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1.1 PRESENT SIMPLE 1.

1A Form The form of the present simple verb only changes after he, she or it, when we add -s to the base form (-es after o, s, sh, ch and x; -ies when the base form ends in -y): I read he reads; we watch she watches; they carry it carries x Carina enjoy hospital dramas so she watch ER every week. Carina enjoys hospital dramas so she watches ER every week.

We form the negative and questions with the auxiliary do. In the negative we usually use the contracted forms dont and doesnt in speech and informal writing: Japanese cooking doesnt use a lot of dairy food. Do interest rates usually go up in order to reduce inflation?

1.1B General truths and facts We often use the present simple to state truths and to describe things which we feel are facts or permanent situations: Things which are generally true: British people drink a lot of tea, while Americans drink more coffee.

Facts:

Broken bones in adults dont heal as fast as they do in children.

Permanent situations:

A colony of Antarctic penguins lives in Marwell Zoo. 1.1C Repeated events/actions We use the present simple to describe things that happen on a regular basis:

As temperatures fall with the approach of winter, the soil freezes and contracts The Blairs take their summer holiday in a quiet part of Tuscany.

We often use the present simple with adverbs of frequency (always, usually, often, sometimes, never) and expressions of frequency (every , once a ): Share prices usually change on a daily basis but often by very little. Our two chefs provide an excellent choice of hot meals every day. 1.1D Series of events/actions We use the present simple to describe a series of events or actions (e.g. to give directions or instructions) often with impersonal you: From here you cross the road, go through an iron gate and follow the path west This is similar to the imperative, but the imperative can sound more abrupt: Cross the road, go through an iron gate and follow the path west We use the present simple when we want to express the immediacy of an event, e.g. in sports commentaries, particularly when the action being described is a quick one and is therefore over before the description finishes: France kicks off, Zidane passes to Henry, Henry cuts inside 1.1D Series of events/actions We use the present simple to describe a series of events or actions (e.g. to give directions or instructions) often with impersonal you: From here you cross the road, go through an iron gate and follow the path west This is similar to the imperative, but the imperative can sound more abrupt: Cross the road, go through an iron gate and follow the path west We use the present simple when we want to express the immediacy of an event, e.g. in sports commentaries, particularly when the action being described is a quick one and is therefore over before the description finishes: France kicks off, Zidane passes to Henry, Henry cuts inside