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AU Powerlab

USER REFERENCE MANUAL FOR ECONOMIC DISPATCH DOCUMENT NO. ANEDC – URM – 1.0

MAY 2004 ANNA UNIVERSITY CHENNAI – 600 025

CONTENTS

Page No.

 1. ABOUT THE PROGRAM 1.1 Introduction 1-1 1.2 Utility of the Program 1-1 1.3 Features of the Program 1-1 2. GETTING STARTED 2.1 Introduction 2-1 2.2 Opening the Menu Screen 2-1 2.3 Operations Using the Menu Screen 2-3 2.3.1 Creation of a new data file 2-3 2.3.2 Modifying an existing data file 2-5 2.3.3 Selecting a file for running the program 2-6 2.3.4 Running the program 2-6 2.3.5 Viewing output file 2-6 2.3.6 Manual 2-6 2.3.7 Exit 2-6 3. DETAILS OF INPUT 3.1 Data Requirements 3-1 3.2 Input Through Console 3-1 3.3 Input Through File 3-1 4. SAMPLE SYSTEM STUDY 4.1 Sample System Data 4-1 4.2 Sample Input Data File 4-1 4.3 Sample Output File and Plots 4-2

CHAPTER 1

1.1 Introduction

This program module group named, ‘Economic Dispatch’ consists of two program module named as Economic Dispatch without Losses and Economic Dispatch with Losses included. The two modules are independent and can be run independently. The modules are not provided with GUI. The input data files are to be created separately for these modules. The outputs of these modules are presented in output files and the output files can be viewed and a printout can also be taken. The details of input data and the sequence for data file preparation are explained in chapter three.

1.2 Utility of the Program

These modules are mainly developed for the students to cross check the validity of the program developed by them in the laboratory class. These modules can be used for solving text-book problems on economic dispatch and also to cross check hand calculations. The unit commitment problem can be solved for a given load cycle using these modules and the fundamentals of unit commitment can be studied. The program modules could be used to study various aspects of economic dispatch problem.

1.3 Features of the Program

In the case of economic dispatch problem neglecting losses, the co-ordination equations are derived and the Lagrangian multiplier is obtained analytically. Using the Lagrangian multiplier, the economic schedule of the generators and the system lambda are obtained. In the case of economic dispatch problem including losses, the transmission loss is expressed as a quadratic function of generator power outputs using the B-Coefficients or loss coefficients. The resulting co-ordination equations are solved iteratively for a specified load. The economic schedule, the transmission loss, the penalty factor and system lambda are obtained for the given load level.

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CHAPTER 2

GETTING STARTED

2.1 Introduction

This chapter describes the procedure for accessing the specific program modules in the AU Powerlab Software. Both these modules have features for creating new data file ,editing already stored sample system data, running the program and viewing the results. The details of the procedure are given in the following sections.

1. Click the AU Powerlab icon on the desktop, then a window carrying Anna University frontage will appear on the screen and will disappear within few seconds. Then the Student Log-on Window will appear (Fig 2.1)

Fig 2.1 Student Log-on Window

2. Enter the student information in the respective boxes. After entering all information, click Enter button. Then the Opening Window for AU Powerlab will appear (Fig 2.2)

3. Click the button, ‘Economic Dispatch’ in the Opening Window. Then another window containing the title of the sub-modules in ‘Economic Dispatchwill appear (Fig 2.3).

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Fig 2.2 Opening Window for AU Powerlab

Fig 2.3 Window for the Title of the Modules in Economic Dispatch

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4.

Click the button, ‘With loss’ or ‘Without loss’ depending upon the module you require. Then the Menu Screen for this module will appear (Fig 2.4). The following are the operations that can be performed under this module.

Fig 2.4 Menu Screen for Economic Dispatch – With Loss

 i. Create New File ii. Modify Existing File iii. Select File for Running iv. Run v. View Output vi. Manuals vii. Exit

2.3 Operations Using the Menu Screen

The details of operations that can be performed using the Menu Screen are given below

2.3.1 Creation of a new data file

1. Click the ‘create new file’ button. Then the window for entering the file name will appear (Fig. 2.5). Enter the file name (maximum eight alphabetic characters) and then click ok. The text editor (wordpad) window will appear (in Fig 2.6).

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Fig. 2.5 Window for Entering File Name

Fig 2.6 Text Editor (Word Pad) Window

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2.

Enter the input data in the sequence as given in chapter three.

3. After entering all the input data, save the file, close the text editor window and control will return to Menu Screen.

4. If the complete data could not be entered in one sitting, then the file created with partial data can be saved. The remaining data can be entered in the next sitting by accessing the saved file using the procedure explained in the next section.

2.3.2 Modifying an existing data file

1. Click ‘modify existing file’ button in the Menu Screen. Then the File-Open Dialogue Window will appear (Fig 2.7).

Fig 2.7 File-Open Dialogue Window

2. Select the desired file and then click open. The desired data file appears on the wordpad. (Fig 2.8). The necessary modifications are carried out and the modified file is saved either in the original name or in a new file name. Then close the text editor window.

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Fig 2.8 Text Editor (Word Pad) Window

2.3.3 Selecting a file for running the program

Click ‘Select file for running ’ button. Then the File-Open Dialogue Window will appear (Fig 2.7). Select the required file and click open button. Then the control will return to Menu Screen. Now the run and view output buttons will be enabled.

2.3.4 Running the program

Click Run button. Then the ‘With loss’ or ‘Without loss’ module, as the case may be will be executed and a message ‘Stop program terminated’ will appear. Close the DOS prompt window by entering ‘Exit’. Then the control will return to Menu Screen.

2.3.5 Viewing output file

Click, view output button. The output file will appear in a text editor. A print of this result can be taken if desired. When this window is closed, then the control will return to Menu Screen. It may be noted that the output of previous run will be erased and the output of latest run will be stored in the output file. The output of the latest run will also be erased when the session is completed and the user quit the program.

2.3.6 Manuals

Click the Lab. Manual button. Then the Laboratory manual for Economic Dispatch in power system experiment will appear. If you click the User Reference Manual button. Then the ‘User Reference Manual’ for Economic dispatch module group will appear. Click either of the buttons to view the relevant part of the respective Manual.

2.3.7 Exit

To quit from the operations performed under the Menu Screen click Exit button.

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CHAPTER 3

3.1 Data Requirement

DETAILS OF INPUT

The data required for the module group economic dispatch can be divided into

 i. Data to be fed through console: Certain information regarding the specific operations to be carried out from among the many operations that can be performed using the module are to be entered through the console as and when interactive queries appear on the console while executing the module. The details are given in section 3.2. ii. Data to be read from a stored data file: iii.

Before running the module, a data file should be created containing all the required data and in the specific sequence given in section 3.3. This file can be created using editor facility as explained in chapter 2.

Before keying in the data file, it is better to compile the following data for the given problem.

a. System general data

b. Generator data

c. Loss co-efficients

3.2 Input Through Console

Options are provided in the module for getting detailed output in addition to the basic output. The following interactive query appears on this screen requiring the response (YES or NO) of the user. The user should enter ‘y’ (lower case) for YES and ‘n’ for NO followed by tapping ‘Return’ key. Normally the input data and the basic output are written in the output file. There are few detailed output results which will be written in the output file only if the user opts for the output.

Statement 1: DO YOU WANT CONVERGENCE PLOT? (YES: y, NO: n)

Statement 3: DO YOU WANT THE PLOT OF DEMAND Vs UNITS OUTPUT? (YES:y, NO:n)

Keying ‘y’ if you want the plot of demand Vs units Output or els e ‘n’

3.3 Input Through File

The data file to be created should contain the following groups of data in the sequence indicated. As the data is to read in free format, each data should be separated by a blank. The input data for economic dispatch problem without loss

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and with loss are the same except a small difference. The loss co-efficients are not required for the former whereas the loss co-efficients are required for the later.

Group 1: Title of experiment (First line)

One line of the title of the experiment being studied is to be given in a string of maximum 80 characters.

Where

1

1: String variable (Max : 80 characters)

Group 2: Case Title One line of case description is to be given in a string of maximum 80 characters. (up to a maximum 80 characters) .

Where

1

1: String variable (Max of 80 characters)

Group 3: Student Information

Three string variables 1, 2 and 3 are to be given, each in one line with a maximum of 80- characters.

1

 String Variable 2 String Variable 3 String Variable

1: Name of the student (Max 80 character)

2: Roll number of student (Max. 80 characters)

3: Semester Number (Max. of eight characters)

Group 4: General System Data (unformatted)

. number of iterations are given in one line

I

The

Powe

3-2

1

2

3

Where

Real

Integer

1: Power mismatch in MW

-15%)

3: Maximum no of iterations

II .The Total number of generator units, physical units for fuel cost and Incremental fuel cost are given in one line

1

2

3

Integer

String

 1: Total No of generators 2: Physical units for fuel cost (Max of 10 characters) 3: Physical units for incremental fuel cost (Max of 10 characters)

Group 5: Generator Data (Unformatted)

Five real variables are to be given in one line for each generator unit. The no of lines

for this data is equal to no of generator units. ith unit the cost function is C i = a i P i 2 + b i p i + c i

A quadratic cost function is taken. For

1

2

3

4

5

Real variable

Where

1: Cost coefficient a i 2: Cost coefficient b i 3: Cost coefficient c i 4: Minimum limit on unit generation 5: Maximum limit on unit generation

Group 6: Loss Co-efficients (unformatted)

This group of data is to be given only if the economic dispatch problem including losses is considered. Otherwise this data needed not be given. The loss coefficients may be given in p.u or in physical units.

1. B-Matrix elements (Dimension B matrix = NG x NG)

NG =No of Generating units

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The elements of matrix are given row wise. The number of lines per row will dependent on the number of elements in a row in the matrix. The data are to be entered till all the rows are completed.

1

2

3

……… NG

Where

Real variable

1, 2,………. NG are the elements of the row in the B matrix

2. B 0 -column matrix

The elements of the column matrix are given row wise. The number of lines required to enter the elements will depend on the number of elements in the column matrix.

1

2

3

……… NG

Where

Real variable

1, 2, 3 …… NG are the elements of the column matrix

3. B 00 value and system MVA base

 1 2 Real variable

Where

 1 = equal to the value B 00 2 = System MVA base, if loss coefficients are given in p.u.

= 0 otherwise

The load data may be given in any one of the following ways and an index is to be defined to identify the type of load data.

1. Index to identify load type

1

Integer
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Where

1 = 0 – Single load level

= 1 – Load cycle with maximum and minimum level with specified number of equal increments.

= 2 – Several load levels with time span in hours.

Create the data as per the value of index given

Where

1

Real

1. Total system demand in MW

2. Load variation from minimum to maximum in equal increment one line is required for data input.

 1 2 3 Real

Where

2. Several load levels with time span in hours

No of load level is specified in one line.

Where

1

Integer

For each load level the starting time, ending time and demand are given in one line. The number line is equal to the number of load levels to be specified.

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 1 2 3 String Real

Where

 1: Starting time of load interval (Max 10 characters) 2: Ending time of load interval (Max 8 characters) 3: Demand in MW

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CHAPTER 4

SAMPLE SYSTEM STUDY

4.1 Sample System Data

The sample data of a power system with three thermal power plant is given below for economic dispatch including losses

 The fuel cost function of the units Generation limits of the units in MW C 1 = 0.008P 1 2 + 7.0 P 1 +200 \$ / hr , 10 < P1 >85 C 2 = 0.009 P 2 2 + 6.3 P 2 +180 \$ / hr 10 < P2 >8 C 3 = 0.007 P 3 2 + 6.8 P 3 +140 \$ / hr 10 < P3 >7

The B matrices of the loss formula in p.u. on a 100 MVA base is given by

 0.0128 0.0093 0.0028 B = 0.0093 0.0228 0.0017 0.0028 0.0017 0.0179 B 0 = 0.0003 0.0031 0.0015

B 00 = 0.00030523

4.2 Sample Input Data File

The sample input data file prepared for running the modules’ Economic Dispatch with Loss’ is given below. The interactive queries appeared on the screen and the response of the user while running’ Economic Dispatch with Loss’ module using the given input data are also given

(i) Input Data File

Economic Dispatch - Lambda Iteration Method With Loss AU Powerlab

 2001399126 VII 0.01 0.05 10 3 \$/hr \$/MWhr
 0.008 7.0 200 10 85 0.009 6.3 180 10 80 0.007 6.8 140 10 70 0.0218 0.0093 0.0028 0.0093 0.0228 0.0017 0.0028 0.0017 0.0179 0.0003 0.0031 0.0015
 0.00030523 100 0

150

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(ii) Interactive queries and user response

4.3 Sample Output File and Plots

The sample output file and plots generated by running the Economic Dispatch With Loss module using the input data given in section 4.1 are given below.

1. Output File

Title of the experiment : Economic Dispatch - Lambda Iteration Method

Case Title Name of the Student Roll Number Semester Date of Experiment

: With Loss : AU Powerlab : 2001399126 : VII : 11-05-2004 & 08:28:26

INPUT DATA:

------------

: 0.0100000

Variation in Lambda for first iteration : 0.0500000

Power Mismatch

Maximum Number of Iterations

Number of generating units Unit for Fuel Cost

Unit for Incremental Fuel Cost : \$/MWhr

:

3

: \$/hr

Cost coefficients (abc)

: 10

---------------------------------------------

a

b

c

---------------------------------------------

 0.008 7 200 0.009 6.3 180 0.007 6.8 140

---------------------------------------------

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Limits on Unit Generation

--------------------------

PGmin

PGmax

--------------------------

 10 85 10 80 10 70

--------------------------

LOSS COEFFICIENTS

---------------------------------------

B- Coefficients :

1

2

3

 1 0.0218000 0.00930000 0.00280000 2 0.00930000 0.0228000 0.00170000 3 0.00280000 0.00170000 0.0179000 Bo- Coefficients: 0.000300000 0.00310000 0.00150000

Boo- Coefficients :

0.000305230

---------------------------------------

System Base: 100.000 MVA

Total Demand: 150.000

************** RESULTS: LOAD LEVEL 1 **************

Total number of Iteration(s): 5

OPTIMUM LAMBDA : 7.76779 \$/MWhr

Optimum Generation Schedule

 Unit PG 1 33.4703 2 64.0976 3 55.1014

Total Generation: 152.669 MW

Total Loss : 2.66875

MW

Total Demand + Total Loss: 152.669 MW

TOTAL FUEL COST : 1599.99

**************** LOAD LEVEL 1 END *****************

\$/hr

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**************** Consolidated Results ****************

 Load Interval : 1 Demand : 150 Optimum Lambda : 7.76779 PG1 : 33.4703 PG2 : 64.0976 PG3 : 55.1014 Total Loss : 2.66875 Fuel Cost (\$/hr) : 1599.99

INCREMENTAL FUEL COST :

 dC1/dPG1 : 7.53552 dC2/dPG2 : 7.45376 dC3/dPG3 : 7.57142 PENALTY FACTOR : L1 : 1.03082 L2 : 1.04213 L3 : 1.02594

********************* END ****************************

2. Plots

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