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MN102 ASSIGNMENT INTRO BACKGROUND: Abraham Maslow (1954) developed a theory related to what motivates humans to wor k, based

on a hierarchy of human needs based on two groupings: deficiency needs, and growth needs. Within these deficiency needs, each lower need must be satisf ied before rising to the level above, as once each of these needs has been satis fied, a future need is identified by the worker. This was a very groundbreaking theory because prior to Maslow, researchers focused separately on factors such a s power, deficiency, and social circumstances to explain what energises, directs , and sustains human behaviour. (1) The first four levels are: 1/ Physiological: food and water. 2/ Safety/security: safety, shelter. 3/Belongingness and Love: to affiliate with others, and to be accepted. 4/ Esteem: to achieve, to, gain approval, recognition, competence.(2) The original conceptualisation featured only one growth need self-actualisation. A self-characterised person is defined by: 1/ Being problem focused 2/ Incorporating an ongoing appreciation of life 3/ Having a concern about personal growth(3) Maslow later extended the growth need of self-actualisation into four sections, which are: 5/ Cognitive Needs: to understand, and explore. 6/ Aesthetic Needs: symmetry, order, and beauty. 7/ Self-actualization Needs: to achieve self-fulfilment and realise one's full p otential. 8/ Self-transcendence Needs: to connect to something beyond the ego, or to help others find self-fulfilment and realise their potential.(4) Maslow stated that as one becomes more self-actualised, one also developes wisdo m and will automatically know what to do in a wide variety of situations.(5) THE IMPACT OF THIS THEORY IN BUSINESS The utilisation of this theory has had a major impact in the business place, as the organisation knows what acts as a motivator to the workers, and therefore mu st have different motivational strategies in place to get the best out of their employees. It shows the opportunities available to motivate workers through the style of management, company events, compensation packages, ect. For example: Physiological needs: Provide lunch breaks, rest breaks, and wages that allow the m to purchase necessary goods. Safety needs: Provide a working environment, retirement benefits, and security i n their job. Social needs: Plan social events and team-based projects, to create a sense of s ecurity in the workplace. Esteem needs: Recognise achievements to make employees feel appreciated and valu ed. Offer job titles which convey importance. Self-actualisation: Provide challenges for employees, and opportunities to reach their full career potential.

Bibliography: 1/ Milliken, M. (2004) Understanding Human Behaviour. Usa, Published by Delamar le arning. (pg.73) 2/ Gorman.P (2004), Motivation & Emotion, Usa, Published by Routledge (pg.58) 3/ Maslow, A. (1970). Motivation and personality (2nd ed.). New York: Harper & Row

. 4/ Conway T., PhD (2008). Abraham Maslow, Transpersonal Psychology and self Trans cendance 5/ Daniels, M. (2001). Maslows's concept of self-actualization. Retrieved Februa ry 2004, from