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Curriculum/Syllabus Planning

Objectives At the end of this workshop session, the participants will be able to 1. Define curriculum 2. Differentiate among curriculum, syllabus and course 3. Understand curriculum development 4. Describe elements of curriculum 5. State different types of curriculum 6. Comprehend curriculum Development process 7. Describe importance of curriculum planning

Presented and prepared by Mr. Saleem Tariq Ghayyur: tariqghayyur@gmail.com Lecturer Department of Education, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan Introducing Curriculum The word curriculum has Latin origin. It is a runway, a course to which one runs to reach a goal. Old Concept of Curriculum A course to which one runs to reach a goal. Curriculum is a fixed programme of courses. Contemporary Concept of Curriculum Hilda Taba has defined Curriculum as a plan for learning. Kerr defines it as Planned experiences (Curricular and co-curricular) offered to the learner under the guidance of school. A body of prescribed educative experiences under school supervision. Tyler defines Curriculum means all these activities which are provided inside or out side school to the student in order to achieve predetermined goal Curriculum Development Curriculum Development can be defined as the systematic planning of what is taught and learned in schools as reflected in courses of study and school programs. Curriculum as Educational Program

Bhatia describes curriculum as an educational program that include the following:


1. Programme of Studies

2. Programme of Activities 3. Program of Guidance Understanding curriculum, syllabus and course As it is stated above that a curriculum is Planned experiences (Curricular and co-curricular) offered to the learner under the guidance of school. Whereas Syllabus includes a list of topics and subtopics related to a subject. Education imparted in a series of lessons or class meetings is called course. ELEMENT OF CURRICULUM There are four elements of curriculum. 1. objectives 2. content 3. method of teaching 4. evaluation 1. OBJECTIVES: Objectives are expected result before the completion of work There are two types of objectives. a. General objective b. Specific objective NEEDS OF OBJECTIVES: Children needs Society needs National needs Philosophical needs Cultural needs Religious needs Trend and issue in country

2. CONTENT: It plays and imported role in process of curriculum ROBERT ZAIS:

Content contains and values, culture, social needs, festivals, history and present needs Content is prepared according to objectives. 3. TEACHING METHODS: By changing contents and objective teaching method will also change Teaching method are planned according to content DIFFERENT TEACHING MEATHOD a. lecture method b. book reading c. discussion method d. experiment method e. demonstration method f. project method g. problem solving h. inductive method i. deductive method j. playing method 4. EVALUATION: It is a process by which we want to know to what extent the objectives have been achieved To what extent teaching method was successful and either content was related to the objective or not. TYPE OF EVALUATION 1. placement evaluation 2. formative evaluation 3. diagnostic evaluation 4. summative evaluation Curriculum evaluation: a continuous process for collecting information about all the elements and outcomes of the curriculum to help arrive at an understanding of the extent to which they have been achieved and subsequently take decisions to improve their efficacy. TYPES OF CURRICULUM 1. RECOMMENDED CURRICULUM 2. IDEAL CURRICULUM

3. ENTILEMENT CURRICULUM 4. INTENDED CURRICULUM 5. SUPPORTED CURRICULUM 6. IMPLIMENTED CURRICULUM 7. ACHIEVED CURRICULUM 1. RECOMMENDED CURRICULUM It is presented by experts 2. IDEAL CURRICULUM It is also presented and recommended by expert ideal curriculums also called recommended curriculum 3. ENTILEMENT CURRICULUM It is selected by society and according to the needs and interest of people of society. 4. INTENDED CURRICULUM IT IS PREPARED BY INSTITUATION FOR THE FULLFILLMENT OF CUURSE AND SYLLABUS. 5. SUPPORTED CURRICULUM It is the curriculum which is supported and supervises by human and material resource and it is thought by the availability of resources. 6. IMPLIMENTED CURRICULUM. It is also called real curriculum it is that curriculum which is implemented in the classroom in real situation. 7. ACHIVED CURRICULUM it is prepared by implemented curriculum and by opinion of teacher concern in this curriculum teacher gives his point of view that which portion in curriculum can be removed or added. SOURCES OF CURRICULUM DESIGN

Science as Source Society as Source Eternal and Devine Sources Knowledge as a Source The Learner as a Source

SCIENCE AS A SOURCE

The scientific method provides meaning for the curriculum design. Only those items that can be observed and quantified should be included. Problem-solving should have the prime position in the curriculum, i.e., stress thinking. Procedural knowledge or knowledge of process. The curriculum teaches rational processes for dealing with reality.

SOCIETY AS A SOURCE

Curriculum is an agent of society. Curriculum are designed to serve the broad social interests of society, as well as the local community. Support is shown for society as a curriculum source since the universe is becoming, rather than existing for our detached scientific viewing. Society shows where to modify the curriculum.

EXTERNAL SOURCES

Curriculum design should be intended to perpetuate society. It should pass on the significance of people's values and personal morality. Today these sources are reflected through the curriculum designer's values and personal morality.

Knowledge as a Source

One of the prime sources of curriculum. Disciplined knowledge has a particular structure and a particular method(s) used to extend its boundaries. Disciplined vs Undisciplined Knowledge
o o

Disciplined = unique Undisciplined = various (training)

The Learner as a Source


Curriculum is derived from what we know about the learner. We draw much from the psychological foundations. Based on cognitive research. Emphasizes "learning by doing".

Side Note

Even though decisions are essential, it appears that curricula are not the result of careful design deliberations. Overall curriculum designs receive little attention both in schools and corporations. Curriculum design is left to specialists in subject matter areas.

Curriculum Development Process


1. Philosophy of Education

2. Goals & Aims 3. General Instructional Objectives 4. Specific Instructional Objectives & Outcomes 5. Task Analysis & Content Selection 6. Learning Activities SELECTION OF SUBJECT MATTER Criteria: Relevance, importance, priority Scope: Amount, depth of coverage, concentration Sequence: Hierarchy & progression of complexity or difficulty

NEEDS OF THE LEARNER * * * * * Cognitive development Linguistic development Psycho-social development Moral/affective development Vocational focus

THE NEEDS OF SOCIETY Literacy Vocational skills Social order & morality Interpersonal skills Transmission of values & culture Creativity & innovation Curriculum Models

Are based on a body of theory about teaching & learning. Are targeted to needs & characteristics of a particular group of learners. Outline approaches, methods & procedures for implementation. The nature & structure of knowledge The needs of the society The needs of the learner

Tyler Model of Curriculum Design

Ralph W. Tyler has stated these following four points. 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? 2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? 3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? (Tyler 1949: 1)

When we reflect on these questions we are likely to arrive at the 4 major steps of curriculum development i.e. a. Selection of aims, goals and objectives; b. Selection of learning experiences and content; c. Organisation of learning experiences; d. Evaluation of the extent to which the objectives have been achieved. Model of Curriculum Development by Hilda Taba According to Hilda taba, curriculum model may include following 7 steps. Step 1: Diagnosis of need Step 2: Formulation of objectives Step 3: Selection of content Step 4: Organization of content Step 5: Selection of learning experiences Step 6: Organization of learning experiences Step 7: Determination of what to evaluate and of the ways and means of doing it. (Taba 1962)

Curriculum/Syllabus Planning Pre-Test


1. Education imparted in a series of lessons or class meetings is called ____________? a) Text c) Course 2. All experiences of the b) Syllabus d) Curriculum children for whom school assumes

responsibility is ____________? a) Curricular activities c) School Program a) Goal c) Direction a) Aim c) Objective b) Co-curricular activities d) Curriculum b) Runway d) Destination b) Goal d) All of the above Content, Evaluation,

3. Curriculum is derived from Latin word Curree that means ____________?

4. Which one of the following is broadest in nature ____________?

5. Elements of curriculum are ____________?

a) Objectives, Content, Evaluation, Grading b) Methodology, A.V. Aids c) Objectives, Evaluation, Grading, A.V. Aids Methodology, Evaluation

d) Objectives, Content,

6. Intended outcomes of any program or activity are called ____________?

a) Goals c) Plan

b) Objectives d) Strategy

7. A type of evaluation that is performed in the beginning of any

program is called ____________? a) Placement Evaluation c) Formative Evaluation b) Summative Evaluation d) Diagnostic Evaluation

Key: 1-c, 2-d, 3-b, 4-a, 5-d, 6-b, 7-a

Post-Test 1. Curriculum is a fixed programme of courses is ____________ of curriculum?


a) Old Concept c) Logical Concept a) Entilement Curriclum c) Recommended Curriculum b) Contemporary Concept d) a & b b) Intended Curriculum d) Supported Curriculum

2. A type of curriculum presented by experts is called ____________?

3. Planned experiences (Curricular and co-curricular) offered to the learner under the guidance of school is called ____________?
a) Curricular activities c) Syllabus a) Placement Evaluation c) Formative Evaluation a) Technique d) Strategy the following a) Programme of studies c) Program of Guidelines a) Needs of School teachers b) Objectives d) Problems of the society b) Program of Activities d) All of the above b) Requirement of School Principal & b) Courses d) Curriculum b) Summative Evaluation d) Diagnostic Evaluation b) Method d) Skill

4. A type of evaluation that is performed during the program is called ____________?

5. The way of doing something is called ____________?

6. According to Bhatia, Curriculum as an educational program includes

7. Contend is designed in accordance with which one of the following

Key: 1-a, 2-c, 3-d, 4-c, 5-b, 6-d, 7-b