitor banks can also cause or aggravate

ferroresonance conditions. This is discussed

ferroresonance conditions. This is discussed

in 2.6.

in 2.6.

(1)

(1) Overcurrents due to capacitor bank bus

Overcurrents due to capacitor bank bus

faults

faults

(2) System voltage surges

(2)

System voltage surges

(3)

(3) Overcurrent due

Overcurrent due to individual capacitor

to individual capacitor

unit failure

unit failure

(4) Continuous capacitor unit overvoltages

(5) Discharge current from parallel capaci-

(4) Continuous capacitor unit overvoltages

(5) Discharge current from parallel capaci-

torunits

tor units

(6) Inrush current due to switching

(6) Inrush current due to switching

In all applications, the windfarm designer

In all applications, the windfarm designer

should consult Article 460 of ANSIINFPA 70-

70-

should consult Article 460 of ANSVNFPA

[51 for guidance in sizing the protection

and interconnecting equipment associated

with capacitors. Guidance on the protection of

1990 1990

[5] for guidance in sizing the protection

and interconnecting equipment associated

with capacitors. Guidance on the protection of

capacitor banks is provided by IEEE C37.99-

capacitor banks is provided by IEEE C37.99-

1990 [13].

1990 [131. In addition, the manufacturer and

In addition, the manufacturer and

the interconnecting utility may be consulted

the interconnecting utility may be consulted

regarding capacitor protection practices.

regarding capacitor protection practices.

2.5.8 System Considerations. A shunt ca-

2.5.8

System Considerations. A shunt ca-

pacitor bank may form a resonant circuit with

pacitor bank may form a resonant circuit with

system inductive elements. The resonant fre-

system inductive elements. The resonant fre-

quency may be excited during the switching of

quency may be excited during the switching of

a remote capacitor bank, which may result in

a remote capacitor bank, which may result in

2.6

2.6 Self-Excitation and FelTOresonance

Self-Excitationand Ferroresonance

2.6.1 Self-Excitation. Self-excitation can oc-

oc-

2.6.1

Self-Excitation.Self-excitation can

cur if the windfarm or a portion of it loses its

cur if the windfarm or a portion of it loses its

connection to the utility. Unstable voltages

connection

to the utility. Unstable voltages

and frequencies can be developed during self-

and frequencies can be developed during self-

excitation. Due to

excitation. Due to the potential for equipment

the potential for equipment

damage, steps should be taken to prevent this

damage, steps should be taken to prevent this

occurrence.

occurrence.

One of the first indications of self-excitation

One of the first indications of self-excitation

or islanding within the system will be a volt-

or islanding within the system will be a volt-

and frequency deviation. This deviation

age and frequency deviation. This deviation

age

will usually appear as a rapid turbine accel-

will usually appear as a rapid turbine accel-

eration and increase in frequency. When

eration and increase in frequency. When

adding power-factor correction capacitors, a

adding power-factor correction capacitors,

a

careful study of self-excitation potential is

careful study of self-excitation potential is

recommended ([37], [43]). Switching of the ca-

recommended

(1371, 1431). Switching of the

ca-

pacitors may be required to eliminate self-

excitation.

pacitors may be required

excitation.

to eliminate self-

2.6.2 Ferroresonance. Ferroresonance is a

2.6.2

Ferroresonance. Ferroresonance is a

special type of electric resonance that can oc-

special type of electric resonance that can oc-

cur when a nonlinear inductive reactance is

cur when a nonlinear inductive reactance is

connected in series with or parallel to a

connected in series with

or parallel to a

capacitive reactance. The inductive reactance

capacitive reactance. The inductive reactance

is usually the magnetizing reactance of a sin-

is usually the magnetizing reactance of a sin-

16 16

AND AND OPERATION OPERATION OF OF WINDFARM WINDFARM GENERATING GENERATING STATIONS STATIONS

SOURCE SUBSTATION

 

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