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During the past year, Pro-Tect Insurance Company’s total payouts on car-theft claims

were larger than the company can afford to sustain. Pro-Tect cannot reduce the number of
car-theft policies it carries, so cannot protect itself against continued large payouts that way.
Therefore, Pro-Tect has decided to offer a discount to holders of car-theft policies whose
cars have antitheft devices. Many policyholders will respond to the discount by installing
antitheft devices, since the amount of the discount will within two years typically more than
cover the cost of installation. Thus, because cars with antitheft devices are rarely stolen, Pro-
Tect’s plan is likely to reduce its annual payouts.
In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

The first rules out a certain strategy for achieving a goal; the second presents the
strategy that was adopted instead and whose effectiveness the argument assesses.
B. The first is a judgment made in support of a certain conclusion; the second is that
C. The first has been used as a consideration to support adopting a certain strategy
for achieving a goal; the second reports a decision to adopt an alternative strategy.
D. The first provides evidence in favor of adopting a certain strategy for achieving a
goal; the second reports a decision to pursue an alternative goal.
E. The first is a consideration offered against adopting a certain strategy for
achieving a goal; the second is the main conclusion that the argument is seeking

Passage 1. In the early 9th century BC Athenian potters introduced the full Geometric style
by abandoning circular for rectilinear ornament, the key meander assuming the leading role.
At first decoration was restricted to a small reserved area surrounded by the lustrous dark
paint; later, as the style approached maturity, more decorated zones wee added, until the
potter achieved a harmonious balance between light and dark. In the 8th century, after
nearly 400 years of abstract decoration, living creatures appear once again, although their
style is hardly less angular than the geometric ornament that supports them. Geometric
pottery reached its fullest development in the gigantic amphorae and craters that served as
grave monuments in the Athenian Dipylon cemetery; here a funerary scene, showing the
corpse on the bier surrounded by mourners, occupies the main panel, while other friezes
contain chariot processions, battles on land and sea, rows of animals, and linear geometric
designs. The creators of these monumental vases established a continuous tradition of
figured painting that persisted on Greek pottery until the end of the Classical period; the
immediate consequence of their innovation was a loss of interest in purely abstract design,
which became increasingly perfunctory on the latest Geometric vases. After several
centuries of isolation, the renewal of contact with the Middle East provided a welcome
stimulus to the Greek potter. In art, as well as in commerce, it was Corinth that now led the
way. Unlike the Athenians,Corinthian potters specialized in small vases and especially in
the tiny aryballos, or scent bottle, which found a ready market throughout the
Mediterranean region. There soon arose a style of miniatures that was called Proto-
Corinthian; it borrowed much of its repertoire from the fauna and flora of Syrophoenician
art. Processions of animals, both real and legendary, are placed in the main friezes, while
lotus flowers and palmettes serve as subsidiary ornament. When human beings are
depicted, mythical scenes can often be recognized, reflecting the early diffusion of Homeric
epic poetry. It was on Proto-Corinthian vases that the technique known as black-figure was
first applied: the figures were first drawn in black silhouette and were then marked with
incised detail; further touches were added in purple and white. Other notable Orientalizing
styles arose in Attica, the Cyclades, Laconia, and Rhodes, regional differences in pottery
becoming more clearly marked as the Hellenic city-states grew into self-conscious political
units. The Athenians still did their best work on large funerary vases. At first they
cultivated a wild and grandiose manner in which the figure of men and animals were
elaborated in outline; later, incised ornament introduced from Corinth imposed a salutary
discipline. Cycladic potters also attempted the grand manner; Laconian work, on the other
hand, is confined to a small scale and owes comparatively little to Oriental influence. The
Rhodians rarely progressed beyond animal friezes drawn in outline; their style is known as
"wild goat", after their favorite quadruped.

1. The pottery which owed least to the Oriental influence was from

1. Attica

2. Cyclades

3. Laconia

4. Rhodes

5. Athens

2. The tradition of figured painting until the end of the Classical period resulted in

1. the Oriental style.

2. monumental vases.

3. loss of interest in purely abstract design.

4. renewal of contact with the Middle East.

5. Proto-Corinthian style.

3. Corinthian potters were different from Athenian potters because

1. they produced smaller vases.

2. they depicted corpses on biers.

3. they showed figures of men and animals.

4. They used linear, geometric designs

5. They frequently used pictures of goats.

Question 2. The adherents of the concept of the 'scala naturae' believed in a steady
progression from the most simple to the most perfect organisms. Lamarck's theory of
evolution was largely based on this concept. Yet, the more the knowledge of plants and
animals advanced, the less did the similarities and differences of organisms conform to this
pattern. Instead, organisms usually fell into well-defined and frequently rather isolated
groups, like mammals, birds, and reptiles, that could not be arranged into a linear sequence
from simple to perfect. On the other hand, nearly all taxa of organisms were clearly more
similar to some than to other taxa. It was on the basis of this principle of degrees of
similarity that naturalists from Aristotle on had grouped organisms, resulting, since the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, in the Linnaean hierarchy. As stated by Darwin, "from
the first dawn of life, all organic beings are found to resemble each other in descending
degrees, so that they can be classed in groups under groups. This classification is evidently
not arbitrary like the grouping of stars in constellations." But what was the cause for the
apparent pattern, what was the nature of the apparent constraints? To say, as did Louis
Agassiz, that it reflected that plan of the creator explained nothing. Everything, however,
became clear as soon as one made the assumption that the members of a taxon are the
descendants of a common ancestor. According to Darwin, this principle of common descent
explains "why species descended from a single progenitor are grouped into genera: and the
genera included in, or subordinate to, subfamilies, families, and orders, all united into one
class. Thus, the grand fact in natural history, of the subordination of group under group - it
is in my judgement fully explained". And indeed it was Two matters, however,need to be
stressed. The first is that Darwin, when proposing the theory of common descent, had found
the solution of the great problem of the natural system that had exercised systematists for
more than one hundred years. The inclusive hierarchy of groups under groups is a necessity
if species are descended from common ancestors. Reciprocally, as Darwin continues to
emphasize, the fact of the hierarchy of organisms is extremely powerful evidence in favour
of his theory. There simply is no other possible explanation for the hierarchy unless one
wants to postulate an extremely capricious creator. In the end Darwin reiterates that descent
is the hidden bond of connection which naturalists have sought under the term of the ?

System'. Indeed, every systematist since has accepted or at least paid lip service to the fact
that anysystem of classification must be consistent with the theory of evolution, that is, that
every recognized taxon must consist of descendants of a common ancestor.

1. According to Darwin the theory of common descent explains

1. Why taxa of organisms are more proximate to some than to other taxa.

2. why adherents of the concept of the scala naturae believed in steady progression

3. why the postulate of an extremely capricious creator does not find public favor

4. why organisms can be arranged in a hierarchy of categories from species, through

genera,subfamilies, orders and classes

5. Why naturalists from Aristotle on were forced to group organisms such that it resulted in
the Linnaean hierarchy

2. According to the passage the ordered hierarchy of organisms on the basis of degrees of
1. is both a condition for and evidence of the theory of common descent

2. both partakes of and causes the evolutionary theory

3. is the work of naturalists uncomfortable with the idea of a capricious creator

4. is Darwin's principal contribution to the theory of evolution

5. enables members of a taxon to become descendants of a common ancestors

3. According to the passage Lamarckian theory was

1. not adequately evolutionary and hence not as satisfactory as Darwinian theory

2. based on the grouping of organisms from Aristotle on, culminating in the Linnaean

3. based on the concept of a linear sequence of development of organisms from the simple
tothe perfect

4. the logical precursor to the theory of common descent

5. based on the assumption that the members of a taxon are the descendants of a common


Passage 3. In recent years astronomers have discovered that dwarf galaxies such as NGC
5234 are far more common than previously supposed. Moreover these galaxies are very
different from their bigger cousins: they spend billions of years in a dormant state, then
erupt in furious short-lived bursts of star formation. Starbursts also occur in large galaxies,
but the radiation from those bursts is usually obscured by other galactic emissions; only in
dwarf starburst galaxies can researchers get a clear look at these phenomena. These galaxies
hold clues to the early history of the universe _ they are relics of an ancient time, composed
of material that has changed little since the big bang. What causes starbursts in dwarf
galaxies, and why are they so important to astronomers? To answer these questions we must
examine the

mechanics of star formation. Astronomers know that stars have been forming for almost the
entire duration of the universe. Our own galaxy, the unremarkable larger spiral called the
milky way contains at least 100 billion stars. Star formation in the Milky Way is a slow and
steady process involving the contraction of vast clouds of interstellar gas and dust. Every
year, on an average about one solar mass of gas and dust (that is an amount equal to the
mass of our sun) turns into new stars. In contrast, a starburst is a relatively brief period _
from one million to 20 million years _ during which the rate of star formation is much
higher than average. Astronomers have observed galaxies in which the rate is 100 times
higher than the Milky Way's. We know this to be a short-lived stage because if it had been
going on for more than hundred million years the galaxy would have run out of the gas
from which the stars are made. The increased star formation rate causes a dramatic rise in
the galaxy's brightness. Because starbursts are brief, they are dominated by the radiation
from hot young stars of 20 solar masses or more, which have lifetimes of only a few million
years. A strong starburst can be almost as bright as a quasar, the most luminous object in the
universe. Because a star burst's luminosity is concentrated in the radio and infrared parts of
the spectrum, the phenomenon has been recognised and studied only in the past 20 years as
new telescopes and satellites have allowed scientists to observe these wavelengths Many
astronomers believe that starbursts play a pivotal role in galactic evolution and the creation
of star clusters. For this reason scientists are eager to know what triggers these sudden
episodes, how they proceed and what turns them off. These questions may be easier to
answer in dwarf galaxies which hold 100 million or fewer stars, than in the large spirals
such as the Milky Way and M83

1. According to the author the study of starbursts is easier in dwarf galaxies because

1. they are relatively stable and have changed little since their inception.

2. their radiations are easier to isolate in these galaxies

3. they are smaller and composed of relatively fewer stars.

4. they alone contain answers to questions about the mechanics of star formation.

5. starbursts are more intense and frequent in these galaxies

2. Astronomers according to the author, are keen to study starbursts because

1. starbursts are intriguing phenomena that have not yet been studied.

2. this is the process by which star formation takes place.

3. it could contain evidence of the big bang.

4. the radiations from these could be potentially useful to humans.

5. these could help understand how early galaxies were formed.

3. To support the statement that starbursts are a short-lived stage, the author,

1. points to data from astronomical observations

2. argues that it is a logical consequence of the rapid rate of star formation

3. proves they are dominated by hot young

4. argues that a longer stage cannot be materially sustained.

5. Cites the work of various astronomers.

Passage 4. Measurement ranks as one of our oldest skills. Many of the questions people ask
every day begin with "How many?" or "How much?" A person may ask a friend, "How
many brothers and sisters do you have?" or, "How much do you weigh?" The answers to
both questions use numbers. But the first question is answered by counting, and the second
by measuring. Each child in a family is a whole person and must be counted, not measured.
But a person's weight must be measured, and this is done by standing on a scale. Almost
everyone uses measurement daily. The food we eat, the clothes we wear, the work we do,
and many of the games we play involve measurement. For example, shoppers buy meat by
the kilogram and cloth by the meter. Many workers are paid by the hour. An athlete who
runs 100 meters in the shortest time

wins the race. People also use measurement to help them understand one another and to
work together easily. A boy could write to someone living far away and describe himself as
tall and heavy. But it would be better if he described himself as 137 centimeters tall and
weighing 40 kilograms. In the same way, a carpenter building a house can order a door that
measures 76 centimeters wide and know it will fit the

opening allowed for it. Every measurement involves two things: (1) a number and (2) a unit.
A number by itself is not a measurement. There would be no point in saying that a stick has
a length of 6. No one would know whether the stick was 6 centimeters or 6 meters long. But
if someone described the stick as being 6 centimeters long, then the measurement would
have meaning. There are two major systems of measurement: (1) the imperial system and (2)
the metric system. The measurement units in each system are related to one another. The
imperial system of measurement started in about the 1200's, though its units may be traced
back even earlier. Most nations--and all scientists--use the metric system. The official name
of this system is the Systeme International d'Unites (International System of Units). To make
accurate measurements, people have invented such measuring tools as clocks, scales, tape
measures, thermometers, and other devices. Measurement with tools involves comparing
the object or event being measured with the units marked on the tool. For example, a ruler
placed beside a pencil shows the number of centimeters and millimeters equal to the length
of the pencil. Most measurements involve reading some kind of scale. The problem is that
no matter how many subdivisions the scale has, the object being measured is likely to fall
between two of them. As a result, every measurement can only be an approximation. A
measurement may come close, but it never matches the scale perfectly. Without a
magnifying lens, for example, a ruler is accurate only to within a half millimeter. But simple

within a fiftieth of a millimeter can be made with an instrument called a micrometer caliper.
Measuring tools include a wide variety of devices. Gauges and meters measure such items
as liters of petrol or cubic meters of natural gas. A kilowatt-hour meter measures electricity.
A speedometer measures the speed of a car or other vehicle, and an odometer records the
distance traveled by the vehicle. Other devices measure the volume of such substances as
petroleum in barrels.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

1. make out a strong case for the superiority of the imperial system of measurement over the
metric system on the grounds of

2. make a detailed list of all the devices that are in general use today for the accurate

measurement of objects, distances and speeds

3. briefly explain the importance, function, systems and types of measurements that are
used in everyday life.

4. show the various means that were employed by people after the 1200s to measure.

5. Describe the various situations in which human beings need to measure and count in their
everyday activities.

2. According to the passage, in order to measure anything

1. it is necessary both to count and use devices within either system of measurement

2. a unit of one object has to be contrasted with a unit of another object

3. a scale called the micrometer calliper has to be used with great precision

4. it is first necessary to accept that all measurements are only approximations

5. Both a number and a unit of measurement are required

3. Most measurement is only an approximation because

1. it involves both a number and a unit and it is unlikely that both of them can be accurate
enough 2. the object being measured is likely to fall between the calibrations of the scale or
device that is used to measure 3. the devices used to measure objects cannot be made to fit
all the possible objects that have to be measured accurately

4. accurate measurement in almost all the cases involve the use of powerful optical

instruments like magnifying glasses which are not commonly available

5. most people who measure are not trained in the use of numbers, units and devices used to

B) Ability to coherently put across an

Respond to the following questions in not more than 100 words each

1. “Our 8 year old son said yesterday “All things have opposites”. He was discussing this
matter with our daughter who is 10 and she argued that this cannot be so. Examples that
our son provided were:Light vs. Dark, Day vs. Night, Cold vs. Hot. Our daughter then
raised the question “What is opposite of banana?” What should I have answered? Is there
really a duality in all things and if so how does it apply to the banana case?”

2. “I believe I m the only thing that exists. How can anyone prove to me that he/she really
exists?” 3. Can machines have knowledge?

4. Can you disprove the statement ‘Truth is Relative’? Could it be Absolute?

5. Is there a logical reasoning why most people prefer there own opinions to someone
else’s? 6. We were loading up to go on a trip the other day and I asked my dad why he was
taking a lot of extra stuff? and he said “Just in case the unexpected happens” So my question
is “If you expect the unexpected, then doesn’t that make the unexpected expected and
expected unexpected”?

7. I have a friend who keeps track of Rs.1000/- notes under her bed, for some strange
reasons she doesn’t wish to spend the money; she just plans on letting it sit there. What is
more surprising is the fact that she never counts it. So she would never know if some notes
are missing. Am I

10. A chemical company claims that, since only one of 520 rats that were given high doses of
a new artificial sweetener developed cancer while all the others remained healthy, the
sweetener is not carcinogenic for human beings and ought to be approved for human

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the chemical company’s claim?

(A) Chemicals that are carcinogenic for rats are usually also carcinogenic for other animals,
such as guinea pigs, used in experiments.

(B) The spontaneous incidence of cancer in this particular strain of rat is approximately one
in 540.

(C) Tests conducted on a certain strain of mouse show that, of 500 mice given a dose of
sweetener similar to that given the rats, 53 developed cancer.

(D) Certain chemicals that are carcinogenic for human beings have been shown not to be
carcinogenic for rats.

(E) The average lifespan of the strain of rat used in the experiment is 2 years; the chemical
company terminated the experiment when the rats were 13 months old.

Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools as cleaners or

pesticides causes allergic reactions in some children. Elementary school nurses in Renston
report that the proportion of schoolchildren sent to them for treatment of allergic reactions
to those chemicals has increased significantly over the past ten years. Therefore, either
Renston’s schoolchildren have been exposed to greater quantities of the chemicals, or they
are more sensitive to them than schoolchildren were ten years ago.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. The number of school nurses employed by Renston’s elementary schools has not
decreased over the past ten years.
B. Children who are allergic to the chemicals are no more likely than other children to
have allergies to other substances.
C. Children who have allergic reactions to the chemicals are not more likely to be sent to
a school nurse now than they were ten years ago.
D. The chemicals are not commonly used as cleaners or pesticides in houses and
apartment buildings in Renston.
E. Children attending elementary school do not make up a larger proportion of
Renston’s population now than they did ten years ago.

Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Each species of moth has an optimal body temperature for effective flight, and when air
temperatures fall much below that temperature, the moths typically have to remain inactive
on vegetation for extended periods, leaving them highly vulnerable to predators. In general,
larger moths can fly faster than smaller ones and hence have a better chance of evading
flying predators, but they also have higher optimal body temperatures, which explains why

A. large moths are generally able to maneuver better in flight than smaller moths

B. large moths are proportionally much more common in warm climates than in cool

C. small moths are more likely than large moths to be effectively camouflaged while on

D. large moths typically have wings that are larger in proportion to their body size than
smaller moths do

E. most predators of moths prey not only on several different species of moth but also on
various species of other insects

At one time, European and Japanese companies tried to imitate their American rivals.
Today, American appliance manufacturers import European scientists to lead their research
staffs; American automakers design cars that mimic the styling of German, Italian, and
French imports; and American electronics firms boast in their advertising of “Japanese-
style” devotion to quality and reliability. In the world of high technology, America has lost
the battle for international prestige.

Each of the following statements, if true, would help to support the claim above EXCEPT:

(A) An American camera company claims in its promotional literature to produce cameras
“as fine as the best Swiss imports.”

(B) An American maker of stereo components designs its products to resemble those of a
popular Japanese firm.

(C) An American manufacturer of video games uses a brand name chosen because it sounds
like a Japanese word.
(D) An American maker of televisions studies German-made televisions in order to adopt
German manufacturing techniques. ( E )

(E) An American maker of frozen foods advertises its dinners as “Real European-style
entrees prepared by fine French and Italian chefs.”

If A, then B.

If B, then C.

If C, then D.

If all of the statements above are true, which of the following must also be true?

(A) If D, then A.

(B) If not B, then not C.

(C) If not D, then not A.

(D) If D, then E. ( C )

(E) If not A, then not D.

With Proposition 13, if you bought your house 11 years ago for $75,000, your property tax
would be approximately $914 a year (1 percent of $75,000 increased by 2 percent each year
for 11 years); and if your neighbor bought an identical house next door to you for $200,000
this year, his tax would be $2,000 (1 percent of $200,000). Without Proposition 13, both you
and your neighbor would pay $6,000 a year in property taxes (3 percent of $200,000).

Which of the following is the conclusion for which the author most likely is arguing in the
passage above?

(A) Proposition 13 is unconstitutional because it imposes an unequal tax on properties of

equal value.

(B) If Proposition 13 is repealed, every homeowner is likely to experience a substantial

increase in property taxes.

(C) By preventing inflation from driving up property values, Proposition 13 has saved
homeowners thousands of dollars in property taxes.

(D) If Proposition 13 is not repealed, identical properties will continue to be taxed at

different rates. ( B )

(E) Proposition 13 has benefited some homeowners more than others.

1. E is the correct choice. The argument is about technology companies and E talks about
non-technology company.

2. C is correct. The argument boils down "If A then D", which means that if A happens D
will happen (It does not mean, however, that if D happens, A would have happened. There
can also be other causes for D to happen). Therefore, if D hasn't happened it means A hasn't
also happened because if A had happened D would have certainly happened.

3. B. In the last sentence it says, "without Proposition 13, both you and your neighbor would
pay $6,000 a year in property taxes" which means that without proposition 13, both you and
the neighbor would be paying higher taxes than what you are paying because of proposition

Investment banks often have conflicting roles. They sometimes act for a client company
by raising capital from other investment institutions as advantageously as possible, but
their analysts also sometimes send unfavorable reports on the financial health of
companies for whom they are raising capital to other clients who wish to make
investments. Analyses of companies’ financial health need to be unbiased if an
investment bank is to achieve long-term success.
If the statements above are true, which of the following practices, if adopted by an
investment bank, would hinder its long-term success?
A. Evaluating and rewarding the bank’s analysts on the basis of recommendations
made by managers who are solely engaged in raising capital for clients
B. Using reports by the investment bank’s analysts to determine how best to raise
capital for a client
C. Sharing the task of raising capital for a client with other investment banks
D. Ensuring that conflicts between analysts and those who raise capital for clients are
carefully mediated and resolved by impartial arbitrators
E. Monitoring the success or failure of analysts’ current predictions about how
companies will perform financially, in order to determine the value of future

James’s grade point average puts him in the top third of the graduating class of college A.
Nestor is in the top tenth of the same class. Elizabeth had the same grade point average as
Nestor. Nancy has a lower grade point average than Elizabeth.

If the information above is true, which of the following must also be true?

(A) James has a higher grade point average than Elizabeth.

(B) James has a higher grade point average than Nancy.

(C) Nestor has a higher grade point average than Nancy.

(D) Elizabeth and Nancy both have a higher grade point average than James.

(E) Nestor and James both have a higher grade point average than Nancy.

Q1 :Guidebook writer: I have visited hotels throughout the country and have noticed that in
those built before 1930 the quality of the original carpentry work is generally superior to
that in hotels built afterward. Clearly carpenters working on hotels before 1930 typically

worked with more skill, care, and effort than carpenters who have worked on hotels built

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the guidebook writer’s argument?

A. The quality of original carpentry in hotels is generally far superior to the quality of
original carpentry in other structures, such as houses and stores.

B. Hotels built since 1930 can generally accommodate more guests than those built before

C. The materials available to carpenters working before 1930 were not significantly different
in quality from the materials available to carpenters working after 1930.

D. The better the quality of original carpentry in a building, the less likely that building is to
fall into disuse and be demolished.

E. The average length of apprenticeship for carpenters has declined significantly since 1930.


Which of the following most logically completes the argument?

The irradiation of food kills bacteria and thus retards spoilage. However, it also lowers the
nutritional value of many foods. For example, irradiation destroys a significant percentage
of whatever vitamin B1 a food may contain. Proponents of irradiation point out that
irradiation is no worse in this respect than cooking. However, this fact is either beside the
point, since much irradiated food is eaten raw, or else misleading, since _______.

A. many of the proponents of irradiation are food distributors who gain from food’s having
a longer shelf life
B. it is clear that killing bacteria that may be present on food is not the only effect that
irradiation has

C. cooking is usually the final step in preparing food for consumption, whereas irradiation
serves to ensure a longer shelf life for perishable foods

D. certain kinds of cooking are, in fact, even more destructive of vitamin B1 than carefully
controlled irradiation is

E. for food that is both irradiated and cooked, the reduction of vitamin B1 associated with
either process individually is compounded


Studies in restaurants show that the tips left by customers who pay their bill in cash tend to
be larger when the bill is presented on a tray that bears a credit-card logo. Consumer
psychologists hypothesize that simply seeing a credit-card logo makes many credit-card
holders willing to spend more because it reminds them that their spending power exceeds
the cash they have immediately available.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the psychologists’ interpretation of
the studies?

A. The effect noted in the studies is not limited to patrons who have credit cards.

B. Patrons who are under financial pressure from their credit-card obligations tend to tip
less when presented with a restaurant bill on a tray with credit-card logo than when the tray
has no logo.

C. In virtually all of the cases in the studies, the patrons who paid bills in cash did not
possess credit cards.

D. In general, restaurant patrons who pay their bills in cash leave larger tips than do those
who pay by credit card.

E. The percentage of restaurant bills paid with given brand of credit card increases when
that credit card’s logo is displayed on the tray with which the bill is prepared.

Re: CR

by Total Gadha
- Sunday, 5
August 2007,
02:58 AM
1. E, The argument concludes that carpenters before 1930 worked with
more skills and care while on a job than carpenters after 1930. It might be
that the carpenters after 1930 possessed less skill than those before 1930
because the length of apprenticeship, and hence the time for learning and
developing skills, had decreased.

2. D, The point that irradiation lowers nutritional value of food maybe

misleading if the doubt it casts on use of irradiation is baseless. D says that
other forms of cooking also lower the nutritional value. Hence D is the
logical continuation.

3. B. If seeing the credit card logo reminds a credit card holder of his
spending power, the converse should also be true, i.e. it should also
remind some credit card holders of their credit-card obligations. Hence, B
strengthens the psychologists' guess that the logo is inducing the thought
about spending power.

In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percent of miles driven on
Partoria’s roads but are involved in 12 percent of all highway fatalities. The very largest
trucks—those with three trailers—had less than a third of the accident rate of single-and
double-trailer trucks. Clearly, therefore, one way for Partoria to reduce highway deaths
would be to require shippers to increase their use of triple-trailer trucks.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
A. Partorian trucking companies have so far used triple-trailer trucks on lightly
traveled sections of major highways only.
B. No matter what changes Partoria makes in the regulation of trucking, it will have
to keep some smaller roads off-limits to all large trucks.
C. Very few fatal collisions involving trucks in Partoria are collisions between two
D. In Partoria, the safety record of the trucking industry as a whole has improved
slightly over the past ten years.
E. In Partoria, the maximum legal payload of a triple-trailer truck is less than three
times the maximum legal payload of the largest of the single-trailer trucks.

2.In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks
among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys
were placed in crowded conditions, although there was an increase in instances of
“coping” behavior—such as submissive gestures and avoidance of dominant
individuals—attacks did not become any more frequent. Therefore it is not likely that,
for any species of monkey, crowding increases aggression as significantly as was seen in
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
A. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys
living in uncrowded conditions.
B. In the studies of rats, nondominant individuals were found to increasingly avoid
dominant individuals when the animals were in crowded conditions.
C. Rhesus monkeys respond with aggression to a wider range of stimuli than any
other monkeys do.
D. Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in significantly more
attacks than the other monkeys were.
E. Some of the coping behavior displayed by rhesus monkeys is similar to behavior
rhesus monkeys use to bring to an end an attack that has begun.

Please explain your choice.

In his new book on his complex scientific research, R frequently imputes bad faith to
researchers disagreeing with him. A troubling aspect of R’s book is his stated
conviction that other investigators’ funding sources often determine what “findings”
those investigators report. Add to this that R has often shown himself to be arrogant,
overly ambitious, and sometimes plain nasty, and it becomes clear that R’s book does
not merit attention from serious professionals.
The author of the book review commits which one of the following reasoning errors?

(A) using an attack on the character of the writer of the book as evidence that this person is
not competent on matters of scientific substance

(B) taking it for granted that an investigator is unlikely to report findings that are contrary
to the interests of those funding the investigation

(C) dismissing a scientific theory by giving a biased account of it

(D) presenting as facts several assertions about the book under review that are based only
on strong conviction and would be impossible for others to verify

(E) failing to distinguish between the criteria of being true and of being sufficiently
interesting to merit attention

Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the chairman of a corporation to the
A number of charges have been raised against me, some serious, some trivial.
Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded
my resignation. Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any
criminal offense whatsoever. In the American tradition, as you know, an individual is
considered innocent until proven guilty. Furthermore, as the corporation’s unbroken six-
year record of growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only
helped enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.
Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt?
(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are
motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.
(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire
to enhance the success of the corporation.
(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.
(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.
(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal.

Hi TG, I have read about this approach for solving Inference based questions: "Separate
the stated info or the fact from the Implied info". Going by this logic, I could
eliminate option A and D. Option C and E can not be safely reached as it is just the
Chairman's opinion.
While looking at option B, I was thinking that. The 2 informations itmes,
1. The company has grown in last 6 years
2. The Chairman might have been involved in some Misdeeds.
can be safely used to come to a conclusion.
But, surprisingly D is the OA.

1. Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most logically completes the
argument below?
According to a widely held economic hypothesis, imposing strict environmental
regulations reduces economic growth. This hypothesis is undermined by the fact
that the
states with the strictest environmental regulations also have the highest economic
This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however,
A. those states with the strictest environmental regulations invest the most in
education and job training
B. even those states that have only moderately strict environmental regulations have
higher growth than those with the least-strict regulations
C. many states that are experiencing reduced economic growth are considering
weakening their environmental regulations
D. after introducing stricter environmental regulations, many states experienced
increased economic growth
E. even those states with very weak environmental regulations have experienced at
least some growth

2.Manatees, aquatic mammals inhabiting Florida’s rivers and coastal waters, swim
close to
the surface and are frequently killed in collisions with boats. To address the
boat traffic in manatee-populated waters is being required to maintain very low
Unfortunately, manatees are unable to hear low-pitched sounds and a boat’s sound
in pitch as the boat slows. Therefore, this approach may in fact make things worse
than better.
Which of the following, if true, casts most doubt on the conclusion?
A. The areas where boats would have to maintain low speeds were decided partly
the basis of manatee-population estimates and partly from numbers of reported
collisions between manatees and boats.
B. Because the water hyacinth that manatees feed on grows best in water that is
nearly still, water hyacinth beds can be disturbed or damaged by fast-moving boat
C. Over the last several decades, boat traffic in Florida’s coastal waters has been
increasing almost continuously and now represents the greatest threat to the
endangered manatee population.
D. The sound of a boat engine generally travels much further under water than it
does through the air.
E. When experimenters exposed manatees to the recorded sounds of boats moving at
various speeds, the creatures were unable to discern the sounds over normal
background noise.




1)A certain cultivated herb is one of a group of closely related plants that thrive in soil with

high concentrations of metals that are toxic to most other plants. Agronomists studying

the herb have discovered that it produces large amounts of histidine, an amino acid that,

in test-tube solutions, renders these metals chemically inert. Possibly, therefore, the

herb’s high histidine production is what allows it to grow in metal-rich soils, a hypothesis

that would gain support if ______.

A. histidine is found in all parts of the plant—roots, stem, leaves, and flowers

B. the herb’s high level of histidine production is found to be associated with an

unusually low level of production of other amino acids

C. others of the closely related group of plants are also found to produce histidine in

large quantities

D. cultivation of the herb in soil with high concentrations of the metals will, over an
extended period, make the soil suitable for plants to which the metals are toxic

E. the concentration of histidine in the growing herb declines as the plant approaches


Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop
high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when
compared to White Africans.
Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may
reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an
environmental scarcity of salt.
Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if
true, would most tend to confirm the researchers’ hypothesis?
(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout
their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.
(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a
serious health problem.
(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly
decreased their salt consumption.
(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history,
have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt
(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those
people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have
2) Teresa: Manned spaceflight does not have a future, since it cannot compete
economically with other means of accomplishing the objectives of spaceflight.
Edward: No mode of human transportation has a better record of reliability: two
accidents in twenty-five years. Thus manned spaceflight definitely has a positive future.
Which of the following is the best logical evaluation of Edward’s argument as a
response to Teresa’s argument?
(A) It cites evidence that, if true, tends to disprove the evidence cited by Teresa in
drawing her conclusion.
(B) It indicates a logical gap in the support that Teresa offers for her conclusion.
(C) It raises a consideration that outweighs the argument Teresa makes.
(D) It does not meet Teresa’s point because it assumes that there is no serious
impediment to transporting people into space, but this was the issue raised by
(E) It fails to respond to Teresa’s argument because it does not address the
fundamental issue of whether space activities should have priority over other
claims on the national budget.

a &d .. i really do not get the second one
1. Studies of fatal automobile accidents reveal that, in the majority of cases in which one
occupant of an automobile is killed while another survives, it is the passenger, not the
driver, who is killed. It is ironic that the innocent passenger should suffer for the driver’s
carelessness, while the driver often suffers only minor injuries or none at all.
Which of the following is an assumption underlying the reasoning in the passage above?
(A) In most fatal automobile accidents, the driver of a car in which an occupant is killed
is at fault.
(B) Drivers of automobiles are rarely killed in auto accidents.
(C) Most deaths in fatal automobile accidents are suffered by occupants of cars rather
than by pedestrians.
(D) Auto safety experts should increase their efforts to provide protection for those in
the passenger seats of automobiles.
(E) Automobile passengers sometimes play a contributing role in causing auto accidents.

2. The upcoming presidential election in the West African republic of Ganelon is of grave
concern to the U.S. State Department. Ganelon presently has strong political and military
ties to the United States. However, the Socialist party is widely expected to win the election,
leading to fears that Ganelon will soon break away from the pro-American bloc and adopt a
nonaligned or openly anti-American stance.
Which of the following is an assumption made in the passage above?
(A) A Socialist party government in Ganelon is more likely to oppose the United States
than is a non-Socialist party government.
(B) The people of the United States recognize their nation’s interest in the political
stability of West Africa.
(C) A weakening of U.S. political ties with Ganelon could have serious consequences for
U.S. relations with other African nations.
(D) The Socialist party leaders in Ganelon believe that their nation’s interests would best
be served by an alliance with anti-American forces.
(E) The Socialist party will win the upcoming election in Ganelon.

I think the answer to the first one is A. An assumption is a hidden premise. Let's break the
argument and find the hidden premise.

Premise 1- In majority of accidents, the passenger is killed and not the driver.

Conclusion- It is ironic that the passenger should suffer for driver's carelessness --> The
passenger should not suffer for driver's carelessness.

What can be the hidden premise? Only that the driver was careless or it was driver's fault
and not the passenger's.

Now see how smooth the argument becomes

Premise 1- In majority of accidents, the passenger is killed and not the driver.
Premise 2- It were the drivers who were at fault and not the passengers.

Conclusion- The passengers should not suffer.

never give up, what's the OA?

Official Answers for the following questions are

1. A

2. A

1. Johnson is on firm ground when he asserts that the early editors of Dickinson’s
poetry often distorted her intentions. Yet Johnson’s own, more faithful, text is still
guilty of its own forms of distortion. To standardize Dickinson’s often
indecipherable handwritten punctuation by the use of the dash is to render
permanent a casual mode of poetic phrasing that Dickinson surely never expected to
see in print. It implies that Dickinson chose the dash as her typical mark of
punctuation when, in fact, she apparently never made any definitive choice at all.
Which of the following best summarizes the author’s main point?
(A) Although Johnson is right in criticizing Dickinson’s early editors for their
distortion of her work, his own text is guilty of equally serious distortions.
(B) Johnson’s use of the dash in his text of Dickinson’s poetry misleads readers about
the poet’s intentions.
(C) Because Dickinson never expected her poetry to be published, virtually any
attempt at editing it must run counter to her intentions.
(D) Although Johnson’s attempt to produce a more faithful text of Dickinson’s
poetry is well-meaning, his study of the material lacks sufficient thoroughness.
(E) Dickinson’s editors, including Johnson, have failed to deal adequately with the
problem of deciphering Dickinson’s handwritten manuscripts.

2. Alba: I don’t intend to vote for Senator Frank in the next election. She is not a
strong supporter of the war against crime.
Tam: But Senator Frank sponsored the latest anticrime law passed by the Senate.
Alba: If Senator Frank sponsored it, it can’t be a very strong anticrime law.
Which of the following identifies the most serious logical flaw in Alba’s reasoning?
(A) The facts she presents do not support her conclusion that Senator Frank is soft
on crime.
(B) She assumes without proof that crime is the most important issue in the
upcoming election.
(C) She argues in a circle, using an unsupported assertion to dismiss conflicting
(D) She attacks Senator Frank on personal grounds rather than on he merit as a
political leader.
(E) In deciding not to vote for Senator Frank, she fails to consider issues other than

3. Which of the following best completes the passage below?

In opposing government regulation of business, conservatives often appeal to the
Jeffersonian ideal of limited government, expressing the wish that government
would “get off the backs of the American people.” Yet, paradoxically, many of these
same conservatives address questions of private morality, such as those dealing with
sexual behavior, by calling for______
(A) a return to the restrictive sexual morality of the Victorian era
(B) a strengthening of the role of the family in setting moral norms for society
(C) a limitation on the amount of sexually provocative material appearing in books,
motives, and television shows
(D) greater freedom for individuals to choose their own way of handling sexual
(E) an increased governmental role in the regulation and control of private sexual

4. In many surveys, American consumers have expressed a willingness to spend up

to 10 percent more for products that are ecologically sound. Encouraged by such
surveys, Bleach-O Corporation promoted a new laundry detergent, Bleach-O Green,
as safer for the environment. Bleach-O Green cost 5 percent more than typical
detergents. After one year, Bleach-O Green had failed to capture a significant share
of the detergent market and was withdrawn from sale.
Which of the following questions is LEAST likely to be relevant in determining the
reasons for the failure of Bleach-O Green?
(A) How effective as a detergent was Bleach-O Green?
(B) How many other detergents on the market were promoted as safe for the
(C) How much more did Bleach-O Green cost to manufacture than ordinary
(D) To what extent did consumers accept the validity of Bleach-O Green advertised
and promoted to consumers?
(E) How effectively was Bleach-O Green advertised and promoted to consumers?

1. This is the toughest of all the 4 questions that you posted. Options B, C and D could be
eliminated easily as the passage does not talk about Dickinson's desire for NOT getting
published, Johnson's lack of thoroughness (replacing 'indecipherable' punctutation marks
with dash is not being inattentive), problem of deciphering dickinson's handwriting.
Options A and B gave me a hard time. I am chosing B because A uses the words 'serious
distortions' whereas the author of the passage hardly hints that the distortions were serious.

2. Easy one. This is a common fallacy knows as the circular argument or begging the
question. A circular argument makes a conclusion based on material that has already been
assumed in the argument. Here's an example: Early to bed and early to rise makes a man
wise because it is not wise to go to bed late or sleep till late.
Answer: C

3. E. The argument is seeking to prove that on one hand conservatives want a limited role of
government while on the other hand they want government to take action.

4. C is completely irrelevant since it is given in the passage itself that Bleach-O green cost 5
percent more than typical detergents.

Let me know what are the official answers.

Total Gadha

Defense Department analysts worry that the ability of the United States to wage a
prolonged war would be seriously endangered if the machine-tool manufacturing base
shrinks further. Before the Defense Department publicly connected this security issue
with the import quota issue, however, the machine-tool industry raised the national
security issue in its petition for import quotas.
Which of the following, if true, contributes most to an explanation of the machine-tool
industry’s raising the issue above regarding national security?

(A) When the aircraft industries retooled, they provided a large amount of work for tool

(B) The Defense Department is only marginally concerned with the effects of foreign
competition on the machine-tool industry.

(C) The machine-tool industry encountered difficulty in obtaining governmental protection

against imports on grounds other than defense.

(D) A few weapons important for defense consist of parts that do not require extensive

(E) Several federal government programs have been designed which will enable domestic
machine-tool manufacturing firms to compete successfully with foreign toolmakers.

Plz Explain?

Premise 1- Defense analyst worry that shrinking machine tool base will endanger defense.
Premise 2- Defense department did not connect this security issue with import quota before.
Premise 3- Machine tool industry raised the national security issue in its petition for import

A, D, and E are useless. The only tight options are B and C. Out of this I will choose C. I will
not choose B because of two reasons-
first, B is nothing but premise 2 worded differently- Defense department did not connect
this security issue with import quota before----> The Defense Department was not
concerned with the effects of foreign competition on the machine-tool industry.

Second, read the question carefully- Which of the following contributes most to an
explanation of the machine-tool industry’s raising the issue above regarding national
security? Or in other words, why is Machine tool industry raising the defense issue in their
import quota petition? Because the machine tool industry is trying to use defence issue to
obtain import quotas. why defence issue? because they are not getting the quota through
any other means.

Therefore, C.

Total Gadha

1. In Swartkans territory, archaeologists discovered charred bone fragments dating back

1 million years. Analysis of the fragments, which came from a variety of animals,
showed that they had been heated to temperatures no higher than those produced in
experimental campfires made from branches of white stinkwood, the most common tree
around Swartkans.
Which of the following, if true, would, together with the information above, provide the
best basis for the claim that the charred bone fragments are evidence of the use of fire
by early hominids?

(A) The white stinkwood tree is used for building material by the present-day inhabitants of

(B) Forest fires can heat wood to a range of temperatures that occur in campfires.

(C) The bone fragments were fitted together by the archaeologists to form the complete
skeletons of several animals.

(D) Apart from the Swartkans discovery, there is reliable evidence that early hominids used
fire as many as 500 thousand years ago.

(E) The bone fragments were found in several distinct layers of limestone that contained
primitive cutting tools known to have been used by early hominids.

2. An experiment was done in which human subjects recognize a pattern within a matrix
of abstract designs and then select another design that completes that pattern. The results
of the experiment were surprising. The lowest expenditure of energy in neurons in the
brain was found in those subjects who performed most successfully in the experiments.
Which of the following hypotheses best accounts for the findings of the experiment?
(A) The neurons of the brain react less when a subject is trying to recognize patterns than
when the subject is doing other kinds of reasoning.

(B) Those who performed best in the experiment experienced more satisfaction when
working with abstract patterns than did those who performed less well.

(C) People who are better at abstract pattern recognition have more energy-efficient neural

(D) The energy expenditure of the subjects brains increases when a design that completes
the initially recognized pattern is determined.

(E) The task of completing a given design is more capably performed by athletes, whose
energy expenditure is lower when they are at rest than is that of the general population.