Sunteți pe pagina 1din 8

Global Jour. of Engg. & Tech. Vol. 4, No.

3, (2011) 361-368

F. I. IZUEGBUNAM, D. K. OGALUE and I. M. NWOKO Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Imo state, Nigeria
Abstract : This paper performs the power flow study and contingency evaluation of the proposed 330KV, 10,000MW capacity Nigerian power network using Newton Raphson method for the power flow solution in MATLAB environment. The results show that most of the busbars in the northern part of Nigeria experienced high voltage profile and some transmission lines loading exceeded their thermal ratings. The effect of the remedial measures such as placement of inductive shunt compensation and line renforcement were simulated; and remarkable improvement recorded. Other recommendations were made to further improve the network power evacuation capacity with minimal losses.

1.0 Introduction The on-going reform in Nigeria Power Sector, among its numerous objectives, is to produce radical expansion of the existing grid network [1]. It is expected that in the next few years, a much larger, fortified and stable grid will replace the scanty, fragile and unstable grid that exists presently. This is a major objective of the present reform in the power sector [2]. As a solution to the countrys present power crisis, caused mainly by infrastructural inadequacy (weak grid network) [3], the government has mapped out a reform program for the power sector which has in its short term plan the objective of expanding the grid to a total generation capacity of 10,000MW (ten thousand Mega Watts) by the year 2011 [1]. The one-line power network diagram in figure-1.0 shows the proposed grid network structure [4]. The new grid network comprises 49 buses, 17 generating stations of 10,000MW total power generating capacity, and 9,156Km transmission lines. When this is compared with the existing network with only 25 buses, 6000MW total installed power generation capacity and 4889.2Km transmission lines [5], the expansion process could be regarded as a radical one. An obvious implication of such radical expansion in the grid is loss of validity of all previous studies (mainly power flow) on the behavior of the system, for both steady and transient state. It is therefore the objective of this paper to, through an accurate power flow study provide an adequate assessment of the proposed grid so as to determine the extent to which the expanded grid will provide solution to the numerous problems presently experienced in the existing grid
Key words : Proposed grid, transmission lines, power flow and voltage profile.



[6][3][5]. Secondly, it is expected that such a study will provide the industry with the necessary technical information on how to execute the grid expansion program for optimal system performance with its concomitant economic benefit. 1.1 Problems of the Existing Grid The results of several power flow studies carried out on the existing Nigerian grid network in recent years [3][6][7], portray the grid as scanty, fragile and unstable; thereby lacking the capacity to provide the right quantity and quality of power supply to meet the increasing energy demand of the country. A major setback of the existing grid is the high level of voltage violation in the various buses. The existing Nigeria grid network consists of 8 generators (generating stations) and 26 busbars at 330KV voltage level. The power flow study conducted by Onohaebi O.S. and Igbinovia S.O. [7] revealed that the existing network has voltages as low as 217KV at some buses. Also, some lines in the network experience high voltages under light load condition and very low voltage under high load conditions. In another study to determine voltage stability of grid network, Onohaebi O.S. and Apeh S.T. [6] concludes that the present 330KV transmission grid is highly unstable and requires remedial measure to improve the voltage stability [6]. Also, the low generation capacity, radial nature of the network with absence of loops and alternative routes for power flow in the event of emergency contributes to high level of instability in the grid network [3][5][10]. Power losses in the network are also very high due to predominant long transmission lines in the network. 2.0 Formulation of Network equation Power flow study reveals the power flow (real and reactive) for specified conditions when the system is operating under steady state. It also provides information about the line and transformer loads (as well as losses) throughout the system and voltages at different point in the system for evaluation and regulation [12]. The following steps were involved in conducting the power flow studies : Step 1 Obtain one line diagram of post reform 330KV network Step 2 Numbering of the buses, with bus 1 as the slack bus chosen based on highest installed electric energy capacity (Egbin). Step 3 Formation of the admittance matrix [Ybus] using step by step method, i.e the [Ybus] array set to zero. The dimension of the Ybus matrix is (n by n), where n is the number of buses. The total number of nodes m = n + l including the ground or reference node. For admittance Yik connected between buses i and k, four entries in Ybus are affected Yii,Yik,Yki,Ykk [8]. Step 4 Derivation of the static power flow equation. From nodal current equation the total current entering the ith bus of n-bus system is given by n (1) I i Yi1V1 Yi 2 V2 ......... Yin n1 ; I t k i Yik Vk i 1,2,3.... n ith Bus complex power (2) S i Pi jQ i Vi I * i Substituting (1) into (2) * * (3) S i Pi jQ i Vi n 1Yik Vk k



Figure-1.0 : Proposed Nigeria 330KV Power Network


G ik

* Bik ; Vi Vk
i k)

Vi Vk [cos(
j sin(

k )](G ik

j sin(
B ik )

k )]

Vi Vk [cos(


(5) Qi jBik cos( i k) k )] The static power flow equations (5) and (6) can be solved using iterative methods like Gauss-Seidel, Newton Raphson and fast-decoupled. The Newton Raphson method used in this paper solves the polar form of the power flow equation until P; and Qi mismatches at all buses fall within specified tolerance. Unlike the Gauss-Seidel which updates the bus voltage one at a time, Newton Raphson solves a voltage correction for all the buses and updates them. N-R method is based on Taylors series and partial derivatives; it is recent and needs less number of iteration to reach convergence [11]. Equations (5) and (6) can be readily differentiated with respect to voltage angle and magnitude terms; with voltage multiplied and divided by their values so that mismatch equations can be obtained as : Pi Pi Pi Pi / V2 / Vn / Pi / V2 / ... ... / Vn / n (6) 2 ... ... / V2 / / V2 / / Vn / / Vn / n 2 Qi Qi Qi / V2 Pi / Vn / Qi / V2 / ... ... / Vn / 2 ... ... n (7) / V2 / / V2 / / Vn / / Vn / 2 n

n k 1 Vi Vk [ G ik cos( i n k 1 Vi Vk [ G ik sin( i

jBik sin(

k )]




Each non-slack bus has two equations Pi and Qi; putting the mismatch equations in matrix form gives,

Mismatch for the slack buses are not included since Pi and Qi are undefined when Pi and Qi are not scheduled. Also all terms involving 1 and /V1/ are omitted from the equations because these correction are both zero at the slack bus. J1, J2, J3, J4 are the sub matrixes of the Jacobian matrix, Pi Pi Qi Qi , J2 , J3 and J 4 Where J1 Vk Vk k k The mismatch is calculated as Pir Pi specified Pircal Q ir Q i specified Q ir cal , Where r is iteration count (9) The voltage and voltage angle correction factors are used to estimate their new values as r r r (10) Vk 1 Vkr Vkr ; r 1 k k k The iteration is continued until the inequality constraints P < and Q < is satisfied. Step 5 Calculate line flows and losses The complex power flow Sik from bus i to k and Ski from bus k to i are * * (11) S ik Pik jQ ik Vi I * Vi ( Vi* Vk )Yik Vi Vi* Yiko ik * * * * (12) Ski Pki jQ ki Vk Vk (Vk Vi )Yik Vk Vk Ykio The power loss in line (i-k) is the algebraic sum of the power flows determined from equations (11) and (12). 3.0 Power flow algorithm Power flow algorithm which has been developed based on the Newton-Raphson solution method is shown in Figure-3. 4.0 Result and discussion The power flow result indicates that the network have significant deficiencies in voltage level and power flow along the transmission lines. The Network experienced high voltages at buses 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 36, and 37 which represent Damaturu, Maiduguri, Gombe, Yola, Jalingo, Jos, Makurdi, Aliade, Katampe, Sokoto and Birnin Kebbi. These are less industrialized northern areas interlinked by long transmission lines with excess reactive power build-up which could not be absorbed due to lack of sufficient inductive loads.


Pi 2 M P i 2 Q i 2 M Q i 2

L J 1 L L J 3

Pi n M P i n Q i n M Q i n

/V / 2 M / V2 / /V / 2 M /V / 2

Pi /V / 2 P i /V / 2 Q i /V / 2 i /V / 2 Q

L J 2

L L J 4

OPLM PPMM M PM P PM i M / Vn / / V / PM n P Q PM i M /V / n / V / PM n PM M PM Q PM i PM /V / n / V / PM n QN
/V / n Pi /V / n

OP M PP M PP M P n P / V /P 2 /V / P 2 P M PP M / V /P n P /V / P n Q


P2 M M
n 2 n




Reactive power compensations (synchronous reactors) were made at the buses that experienced high voltages. The result revealed remarkable improvement in voltage levels at affected buses as no bus voltage exceeded acceptable limits (15% to +10% of nominal value) after compensation. This is illustrated with the bar chart in figure-4.l and figure-4.2.

Figure-3.0 : Newton-Raphson power flow

Figure-4.1 : voltage profiles before compensation

Also, lines 31 32, 27 31, 26 27, 11 41, 11 44 and 2 49 experienced heavy loading beyond their thermal rating and excessive power losses. As a solution, the affected lines which are mainly single circuits were replaced with double circuit transmission lines with only lines 11 41, 26 27 and 11 44 with the highest loadings in the network, further reinforced with



Figure-4.2 : Voltage profiles after compensation

additional double circuit lines each. The simulation result reflected in figure-4.3 and figure-4.4 show that the remedial measure taken was able to lower the power evacuation burden on these lines well below their thermal ratings.

Figure-4.3 : % line loading before compensation and lines fortification

Figure-4.4 : % line loading after compensation and lines fortification



4.1 Contingency Analysis of the Network The proposed Nigeria 330KV Network was further subjected to the following contingencies: loss of transmission line(s), loss of a generating unit and sudden load increase at some buses. The following results were obtained: (a) Loss of Transmission Line(s) In the event of a line loss in a network, two major effects are to be expected: A greater power evacuation burden on neighboring lines and voltage profile violation in the affected buses. In this study, the contingencies of lines loss were superimposed on the system for different cases when each of the selected lines in the network is lost. The effects on the network for the various cases were observed. Table-4.0 shows the number of lines with violated thermal ratings under different cases of loss of selected lines in the network.
Table-1.0 : Summary of Effect of Transmission line(s) loss on the proposed 330KV network LOST LINE LINE NAME OVERLOADED LINES NO OF VIOLATION 11-44 OMOTOSHOBENIN 1-44, 1-49, 2-41, 2-42, 2-49 5 11-41 OMOTOSHOIKEJA WEST 1-44, 1-49, 2-49 3 20-27 IKOT EKPENENEW HEAVEN 27-31, 7-9, 31-32, 9-32 4 7-20 IKOTEKPENEAFAM 31-32, 27-31 2 25-26 MARKUDIALIADE 31-41, 31-32 2 26-27 ALIADENEW HEAVEN 31-41,7-9,31-32,9-32 4

(b) Loss of Generation Unit In real power systems, the possibility of generator tripping exists. A generation unit can be lost by the tripping of a breaker to isolate a faulty section of the network or as part of scheduled outage for system maintenance. The former is a common contingency in actual power network. In this study, simulation was done for different case studies involving loss of single generating unit and the effects on the system was examined. The simulation result revealed that no loss of any single generating unit produced violation in the system. (c) Sudden load increase at some buses. In a realistic power system, it is not enough that the network operates stably at loading below or equal to its rated load capacity. It is also expected that transmission lines be designed so as to possess a certain level of redundancy. This will enable the system to withstand the effect of sudden load increase without threat of system disintegration [7]. However, there is a limit to the point where the load on any system bus can be increased while retaining system stability. The result show that the network was able to withstand load increase at strategic buses like Egbin, Shiroro, Delta, Oshogbo, Ikeja West and Alaoji up to 30% of its normal loading. 5.0 Recommendations and Conclusion The following recommendations are therefore made to improve the network transmission capability, system stability and network efficiency based on the analysis of the proposed grid. (1) In place of the proposed single transmission lines, lines 31-32, 27-31, 26-27, 11-44 and 2-49, should be routed as double lines. While lines 11-44 and 11-41 should be further fortified by the addition of extra double circuit lines each. This will enable the lines to cope with the high power evacuation burden on them. (2) Inductive compensation equipments should be placed at buses 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 28, 36, and 37 to improve the voltage profile at those buses. (3) To improve power supply reliability at the terminal buses, more transmission lines should be constructed to close the remaining loops in the network.



(4) The industry should brace up to an increased task of adequate grid system supervision and control. Lines such as Omotosho-Benin and Omotosho-lkeja west lines should be closely monitored. Load shedding should be planned in advance to enable system operators respond quickly and effectively to the challenges that the loss of such lines might pose to the system. (5) The industry can adopt the use of conductors of higher thermal capacities for lines carrying heavy loads in the network. This way, the need to build multiple transmission lines to achieve more power evacuation corridors will be reduced. Also, right of way acquisitions difficulties will be averted. Conclusion This paper evaluated the power flow and possible contingencies in the proposed Nigeria 330KV Power Network such as sudden line loss, load increase, and loss of generation and made recommendations based on system response to those contingencies and power flow result. This will enable the system operators to take appropriate measures towards ensuring that the ongoing power sector reform yields optimal result and is properly directed. REFERENCES 1. Investment opportunities in the Power Sector in Nigeria, January 30, 2009. 2. Balogun A. O,: Impact of Power Sector Reforms on Nigeria Electricity Industry, Conference Proceedings of the International Conference and Exhibition in Power Systems, Lagos, Nigeria, 23-25 July 2007, pp 123-128. 3. Okoro C.C. and Achugbu K.C,: Contingency Evaluation of the 330KV National Grid Conference Proceedings of the International Conference and Exhibition in Power Systems, Lagos, Nigeria, 23-25 July 2007, pp 137-146. 4. Transmission Company of Nigeria, Grid Network for the Evacuation of the Proposed 10,000MW Power Generation 2003. 5. Archive of Course Presentation on Power System Design and Protection Grid Distant Protection Training Course Organized by Energo Nigeria Limited for PHCN staff. 2004. 6. Onohaebi O.S. and Apeh S.T,: Voltage Instability in Electrical Network: A Case Study of the Nigerian 330KV Transmission Grid., Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Medwell, 2007, vol.8, pp 865-874. 7. Onohaebi O.S. and Igbinovoa S.O,: Voltage dips reduction in the Nigerian 330KV Transmission Grid, Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Medwell, 2007, vol.6, pp 496-503. 8. Gupta J.B, A Course in Electrical Power, S.K. Kataria and Sons, Nai Sarak, New Delhi, 2005, pp 583-588 9. Omogui M.O. and Olorunfemi J.O,: Investigation of Steady State and Transient Stabilities of the Restructured Nigerian 330KV Electric Power Network, Conference Proceedings of the International Conference and Exhibition in Power Systems, Lagos, Nigeria, 23-25 July 2007, pp 128-136. 10. Okafor E.N.C,: Evaluation of the Impact of Power Sector Reforms on the Nigerian Economy, Global Journal of Engineering and Technology, 2009, vol.2, pp 411-421. 11. Nwasumbi H.A. and Tzoneva R,: Simulation of the Tanzanian Network Under MATLAB Environment, European Journal of Scientific Research, 2009, vol. 25, pp 86-95. 12. Gupta B.R,: Power System Analysis and Design, S. Chand & Company Limited, Ran Nagar, New Delhi 2005, pp 209-260.